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Workbook

Unsymmetric bending

Application 1

18 kN

4.5 kN/m

8 kN

180x12

IPN 240

1
y
q
4q

1 2 x
6q
4 5 3
3. 5 a
q

2a 4q 6q

9q 5a 8. 1 q

0. 9 q + + 4q

-
4. 1 q
0. 9 a

8q
`` -

+
0. 405q 3q

yox plane:

1 = 3 = 0

2 = 0,9 5 5 2,5 = 8
()
= 0 => 0,9 = 0 => = 0,9

0,9
4 = 0,9 0,9 0,9 = 0,405
2

3,5
5 = 0,9 3,5 3,5 = 3
2

2
z

2q
1 2 x
6q
4 5 3
1,5 a

6q 3,5 a 2q 3,5 a
6q
q q
0,9 a

6q +

q +
- q
2q

+
2q
3,5q

zox plane:

1 = 3 = 0

2 = 5 2 1,5 = 2

4 = 0,8 = 0,9

5 = 3,5 = 3,5

= 804 4

= 6588 4

= 67,7 2

CS (-1)

1 6 0 0

2 6 2 8

3 6 0 0

4 6 0,9 0,405

5 6 3,5 3

3
Critical cross section 2

1,12 q

9,2
8q

+
16
6q 2q

37 0,09 q 1,94 q

-
+
2,24 q
1,32 q

For critical cross section 2:

= +

F Fx 6q
x x = = = 0,09 KN/cm2
A 67,7

M My 2q 102
x y = zA = (9) = 2,24q KN/cm2
I yC 804

(8) 102

= = 9,2 = 1,12 /2
6588

Mz Mz (8q) 102
x bott = yA bott = (16) = 1,94q KN/cm2
IzC 6588

= 0,09 + 2,24 1,94 = 0,39 /2

2
= 3,45 /
2

4
NA
Critical cross section 4

A 0,42 q

+

9,2
3q

+
16
6q 3,5q

0,09 q 0,73 q
-
+
3,91 q

For critical cross section 4:

= +

F Fx 6q
x x = = = 0,09 KN/cm2
A 67,7

M My 3,5q 102
x y = zA = (9) = 3,91q KN/cm2
I yC 804

M Mz (3q) 102
z
x top = yA top = 9,2 = 0,42q KN/cm2
IzC 6588

Mz Mz (3q) 102
x bott = yA bott = (16) = 0,73q KN/cm2
IzC 6588

= 0,09 + 3,91 0,73 = 3,27 /cm2

4,43
4
= 4,43 cm2 = = 200 => = = 4,5 /
200

5
Application 2

10P
1 3P

2P 2
3

z 4

x
2m
1m
3m

240x20

400x10

360x20

6
For plane xOy

y 3P

10P 1 3 4
x

3m 3m

3P

10P 1 3 4

+ 10P

+ +

Equilibrium equations:
= 0 => 4 = 10
1 = 0 => 3 3 64 = 0 => 4 = 1.5
4 = 0 => 61 3 3 = 0 => 1 = 1.5
Check: = 0 => 1.5 + 1.5 3 = 0

7
For plane xOz

10P 1 2 4
x

2P

2m 4m

10P 1 2 4

2P

+ 10P

+ 2P

- P

4P

Equilibrium equations:
= 0 => 4 = 10
2 = 0 => 2 2 44 = 0 => 4 =
4 = 0 => 2 6 + 42 = 0 => 2 = 3
Check: = 0 => 2 + 3 = 0
3 = 2 3 3 = 3

2 = 3

8
Geometrical characteristics of the cross section

= 24 2 + 36 2 + 2 40 1 = 2002
1 1 + 2 2 48 21 72 21
= = = 2.52
200
= 0 Because 1 and 2 are in the same point as while 3 and 4 are symmetric compared
to .
23 24 23 36 403 1
= ( + (2 ) = + 48 (23.522 ) + + 72 (18.482 ) + 2
12 12 12
= 61848,554

243 2 363 2
= ( + (2 ) = + + 2 40 112
12 12
= 19766.674

9
CS
1 0 0 10P
2 4P 3P 10P Critical Cross Section 2
3 3P 4.5P 10P Critical Cross Section 3
4 0 0 10P

Critical Cross Section 2

0.12P

-
245,2

+
3P
C
4P 194,8
+
0.05P 0.09P
0.36 -
P
+ 0.36P

10
( ) = = = 0.05 (2)
200
3100
( ) = = 61848,55 24.52 = 0.12 (2)

