Unsymmetric bending
Application 1
18 kN
4.5 kN/m
8 kN
180x12
IPN 240
1
y
q
4q
1 2 x
6q
4 5 3
3. 5 a
q
2a 4q 6q
9q 5a 8. 1 q
0. 9 q + + 4q

4. 1 q
0. 9 a
8q
`` 
+
0. 405q 3q
yox plane:
1 = 3 = 0
2 = 0,9 5 5 2,5 = 8
()
= 0 => 0,9 = 0 => = 0,9
0,9
4 = 0,9 0,9 0,9 = 0,405
2
3,5
5 = 0,9 3,5 3,5 = 3
2
2
z
2q
1 2 x
6q
4 5 3
1,5 a
6q 3,5 a 2q 3,5 a
6q
q q
0,9 a
6q +
q +
 q
2q
+
2q
3,5q
zox plane:
1 = 3 = 0
2 = 5 2 1,5 = 2
4 = 0,8 = 0,9
5 = 3,5 = 3,5
= 804 4
= 6588 4
= 67,7 2
CS (1)
1 6 0 0
2 6 2 8
3 6 0 0
4 6 0,9 0,405
5 6 3,5 3
3
Critical cross section 2
1,12 q
9,2
8q
+
16
6q 2q
37 0,09 q 1,94 q

+
2,24 q
1,32 q
= +
F Fx 6q
x x = = = 0,09 KN/cm2
A 67,7
M My 2q 102
x y = zA = (9) = 2,24q KN/cm2
I yC 804
(8) 102
= = 9,2 = 1,12 /2
6588
Mz Mz (8q) 102
x bott = yA bott = (16) = 1,94q KN/cm2
IzC 6588
2
= 3,45 /
2
4
NA
Critical cross section 4
A 0,42 q
+
9,2
3q
+
16
6q 3,5q
0,09 q 0,73 q

+
3,91 q
= +
F Fx 6q
x x = = = 0,09 KN/cm2
A 67,7
M My 3,5q 102
x y = zA = (9) = 3,91q KN/cm2
I yC 804
M Mz (3q) 102
z
x top = yA top = 9,2 = 0,42q KN/cm2
IzC 6588
Mz Mz (3q) 102
x bott = yA bott = (16) = 0,73q KN/cm2
IzC 6588
5
Application 2
10P
1 3P
2P 2
3
z 4
x
2m
1m
3m
240x20
400x10
360x20
6
For plane xOy
y 3P
10P 1 3 4
x
3m 3m
3P
10P 1 3 4
+ 10P
+ +
Equilibrium equations:
= 0 => 4 = 10
1 = 0 => 3 3 64 = 0 => 4 = 1.5
4 = 0 => 61 3 3 = 0 => 1 = 1.5
Check: = 0 => 1.5 + 1.5 3 = 0
7
For plane xOz
10P 1 2 4
x
2P
2m 4m
10P 1 2 4
2P
+ 10P
+ 2P
 P
4P
Equilibrium equations:
= 0 => 4 = 10
2 = 0 => 2 2 44 = 0 => 4 =
4 = 0 => 2 6 + 42 = 0 => 2 = 3
Check: = 0 => 2 + 3 = 0
3 = 2 3 3 = 3
2 = 3
8
Geometrical characteristics of the cross section
= 24 2 + 36 2 + 2 40 1 = 2002
1 1 + 2 2 48 21 72 21
= = = 2.52
200
= 0 Because 1 and 2 are in the same point as while 3 and 4 are symmetric compared
to .
23 24 23 36 403 1
= ( + (2 ) = + 48 (23.522 ) + + 72 (18.482 ) + 2
12 12 12
= 61848,554
243 2 363 2
= ( + (2 ) = + + 2 40 112
12 12
= 19766.674
9
CS
1 0 0 10P
2 4P 3P 10P Critical Cross Section 2
3 3P 4.5P 10P Critical Cross Section 3
4 0 0 10P
0.12P

245,2
+
3P
C
4P 194,8
+
0.05P 0.09P
0.36 
P
+ 0.36P
10
( ) = = = 0.05 (2)
200
3100
( ) = = 61848,55 24.52 = 0.12 (2)
3100
( ) = = 61848,55 19.48 = 0.09 (2)
4100
( ) = = 18 = 0.36 (2)
19766.67
10
Finding the Neutral Axis:
61848.55
= = 0.05 = 10.30
3 100
19766.67
= = 0.05 = 2.47
4 100
0.31P

