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Workbook

Unsymmetric bending

Application 1

18 kN

4.5 kN/m

8 kN

180x12

IPN 240

1
y
q
4q

1 2 x
6q
4 5 3
3. 5 a
q

2a 4q 6q

9q 5a 8. 1 q

0. 9 q + + 4q

-
4. 1 q
0. 9 a

8q
`` -

+
0. 405q 3q

yox plane:

1 = 3 = 0

2 = 0,9 5 5 2,5 = 8
()
= 0 => 0,9 = 0 => = 0,9

0,9
4 = 0,9 0,9 0,9 = 0,405
2

3,5
5 = 0,9 3,5 3,5 = 3
2

2
z

2q
1 2 x
6q
4 5 3
1,5 a

6q 3,5 a 2q 3,5 a
6q
q q
0,9 a

6q +

q +
- q
2q

+
2q
3,5q

zox plane:

1 = 3 = 0

2 = 5 2 1,5 = 2

4 = 0,8 = 0,9

5 = 3,5 = 3,5

= 804 4

= 6588 4

= 67,7 2

CS (-1)

1 6 0 0

2 6 2 8

3 6 0 0

4 6 0,9 0,405

5 6 3,5 3

3
Critical cross section 2

1,12 q

9,2
8q

+
16
6q 2q

37 0,09 q 1,94 q

-
+
2,24 q
1,32 q

For critical cross section 2:


= +

F Fx 6q
x x = = = 0,09 KN/cm2
A 67,7

M My 2q 102
x y = zA = (9) = 2,24q KN/cm2
I yC 804

(8) 102

= = 9,2 = 1,12 /2
6588

Mz Mz (8q) 102
x bott = yA bott = (16) = 1,94q KN/cm2
IzC 6588

= 0,09 + 2,24 + 1,12 = 3,45 /2

= 0,09 + 2,24 1,94 = 0,39 /2

2
= 3,45 /
2

4
NA
Critical cross section 4

A 0,42 q

+

9,2
3q

+
16
6q 3,5q

0,09 q 0,73 q
-
+
3,91 q

For critical cross section 4:


= +

F Fx 6q
x x = = = 0,09 KN/cm2
A 67,7

M My 3,5q 102
x y = zA = (9) = 3,91q KN/cm2
I yC 804

M Mz (3q) 102
z
x top = yA top = 9,2 = 0,42q KN/cm2
IzC 6588

Mz Mz (3q) 102
x bott = yA bott = (16) = 0,73q KN/cm2
IzC 6588

= 0,09 + 3,91 + 0,42 = 4,43 /2

= 0,09 + 3,91 0,73 = 3,27 /cm2


4,43
4
= 4,43 cm2 = = 200 => = = 4,5 /
200

5
Application 2

10P
1 3P

2P 2
3

z 4

x
2m
1m
3m

240x20

400x10

360x20

6
For plane xOy

y 3P

10P 1 3 4
x

3m 3m

3P

10P 1 3 4

+ 10P

+ +

Equilibrium equations:
= 0 => 4 = 10
1 = 0 => 3 3 64 = 0 => 4 = 1.5
4 = 0 => 61 3 3 = 0 => 1 = 1.5
Check: = 0 => 1.5 + 1.5 3 = 0

7
For plane xOz

10P 1 2 4
x

2P

2m 4m

10P 1 2 4

2P

+ 10P

+ 2P

- P

4P

Equilibrium equations:
= 0 => 4 = 10
2 = 0 => 2 2 44 = 0 => 4 =
4 = 0 => 2 6 + 42 = 0 => 2 = 3
Check: = 0 => 2 + 3 = 0
3 = 2 3 3 = 3

2 = 3

8
Geometrical characteristics of the cross section

= 24 2 + 36 2 + 2 40 1 = 2002
1 1 + 2 2 48 21 72 21
= = = 2.52
200
= 0 Because 1 and 2 are in the same point as while 3 and 4 are symmetric compared
to .
23 24 23 36 403 1
= ( + (2 ) = + 48 (23.522 ) + + 72 (18.482 ) + 2
12 12 12
= 61848,554

243 2 363 2
= ( + (2 ) = + + 2 40 112
12 12
= 19766.674

9
CS
1 0 0 10P
2 4P 3P 10P Critical Cross Section 2
3 3P 4.5P 10P Critical Cross Section 3
4 0 0 10P

Critical Cross Section 2

0.12P

-
245,2

+
3P
C
4P 194,8
+
0.05P 0.09P
0.36 -
P
+ 0.36P

10
( ) = = = 0.05 (2)
200
3100
( ) = = 61848,55 24.52 = 0.12 (2)