3100
( ) = = 61848,55 19.48 = 0.09 (2)

4100
( ) = = 18 = 0.36 (2)
19766.67

10
Finding the Neutral Axis:
61848.55
= = 0.05 = 10.30
3 100
19766.67
= = 0.05 = 2.47
4 100

-0.31P
-

+
0.5P

3P

4P
NA

() = + = 0.05 + 0.36 + 0.09 = 0.5 (2)

410012
() = + = 0.05 + 0.12 = 0.31 (2)
19766.67

= () => 20 = 0.5 => 1 = 40

11
Critical Cross Section 3

0.18P

-
245,2

+
4.5P

C
3P 194,8

+
0.05P 0.14P

0.27P -
+ 0.27P

10
( ) = = = 0.05 (2)
200
4.5100
( ) = = 61848,55 24.52 = 0.18 (2)

4.5100
( ) = = 61848,55 19.48 = 0.14 (2)

3100
( ) = = 18 = 0.27 (2)
19766.67

12
Finding the Neutral Axis:
61848.55
= = 0.05 = 6.87
4.5 100
19766.67
= = 0.05 = 3.3
3 100

0.31P
-

+
0.46P
B

4.5P

3P
NA

() = + = 0.05 + 0.27 + 0.14 = 0.46 (2)

310012
() = + = 0.05 + 0.18 = 0.31 (2)
19766.67

13
Application 3

10 P
3P
1 2 3
x
4
P
2m 2m 2m
z

75
20.1
UPN 200 37.9
C
100
62.1

100

200x15

14
y
10 P 3P
x

=1.5 P =4.5 P

10 P
+

3P
+

-
1.5 P

- -

6P

Equilibrium equations for plane XoY:

= 0: 1 10 = 0 1 10 = 0 1 = 10
1 = 0: 43 + 6 3 = 0 43 = 18 3 = 4.5
3 = 0: 41 + 3 2 = 0 41 = 6 1 = 1.5
Check: = 0: 1.5 + 4.5 3 = 0

15
z
P
10 P
x

=0.5 P =0.5 P

10 P
+

0.5 P
+

-
0.5 P

+ +

Equilibrium equations for plane XoZ:

1 = 10
1 = 0: 2 43 = 0 43 = 2 3 = 0.5
3 = 0: 41 2 = 0 1 = 0.5
Check: = 0: 0.5 + 0.5 = 0

CS
1 10P 0 0
2 10P -P -3
3 0 0 -6

4 0 0 0

16
75
20.1
UPN 200 37.9
C
100
62.1

100

200x15

Determining the moments of inertia for the plane cross-section

1 = 20 1.5 = 302
2 = 32.22

= 1 + 2 = 30 + 32.2 + 62.2 2

30 0 + 32.2 (10 + 2.01)

= = = 6.21
62.2

30 0 + 32.2 0
= = =0
62.2

17
Formulas for the moments of inertia:

3
=
12
3
=
12

= ( + ( )2 )

= ( + ( )2 )

20 (1.5)3
1 = = 5.62 4
12
2 = 1910 4

1.5 (20)3
1 = = 1000 4
12
2 = 148 4

The normal stress is given by the formula:

= + +

18
CS 2

NA
+

113 +

+
3P
10P
P

162 -

0.52 P -
+
0.52 P

For CS 2 we have:

10[]
= = = 0.16 /2
62.22
[] 10
= = 102 = 0.52 /2
1915.634

= = = 1.44 /2
3388.13

= = /2
3388.13

= + 0.16 + 0.52 = 1.68

19
Normal stress in point B:

0.75 102
= = 0.04
1915.62
= 1.44 + 0.16 0.04 = 1.32

20
= 1.68 = 20 = = 11.9
2 1.68

Finding the coordinates of the Neutral Axis:

3388.134
=0 =0 = = 0.16 = 1.81
2 3 102

1915.624
=0 + =0 = = 0.16 = 3.06
2 102

20
CS 3

113 +

ENA

6P

162 -

For CS 3 we have:

= = 2.87
3388.15

(6) 102 (11.3)