+
0.5P
3P
4P
NA
() = + = 0.05 + 0.36 + 0.09 = 0.5 (2)
410012
() = + = 0.05 + 0.12 = 0.31 (2)
19766.67
11
Critical Cross Section 3
0.18P

245,2
+
4.5P
C
3P 194,8
+
0.05P 0.14P
0.27P 
+ 0.27P
10
( ) = = = 0.05 (2)
200
4.5100
( ) = = 61848,55 24.52 = 0.18 (2)
4.5100
( ) = = 61848,55 19.48 = 0.14 (2)
3100
( ) = = 18 = 0.27 (2)
19766.67
12
Finding the Neutral Axis:
61848.55
= = 0.05 = 6.87
4.5 100
19766.67
= = 0.05 = 3.3
3 100
0.31P

+
0.46P
B
4.5P
3P
NA
() = + = 0.05 + 0.27 + 0.14 = 0.46 (2)
310012
() = + = 0.05 + 0.18 = 0.31 (2)
19766.67
13
Application 3
10 P
3P
1 2 3
x
4
P
2m 2m 2m
z
75
20.1
UPN 200 37.9
C
100
62.1
100
200x15
14
y
10 P 3P
x
=1.5 P =4.5 P
10 P
+
3P
+

1.5 P
 
6P
= 0: 1 10 = 0 1 10 = 0 1 = 10
1 = 0: 43 + 6 3 = 0 43 = 18 3 = 4.5
3 = 0: 41 + 3 2 = 0 41 = 6 1 = 1.5
Check: = 0: 1.5 + 4.5 3 = 0
15
z
P
10 P
x
=0.5 P =0.5 P
10 P
+
0.5 P
+

0.5 P
+ +
1 = 10
1 = 0: 2 43 = 0 43 = 2 3 = 0.5
3 = 0: 41 2 = 0 1 = 0.5
Check: = 0: 0.5 + 0.5 = 0
CS
1 10P 0 0
2 10P P 3
3 0 0 6
4 0 0 0
16
75
20.1
UPN 200 37.9
C
100
62.1
100
200x15
1 = 20 1.5 = 302
2 = 32.22
= 1 + 2 = 30 + 32.2 + 62.2 2
30 0 + 32.2 0
= = =0
62.2
17
Formulas for the moments of inertia:
3
=
12
3
=
12
= ( + ( )2 )
= ( + ( )2 )
20 (1.5)3
1 = = 5.62 4
12
2 = 1910 4
1.5 (20)3
1 = = 1000 4
12
2 = 148 4
= + +
18
CS 2
NA
+
113 +
+
3P
10P
P
162 
0.52 P 
+
0.52 P
For CS 2 we have:
10[]
= = = 0.16 /2
62.22
[] 10
= = 102 = 0.52 /2
1915.634
19
Normal stress in point B:
0.75 102
= = 0.04
1915.62
= 1.44 + 0.16 0.04 = 1.32
20
= 1.68 = 20 = = 11.9
2 1.68
3388.134
=0 =0 = = 0.16 = 1.81
2 3 102
1915.624
=0 + =0 = = 0.16 = 3.06
2 102
20
CS 3
113 +
ENA
6P
162 
For CS 3 we have:
= = 2.87
20
= 2.87 = 20 = = 7
2.87
21
Application 4
y 5P 5P
20P
Eccentric forces
P 2x5P
20P
1 2 3 4 5 x
4P
z 1m 2m 1m 2m
UPN260
400x20
22
90
1 1
23.6
2
139.4
84.2
400
2
2
20
260
48.3 0 + (40 2) 0
= = =0
48.3 + 40 2
48.3(20+2.36)+(402)0
=
= 48.3+402
= 8.42
= 48.3 + 80 = 128.3 2
40 23
= + 2 = 1 + 1 1 2 + 2 + 2 2 2 = 4820 + 48.3 0 + + (40 2) 0
12
= 4846.67 4
= + 2 = 1 + 1 1 2 + 2 + 2 2 2
403 2
= 317 + 48.3 13.942 + + (40 2) 8.422 = 26041.2 4
12
23
5P 5P
20P
2.136P 10P
1.029P
1.029P
20P
(9 + 11.58)
5 = 5 = 1.029
100
11.58
20 = 20 = 2.316
100
24
y
P 2.136P 2x5P
20P
x
1 2 3 5
1m 2m 1m 2m
P 10P
20P 5 = 20
5 = 3.34
2 = 7.66
20P +
20P
3.34P 3.34P
P +
P +
6.66P 6.66P
P
10P
= 0 5 + 20 = 0
5 = 20
2 = 0 + 10 2.316 5 5 = 0
+ 20 2.136
5 = = 3.34
5
5 = 3.34
5 = 0 6 + 2 5 2.136 10 3 = 0
30 + 6 + 2.316
2 = = 7.66
5
2 = 7.66
Check: = 0
2 + 5 10 = 0
7.66 + 3.34 11 = 0
0=0
3 = (3.34 3) = 10.02
2 =
4 = (3.34 2) = 6.68
25
z
4P
20P
x
1 2 3 4 5
1m 2m 1m 2m
4P
20P
5 = 20
2 = 1.6
5 = 2.4
20P +
20P
1.6P 1.6P
+
2.4P 2.4P
+
3.2P
4.8P
= 0 5 + 20 = 0
5 = 20 My
CS Fx Mz
2 = 0 4 3 5 5 = 0 (1)
12 1 0 0 0
5 = = 2.4
5
2 0 0 P
5 = 2.4
5 = 0 4 2 + 2 5 = 0 3 20P 3.2P 10P
8 4 20P 4.8P 6.68P
2 = = 1.6
5
5 20P 0 0
2 = 1.6
Check: = 0
2 + 5 4 = 0
1.6 + 2.4 4 = 0
0=0
3 = 1.6 2 = 3.2
4 = (2.4 2) = 4.8
26
Cross Section 3
( ) = 0.79
A ( ) = 0.156