3100
( ) = = 61848,55 19.48 = 0.09 (2)

4100
( ) = = 18 = 0.36 (2)
19766.67

10
Finding the Neutral Axis:
61848.55
= = 0.05 = 10.30
3 100
19766.67
= = 0.05 = 2.47
4 100

-0.31P
-

+
0.5P

3P

4P
NA


() = + = 0.05 + 0.36 + 0.09 = 0.5 (2)

410012
() = + = 0.05 + 0.12 = 0.31 (2)
19766.67

= () => 20 = 0.5 => 1 = 40

11
Critical Cross Section 3

0.18P

-
245,2

+
4.5P

C
3P 194,8

+
0.05P 0.14P

0.27P -
+ 0.27P

10
( ) = = = 0.05 (2)
200
4.5100
( ) = = 61848,55 24.52 = 0.18 (2)

4.5100
( ) = = 61848,55 19.48 = 0.14 (2)

3100
( ) = = 18 = 0.27 (2)
19766.67

12
Finding the Neutral Axis:
61848.55
= = 0.05 = 6.87
4.5 100
19766.67
= = 0.05 = 3.3
3 100

0.31P
-

+
0.46P
B

4.5P

3P
NA


() = + = 0.05 + 0.27 + 0.14 = 0.46 (2)

310012
() = + = 0.05 + 0.18 = 0.31 (2)
19766.67

= () => 20 = 0.46 => 2 = 43.37

So the that we are looking for is 1 = 40

13
Application 3

10 P
3P
1 2 3
x
4
P
2m 2m 2m
z

75
20.1
UPN 200 37.9
C
100
62.1

100

200x15

14
y
10 P 3P
x

=1.5 P =4.5 P

10 P
+

3P
+

-
1.5 P

- -

6P

Equilibrium equations for plane XoY:

= 0: 1 10 = 0 1 10 = 0 1 = 10
1 = 0: 43 + 6 3 = 0 43 = 18 3 = 4.5
3 = 0: 41 + 3 2 = 0 41 = 6 1 = 1.5
Check: = 0: 1.5 + 4.5 3 = 0

15
z
P
10 P
x

=0.5 P =0.5 P

10 P
+

0.5 P
+

-
0.5 P

+ +

Equilibrium equations for plane XoZ:

1 = 10
1 = 0: 2 43 = 0 43 = 2 3 = 0.5
3 = 0: 41 2 = 0 1 = 0.5
Check: = 0: 0.5 + 0.5 = 0

CS
1 10P 0 0
2 10P -P -3
3 0 0 -6

4 0 0 0

16
75
20.1
UPN 200 37.9
C
100
62.1

100

200x15

Determining the moments of inertia for the plane cross-section

1 = 20 1.5 = 302
2 = 32.22

= 1 + 2 = 30 + 32.2 + 62.2 2

coordinates of the gravity center:

30 0 + 32.2 (10 + 2.01)


= = = 6.21
62.2

30 0 + 32.2 0
= = =0
62.2

17
Formulas for the moments of inertia:

3
=
12
3
=
12

= ( + ( )2 )

= ( + ( )2 )

By replacing in equations we obtain:

20 (1.5)3
1 = = 5.62 4
12
2 = 1910 4

1.5 (20)3
1 = = 1000 4
12
2 = 148 4

= 5.62 + 30 0 + 1910 + 32.2 0 = 1915,62 4

= 30 (6.21)2 + 1000 + 32.2 (5.8)2 + 148 = 3388.13 4

The normal stress is given by the formula:

= + +

18
CS 2

NA
+

113 +

+
3P
10P
P

162 -

0.52 P -
+
0.52 P

For CS 2 we have:

10[]
= = = 0.16 /2
62.22
[] 10
= = 102 = 0.52 /2
1915.634

(3) (16.2) 102



= = = 1.44 /2
3388.13

(3) 11.3 102



= = /2
3388.13

Normal stress in point A:

= + 0.16 + 0.52 = 1.68

19
Normal stress in point B:

0.75 102
= = 0.04
1915.62
= 1.44 + 0.16 0.04 = 1.32

20
= 1.68 = 20 = = 11.9
2 1.68

Finding the coordinates of the Neutral Axis:

3388.134
=0 =0 = = 0.16 = 1.81
2 3 102

1915.624
=0 + =0 = = 0.16 = 3.06
2 102

20
CS 3

113 +

ENA

6P

162 -

For CS 3 we have:

(6) 102 (16.2)


= = 2.87
3388.15

(6) 102 (11.3)


