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Laughing

Laughing Gull
Gull
The Newsletter of the St. Lucie Audubon Society
The Newsletter of the St. Lucie Audubon Society
VOLUME 34 • ISSUE X • NOVEMBER 2009
V O L U M E 3 3 , I S S U E V I I I M A Y 2 0 0 9
President’s Message
What is a birder ? President’s Message The higher the income and education level the
To be counted as a birder, an individual must more likely this
As “An Advocate for the preservation of the Earth’s diverse ecosystems”, onesociety
is to beshall
a birder. Those inwith
be engaged less than
educational,
have taken
scientific, a trip one
investigative, mile historical,
literary, or more philanthropic
from home and for charitable
high school participated at 12% while those with a
pursuits.
the purpose
MEMBERS of observing
SUPPORT birds orSLAS
THIS WORK: closely
has observed collegeopen
monthly meetings, education had awhich
to the public, participation rate of 28%.
are entertaining,
and tried to
informative andidentify birds around the house.
educational. The average birder is age 50, has better than av-
This definition
MEMBERS SUPPORT is THIS
from WORK:
the Birding
SLASin the
has Unitedfielderage
monthly income
trips, open and
to the education,
public, 54% are female
led by experienced, [ men
volunteer
birders.
States addendum to the 2006 National Survey of are hunting and fishing], and lives in an urban area
MEMBERS SUPPORTand
Fishing, Hunting, THISWildlife-Associated
WORK: SLAS offers annualRecre-birdinidentification
the south. classes combined with field trips.
MEMBERS SUPPORT THIS WORK: SLAS members
ation, which was amended July 2009 and recently Does saved the lives ofthis
many
fit Gopher Tortoises
the profile of a by
St.moving
Lucie them from
Audubon
an area about to be developed to a safe habitat.
released. member? How can we increase interest in the
MEMBERS SUPPORT THIS WORK: SLAS sponsors Audubon Adventures, an elementary teaching program and an
There were 48 million birders, 16 years of age younger age group?
annual Environmental School Science Project Award.
and older, in the United States. That is 21 percent of Invite your friends and neighbors to attend our
MEMBERS SUPPORT THIS WORK: SLAS has informative and educational exhibits at Heathcote Holiday, Party in the
the population. The lowest participation rate by age meetings and join our field trips. Thank you for your
Park, Naturefest and others.
was the 16
Members to 34this
support with
work8%-13% and other
and many the highest
projectsthe 35 protect
which support.our environment, protect our wildlife and preserve our
to 55 plus with 23%-27%.
land and waters. Why not join the Audubon Society and help us make a difference. Dan Walma
Thanks for your support Calendar Dan
of Events
Walma
Field Trips The only bathroom at STA-5 is a port-o-let. Bring
November 14----Field Trip to STA-5 Clewiston
Calendar of Events
* Please note, this field trip is the 2nd Saturday, not the Special Thanks
plenty of water and something to eat....and most impor-
tant, please make sure you have a full tank of gas.....we
1st Saturday, after our November St. Lucie Audubon will not have time to make any stops on the way down
Meeting. Meeting there and we“Thank
A special will be in a very
You” ruralWater
to The area. Wear a hat andfor
Lilly Cruises
This field
Thursday, May 7 trip will
th be a tour of the STA-5 ( storm water sunscreen too ! sponsoring May's Meeting.
treatment
Jim David,area) near Mosquito
St Lucie Clewiston,Control.
south of lake Okeecho- Tours at STA-5 are by reservation only.....we have 20