= = 2
3388.15
= = 2

= = 2.87
20
= 2.87 = 20 = = 7
2.87

21
Application 4

y 5P 5P

20P
Eccentric forces
P 2x5P
20P
1 2 3 4 5 x

4P

z 1m 2m 1m 2m

UPN260

400x20

22

90
1 1
23.6

2
139.4

84.2
400
2
2

20

260

48.3 0 + (40 2) 0
= = =0
48.3 + 40 2
48.3(20+2.36)+(402)0
=
= 48.3+402
= 8.42

= 48.3 + 80 = 128.3 2

40 23
= + 2 = 1 + 1 1 2 + 2 + 2 2 2 = 4820 + 48.3 0 + + (40 2) 0
12
= 4846.67 4
= + 2 = 1 + 1 1 2 + 2 + 2 2 2
403 2
= 317 + 48.3 13.942 + + (40 2) 8.422 = 26041.2 4
12

23
5P 5P

20P

2.136P 10P
1.029P
1.029P

20P

(9 + 11.58)
5 = 5 = 1.029
100
11.58
20 = 20 = 2.316
100

24

y

P 2.136P 2x5P
20P
x
1 2 3 5

1m 2m 1m 2m

P 10P
20P 5 = 20

5 = 3.34
2 = 7.66

20P +
20P

3.34P 3.34P
P +
P +

6.66P 6.66P
P

10P

= 0 5 + 20 = 0
5 = 20
2 = 0 + 10 2.316 5 5 = 0
+ 20 2.136
5 = = 3.34
5
5 = 3.34
5 = 0 6 + 2 5 2.136 10 3 = 0
30 + 6 + 2.316
2 = = 7.66
5
2 = 7.66
Check: = 0
2 + 5 10 = 0
7.66 + 3.34 11 = 0
0=0
3 = (3.34 3) = 10.02
2 =
4 = (3.34 2) = 6.68

25

z

4P
20P
x
1 2 3 4 5

1m 2m 1m 2m

4P
20P
5 = 20

2 = 1.6
5 = 2.4
20P +
20P

1.6P 1.6P
+

2.4P 2.4P

+
3.2P
4.8P

= 0 5 + 20 = 0
5 = 20 My
CS Fx Mz
2 = 0 4 3 5 5 = 0 (-1)
12 1 0 0 0
5 = = 2.4
5
2 0 0 -P
5 = 2.4
5 = 0 4 2 + 2 5 = 0 3 20P -3.2P 10P
8 4 20P -4.8P 6.68P
2 = = 1.6
5
5 20P 0 0
2 = 1.6
Check: = 0
2 + 5 4 = 0
1.6 + 2.4 4 = 0
0=0
3 = 1.6 2 = 3.2
4 = (2.4 2) = 4.8

26
Cross Section 3

( ) = 0.79
A ( ) = 0.156

-
205.8
B

115.8
10P +

= 1.49
3.2P

284.2
-
20P
+
C
( ) = 1.09

+ 20
260

NA -
= 1.31 ( ) = 0.86
+ ( ) = 0.86

20 26041.2
= = = 4.06
128.3 10 100
20 4846.67
= = = 2.36
128.3 3.2 100
20
( ) = = = 0.156
128.3

10 100
( ) = = 20.58 = 0.79
26041.2

10 100
( ) = = 28.42 = 1.09
26041.2

3.2 100
( ) = = 13 = 0.86
4846.67

= + = 0.156 0.86 0.79 = 1.49

10 100
= + = 0.156 + 0.86 11.58 = 0.57
26041.2
3.2 100
= + = 0.156 + 1 1.09 = 1.31
4846.67

27
Cross section 4

A ( ) = 0.156 ( ) = 0.588

-
205.8
B

115.8
6.68P
+

= 1.66 4.8P

284.2

20P
- +
C

( ) = 0.73

20

+ 260

= 1.15 -
NA +
( ) = 1.29 ( ) = 1.29

20 26041.2
= = = 6.08
128.3 6.68 100
20 4846.67
= = = 1.57 cm
128.3 4.8 100

20
( ) = = = 0.156
128.3

6.68 100
( ) = = 20.58 = 0.528
26041.2

6.68 100
( ) = = 28.42 = 0.729
26041.2

4.8 100
( ) = = 13 = 1.29
4846.67

= + = 0.156 1.29 0.528 = 1.66

6.68 100
= + = 0.156 + 1.29 11.58 = 1.15
26041.2
4.8 100
= + = 0.156 + 1 0.729 = 0.98
4846.67