= = 2
3388.15
= = 2

= = 2.87
20
= 2.87 = 20 = = 7
2.87

21
Application 4

y 5P 5P

20P
Eccentric forces
P 2x5P
20P
1 2 3 4 5 x

4P

z 1m 2m 1m 2m

UPN260

400x20

22

90
1 1
23.6

2
139.4

84.2
400
2
2

20

260

48.3 0 + (40 2) 0
= = =0
48.3 + 40 2
48.3(20+2.36)+(402)0
=
= 48.3+402
= 8.42

= 48.3 + 80 = 128.3 2

40 23
= + 2 = 1 + 1 1 2 + 2 + 2 2 2 = 4820 + 48.3 0 + + (40 2) 0
12
= 4846.67 4
= + 2 = 1 + 1 1 2 + 2 + 2 2 2
403 2
= 317 + 48.3 13.942 + + (40 2) 8.422 = 26041.2 4
12

23
5P 5P


20P

2.136P 10P
1.029P
1.029P

20P

(9 + 11.58)
5 = 5 = 1.029
100
11.58
20 = 20 = 2.316
100

24

y

P 2.136P 2x5P
20P
x
1 2 3 5

1m 2m 1m 2m

P 10P
20P 5 = 20

5 = 3.34
2 = 7.66

20P +
20P

3.34P 3.34P
P +
P +


6.66P 6.66P
P

10P

= 0 5 + 20 = 0
5 = 20
2 = 0 + 10 2.316 5 5 = 0
+ 20 2.136
5 = = 3.34
5
5 = 3.34
5 = 0 6 + 2 5 2.136 10 3 = 0
30 + 6 + 2.316
2 = = 7.66
5
2 = 7.66
Check: = 0
2 + 5 10 = 0
7.66 + 3.34 11 = 0
0=0
3 = (3.34 3) = 10.02
2 =
4 = (3.34 2) = 6.68

25

z

4P
20P
x
1 2 3 4 5

1m 2m 1m 2m

4P
20P
5 = 20

2 = 1.6
5 = 2.4
20P +
20P

1.6P 1.6P
+


2.4P 2.4P

+
3.2P
4.8P

= 0 5 + 20 = 0
5 = 20 My
CS Fx Mz
2 = 0 4 3 5 5 = 0 (-1)
12 1 0 0 0
5 = = 2.4
5
2 0 0 -P
5 = 2.4
5 = 0 4 2 + 2 5 = 0 3 20P -3.2P 10P
8 4 20P -4.8P 6.68P
2 = = 1.6
5
5 20P 0 0
2 = 1.6
Check: = 0
2 + 5 4 = 0
1.6 + 2.4 4 = 0
0=0
3 = 1.6 2 = 3.2
4 = (2.4 2) = 4.8

26
Cross Section 3

( ) = 0.79
A ( ) = 0.156

-
205.8
B

115.8
10P +

= 1.49
3.2P

284.2
-
20P
+
C
( ) = 1.09

+ 20
260

NA -
= 1.31 ( ) = 0.86
+ ( ) = 0.86

20 26041.2
= = = 4.06
128.3 10 100
20 4846.67
= = = 2.36
128.3 3.2 100
20
( ) = = = 0.156
128.3

10 100
( ) = = 20.58 = 0.79
26041.2

10 100
( ) = = 28.42 = 1.09
26041.2

3.2 100
( ) = = 13 = 0.86
4846.67


= + = 0.156 0.86 0.79 = 1.49

10 100
= + = 0.156 + 0.86 11.58 = 0.57
26041.2
3.2 100
= + = 0.156 + 1 1.09 = 1.31
4846.67

27
Cross section 4


A ( ) = 0.156 ( ) = 0.588

-
205.8
B

115.8
6.68P
+

= 1.66 4.8P

284.2

20P
- +
C

( ) = 0.73

20

+ 260

= 1.15 -
NA +
( ) = 1.29 ( ) = 1.29

20 26041.2
= = = 6.08
128.3 6.68 100
20 4846.67
= = = 1.57 cm
128.3 4.8 100

20
( ) = = = 0.156
128.3

6.68 100
( ) = = 20.58 = 0.528
26041.2

6.68 100
( ) = = 28.42 = 0.729
26041.2

4.8 100
( ) = = 13 = 1.29
4846.67


= + = 0.156 1.29 0.528 = 1.66

6.68 100
= + = 0.156 + 1.29 11.58 = 1.15
26041.2
4.8 100
= + = 0.156 + 1 0.729 = 0.98
4846.67