The Water Lilly Cruises


bee. The area is considered a “hotspot” in S. Florida bird- spots reserved for our St Lucie Audubon group. Most of
ing. The Audubon ofField HendryTripCo. leads the tour and will those 20 spots have filled up..there are just a few left,
meet us at the th entrance gate to STA-5 at 8:30am. The so if you are interested please leave me a message with
Saturday, May 9 ,
tour lasts about 3 hours. We will drive around one of the your name and phone#. You can reach me (Dorothy)
Sebastian Inlet State Park ( Spruce Bluff trip cancelled )
large water cells. Carpooling is thus strongly encouraged
Daily Cruises leaving from the
at 349-6025....if you had signed up and cannot make
to limit the # of cars impacting the area. it, please let me Rivergate
know ASAP so Marina
I can give your spot to
It takes 2 &(more1/2 hours to get to STA-5, so we must
details at meeting)
someone else.
leave EARLY to get there for the start of the tour. We will
meet at the Winn-Dixie shopping center in Pt St Lucie, For more
near the Pt St Lucie entrance/exit to the Turnpike and be Upcoming Field trip.....Dec 5
ready to leave that parking lot by 5:45am. ( instead of
information
The Everglades National Park.
6am)...if you are late we will have to leave without you. You have lived in Florida HOW orLONG
reservations
and have never
Meeting Place
I will have directions for you there ( and will also have
them at the November meeting)... We will take the turn-
been to the Everglades ??!!...now is please
your callfor a
chance
FULL day of birding in the Everglades. This will be a car-
pike south to Southern Blvd and then head west. pooling trip and details will be in772-489-8344.
the Dec. newsletter.
Oxbow Eco-Center
November
5400 NE St. James Drive, 5thFlMeeting:
Pt St. Lucie, 34983 speaker Dr. Beth Falls, 7 p.m.
Meeting
Located 1.5 miles southPlace: Oxbow
of Midway Eco-Center
Road / 1.5 miles north of • 5400
NE St. James Drive, Pt. St. Lucie, FL 34983
Airoso
Located 1.5 miles south of Midway Road • 1.5 miles north of Airoso

www.stlucieaudubon.org
www.stlucieaudubon.org
page 2 www.stlucieaudubon.org november 2009

PAGE 2 Global
WWWWarming Legislation
.STLUCIEAUD UBON.ORG MAY 2009
Climate change poses
Below is the copy ofan
the imminent
letter presenteddanger
to Dotty &toHank
theHull
sur-
at the well. A 5%
April board dedication
meeting of funds
and all members to address
of the Board the it.
present signed impacts of
vival of many species of birds and wildlife and the integ- global warming will allow us to protect and expand cru-
rityApril 9, 2009
of the ecosystems on which they depend. Recently cial habitats and more thoroughly understand the effects
overDotty
100and of Hank
Audubon’s
Hull
state offices and local chapters that a climate change has on wildlife.
endorsed a letter to
Palms of St Lucie West the Senate requesting that they pass This fall, the Senate will take up global warming
climate legislation that
501 Cashmere Blvd Apt 214 includes crucial funding to pro- legislation. Now is the time to voice your support for
tectPort
wildlife andFLnatural
St Lucie, 34986 resources from the ever-growing Phone: increased adaptation funding. A quick call or email to
772-340-2226
threat of climate change. Thanks to all for supporting your senators will help us build public demand for strong
thisDear Dottyinitiative!
critical and Hank: climate legislation and increased funding – 5% -- for
The members of the St. Lucie Audubon Society were very sorry when you had to resign from your many duties on the Board of
While the letter is a great step in the right direction, it wildlife. To reach your senator please call the U.S. Capi-
Directors in February 2009. While we try to understand the reason we want you to know how much you both will be missed. All the
is essential that we continue to let our senators know that tol Switchboard at (202) 224-3121, or find your senator’s
members say how much you have inspired them and furthered their education and love of birds by being with
we you
strongly support
on so many climate legislation that provides for contact information online at www.senate.gov/general/
occasions.
5% of total revenues generated through the cap and trade contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm. If you prefer to
program
Shortly to
aftergoyou
toward natural
joined the Societyresources
when Grace adaptation. A send
Stock was president an email,
in 1989, you can
you became do that
leaders at your
of this group.senator’s
Hank servedwebassite
legislative
presidentapproach
in the 1990’s to for
conquering
two terms. climate change is not or through Audubon’s Action Center, www.audubonac-
You bothwithout
complete led the Birding Education
provisions thatclasses
help ourfor many years.sur-
wildlife Dottytion.org.
served asTellMembership Chairman,
your senators thatAdams Ranch Breakfast
you want:
Planner and kept the Christmas Bird Count accurate for years. Dotty edited the Laughing Gull and wrote the Feathered Friends
vive a warming planet. • Strong climate legislation this year to reduce green-
column. Hank served on the Board and was Field Trip Chairman and showed us many different birds.
These funds would increase the coffers of the Land and house gas emissions.
Water
YouConservation
have given many Fund,
yearstheandNeotropical
hours of yourMigratory Bird • ofLegislation
life for the members this Society. that protects
For which we all birds, wildlife,Today
are so grateful. natural
the re-
Conservation
Members join Act,
theirthe Endangered
Members Species
of the Board Act andto other
of Directors thank yousources
and honor andyouecosystems
both with a by dedicating 5% of revenues for
successful conservation programs. They would provide wildlife adaptation.
much needed resources to National“LIFETIME Wildlife Refuge man- MEMBERSHIP Audubon has AWARD”always spoken for birds, wildlife and
agers as they battle invasive species andInother your beloved St. Lucie Audubon Society. matter the threat. Now is the time to
refuge their habitats, no
threats
Dan thatWalma
will only be exacerbated by climate change. speak out for strong climate legislation and the resources
Research, monitoring
Dan Walma, President and education need to increase as we need to protect the birds and wildlife we love.