205.8
B
115.8
10P +
= 1.49
3.2P
284.2

20P
+
C
( ) = 1.09
+ 20
260
NA 
= 1.31 ( ) = 0.86
+ ( ) = 0.86
20 26041.2
= = = 4.06
128.3 10 100
20 4846.67
= = = 2.36
128.3 3.2 100
20
( ) = = = 0.156
128.3
10 100
( ) = = 20.58 = 0.79
26041.2
10 100
( ) = = 28.42 = 1.09
26041.2
3.2 100
( ) = = 13 = 0.86
4846.67
= + = 0.156 0.86 0.79 = 1.49
10 100
= + = 0.156 + 0.86 11.58 = 0.57
26041.2
3.2 100
= + = 0.156 + 1 1.09 = 1.31
4846.67
27
Cross section 4
A ( ) = 0.156 ( ) = 0.588

205.8
B
115.8
6.68P
+
= 1.66 4.8P
284.2
20P
 +
C
( ) = 0.73
20
+ 260
= 1.15 
NA +
( ) = 1.29 ( ) = 1.29
20 26041.2
= = = 6.08
128.3 6.68 100
20 4846.67
= = = 1.57 cm
128.3 4.8 100
20
( ) = = = 0.156
128.3
6.68 100
( ) = = 20.58 = 0.528
26041.2
6.68 100
( ) = = 28.42 = 0.729
26041.2
4.8 100
( ) = = 13 = 1.29
4846.67
= + = 0.156 1.29 0.528 = 1.66
6.68 100
= + = 0.156 + 1.29 11.58 = 1.15
26041.2
4.8 100
= + = 0.156 + 1 0.729 = 0.98
4846.67
28
3
= = 1.49
4
= = 1.66
20 2
3
= = 13.4
1.49
20 2
4
= = 12.05
1.66
3 4
= ( , ) = 12.05
Central Core
Central Core
4
4
a
3
4 4
1
1
3
b
1 1
4846.67
2 = = = 37.78 2
128.3
26041.2
2 = = = 202.97 2
128.3
1 1
=
= 13
2 202.97
= = =0
2 37.78
= = = 2.91
13
29
2
= 20.58
2 202.97
= = = 9.86
20.58
= 28.42
2 202.97
= = = 7.14
28.42
(13,11.58)
= 20.58
=
2 202.97
= = = 9.86
20.58
2 37.78
= = =0
3
= 28.42
=
2 202.97
= = = 7.14
28.42
2 37.78
= = =0
4 4
(13,11.58)
(1, 28.42)
2 1 28.42 11.58
= = = 3.33
2 1 1 + 13
= +
28.42 = 3.33 1 +
= 31.75
= 3.33 31.75
=0
= 31.75
=0
31.75
= = 9.53
3.33
2 202.97
= = = 6.39
31.75
2 37.78
= = = 3.96
9.53
30
31
Proposed applications
Application 5
x
4
y 10P
5P
3
2 2P
1
2m
z
2m
2m
200x10
I 30
250x20
32
Application 6
p
20pa
y
2p
4a
2a
300X20
400X10
200X20
33
Application 7
30KN/m 40KN
40KN 100KN
x
z 80KN
1m 4m 1m
400
50
400
25 25
34
Application 8
a) P capable, considering the normal stress design formule only (see the crosssection
figure for the position of the forces crosssection 2);
b) The central core.
Crosssection 2
35
Application 9
U 16
6,5
1,84
300X10
C
200X10
3p (kN/m) 10 pa
x
10 pa
z p
a 4a 2a
36
Application 10
5P
1 3 4 x
2
P 10 P
2m 2m 2m
z
UPN 200
200 x 10
100 x 20
37
Application 11
x
2P
6
5
4 20P
y 6P
3 2P
2 20P
1 2P
IPN 200
250 x 10
100 x 10
38
Application 12
3
4
z x
CrossSection CrossSection
4 2
300X20 P P
300X20
7P
10P
C C
400X10
400X10
200X20 200X20
39
Application 13
p
20pa
y
2p
4a
2a
300X20