28
3

= = 1.49
4

= = 1.66
20 2
3
= = 13.4
1.49
20 2
4
= = 12.05
1.66
3 4
= ( , ) = 12.05

Central Core

Central Core

4
4

a
3
4 4

1
1

3
b

1 1

4846.67
2 = = = 37.78 2
128.3
26041.2
2 = = = 202.97 2
128.3

1 1
=
= 13

2 202.97
= = =0

2 37.78
= = = 2.91
13

29
2

= 20.58

2 202.97
= = = 9.86
20.58
= 28.42
2 202.97
= = = 7.14
28.42

(13,11.58)

= 20.58
=

2 202.97
= = = 9.86
20.58
2 37.78
= = =0

3

= 28.42
=

2 202.97
= = = 7.14
28.42
2 37.78
= = =0

4 4

(13,11.58)
(1, 28.42)
2 1 28.42 11.58
= = = 3.33
2 1 1 + 13
= +
28.42 = 3.33 1 +
= 31.75
= 3.33 31.75
=0
= 31.75
=0
31.75
= = 9.53
3.33
2 202.97
= = = 6.39
31.75
2 37.78
= = = 3.96
9.53

30
31
Proposed applications

Application 5

x
4
y 10P
5P
3

2 2P
1

2m
z

2m

2m

200x10

I 30

250x20

32
Application 6

p
20pa
y

2p

4a

2a

300X20

400X10

200X20

33
Application 7

30KN/m 40KN

40KN 100KN
x

z 80KN
1m 4m 1m

400

50

400

25 25

34
Application 8

For the beam shown, calculate:

a) P capable, considering the normal stress design formule only (see the cross-section
figure for the position of the forces cross-section 2);
b) The central core.

Cross-section 2

35
Application 9

U 16

6,5

1,84

300X10
C

200X10

3p (kN/m) 10 pa

x
10 pa

z p

a 4a 2a

36
Application 10

5P
1 3 4 x
2
P 10 P
2m 2m 2m
z

UPN 200

200 x 10

100 x 20

37
Application 11

x
2P
6
5

4 20P
y 6P
3 2P
2 20P

1 2P

IPN 200

250 x 10

100 x 10

38
Application 12

3
4
z x

Cross-Section Cross-Section
4 2

300X20 P P

300X20
7P
10P
C C

400X10
400X10

200X20 200X20

39
Application 13

p
20pa
y

2p

4a

2a

300X20

400X10

200X20

40
Application 14

Considering the steel made cantilever shown in the figure:


a. Determine the resultant normal stress diagram if 3 = 0 and the resultant displacement
of the free end of the beam;
b. Determine the horizontal load 3 for the beam to verify the strength condition.
Consider the strength of the steel in tension and compression as = 20 2

=18KN

=9KN

200x20

400x10

200x20

41
Application 15

Considering the steel made cantilever shown in the figure, determine the maximum load p to
be applied on for the strength condition to be checked. Consider a = 1m and the strength of the
steel in tension and compression as 20 2

300x10

3a

42
Application 16

A steel made handrail is supported by two posts. If the handrail is considered as simply
supported, size the handrail and the posts, if a horizontal distributed load on the handrail of 120
daN/m and the weight of the elements are considered. Use the steel unit weight of 7850 daN/3
and steel strength of 20 KN/2 .

1.2 m

43
Application 17

Size the steps of a steel made staircase if the vertical distributed load by traffic is
considered as 300 daN/m2 .The steps are simply supported beams with a C shape cross-
section. The load has to be considered as distributed over the steps length.
Size the stringer C shape beams if they are simply supported and lifts to a height of 3m.
Use the steel strength of 20 kN/cm2 .

40
1.5 m

44
Active zone and central core

Application 18

Considering the concrete tubular column shown in the figure, fixed on a foundation block:

a. Check the maximum compression stress on soil, if the strength is = 250 /2.
b. Determine the minimum level of sand fill introduced into the column for compression
only to be obtained on the soil.
Consider the unit weights for concrete 25KN/3 and for sand fill 18KN/3 .

P=10 KN A-A

0.2

0.8 1.2m

6.0m 0.2
0.2 0.2
1.2
A A
1.6m

0.8m

45
a)

= 0.8 1.2 1.6 = 1.5363

= 1.536 25 = 38.4

= 6 1.6 1.2 6 1.2 0.8 = 5.763

= 5.76 25 = 144

= + = 38.4 + 144 = 182.4

() = 10 6.8 = 68

182.4
= = = 95 2
1.92

68
= = 0.8 = 132.81 2
1.2 1.63
12

= 227.81 2

= 250 2

<

z P
F

- 95

- 132.81
+

- 227.81
37.81+

46
b)