*** SPONSORS WANTED *** www.stlucieaudubon.org


St. Lucie County has a new policy of charging Non-Profits ST.LUCIE AUDUBON SOCIETY 2009
OFFICERS AND COMMITTEE CHAIRS
for use of County facilities.
Our cost is $45.00 per month payable in advance. We are President Dan Walma oculusdw1@aol.com
Vice President Ruth Neese eddie_ruth@msn,com
looking for sponsors to underwrite the cost of using
Recording Secretary Elsa Millard
Adella Blacka lcbirder@comcast.net
ablacka@gmail.com
Oxbow-Eco-Center.
Corresponding Millie Estersohn milliern@comcast.net
Secretary
In return we will acknowledge individual or company Treasurer Liz Dunleavy DunZippy@aol.com

names in our Newsletter several times Directors-at-Large Terri Brown tmlbrown761@bellsouth.net

during the ensuing year. If you are interested in sponsoring Directors-at-Large Peggy Silletto Jpsilletto@aol.com
Directors-at-Large Ed Bowes eddie-ruth@msn.com
SLA’s ongoing program please
Parliamentarian Peggy Silletto Jpsilletto@aol.com
send checks to :
Newsletter Veronica
Pat Berrones
Bounds wwalter3@bellsouth.net
berrones1@yahoo.com
Program Co-Chairs Grace Stock graceestock@peoplepc.com
5Stillbirding@peoplepc.com
ST. LUCIE AUDUBON,
Program Co-Chairs Liz Dunleavy DunZippy@aol.com
P.O. BOX 12474,
Membership Chair Peggy Silletto Jpsilletto@aol.com
FORT PIERCE, FL 34979
Special Events Chair Anjula Smith anjula7@aol.com

Thanks to the Following Sponsors Field Trip Chair Dorothy Schultz edsdks@bellsouth.net
Conservation Chair Ed Bowes eddie-ruth@msn.com
John and Nettie Brolman
Reduce! Education Co-Chairs Terri Brown tmlbrown761@bellsouth.net
Deena and Dana Wade - “River Lilly”
Recycle! Bird ID Classes ElsaDunleavy
Liz Millard DunZippy@aol.com
lcbirder@comcast.net
Ed Bowes & Ruth Neese
Reuse!
Treasure Coast Wildlife Center
Hospitality Chair Adella Blacka ablacka@gmail.com
Chapter Historian Judy Gersony jagersony@hotmail.com

Bill Wagner Webmaster Mary Dodge mary@jackmaryetc.com

LAUGHING GULL
november 2009 www.stlucieaudubon.org Page 3

MPAAYG E
2 0 20 9 WConservation Corner
WWWW
W. .SSTTLLUUCCI IEEAAUUDDUUBBOONN. .OORRGG MAY 2P0A0 G9 E 3