400X10
200X20
40
Application 14
=18KN
=9KN
200x20
400x10
200x20
41
Application 15
Considering the steel made cantilever shown in the figure, determine the maximum load p to
be applied on for the strength condition to be checked. Consider a = 1m and the strength of the
steel in tension and compression as 20 2
300x10
3a
42
Application 16
A steel made handrail is supported by two posts. If the handrail is considered as simply
supported, size the handrail and the posts, if a horizontal distributed load on the handrail of 120
daN/m and the weight of the elements are considered. Use the steel unit weight of 7850 daN/3
and steel strength of 20 KN/2 .
1.2 m
43
Application 17
Size the steps of a steel made staircase if the vertical distributed load by traffic is
considered as 300 daN/m2 .The steps are simply supported beams with a C shape cross
section. The load has to be considered as distributed over the steps length.
Size the stringer C shape beams if they are simply supported and lifts to a height of 3m.
Use the steel strength of 20 kN/cm2 .
40
1.5 m
44
Active zone and central core
Application 18
Considering the concrete tubular column shown in the figure, fixed on a foundation block:
a. Check the maximum compression stress on soil, if the strength is = 250 /2.
b. Determine the minimum level of sand fill introduced into the column for compression
only to be obtained on the soil.
Consider the unit weights for concrete 25KN/3 and for sand fill 18KN/3 .
P=10 KN AA
0.2
0.8 1.2m
6.0m 0.2
0.2 0.2
1.2
A A
1.6m
0.8m
45
a)
= 1.536 25 = 38.4
= 5.76 25 = 144
() = 10 6.8 = 68
182.4
= = = 95 2
1.92
68
= = 0.8 = 132.81 2
1.2 1.63
12
= 227.81 2
= 250 2
<
z P
F
 95
 132.81
+
 227.81
37.81+
46
b)
= 1.5363 = 38,4
= 5.763 = 144
= 17.28
= + + = 182.54 + 17.28
() = 10 6.8 = 68
68
= =
182.4 + 17.28
1.6
= = 0.267
6
68
= 0.267
182.4 + 17.28
68
(182.4 + 17.28 ) 0.267 = 68 = 182.4 + 17.28
0.267
= 4.18
z P
F
 132.62
 132.81
+
0  265.43
47
Application 19
Use the wall unit weight as =25KN/3 and the foundation block unit weight as
=20KN/3 .
Use a retaining wall depth of 1m.
P=100KN
Q=40KN
2.5m
d
1.1m
48
Solution:
P=100KN
Q=40KN
2.5m
d
1.1m
Computation of moments:
1 = 1 0,45= 8,44KN
2 = 2 0,2= 1,88KN
3 = 0
= 172,13KN
49
= 1 +2 +3 + + =8,44+1,88+0+45+57,2 = = 1,88 KNm
172,13
= = = 86,07KN/2
21
1,88
= = 231 1= 2,82 KN/2
12
e= = 0,34
C 1
z
1 1
x
86,07
 