28
3

= = 1.49
4

= = 1.66
20 2
3
= = 13.4
1.49
20 2
4
= = 12.05
1.66
3 4
= ( , ) = 12.05

Central Core

Central Core

4
4

a
3
4 4

1
1

3
b

1 1

4846.67
2 = = = 37.78 2
128.3
26041.2
2 = = = 202.97 2
128.3

1 1
=
= 13

2 202.97
= = =0

2 37.78
= = = 2.91
13

29
2

= 20.58

2 202.97
= = = 9.86
20.58
= 28.42
2 202.97
= = = 7.14
28.42

(13,11.58)

= 20.58
=

2 202.97
= = = 9.86
20.58
2 37.78
= = =0

3

= 28.42
=

2 202.97
= = = 7.14
28.42
2 37.78
= = =0

4 4

(13,11.58)
(1, 28.42)
2 1 28.42 11.58
= = = 3.33
2 1 1 + 13
= +
28.42 = 3.33 1 +
= 31.75
= 3.33 31.75
=0
= 31.75
=0
31.75
= = 9.53
3.33
2 202.97
= = = 6.39
31.75
2 37.78
= = = 3.96
9.53

30
31
Proposed applications

Application 5

x
4
y 10P
5P
3

2 2P
1

2m
z

2m

2m

200x10

I 30

250x20

32
Application 6

p
20pa
y

2p

4a

2a

300X20

400X10

200X20

33
Application 7

30KN/m 40KN

40KN 100KN
x

z 80KN
1m 4m 1m

400

50

400

25 25

34
Application 8

For the beam shown, calculate:

a) P capable, considering the normal stress design formule only (see the cross-section
figure for the position of the forces cross-section 2);
b) The central core.

Cross-section 2

35
Application 9

U 16

6,5

1,84

300X10
C

200X10

3p (kN/m) 10 pa

x
10 pa

z p

a 4a 2a

36
Application 10

5P
1 3 4 x
2
P 10 P
2m 2m 2m
z

UPN 200

200 x 10

100 x 20

37
Application 11

x
2P
6
5

4 20P
y 6P
3 2P
2 20P

1 2P

IPN 200

250 x 10

100 x 10

38
Application 12

3
4
z x

Cross-Section Cross-Section
4 2

300X20 P P

300X20
7P
10P
C C

400X10
400X10

200X20 200X20

39
Application 13

p
20pa
y

2p

4a

2a

300X20

400X10

200X20

40
Application 14

Considering the steel made cantilever shown in the figure:

a. Determine the resultant normal stress diagram if 3 = 0 and the resultant displacement
of the free end of the beam;
b. Determine the horizontal load 3 for the beam to verify the strength condition.
Consider the strength of the steel in tension and compression as = 20 2

=18KN

=9KN

200x20

400x10

200x20

41
Application 15

Considering the steel made cantilever shown in the figure, determine the maximum load p to
be applied on for the strength condition to be checked. Consider a = 1m and the strength of the
steel in tension and compression as 20 2

300x10

3a

42
Application 16

A steel made handrail is supported by two posts. If the handrail is considered as simply
supported, size the handrail and the posts, if a horizontal distributed load on the handrail of 120
daN/m and the weight of the elements are considered. Use the steel unit weight of 7850 daN/3
and steel strength of 20 KN/2 .

1.2 m

43
Application 17

Size the steps of a steel made staircase if the vertical distributed load by traffic is
considered as 300 daN/m2 .The steps are simply supported beams with a C shape cross-
section. The load has to be considered as distributed over the steps length.
Size the stringer C shape beams if they are simply supported and lifts to a height of 3m.
Use the steel strength of 20 kN/cm2 .

40
1.5 m

44
Active zone and central core

Application 18

Considering the concrete tubular column shown in the figure, fixed on a foundation block:

a. Check the maximum compression stress on soil, if the strength is = 250 /2.
b. Determine the minimum level of sand fill introduced into the column for compression
only to be obtained on the soil.
Consider the unit weights for concrete 25KN/3 and for sand fill 18KN/3 .

