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LTE-FDD Link Budget

ZTE University
Contents

LTE-FDD Link Budget Overview


LTE-FDD Uplink (UL) Budget
LTE-FDD Downlink (DL) Budget
Link Budget Position and Benefit

A link budget is an important part of coverage planning.

Link budget
Coverage target Maximum path loss allowed
Coverage radius
Coverage scale
Propagation model

Link budgets help understand how various parameters affect networks.

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Link Budget Principle
MAPL = Pmax Receiver Sensitivity Losses Margin + Gains
MAPL: maximum path loss allowed
Pmax: Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP)
Receive Sensitivity: receiver sensitivity
Losses: all non path-loss losses, including line loss, body loss, and penetration loss
Margin: reserved interference margin
Gains: all gains

MAPL: The greater, the better!


Antenna gain Penetration loss
Shadow fading margin

Path loss
Path loss Body loss
UE power

ENodeB
PA sensitivity

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Flow for Planning an LTE Radio Network
Collect information

Estimate scale

Test and adjust


transmission
Survey and select models
sites

Simulate planning

Are
No requirements
met?

Yes

Output a planning
report

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Input and Output of an LTE Link Budget

Coverage-related input
Target areas to be covered
Rate requirements for the
edge of an eNodeB Coverage-related output
Degree of indoor coverage
resulted from obstacle Cell radius
Link budget
penetration Existing site reuse
RF planning
Shadow fading margin ENodeB quantity
Network information
Existing network information
LTE frequency bands
Maximum bandwidth of an
LTE system

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LTE-FDD Link Budget Requirements

UL cell edge rate is UL cell radius


1 specified DL cell edge rate

DL cell radius
2 DL cell edge rate is
UL cell edge rate
specified

UL cell coverage radius


3 Both UL and DL cell edge
DL cell coverage radius
rates are specified
Restricted links and final cell radius

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LTE-FDD Link Budget Methods

Cell edge rate required Cell radius

Cell radius required Cell edge rate

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Contents

LTE-FDD Link Budget Overview


LTE-FDD UL Budget
LTE-FDD DL Budget
LTE-FDD UL Budget Method

Because UL UE power is limited, UL


Cell edge
budgets are generally performed first. rate required

Cell edge
Cell radius
rate required Number of RBs assigned

TBS and MCS

MIMO configuration SINR

Receiver sensitivity

Interference Other
MAPL
margin parameters

Cell radius

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TBS and MCS

If the UL target is 512 Kbps and BLER is 10%, 512 Kbps


TBS must be greater than 568 bit/ms = 512/(1 10%) 10 RB

MCS

25
MCS-RB relation
20

15
MCS 3 10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
512 Kbps
RB number
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LTE-FDD UL TBS

TBS: Transport Block Size


For a specified MCS, different TBSs correspond to different number of RBs.

TBS Table

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LTE-FDD UL MCS

MCS: Modulation and Coding


Scheme
For a specified number of RBs,
different TBS Index (ITBS) contains
different TBSs.

MCS Table
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LTE-FDD UL TBS and MCS
512 Kbps
10 RB

MCS 3
25
MCS-RB relation
20

15

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
512 Kbps

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LTE-FDD UL SINR

SINR target value is affected by the following factors:


ENodeB equipment performance
Radio environment (multi-path environment and terminal movement speed)
Receive diversity (Default: two receive diversity branches. Four receive
diversity branches can also be used.)
Target rate and QoS
MCS
Maximum HARQ re-transmission times allowed (UL: four times)
HARQ BLER target (default: 10%)

SINR values are generally obtained through link-level simulation


or laboratory/field tests.

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LTE-FDD UL RBs Assigned

64 kbps 128 kbps 256 kbps 384 kbps 512 kbps 1024 kbps
RB 2 4 6 8 10 18
MCS 2 1 3 3 3 4
SNR target (1 2) dB 0.3 2.28 2.38 1.63 1.79 1.19
SNR target (1 4) dB 4.6 6.1 6.18 5.46 5.6 4.96

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LTE-FDD UL Receiver Sensitivity

Receiver sensitivity = Noise power + Noise figure + SNR

Receiver sensitivity

Current cell signal
SNR
Noise figure

Noise power

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LTE-FDD UL Thermal Noise

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LTE-FDD UL Receiver Sensitivity

Receiver sensitivity = Noise power + Noise figure +


SNR

Cell edge rate kbps 512 256 128 64


Bandwidth used KHz 1800 1260 720 360
SINR requirement dB 1.79 2.38 2.28 0.30
ENodeB noise figure dB 3 3 3 3
Noise power dB 111.4 113.0 115.4 118.4
ENodeB sensitivity dBm 110.2 112.4 114.7 115.7

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LTE-FDD UL_MAPL

Received signal required


Local cell signal Required
SINR
Interference sign
al from other
cells

Noise

MAPL Maximum transmit power


of the terminal

Received signal required


Cell radius

MAPL = Maximum transmit power Receiver sensitivity losses Margin + Gains

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LTE-FDD UL Budget

Cell edge rate required

Receiver sensitivity

UL interference margin

Cell edge rate required Cell radius

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LTE-FDD UL Interference Margin

Interference margin is the amount of noise increased due to


interference signals from other cells comparing with the amount
of thermal noise.
Interference margin in an LTE link budget is usually set to 3 dB.