 2,82
+
83,19
88,95
50
b) Active zone
= 0,34
= 0,33
> , for the active zone.
C =  = 10,34=0,66
d = 3C =1,98
2 2172,13
= = 4 = 258,2KN/2
1
3
yc
1
zc C
2
xc
0
258,2KN/
1,98
51
Proposed applications
Application 20
Consider the unit weights for concrete 25kN/m3 and for fill 18kN/m3. Consider a retaining wall
depth of 1m.
0.4
F
fill
5.0
0.8
2.5m
52
Application 21
Considering the concrete column and the foundation block shown in the figure:
a. Determine the maximum compression stress on the column crosssection if the tension
strength for concrete is neglected. The lateral load is F = 5 kN.
b. Determine the lateral load F to have no tension on the foundation soil contact cross
section.
1m
F
3m
A A
1,2 m
AA
0,5 m
1m
0,5 m
1m 1m 1m
\
53
Application 22
a.Determine the normal stress diagram on the foundation soil if the lateral load p_1
is neglected and p = 15 kN/m ;
b. Determine the lateral load p_1 to have no tension on the foundation soil.
Consider p = 15 kN/m ;
c. Determine the lateral load p_1 to have an active zone on the foundation soil
crosssection of 3m length .
Draw the normal stress diagrams for every case. Consider the unit weight of the
concrete as _c = 25 kN/m^3
1.0
6.0 m
A A
0.5
1.5 m
p p1
4m
AA
0.35
0.30 1.0 m
0.35
54
Application 23
The metallic column shown in the figure is fixed on a concrete foundation block having having
unit weight =24 KN/3 .
a) If the vertical load is F=250 KN and the horizontal distributed load is p=100 KN/m determine
the normal stress diagram and the column CS located at the foundation level
b) If the vertical load is neglected F=0,determine the horizontal load p to have no tension on
foundation soil.
The weight of the column is neglected
F
p
AA
1.4 m
A A
10 10 10 p
1m
6m 10
B B
F
0.5
1.5
BB
0.7
1m 2.4
0.7
2.5 m 1
55
Application 24
6m
1.2m
B B
1m 1m 1m
AA
BB
0.25m
2m 1.5m
Fill
0.25m
3m 0.75m 0.25m
56
Application 25
For the concrete dam shown in the figure :
a. Determine the level of the water H to have no tension on the foundation soil.
Draw the corresponding normal stress diagram ;
b. If H=8,5m determine the maximum compression on soil and draw the corresponding
normal stress diagram.
Consider the concrete unit weight = 24 kN/m3 and water = 10 kN/m3 .
Consider a dam depth of 1m.
10m
H
2m
4,2m
57
Application 26
Determine the maximum compression normal stress on soil and draw the corresponding
diagram for the shown concrete dam if unit weight of the concrete is = 25 /3 and for
the water = 10 /3.
Consider two cases:
a. 1 = 6m and 2 = 2m
b. 1 = 7.5m and 2 = 0.5m
Case a) Case b)
2m 1.5 m 2m 1.5 m
58
Application 27
A water tank made of concrete is 23 filled with water. Considering the unit weights for
water 10 3 and concrete 25 3 determine the lateral pressure p done by soil (the tank is
buried completely into soil) for the foundation to produce only compression on soil.
AA
20 cm
A A
300 cm 300 cm
20 cm
240 cm 20 240 cm 20
cm cm
59
Application 28
Determine the plastic hinge shape and length for the shown beam and crosssection.
l b
60
Inelastic behaviour of the crosssection
Application 29
a) Q elastic limit;
a= 1m
= 23.5 kN/cm2
= 1910 cm4
= 148 cm4
61
(32.20)2[31(15+5.49)](2035.99)
a) = = =  17.37 cm
32.2+20+230
303 1 120
=[ + ( )2 ]= 148+ 32.2(17.37)2+ 2[ + 30(30.12)2 ]+ +20(18.62)2
12 12
= 21883 cm4
b)
62
= 
23.521883
=  = = 26535 kN/m = 265.35 kN/m
19.38
265.35
Mz= 2Q( from diagram) => Q elastic limit= = 132.67 kN/m
2
Because the CS is not symmetric, the PLASTIC NEUTRAL AXIS is not the same as
ELASTIC NEUTRAL AXIS!
= = =  =>
= => =
= 201+2( 1 1)1
= 20 + 2(311)1
1 = 32.2 = 756.7
2 = 211.94= 561.18 kN
3 = 18.0512= 848.35 kN
4 = 20= 470 kN
63
328.87
= = 164.43 kN/m
2
= = = 1.24
2 2
= 2 1.24= 2 = 0.38
2 2
5 5
= 5 1.24= 5 => 1.24(53)=5
3 3
64
c) =0 => 1 + 2 3 4 5 =0
1 = 32.223.5= 756.7 kN
1
2 = (303 ) 12 = 30 3
2
3 = 2 = 30 3
5 = 20
=> = 1 + 2 3 4 5 =0
=> = 18.05
65
Application 30
300x20 mm
y
210 mm
z
C
400x8
a a a
66
x
a a a
+ +