P=10 KN A-A

0.2

0.8 1.2m

6.0m 0.2
0.2 0.2
1.2
A A
1.6m

0.8m

45
a)

= 0.8 1.2 1.6 = 1.5363

= 1.536 25 = 38.4

= 5.76 25 = 144

= + = 38.4 + 144 = 182.4

() = 10 6.8 = 68

182.4
= = = 95 2
1.92

68
= = 0.8 = 132.81 2
1.2 1.63
12

= 227.81 2

= 250 2

<

z P
F

- 95

- 132.81
+

- 227.81
37.81+

46
b)

= 1.5363 = 38,4

= 5.763 = 144

= 1.2 0.8 = 0.96 3 = 0.96 3 18 3

= 17.28

= + + = 182.54 + 17.28

() = 10 6.8 = 68

68
= =
182.4 + 17.28

1.6
= = 0.267
6

68
= 0.267
182.4 + 17.28
68
(182.4 + 17.28 ) 0.267 = 68 = 182.4 + 17.28
0.267

= 4.18

z P
F

- 132.62

- 132.81
+

0 - 265.43

47
Application 19

1. Considering de concrete retaining wall shown in the figure:

a) Determine the position of the lateral load d on the wall height to have no tension on
the foundation block cross-section. Draw the corresponding normal stress diagram;
b) Determine the position of the lateral load d to obtain, on the foundation block cross-
section an active zone of a length of 4/3m. Draw the corresponding normal stress
diagram.

Use the wall unit weight as =25KN/3 and the foundation block unit weight as
=20KN/3 .
Use a retaining wall depth of 1m.
P=100KN

Q=40KN

2.5m
d

1.1m

48
Solution:
P=100KN

Q=40KN

2.5m
d

1.1m

1m 0.3 0.3 0.4

a) Position of the lateral load d.
1 = 2,5m0,31,1= 25KN/3 2,5m0,3m1m= 18,75KN
1
2 = 2,50,31= 9,38KN
2

3= 21,11= 2021,1= 44KN

Computation of moments:
1 = 1 0,45= 8,44KN

2 = 2 0,2= 1,88KN

3 = 0

= P+1 + 2 +3 = 100+8,75+9,38+44= 172,13KN = = 172,13KN

= 172,13KN

49

= 1 +2 +3 + + =8,44+1,88+0+45+57,2 = = 1,88 KNm
172,13
= = = 86,07KN/2
21

1,88
= = 231 1= 2,82 KN/2

12

e= = 0,34

Normal stress diagram:

C 1
z

1 1
x
86,07
- -

- 2,82
+

83,19

88,95

50
b) Active zone

= 0,34
= 0,33
> , for the active zone.
C = - = 1-0,34=0,66
d = 3C =1,98
2 2172,13
= = 4 = 258,2KN/2
1
3

Normal stress diagram for the active zone:

yc

1
zc C

2
xc
0

258,2KN/

1,98

51
Proposed applications

Application 20

For the concrete retaining wall shown in the figure:

a. Determine the normal stress diagram on the foundation cross-section if the lateral load
F and the fill are neglected;
b. Determine the lateral load F if the fill is considered as acting on the marked volume

Consider the unit weights for concrete 25kN/m3 and for fill 18kN/m3. Consider a retaining wall
depth of 1m.

0.4
F

fill
5.0
0.8

2.5m

52
Application 21

Considering the concrete column and the foundation block shown in the figure:
a. Determine the maximum compression stress on the column cross-section if the tension
strength for concrete is neglected. The lateral load is F = 5 kN.
b. Determine the lateral load F to have no tension on the foundation soil contact cross-
section.

1m
F

3m

A A

1,2 m

A-A
0,5 m

1m

0,5 m

1m 1m 1m
\

53
Application 22

For the concrete sustaining wall shown in the figure :

a.Determine the normal stress diagram on the foundation soil if the lateral load p_1
is neglected and p = 15 kN/m ;

b. Determine the lateral load p_1 to have no tension on the foundation soil.
Consider p = 15 kN/m ;

c. Determine the lateral load p_1 to have an active zone on the foundation soil
cross-section of 3m length .

Draw the normal stress diagrams for every case. Consider the unit weight of the
concrete as _c = 25 kN/m^3

1.0
6.0 m

A A
0.5
1.5 m

p p1
4m

A-A

0.35
0.30 1.0 m
0.35

0.5 2.0 1.0

54
Application 23

The metallic column shown in the figure is fixed on a concrete foundation block having having
unit weight =24 KN/3 .
a) If the vertical load is F=250 KN and the horizontal distributed load is p=100 KN/m determine
the normal stress diagram and the column CS located at the foundation level
b) If the vertical load is neglected F=0,determine the horizontal load p to have no tension on
foundation soil.
The weight of the column is neglected