Received signal required


Required
Local cell signal SINR
Interference level

Interference signal from other cells


Interference
margin

Noise

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LTE-FDD UL Budget

ENode B antenna gain

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LTE-FDD UL Budget

In most cases, it is recommended that


two receiving antennas be used.

Antenna gain: about 18 dBi


Based on
Horizontal half-power beam width: about 65 engineering experience
Vertical half-power beam width: about 7
Electrical downtilt angle: can be adjusted manually, or through a Remote Control Unit (RCU) remotely.
Polarization diversity: Cross polarization should be used for dense urban areas, general urban areas,
and suburbs, and vertical polarization should be used for rural areas.

For scenarios with special coverage, such as highways,


railways, and super-far coverage scenarios, antennas with
narrower half-power beam width (for example, 33) and
higher gain (for example, 21 dBi) can be used.

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Example of Two Receiving Antennas

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Example of Four Receiving Antennas

Method 1

Method 2 Method 3

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Example of Four Receiving Antennas

Method 2

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Example of Four Receiving Antennas

Method 3

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Configurations of Four Antennas

Link-level
simulation

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Example of Eight Receiving Antennas

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LTE-FDD UL Budget

Signal loss
through feed lines and connectors

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Signal Loss Through Feed Lines and Connectors

Typical signal loss through a


connector is 0.05 dB.

connector
1/2 in
Jumper
jumper
Signal loss is related
to feed line length
Loss < 0.5 dB

7/8 in
Feed line
Fiber
Assume that:
7/8in feed line: 50 m
1/2in feed line: 6 m + 4 connectors

700 MHz: 2 dB
2.6 GHz: 4 dB

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LTE-FDD UL Budget

Shadow fading margin

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Shadow Fading Margin

Cell edge coverage probability

( E m E0 ) 2
1
p ( Em ) e 2 2

1 1 E E0
Pcov_cell _ border P( Em E0 ) erf ( m )
2 2 2 Em: value measured
2
x E0: average value
e
t 2
Where erf ( x) dt : standard variance
t 0 Em-E0: shadow fading margin

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Shadow Fading Margin

Regional coverage probability


R
1
2
U ( ) Pr(r ) 2r dr
R 0

U ( ) 2 a exp
1 2ab 1


2
1 ab

b 2 b
2

10 m log( e)
a b
2 2

U(r): regional coverage probability


m: prorogation model coefficient (e.g.m = 3.52)
R: cell radius

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Shadow Fading Margin

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Shadow Fading Margin

Shadow standard
10 dB 8 dB 7 dB 6 dB
deviation
Regional coverage 90 95 90 95 90 95 90
95%
probability % % % % % % %
Edge coverage 87.7 77. 86. 75. 84. 73. 83. 70.
probability % 7% 2% 1% 9% 3% 9% 9%
Shadow fading 11.7 7.7 8.7 5.4 7.2 4.3 5.9 3.3
margin dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB

Standard variance for a dense urban area, general urban area, and general suburb: 8 dB
Standard variance for a rural area and highway: 6 dB

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LTE-FDD UL Budget

Handoff gain

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Handoff Gain

Handoff gain can reduce shadow fading margin requirements.


Factors affecting handoff gain: shadow fading standard variance,
coverage probability, neighboring-cell shadow-fading relativity,
handoff duration, and terminal movement speed.
Typical handoff gain obtained through simulation analysis: 24
Db.

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LTE-FDD UL Budget

Penetration loss
and body loss

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LTE-FDD UL Budget

Penetration loss
Radio Environment Penetration loss (dB)
Dense urban areadeep
20
indoor coverage
Urban areaindoor coverage 17
Suburbindoor coverage 14
Rural areain cars 8

Body loss
VoIP service: 3 dB
Data service: 0 dB

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LTE-FDD UL Budget

Terminal antenna gain and


terminal transmit power

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LTE-FDD UL Budget

MAPL = Maximum transmit


power Receiver sensitivity
Losses Margin + Gains
1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
1
0

1
MAPL = 12 1 2 + 3 4 + 5 6 + 7 8 9 10 + 11 1
1
Propagation model 2

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LTE-FDD UL Propagation Model

Cost231-Hata (1.52.6GHz)

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LTE-FDD UL Propagation Model

Cost231-Hata

Cost231-Hata Frequency AntHigh (m) Kc K1 K2 a(hm)


Dense urban area 2100 25 0 139.55 35.74 0.049
Urban area 2100 30 3 135.46 35.22 0.049
Suburb 2100 40 12 126.73 34.41 0.049
Rural area 2100 50 18 115.39 33.77 0.049

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LTE-FDD UL Propagation Model

Okumura-Hata

Okumura-Hata Frequency AntHigh(m) Kc K1 K2 a(hm)


Dense urban area 900 25 0 127.498 35.74 0.01588
Urban area 900 30 -3 123.403 35.22 0.01588
Suburb 900 40 -10 112.677 34.41 0.01588
Rural area 900 50 -18 103.337 33.77 0.01588