= 1.5363 = 38,4

= 5.763 = 144

= 1.2 0.8 = 0.96 3 = 0.96 3 18 3

= 17.28

= + + = 182.54 + 17.28

() = 10 6.8 = 68

68
= =
182.4 + 17.28

1.6
= = 0.267
6

68
= 0.267
182.4 + 17.28
68
(182.4 + 17.28 ) 0.267 = 68 = 182.4 + 17.28
0.267

254.68 = 182.4 + 17.28 17.28 = 72.28

= 4.18

z P
F

- 132.62

- 132.81
+

0 - 265.43

47
Application 19

1. Considering de concrete retaining wall shown in the figure:


a) Determine the position of the lateral load d on the wall height to have no tension on
the foundation block cross-section. Draw the corresponding normal stress diagram;
b) Determine the position of the lateral load d to obtain, on the foundation block cross-
section an active zone of a length of 4/3m. Draw the corresponding normal stress
diagram.

Use the wall unit weight as =25KN/3 and the foundation block unit weight as
=20KN/3 .
Use a retaining wall depth of 1m.
P=100KN

Q=40KN

2.5m
d

1.1m

1m 0.3 0.3 0.4

48
Solution:
P=100KN

Q=40KN

2.5m
d

1.1m

1m 0.3 0.3 0.4


a) Position of the lateral load d.
1 = 2,5m0,31,1= 25KN/3 2,5m0,3m1m= 18,75KN
1
2 = 2,50,31= 9,38KN
2

3= 21,11= 2021,1= 44KN

Computation of moments:
1 = 1 0,45= 8,44KN

2 = 2 0,2= 1,88KN

3 = 0

= P 0,45= 1000,45= 45KN

= -Q (0,33+1,1) = 40 1,43= -57,2KN

= P+1 + 2 +3 = 100+8,75+9,38+44= 172,13KN = = 172,13KN

= 172,13KN

49

= 1 +2 +3 + + =8,44+1,88+0+45+57,2 = = 1,88 KNm
172,13
= = = 86,07KN/2
21

1,88
= = 231 1= 2,82 KN/2

12



e= = 0,34

Normal stress diagram:

C 1
z

1 1
x
86,07
- -

- 2,82
+

83,19

88,95

50
b) Active zone

= 0,34
= 0,33
> , for the active zone.
C = - = 1-0,34=0,66
d = 3C =1,98
2 2172,13
= = 4 = 258,2KN/2
1
3

Normal stress diagram for the active zone:

yc

1
zc C

2
xc
0

258,2KN/

1,98

51
Proposed applications

Application 20

For the concrete retaining wall shown in the figure:


a. Determine the normal stress diagram on the foundation cross-section if the lateral load
F and the fill are neglected;
b. Determine the lateral load F if the fill is considered as acting on the marked volume

Consider the unit weights for concrete 25kN/m3 and for fill 18kN/m3. Consider a retaining wall
depth of 1m.

0.4
F

fill
5.0
0.8

2.5m

52
Application 21

Considering the concrete column and the foundation block shown in the figure:
a. Determine the maximum compression stress on the column cross-section if the tension
strength for concrete is neglected. The lateral load is F = 5 kN.
b. Determine the lateral load F to have no tension on the foundation soil contact cross-
section.

1m
F

3m

A A

1,2 m

A-A
0,5 m

1m

0,5 m

1m 1m 1m
\

53
Application 22

For the concrete sustaining wall shown in the figure :

a.Determine the normal stress diagram on the foundation soil if the lateral load p_1
is neglected and p = 15 kN/m ;

b. Determine the lateral load p_1 to have no tension on the foundation soil.
Consider p = 15 kN/m ;

c. Determine the lateral load p_1 to have an active zone on the foundation soil
cross-section of 3m length .

Draw the normal stress diagrams for every case. Consider the unit weight of the
concrete as _c = 25 kN/m^3

1.0
6.0 m

A A
0.5
1.5 m

p p1
4m

A-A

0.35
0.30 1.0 m
0.35

0.5 2.0 1.0

54
Application 23

The metallic column shown in the figure is fixed on a concrete foundation block having having
unit weight =24 KN/3 .
a) If the vertical load is F=250 KN and the horizontal distributed load is p=100 KN/m determine
the normal stress diagram and the column CS located at the foundation level
b) If the vertical load is neglected F=0,determine the horizontal load p to have no tension on
foundation soil.
The weight of the column is neglected

F
p
A-A

1.4 m
A A

10 10 10 p
1m
6m 10
B B
F

0.5

1.5

B-B

0.7
1m 2.4
0.7
2.5 m 1

55
Application 24

Determine the lateral load P of the retaining structure shown:


a) To have no tension on soil
b) To have an active zone area of 23 from the foundation cross-section