+
X = 0: H1 = 0
M1 = 2P a V3 2a + P 3a = 0 => 5Pa = V3 2a => V3 = 2,5P
M3 = V1 2a 2P a + P a = 0 => V1 2a = Pa => V1 = 0,5P
Check: Y = 0 0,5P 2P + 2,5P P = 0
Mzel = 656,86KNm
67
b)
+ + +
+ +
22 + 21
1
z C 0
ENA=PNA=EPNA
 21
 
  
F1 = y A = 23,5 30 2 = 1410 KN
Mz pl 742,6
K= = = 1,13
Mz el 656,86
c)
F1 = y A = 23,5 30 2 = 1410 KN
1
F2 = y A = 23,5 2 20 0,8 = 376 KN
2
2
Mel pl = 2 F1 21 + 2 F2 20 = 69246,67 KNcm = 692,46 KNm
3
Mel pl = Pa => Pel pl = 692,46 KN
68
d) Mx0 = 0 0,5P (a + x0 ) 2P x0 = 0 => 0,5Pa + 0,5P x0 2P x0 = 0 =>
1 0 = 0,67
Mz pl 0,67
= = 1,13 => x1 = 0,08 m
Mz el 0,67 x1
Mz pl 1
= = 1,13 => x2 = 0,12 m
Mz el 1 x2
0,67m 1m
69
Application 31
a) Q elastic limit;
b) Q plastic, k;
d) M elplastic, Q elplastic.
Q
x
4 2
y 250X20
600X10
70
258 (60)3 1
) = + 25 2 (31)2 + 2[ + 60 10] => = 132133cm4
12 12
= 
132133
= = = 4129 cm3
32
Q
x
4 2
y Q
x
= 0,5Q = 1,5Q
1,5Q
+