F
p
A-A

1.4 m
A A

10 10 10 p
1m
6m 10
B B
F

0.5

1.5

B-B

0.7
1m 2.4
0.7
2.5 m 1

55
Application 24

Determine the lateral load P of the retaining structure shown:

a) To have no tension on soil
b) To have an active zone area of 23 from the foundation cross-section

The unit weight of the concrete structure is = 25 3 and the fill = 18 3

A A

6m

1.2m
B B

1m 1m 1m

A-A
B-B
0.25m

2m 1.5m
Fill

0.25m

3m 0.75m 0.25m

56
Application 25
For the concrete dam shown in the figure :
a. Determine the level of the water H to have no tension on the foundation soil.
Draw the corresponding normal stress diagram ;
b. If H=8,5m determine the maximum compression on soil and draw the corresponding
normal stress diagram.
Consider the concrete unit weight = 24 kN/m3 and water = 10 kN/m3 .
Consider a dam depth of 1m.

10m

H
2m

4,2m

57
Application 26

Determine the maximum compression normal stress on soil and draw the corresponding
diagram for the shown concrete dam if unit weight of the concrete is = 25 /3 and for
the water = 10 /3.
Consider two cases:
a. 1 = 6m and 2 = 2m
b. 1 = 7.5m and 2 = 0.5m

Case a) Case b)

2m 1.5 m 2m 1.5 m

58
Application 27

A water tank made of concrete is 23 filled with water. Considering the unit weights for
water 10 3 and concrete 25 3 determine the lateral pressure p done by soil (the tank is

buried completely into soil) for the foundation to produce only compression on soil.

a) the tank is empty of water

b) the tank is 23 filled

A-A
20 cm

A A

300 cm 300 cm

20 cm
240 cm 20 240 cm 20
cm cm

59
Application 28

Determine the plastic hinge shape and length for the shown beam and cross-section.

l b

60
Inelastic behaviour of the cross-section

Application 29

a) Q elastic limit;

a= 1m

= 23.5 kN/cm2

A U20= 32.2 cm2

= 1910 cm4

= 148 cm4

61
(32.20)2[31(15+5.49)](2035.99)
a) = = = - 17.37 cm
32.2+20+230

303 1 120
=[ + ( )2 ]= 148+ 32.2(17.37)2+ 2[ + 30(30.12)2 ]+ +20(18.62)2
12 12

= 21883 cm4
b)

62

= -

23.521883
= - = = 26535 kN/m = 265.35 kN/m
19.38

265.35
Mz= 2Q( from diagram) => Q elastic limit= = 132.67 kN/m
2

Because the CS is not symmetric, the PLASTIC NEUTRAL AXIS is not the same as
ELASTIC NEUTRAL AXIS!

= = = - =>

= => =

= 201+2( 1 -1)1

= 20 + 2(31-1)1

20+ 32.2+62+2= -21 21

76.2
-76.2= -41 => 1= = 19.05
2

= 1 17.44+2 5.97+ 3 9.02+4 18.55= 328.87 kN/m

1 = 32.2 = 756.7

2 = 211.94= 561.18 kN

3 = 18.0512= 848.35 kN

4 = 20= 470 kN

63
328.87
= = 164.43 kN/m
2

= = = 1.24

2 2
= 2 1.24= 2 = 0.38
2 2

5 5
= 5 1.24= 5 => 1.24(5-3)=5
3 3

=> 6.2- 1.24 3=5 => 0.96

64
c) =0 => 1 + 2 3 4 5 =0

1 = 32.223.5= 756.7 kN
1
2 = (30-3 ) 12 = 30 3
2

3 = 2 = 30 3

4 = 3 (30-3 ) 1 2= (23 -30)2

5 = 20

=> = 1 + 2 3 4 5 =0

=> = 18.05

65
Application 30

Considering the following beam and cross section,calculate:

a) P elastic limit
b) P plastic limit, K
c) P elastic-plastic,when the flanges are in the plastic domain
d) elastic-plastic zone for P=P plastic;
Given: y = 235 MPa = 23,5 KN/cm2
a=1 m