The unit weight of the concrete structure is = 25 3 and the fill = 18 3


A A

6m

1.2m
B B

1m 1m 1m

A-A
B-B
0.25m

2m 1.5m
Fill

0.25m

3m 0.75m 0.25m

56
Application 25
For the concrete dam shown in the figure :
a. Determine the level of the water H to have no tension on the foundation soil.
Draw the corresponding normal stress diagram ;
b. If H=8,5m determine the maximum compression on soil and draw the corresponding
normal stress diagram.
Consider the concrete unit weight = 24 kN/m3 and water = 10 kN/m3 .
Consider a dam depth of 1m.

10m

H
2m

4,2m

57
Application 26

Determine the maximum compression normal stress on soil and draw the corresponding
diagram for the shown concrete dam if unit weight of the concrete is = 25 /3 and for
the water = 10 /3.
Consider two cases:
a. 1 = 6m and 2 = 2m
b. 1 = 7.5m and 2 = 0.5m

Case a) Case b)

2m 1.5 m 2m 1.5 m

58
Application 27

A water tank made of concrete is 23 filled with water. Considering the unit weights for
water 10 3 and concrete 25 3 determine the lateral pressure p done by soil (the tank is

buried completely into soil) for the foundation to produce only compression on soil.

Consider two cases:

a) the tank is empty of water


b) the tank is 23 filled

A-A
20 cm

A A

300 cm 300 cm

20 cm
240 cm 20 240 cm 20
cm cm

59
Application 28

Determine the plastic hinge shape and length for the shown beam and cross-section.

l b

60
Inelastic behaviour of the cross-section

Application 29

a) Q elastic limit;

b) Q plastic, k, elastic zone;

c) Q elastic-plastic, if U 20 is fully plastic.

a= 1m

= 23.5 kN/cm2

A U20= 32.2 cm2

= 1910 cm4

= 148 cm4

61
(32.20)2[31(15+5.49)](2035.99)
a) = = = - 17.37 cm
32.2+20+230

303 1 120
=[ + ( )2 ]= 148+ 32.2(17.37)2+ 2[ + 30(30.12)2 ]+ +20(18.62)2
12 12

= 21883 cm4
b)

62

= -

23.521883
= - = = 26535 kN/m = 265.35 kN/m
19.38

265.35
Mz= 2Q( from diagram) => Q elastic limit= = 132.67 kN/m
2

Because the CS is not symmetric, the PLASTIC NEUTRAL AXIS is not the same as
ELASTIC NEUTRAL AXIS!

The position of PNA is given by the following formulas:

= = = - =>

= => =

= 201+2( 1 -1)1

= 20 + 2(31-1)1

= 20+ 21-2 = 32.2+62-21

20+ 32.2+62+2= -21 21


76.2
-76.2= -41 => 1= = 19.05
2

= 1 17.44+2 5.97+ 3 9.02+4 18.55= 328.87 kN/m

1 = 32.2 = 756.7

2 = 211.94= 561.18 kN

3 = 18.0512= 848.35 kN

4 = 20= 470 kN

63
328.87
= = 164.43 kN/m
2


= = = 1.24

2 2
= 2 1.24= 2 = 0.38
2 2

5 5
= 5 1.24= 5 => 1.24(5-3)=5
3 3

=> 6.2- 1.24 3=5 => 0.96

64
c) =0 => 1 + 2 3 4 5 =0

1 = 32.223.5= 756.7 kN
1
2 = (30-3 ) 12 = 30 3
2

3 = 2 = 30 3

4 = 3 (30-3 ) 1 2= (23 -30)2

5 = 20

=> = 1 + 2 3 4 5 =0

=> = 32.2 (23 -30)2 20 = 0

=> = 32.2 43 +60-20=0

=> = 18.05

65
Application 30

Considering the following beam and cross section,calculate:


a) P elastic limit
b) P plastic limit, K
c) P elastic-plastic,when the flanges are in the plastic domain
d) elastic-plastic zone for P=P plastic;
Given: y = 235 MPa = 23,5 KN/cm2
a=1 m