BelowSubmitted
is the copy of the by letterEd Bowes
presented to Dotty & Hank Hull at the April sion of meeting
board Guidelines for Using
and all members thepresent
of the Board IUCN Red
signed it. List Cat-
Reflective Windows
April 9, 2009 Conservation Corner
The Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Com- egories
mission (FWC) is revising state rules applying to the ofyou IUCN
and Criteria
Red List
see branches
and
or skyCriteria
reflected inat
Guidelines
the Regional
for
Windows that mirror the outside habitat present a different problem. If
glass when you
Application
Levels.
look at yourThe
Submitted by Ed Bowes
listing
Dotty and andHank protecting
Hull of endangered and threat- report generated by the biological review is sub-
windows, you’ll understand why the birds are confused. Changing the
lighting inside the house or fastening objects to the inside of the glass
ened
Palms
This species.
of Stclear
should Lucie This
up West would normally
the confusion surrounding the make a conser- ject to a minimum of three independent scientific
“See Insert”
501 Cashmere
message in the lastBlvd Apt 214
newsletter. This information is from Cornell Labbe reviews. won’t help. Instead, you’ll need to alter the window’s appearance by
vationist twitch, but this time, rules revision will placing
These independent reviews would help
something on the outside. As a temporary measure, you can
Port
of St Lucie, FL 34986
Ornithology. Phone: 772-340-2226
good for Florida wildlife! Three
You hear a loud thud at your living room window. Looking up, you
major changes are eliminate
rub a bar ofsubjective
soap on the window staff(the review
streaks and
can bethe easilypotential
removed).
theDear
see focusDotty
a few of
tinyand the Hank:
feathers revision.
stuck to the glass. Others drift slowly to the for political
Other solutions and
includemonetary
attaching influence
strips of paper or on the listing
cardboard to the
ground.
First,
The Florida
members
One more currently
of bird
the St. Lucie
has been struckhas down
Audubon a three-tiered
Society were with
in a collision system
very asorry when process.
window, hanging ribbons, streamers, colored
you had to resign from your many duties on the Board of string, festive garlands,
for listingin
Directors
plate-glass imperiled
February
window. 2009.
Bird-window species—endangered,
While
crasheswe aretry an understandthreat-
to all-too-common the reason weor evenyou
Adding
want mobiles
tonew in front
know species
how ofmuch
it. and you increasing
both will be missed. the level All theof
members
ened,
phenomenon.andsay howcollisions
species
These much ofyou have involve
special
usually inspired
concern. thembirds,
small and such
Florida furthered
aslist-theirprotection
education and love of birds
afforded by being with
Imperiled species in Florida will
you on that
finches, so many occasions.
fall unnoticed to the ground. Sometimes the birds are
ings for endangered and threatened species do beScreens
merely stunned and recover in a few moments. Often, however, they
good and Netting However, I expect resistance
for wildlife.
not match federal listings, creating confusion at tointheAnother solution isrules
to placefromsome kind of screen or netting over the
Shortly
die. after you
The number of joined the Society
birds killed whenwith
by collisions Grace Stockiswas president
windows 1989,revised
window. you
This became leaders
won’t obstruct theof
developers
this
view; group.
birds willHank
and
served
continue
owners
to flyasinto
the state inand
president
staggering—estimates local
the 1990’s range level.
for astwohigh The
as 100proposed
terms. million per year. revisions
Does this of rural land who want to sell their development
the window. They should bounce off relatively unharmed. Fruit-tree
would
You both
mean eliminate
that led should
you the Birding thefeeding
stop three-tiered
Education birds? Not atsystem
classes for It
all. many
means and that cre-
years. rights.
ifDotty served asIncidental
netting,
Membership Chairman,
pulled tightly
take
over
permitsAdamsare
a window
Ranch still
should reduce
included
Breakfast
or elimi-
in
ate
you anotice
Planner singleand
birds list
kept of Christmas
the
striking Florida’s
your windows, Imperiled
Bird Count
you should Species.
accurate
take for to
steps TheDottythe
years. proposed
edited the Laughing rules,Gullthough
and wrotewith stringent
the Feathered require-
Friends
column. the
eliminate Hank served on the Board and was Field Trip Chairman and nate
problem. showedinjured birds.different birds.
us many
new Imperiled Species list would include all spe- ments. Concerned citizens will need to follow the
cies currently
You have listed at any level and set the state-
given many years and hours of your life for the members of this Society. For which we process and support the implementation
all are so grateful. Todayof thethese
Some Solutions
designated
Members threshold
join their Members for listing at the current mark new rules.
1) Move feeders to new locations.ofUsuallythe Board bird of Directors
strikes occur to thank
at one or you and honor you both with a
for species of special concern. All state-designated
Membership Application
two windows. Moving feeders away from them may solve the problem
Imperiled
entirely. Species would be treated “LIFETIME equally from MEMBERSHIPa AWARD”
regulatory
2) Place feeders and closermanagement
to the glass. If a feeder standpoint.
is justIna your
foot or two St. Lucie Audubon Society.
beloved
from
Second,
Dan a window,
Walma allpanicked
species birds withmay still a fly U.S.
into Fish & Wildlife
it, but probably won’t A one-year chapter membership extends from January to January. You
have enough momentum to injure themselves. may use the coupon below to begin or renew your membership.
Service
Dan Walma, (USFWS) President designation of threatened or en-
3) Alter the window’s appearance. If you don’t want to move your
dangered would automatically be listed as imper-
feeders, or if relocating them doesn’t solve your problem, you’ll need SLAS is now offering a Chapter-only annual membership for those who
iled. A separate state-level review would no longer want to financially support their local chapter. The following dues options
*** SPONSORS
FWC has indicated WANTED
to alter the appearance of the offending windows. But to do this,
beyou’ll
required.
need to figure out why the collisions are occurring. Are birdsthis change ***would www.stlucieaudubon.org apply:

immediately
confused
St. Luciebecause
County addthehas approximately
windowa new policy ofthe16
is reflecting species
landscape
charging to Flor-
behind
Non-Profits it? Is □ Individual:
ST.LUCIE AUDUBON$20 per year SOCIETY 2009
the glass
ida’s list.soOne transparentfor use theyofthink
beneficiary Countyitof
isn’t
thisthere? To find out,
change
facilities. wouldyou’ll be OFFICERS
□ Family: $25AND perCOMMITTEE
year CHAIRS
need to get a bird’s-eye view. (for 2 or more people in same household)
the
Ourgopher
cost is $45.00 tortoise, per month which the USFWS
payable in advance. hasWe listed
are President
□ Sponsor:
Dan Walma
$50 per year
oculusdw1@aol.com

asSee-Through
endangered
looking for sponsors
Glass
in thetowestern underwrite portion
the costofofits usingrange Recording Secretary
Vice President
□ Patron: Elsa
Ruth
$100
Neese
per year
Millard
eddie_ruth@msn,com
lcbirder@comcast.net
and
Go tomay soonand
your feeder beOxbow-Eco-Center.
lookdeclared
at your window. threatened
Can you seeinthrough its east- it? If Corresponding □ Lifetime: $500
Millie Estersohn milliern@comcast.net
ern range.
so, the birds can, too. Is there a plant inside the house that might be Secretary
Each local membership includes a subscription to the monthly newsletter
attractive
Third,
In return emphasis
to we will
birds? If so, will
acknowledge be onit.management
try moving individual
Is there another plans
or company
window on for
the Treasurer Liz Dunleavy DunZippy@aol.com
“The Laughing Gull”. You may receive “The Laughing Gull” via standard
State-designated
opposite side names in our
of the house, Imperiled
Newsletter
creating the species
several
illusion of awith
times the goal
fly-through Directors-at-Large Terri Brown tmlbrown761@bellsouth.net
mail or electronically via email. Please indicate your preference below.
passage? theTry making your windows less transparent
of preventing
during ensuing theyear. species If you from are being by
interested inchanging
listed at the
sponsoring the Directors-at-Large Please make
Peggy Silletto Jpsilletto@aol.com
checks payableeddie-ruth@msn.com
to and send to:
lighting inside the house—pull a shade or open or close a door. You Directors-at-Large Ed Bowes
federal level.SLA’s In other ongoing words,program theplease
can also make glass less transparent by taping paper to the inside of
goal of manage- ParliamentarianSt. Lucie Audubon Peggy Silletto
Society, P.O. Box 12474,
Jpsilletto@aol.com
ment
the panes.is stabilizing
This is unsightly, species
send
but it’s apopulation,
checks to :
good temporary measure not merely until Newsletter
Fort Pierce, FL 34979
Veronica Berrones berrones1@yahoo.com
identifying
you can find a better declining populations.
solution. Commercially available Management
hawk Name:
Program ______________________________________
Co-Chairs Grace Stock graceestock@peoplepc.com
ST.atLUCIE AUDUBON,
plans must
silhouettes are address
effective species
deterring biological
window strikes, asstatus;
long as you con- Program Address: ____________________________________
Co-Chairs Liz Dunleavy DunZippy@aol.com
use several. They work not P.O. BOXthey
because 12474,look like hawks, but because
servation objectives; recommended management City: _______________________________________
Membership Chair Peggy Silletto Jpsilletto@aol.com
they break up the window’s FORT PIERCE, appearance. FLAnother
34979solution is to put up
action; recommended regulations
a commercially available decal that is a replica stabilimentum or white
or incentives; Special Events Chair Anjula Smith
State: _____________ Zip: _____________________ anjula7@aol.com
and anticipated economic, ecological,
zig-zag from the center of an orbital spider’s web. It is thought that and social Phone:
Field ________________________________
Trip Chair Dorothy Schultz ____
edsdks@bellsouth.net
impacts
spiders create of implementing
the highly visible zig-zag or not implementing
so birds and large insects will the Conservation
E-mail: _____________________________________
Chair Ed Bowes eddie-ruth@msn.com
recommended
avoid flying into and conservation Reduce!
destroying their webs. actions.
Note: Do not Listing
attach and New membership:
Education Co-Chairs ______
Terri BrownRenewal: tmlbrown761@bellsouth.net
______
delisting
objects directly of toState-designated
thermopane windows without Imperiled
consulting the species
manufacturer. Recycle! Bird ID Classes Please send
Elsa Millardmy “Laughing Gull” by:
lcbirder@comcast.net
would require scientific review by a Biological Re- Hospitality Chair Email _____ or Standard ablacka@gmail.com
mail: _____
view Group tasked with Reuse! determining whether the Chapter Historian
Adella Blacka
Judy Gersony jagersony@hotmail.com
species in question meets the most current ver- Webmaster Thanks
Mary Dodge for your support .
mary@jackmaryetc.com