300x20 mm
y

210 mm

z
C

400x8

a a a

66
x
a a a

+ +
-

-
+

X = 0: H1 = 0
M1 = 2P a V3 2a + P 3a = 0 => 5Pa = V3 2a => V3 = 2,5P
M3 = V1 2a 2P a + P a = 0 => V1 2a = Pa => V1 = 0,5P
Check: Y = 0 0,5P 2P + 2,5P P = 0

a) M2left = 0,5P a KNm

right
M3 = (P a) = Pa KNm
A = 2 30 2 + 2 40 0,8 = 184 cm2
30 23 0.8 403
Iz = 2 ( + 30 2 212 ) + 2 ( + 40 0.8 0) = 61493,33cm4
12 12
Mz y Iz 23,5 61493,33
x = ymax => Mz = = => Mz = 65686,05 KNcm =>
Iz ymax 22

Mzel = 656,86KNm

67
b)

y Elastic Plastic Elastic-Plastic

+ + +
+ +
22 + 21
1
z C 0
ENA=PNA=EPNA

- 21
- -

- - -

F1 = y A = 23,5 30 2 = 1410 KN

Mpl = Pa => Ppl lim = 742,6 KN

Mz pl 742,6
K= = = 1,13
Mz el 656,86

c)
F1 = y A = 23,5 30 2 = 1410 KN

1
F2 = y A = 23,5 2 20 0,8 = 376 KN
2
2
Mel pl = 2 F1 21 + 2 F2 20 = 69246,67 KNcm = 692,46 KNm
3
Mel pl = Pa => Pel pl = 692,46 KN

68
d) Mx0 = 0 0,5P (a + x0 ) 2P x0 = 0 => 0,5Pa + 0,5P x0 2P x0 = 0 =>

0,5Pa 1,5P x0 = 0 => 0,5 = 1,5 x0 => x0 = 0,33 m

1 0 = 0,67

Mz pl 0,67
= = 1,13 => x1 = 0,08 m
Mz el 0,67 x1

Mz pl 1
= = 1,13 => x2 = 0,12 m
Mz el 1 x2

0,67m 1m

69
Application 31
a) Q elastic limit;

b) Q plastic, k;

c) Q el-plastic if flanges are plastic;

d) M el-plastic, Q el-plastic.

Q
x

4 2

y 250X20

600X10

70
258 (60)3 1
) = + 25 2 (31)2 + 2[ + 60 10] => = 132133cm4
12 12

= -

132133
= = = 4129 cm3
32

= = 23,5 kN/cm2 4129 cm3 => = 970,315 kN/cm

970.315
=2Q => Q= = 485,15 kN
2

Q
x

4 2

y Q
x

= -0,5Q = 1,5Q

1,5Q

+
-
2Q

- -

71
) = 2 1 31 + 22 15 = 2 1175kN 31cm + 2 1410 kN 15cm = 1151,50 kN/m

1 = 25 2 = 23,5 50 = 1175
cm2

2 = 60 2 = 23,5 cm2 60cm = 1410 kN

Mplastic
= 2 = = 575,75 kN
2

Mplastic Qplastic 1151.5

k= = = 970.315 = 1,19

) = 2 1 31 + 22 20 = > = 1010,50 kNm

1 = 25 2 = 23,5 cm2 50cm = 1175 kN

1
2 = 2 30 1 2 = 23,5 cm2 30cm = 705 kN

72
Qplastic + 575.75+485,15
d) = = = 530,45 k N
2 2

= 530,45 2 = 1060,9 kNm

1 = 25 2 = 23,5 cm2 50cm = 1175 kN

2 = 2 1 = 23,5 60 23,5c = 1410 -23,5c
2

c 1
2 = 2 2 2 1 = 11,75 []

c c
= 2 [(1 31 + 2 ( 15 + 4 ) + 3 ( 3 )]

c c
= 2[ 1175 31 + (1410 -23,5c)(15 + 4) + (11,75c 3) ] 102

=> =1060,9

=> 2 = 2313,59 => c = 2313,59

=>c = 48 cm

Mplastic 4 4
e) = 4 1,19 = => 1 = 0,64m
1 41
=> 2 = 0,32

73
Proposed applications

Application 32

a) The elastic limit load ; = 23.5 /2

b) The fully plastic load and the inelastic cross-section coefficient K
c) The elastic plastic load when the upper flange is plastic
y

6m

400x20

500x12

100x20

200

74
Application 33
For the shown beam, determine:

a) ;
b) ;
c) .

6m

400x20

500x12

100x20

200

75
Application 34

3m 6m

200 x 20

300 x 10

76
Application 35

Determine the plastic hinge shape and length for the shown beam and cross-section.

l b

77
Application 36

Determine the plastic hinge shape and length for the shown beam and cross-section.

l/2 l/2

78
Buckling of columns

Application 37
Considering the following figure and cross section find out the rational position of it and the
capable load P. Given: fy = 23,5 KN/cm2 .