2Q
 
71
) = 2 1 31 + 22 15 = 2 1175kN 31cm + 2 1410 kN 15cm = 1151,50 kN/m
1 = 25 2 = 23,5 50 = 1175
cm2
2 = 60 2 = 23,5 cm2 60cm = 1410 kN
Mplastic
= 2 = = 575,75 kN
2
1 = 25 2 = 23,5 cm2 50cm = 1175 kN
1
2 = 2 30 1 2 = 23,5 cm2 30cm = 705 kN
72
Qplastic + 575.75+485,15
d) = = = 530,45 k N
2 2
1 = 25 2 = 23,5 cm2 50cm = 1175 kN
2 = 2 1 = 23,5 60 23,5c = 1410 23,5c
2
c 1
2 = 2 2 2 1 = 11,75 []
c c
= 2 [(1 31 + 2 ( 15 + 4 ) + 3 ( 3 )]
c c
= 2[ 1175 31 + (1410 23,5c)(15 + 4) + (11,75c 3) ] 102
=> =1060,9
Mplastic 4 4
e) = 4 1,19 = => 1 = 0,64m
1 41
=> 2 = 0,32
73
Proposed applications
Application 32
6m
400x20
500x12
100x20
200
74
Application 33
For the shown beam, determine:
a) ;
b) ;
c) .
6m
400x20
500x12
100x20
200
75
Application 34
3m 6m
200 x 20
300 x 10
76
Application 35
Determine the plastic hinge shape and length for the shown beam and crosssection.
l b
77
Application 36
Determine the plastic hinge shape and length for the shown beam and crosssection.
l/2 l/2
78
Buckling of columns
Application 37
Considering the following figure and cross section find out the rational position of it and the
capable load P. Given: fy = 23,5 KN/cm2 .
200x20 mm
v
210 mm
u
C
400x8 mm 96 mm
79
A = 20 2 2 + 40 0.8 2 = 144 cm2
20 23 403 0.8
Iu = ( + 20 2 212 + + 40 0.8 02 ) 2 = 43840 cm4
12 12
203 2 40 0.83
Iv = ( + 20 2 02 + + 40 0.8 9.62 ) 2 = 8568 cm4
12 12
Iu 43840 cm4
ru = = = 17.45 cm
A 144 cm2
Iv 8568 cm4
rv = = = 7.71 cm
A 144 cm2
80
l1 = 3 m l = 0.7 l = 4.2 m
xoy
l2 = 0.7 l2 = 2.1 m lb = 4.2 m
lxoz
b =3m
xoy
Rational position: Iu maximum moment of inertia and lb maximum buckling lenght
Iu xoy plane
u z and v y
xoy xoy
lb lb 4.2 102 cm
xoy = = = = 24.07
rz ru 17.45 cm
lxoz
b lxoz
b 3 102 cm
xoz = = = = 38.91
ry rv 7.71 cm
E
1 = f = 93,91 where = 1 and fy = 23.5 KN/cm2
y
xoy 24.07
xoy = = = 0.26
1 93.91
xoz 38.91
xoz = = = 0.41
1 93.91
xoy = xoz = 0.34 (curve b)
= 0.5 [1 + ( 0, .2) + 2 ]
xoy = 0.5 [1 + 0.34 (0.26 0.2) + 0.262 ] = 0.54
xoz = 0.5 [1 + 0.34 (0.41 0.2) + 0.412 ] = 0.62
1
=
+ 2 2
1
xoy = = 0.99
0.54 + 0.542 0.262
1
xoz = = 0.92
0.62 + 0.622 0.412
81
Application 38
200 x 20
300 x 10
82
Plane xOy: There are two stories so we have two buckling lengths
1 = 0.71 = 2.1
2 = 2 = 5
So = max(1 , 2 ) = 5
83
Plane xOz:
= 1 + 2 = = 8
So xOz is the maximum buckling plane.
= 818 4 = 19610 4 =
972
C
= =
84
Optimal position of the CS on the column:
Computing our critical buckling load, we start by using formulas 5.6 and 5.7.
5 102
= = = 172.4
2.9
8 102
= = = 56.26
14.22
172.4
= = = 1,84
1 93.9
56.26
= = = 0,6
1 93.9
Going to 5.4:
2
= 0.5 [1 + 1 (
0.2) + ( )
2
= 0.5 [1 + 2 (
0.2) + ( )
85
Going to 5.3:
1 1
= = = 0.24
2.47 + 2.472 1.842
+ 2
2
1 1
= = = 0.89
0.72 + 0.722 0.62
+
2 2
86
Proposed applications
Application 39
P
E=
=4
q =4
E=
x =6
87
Application 40
Determine the compression buckling load for the shown column and crosssection.
EI=
4m
EI=
x 6m
z
O y
400x20
600x10
250x10
88
Application 41
Considering the following figure and CrossSection, find out the rational position of it and the
capable load P. Also, for P=0.3Pcap, find Qcap.
89
Application 42
Determine the rational position of the crosssection and the buckling capacity of the
column given below.
P=1500 kn
EI
l/2 l/2
8m
180x15
370x10
180x15
90