300x20 mm
y

210 mm

z
C

400x8

a a a

66
x
a a a

+ +
-

-
+

X = 0: H1 = 0
M1 = 2P a V3 2a + P 3a = 0 => 5Pa = V3 2a => V3 = 2,5P
M3 = V1 2a 2P a + P a = 0 => V1 2a = Pa => V1 = 0,5P
Check: Y = 0 0,5P 2P + 2,5P P = 0

a) M2left = 0,5P a KNm


right
M3 = (P a) = Pa KNm
A = 2 30 2 + 2 40 0,8 = 184 cm2
30 23 0.8 403
Iz = 2 ( + 30 2 212 ) + 2 ( + 40 0.8 0) = 61493,33cm4
12 12
Mz y Iz 23,5 61493,33
x = ymax => Mz = = => Mz = 65686,05 KNcm =>
Iz ymax 22

Mzel = 656,86KNm

Mzel = Pa => Pel lim = 656,86 KN

67
b)

y Elastic Plastic Elastic-Plastic

+ + +
+ +
22 + 21
1
z C 0
ENA=PNA=EPNA

- 21
- -

- - -

F1 = y A = 23,5 30 2 = 1410 KN

F2 = y A = 23,5 2 20 0,8 = 752 KN

Mpl = 2 F1 21 + 2 F2 10 = 2 1410 21 + 2 752 10 = 74260 KNcm = 742,6 KNm

Mpl = Pa => Ppl lim = 742,6 KN

Mz pl 742,6
K= = = 1,13
Mz el 656,86

c)
F1 = y A = 23,5 30 2 = 1410 KN

1
F2 = y A = 23,5 2 20 0,8 = 376 KN
2
2
Mel pl = 2 F1 21 + 2 F2 20 = 69246,67 KNcm = 692,46 KNm
3
Mel pl = Pa => Pel pl = 692,46 KN

68
d) Mx0 = 0 0,5P (a + x0 ) 2P x0 = 0 => 0,5Pa + 0,5P x0 2P x0 = 0 =>

0,5Pa 1,5P x0 = 0 => 0,5 = 1,5 x0 => x0 = 0,33 m

1 0 = 0,67

Mz pl 0,67
= = 1,13 => x1 = 0,08 m
Mz el 0,67 x1

Mz pl 1
= = 1,13 => x2 = 0,12 m
Mz el 1 x2

0,67m 1m

69
Application 31
a) Q elastic limit;

b) Q plastic, k;

c) Q el-plastic if flanges are plastic;

d) M el-plastic, Q el-plastic.

Q
x

4 2

y 250X20

600X10

70
258 (60)3 1
) = + 25 2 (31)2 + 2[ + 60 10] => = 132133cm4
12 12


= -

132133
= = = 4129 cm3
32

= = 23,5 kN/cm2 4129 cm3 => = 970,315 kN/cm


970.315
=2Q => Q= = 485,15 kN
2

Q
x

4 2

y Q
x

= -0,5Q = 1,5Q

1,5Q

+
-
2Q

- -

71
) = 2 1 31 + 22 15 = 2 1175kN 31cm + 2 1410 kN 15cm = 1151,50 kN/m


1 = 25 2 = 23,5 50 = 1175
cm2

2 = 60 2 = 23,5 cm2 60cm = 1410 kN

Mplastic
= 2 = = 575,75 kN
2

Mplastic Qplastic 1151.5


k= = = 970.315 = 1,19

) = 2 1 31 + 22 20 = > = 1010,50 kNm


1 = 25 2 = 23,5 cm2 50cm = 1175 kN

1
2 = 2 30 1 2 = 23,5 cm2 30cm = 705 kN

72
Qplastic + 575.75+485,15
d) = = = 530,45 k N
2 2

= 530,45 2 = 1060,9 kNm


1 = 25 2 = 23,5 cm2 50cm = 1175 kN


2 = 2 1 = 23,5 60 23,5c = 1410 -23,5c
2

c 1
2 = 2 2 2 1 = 11,75 []

c c
= 2 [(1 31 + 2 ( 15 + 4 ) + 3 ( 3 )]

c c
= 2[ 1175 31 + (1410 -23,5c)(15 + 4) + (11,75c 3) ] 102

=> =1060,9

=> 2 = 2313,59 => c = 2313,59


=>c = 48 cm

Mplastic 4 4
e) = 4 1,19 = => 1 = 0,64m
1 41
=> 2 = 0,32

73
Proposed applications

Application 32

For the beam shown, determine:

a) The elastic limit load ; = 23.5 /2


b) The fully plastic load and the inelastic cross-section coefficient K
c) The elastic plastic load when the upper flange is plastic
y

6m

400x20

500x12

100x20

200

74
Application 33
For the shown beam, determine:

a) ;
b) ;
c) .

6m

400x20

500x12

100x20

200

75
Application 34

3m 6m

200 x 20

300 x 10

76
Application 35

Determine the plastic hinge shape and length for the shown beam and cross-section.

l b

77
Application 36

Determine the plastic hinge shape and length for the shown beam and cross-section.

l/2 l/2

78
Buckling of columns

Application 37
Considering the following figure and cross section find out the rational position of it and the
capable load P. Given: fy = 23,5 KN/cm2 .