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LTE-FDD UL Budget

Inter-site distance and coverage area


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Cell Radius and Inter-Site Distance

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UL Budget

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Contents

LTE-FDD Link Budget Overview


LTE-FDD UL Budget
LTE-FDD DL Budget
LTE-FDD DL Budget Features

Cell edge noise increase (dB)


115.4833E 115.5000E 115.5167E
38.8167N

38.8167N
38.8000N

38.8000N

115.4833E 115.5000E 115.5167E

Dense-urban-area cell radius (km)

The following conditions are assumed:


38.7833N

38.7833N

Neighboring cell power load: 50%


Cell edge G factor: 3 dB

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LTE-FDD DL Budget Features

RxPower AtCellEdge
SINR AtCellEdge
Interferen c AtCellEdge NoisePower

Rx PowerServing Site
Define: G
Rx Power
All
Adjacent Site

RxPower AtCellEdge
SINR AtCellEdge
RxPower AtCellEdge / G AtCellEdge NoisePower

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LTE-FDD DL Budget Features

RxPower AtCellEdge
SINR AtCellEdge
RxPower AtCellEdge / G AtCellEdge NoisePower

TxPowerEIRP / Pathloss AtCellEdge


SINR AtCellEdge
TxPowerEIRP / Pathloss AtCellEdge G AtCellEdge NoisePower

TxPowerEIRP 1 SINRT arg et G AtCellEdge


Pathloss AtCellEdge
SINRT arg et NoisePower

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LTE-FDD DL Budget Features

Neighboring cell power load (X%) taken into account

TxPowerEIRP Pathloss AtCellEdge


SINR AtCellEdge
TxPowerEIRP X % Pathloss AtCellEdge G AtCellEdge NoisePower

TxPowerEIRP 1 SINRT arg et X % G AtCellEdge


Pathloss AtCellEdge
SINRT arg et NoisePower

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LTE-FDD DL Budget Features

TxPowerEIRP Pathloss AtCellEdge


SINR AtCellEdge
TxPowerEIRP X % Pathloss AtCellEdge G AtCellEdge NoisePower

If TxPowerEIRP X % Pathloss AtCellEdge G AtCellEdge NoisePower

G AtCellEdge
Unachievable SINR SINR AtCellEdge
X%
Cell edge SINR (dB)

As cell radius is shortened,


the cell edge SINA and rate
cannot be increased.

The following conditions are assumed:


Dense-urban-area cell radius (km) Neighboring cell power load: 50%
Cell edge G factor: 3 dB
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LTE-FDD DL Budget Features

TxPowerEIRP Pathloss AtCellEdge


SINR AtCellEdge
TxPowerEIRP X % Pathloss AtCellEdge G AtCellEdge NoisePower

Power increase
cannot result in
performance
Improvement.
SINR (dB)

Power increase can


result in performance
improvement

Dense-urban-area cell radius (km)


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LTE-FDD DL Budget Method

Cell radius required Edge rate

Cell edge
Cell radius
rate required

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LTE-FDD DL Budget Method

Cell radius required Edge rate

Cell radius

Other parameters MAPL G factor

MIMO configuration SINR Number of


RBs
assigned
MCS and TBS

Cell edge
rate

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LTE-FDD DL Budget

Cell radius required

Cell radius
Edge rate
required

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LTE-FDD DL Budget

MIMO configuration

ENodeB transmit power

Same as those of UL

DL shadow fading margin

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LTE-FDD DL Budget

Neighboring cell power load

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LTE-FDD DL Budget

Cell edge G factor

It is generally considered that 5% point


of CDF corresponds to a cell edge. For
single-frequency network architecture,
the value is 2 dB, and for 1/3 frequency
reuse or ICIC FRR, it is 3 dB.

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LTE-FDD DL Budget

Cell edge SINR

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LTE-FDD DL SINR

TxPowerEIRP Pathloss AtCellEdge


SINR AtCellEdge
TxPowerEIRP X % Pathloss AtCellEdge G AtCellEdge NoisePower
Cell edge SINR (dB)

Assume that :
Neighboring cell power load: 50% Dense-urban-area cell radius (km)
Cell edge G factor: 3 dB

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LTE-FDD DL Budget

Cell edge DL rate

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LTE-FDD DL Budget

100 RB

MCS 5

Throughput = TBS/TTI (1 BLER)

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DL Budget

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LTE-FDD DL Budget Method

Cell radius required Cell edge rate

Cell edge rate


Cell radius
required

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LTE-FDD DL Budget Method

TxPowerEIRP 1 SINRT arg et G AtCellEdge


Pathloss AtCellEdge
SINRT arg et NoisePower

Cell edge rate required

Number of RBs assigned


Cell edge rate
Cell radius
required
TBS and MCS

MIMO configuration SINR

MAPL Other parameters

Cell radius

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LTE-FDD DL Budget

How can the number of


RBs assigned be obtained?

Cell edge rate


Cell radius
required

TxPowerEIRP 1 SINRT arg et G AtCellEdge


Pathloss AtCellEdge
SINRT arg et NoisePower

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