200x20 mm
v

210 mm

u
C

400x8 mm 96 mm

79
A = 20 2 2 + 40 0.8 2 = 144 cm2
20 23 403 0.8
Iu = ( + 20 2 212 + + 40 0.8 02 ) 2 = 43840 cm4
12 12
203 2 40 0.83
Iv = ( + 20 2 02 + + 40 0.8 9.62 ) 2 = 8568 cm4
12 12

Iu 43840 cm4
ru = = = 17.45 cm
A 144 cm2

Iv 8568 cm4
rv = = = 7.71 cm
A 144 cm2

80
l1 = 3 m l = 0.7 l = 4.2 m
xoy
l2 = 0.7 l2 = 2.1 m lb = 4.2 m
lxoz
b =3m

xoy
Rational position: Iu maximum moment of inertia and lb maximum buckling lenght
Iu xoy plane
u z and v y
xoy xoy
lb lb 4.2 102 cm
xoy = = = = 24.07
rz ru 17.45 cm

lxoz
b lxoz
b 3 102 cm
xoz = = = = 38.91
ry rv 7.71 cm
E
1 = f = 93,91 where = 1 and fy = 23.5 KN/cm2
y

xoy 24.07
xoy = = = 0.26
1 93.91
xoz 38.91
xoz = = = 0.41
1 93.91
xoy = xoz = 0.34 (curve b)
= 0.5 [1 + ( 0, .2) + 2 ]
xoy = 0.5 [1 + 0.34 (0.26 0.2) + 0.262 ] = 0.54
xoz = 0.5 [1 + 0.34 (0.41 0.2) + 0.412 ] = 0.62
1
=
+ 2 2
1
xoy = = 0.99
0.54 + 0.542 0.262
1
xoz = = 0.92
0.62 + 0.622 0.412

81
Application 38

Find the critical buckling load considering that = 23.5 /2

200 x 20

300 x 10

82
Plane xOy: There are two stories so we have two buckling lengths

1 = 0.71 = 2.1

2 = 2 = 5

So = max(1 , 2 ) = 5

83
Plane xOz:

= 1 + 2 = = 8
So xOz is the maximum buckling plane.

Determining geometric characteristics of the cross section:

= 818 4 = 19610 4 =
972

C

= =

So = 2.9 and = 14.22

84
Optimal position of the CS on the column:

= . The has to be perpendicular on the maximum

buckling plane (xOz). This shows us that the flenges of the CS are
parallel to y axis and the web is parallel to z axis.
In our case becomes and becomes .

Computing our critical buckling load, we start by using formulas 5.6 and 5.7.
5 102
= = = 172.4
2.9
8 102
= = = 56.26
14.22
172.4

= = = 1,84
1 93.9
56.26

= = = 0,6
1 93.9
Going to 5.4:
2

= 0.5 [1 + 1 (
0.2) + ( )

2

= 0.5 [1 + 2 (
0.2) + ( )

Finding 1 and 2 by looking in the tables:

360
= = 2.5 > 1.2
143
= 19.5 < 40 so 1 = 0.34 () (a) and 2 = 0.21 ()

= 0.5 [1 + 0.34 (1.84 0.2) + 1.842 ] = 2.47

= 0.5 [1 + 0.21 (0.6 0.2) + 0.62 ] = 0.72

85
Going to 5.3:
1 1
= = = 0.24
2.47 + 2.472 1.842
+ 2

2

1 1
= = = 0.89
0.72 + 0.722 0.62
+
2 2

is so buckling takes place in plane xOy first.

Going to 5.1 and 5.2:
0.24 97 23.5
= = = 437,7
1 1.25
1 is a safety factor equal to 1.25.

86
Proposed applications

Application 39

Determine , knowing the distributed load q=20 KN/m:

P
E=

=4

q =4

E=

x =6

87
Application 40

Determine the compression buckling load for the shown column and cross-section.

EI=

4m

EI=

x 6m
z

O y

400x20

600x10

250x10

88
Application 41

Considering the following figure and Cross-Section, find out the rational position of it and the
capable load P. Also, for P=0.3Pcap, find Qcap.

89
Application 42

Determine the rational position of the cross-section and the buckling capacity of the
column given below.

P=1500 kn

EI

l/2 l/2

8m

180x15

370x10

180x15

90