200x20 mm
v

210 mm

u
C

400x8 mm 96 mm

79
A = 20 2 2 + 40 0.8 2 = 144 cm2
20 23 403 0.8
Iu = ( + 20 2 212 + + 40 0.8 02 ) 2 = 43840 cm4
12 12
203 2 40 0.83
Iv = ( + 20 2 02 + + 40 0.8 9.62 ) 2 = 8568 cm4
12 12

Iu 43840 cm4
ru = = = 17.45 cm
A 144 cm2

Iv 8568 cm4
rv = = = 7.71 cm
A 144 cm2

80
l1 = 3 m l = 0.7 l = 4.2 m
xoy
l2 = 0.7 l2 = 2.1 m lb = 4.2 m
lxoz
b =3m

xoy
Rational position: Iu maximum moment of inertia and lb maximum buckling lenght
Iu xoy plane
u z and v y
xoy xoy
lb lb 4.2 102 cm
xoy = = = = 24.07
rz ru 17.45 cm

lxoz
b lxoz
b 3 102 cm
xoz = = = = 38.91
ry rv 7.71 cm
E
1 = f = 93,91 where = 1 and fy = 23.5 KN/cm2
y

xoy 24.07
xoy = = = 0.26
1 93.91
xoz 38.91
xoz = = = 0.41
1 93.91
xoy = xoz = 0.34 (curve b)
= 0.5 [1 + ( 0, .2) + 2 ]
xoy = 0.5 [1 + 0.34 (0.26 0.2) + 0.262 ] = 0.54
xoz = 0.5 [1 + 0.34 (0.41 0.2) + 0.412 ] = 0.62
1
=
+ 2 2
1
xoy = = 0.99
0.54 + 0.542 0.262
1
xoz = = 0.92
0.62 + 0.622 0.412

Pcap = min A fy = 0.92 144 cm2 23.5 KNcm2 = 3113 KN

81
Application 38

Find the critical buckling load considering that = 23.5 /2

200 x 20

300 x 10

82
Plane xOy: There are two stories so we have two buckling lengths


1 = 0.71 = 2.1

2 = 2 = 5

So = max(1 , 2 ) = 5

83
Plane xOz:

= 1 + 2 = = 8
So xOz is the maximum buckling plane.

Determining geometric characteristics of the cross section:

= 818 4 = 19610 4 =
972

C

= =

So = 2.9 and = 14.22

84
Optimal position of the CS on the column:

= . The has to be perpendicular on the maximum


buckling plane (xOz). This shows us that the flenges of the CS are
parallel to y axis and the web is parallel to z axis.
In our case becomes and becomes .

Computing our critical buckling load, we start by using formulas 5.6 and 5.7.
5 102
= = = 172.4
2.9
8 102
= = = 56.26
14.22
172.4

= = = 1,84
1 93.9
56.26

= = = 0,6
1 93.9
Going to 5.4:
2

= 0.5 [1 + 1 (
0.2) + ( )

2

= 0.5 [1 + 2 (
0.2) + ( )

Finding 1 and 2 by looking in the tables:


360
= = 2.5 > 1.2
143
= 19.5 < 40 so 1 = 0.34 () (a) and 2 = 0.21 ()

= 0.5 [1 + 0.34 (1.84 0.2) + 1.842 ] = 2.47


= 0.5 [1 + 0.21 (0.6 0.2) + 0.62 ] = 0.72

85
Going to 5.3:
1 1
= = = 0.24
2.47 + 2.472 1.842
+ 2

2

1 1
= = = 0.89
0.72 + 0.722 0.62
+
2 2

is so buckling takes place in plane xOy first.


Going to 5.1 and 5.2:
0.24 97 23.5
= = = 437,7
1 1.25
1 is a safety factor equal to 1.25.

86
Proposed applications

Application 39

Determine , knowing the distributed load q=20 KN/m:

P
E=

=4

q =4

E=

x =6

87
Application 40

Determine the compression buckling load for the shown column and cross-section.

EI=

4m

EI=

x 6m
z

O y

400x20

600x10

250x10

88
Application 41

Considering the following figure and Cross-Section, find out the rational position of it and the
capable load P. Also, for P=0.3Pcap, find Qcap.

89
Application 42

Determine the rational position of the cross-section and the buckling capacity of the
column given below.

P=1500 kn

EI

l/2 l/2

8m

180x15

370x10

180x15

90