LL
AAUU
GGHH
IN GG GG
IN UULL
LL
Feathered Friends
Inside This Submitted by Ruth Neese Male kestrels have slate blue-gray secondary
Issue wing feathers, a rufous tail with a black sub-
I was thrilled to spot my first American Kes- terminal band, and black banding on the un-
trel (Falco sparverius) in late afternoon October derside of the wings. Females are larger than
PAGE 1
6. These small raptors remind me that cooler males and have rufous coloration on the wings,
President’s weather will eventually arrive in South Florida, backs, and tails. Females’ tails have multiple
Message despite recent temperatures in the 90s! Most dark brown or black bands instead of the one
kestrels seen in St. Lucie county are migratory band present in males.
birds traveling from Canada and the North- As a small raptor, American Kestrels hunt
PAGE 2 ern United States to wintering grounds in the small prey. They forage for grasshoppers, drag-
southern U.S. and Mexico. onflies, mice, moles, and lizards from perches
Officers & American Kestrels are the smallest falcon on power lines, dead trees, or roadside signs.
Committee in North America, living and breeding from Wintering kestrels will also hunt small birds
Alaska, through Canada and the United States, such as sparrows, warblers, and wrens. It is
Chairs down into Mexico, Central America, and the Ca- common to see kestrels perched with Mourn-
ribbean. This includes Florida, where the birds ing Doves on power lines; the kestrels are iden-
breed in Central Florida along the Lake Wales tifiable by their “no neck” look in silhouette.
PAGE 3 ridge. I once saw a breeding pair nesting in a Recent research using kestrel DNA indicates
Membership dead tree at Bok Tower Gardens in Lake Wales. American Kestrels are not genetically related
American Kestrel populations have been in- to the European Common Kestrel and others
Application creasing recently, and are listed as a “species in that family. Instead, the American Kestrel
of least concern” by the International Union for appears most closely related to the Peregrine
Conservation of Nature and Natural Resourc- and Aplomado Falcons, having genetically di-
Conservation
es. verged from European kestrels during the Ice
Corner American Kestrels are one of the few sexu- Ages. So this winter, look up for a small, Ice
ally color dimorphic raptors, meaning males Age falcon hunting grasshoppers from road-
and females have different plumage colors. side perches!

newsletter@stlucieaudubon.org
address to
up, send your name and email
you prefer to read if offline. To sign
to open it, and you can print it out if
email. No special program is needed
costs by getting your newsletter by
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Fort Pierce, FL. Fort Pierce, FL 34979
P.O. Box 12474
PAID St. Lucie Audubon
U.S. POSTAGE Laughing Gull
Non-profit Organization