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Matrices inverse

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A matrix is an array of numbers, written within a set of [ ] brackets, and arranged into a

pattern of rows and columns. For example:

" # 1 0 0

1 2 3 h i

, 0 1 0 ,

21 7 4 9

4 5 6

0 0 1

The order (or size, or dimension) of a matrix is written as m n where m = the number

of rows, and n = the number of columns. For example, the matrices above have dimensions

2 3, 3 3 and 1 4.

corresponding positions. Addition is only valid if the two matrices have the same order.

Examples:

" # " # " # " #

2 4 0 3 4 1 2 + 3 4 + 4 0 + (1) 5 0 1

(i) + = =

1 3 5 7 0 2 1 + 7 3 + 0 5 + (2) 6 3 3

" # " # " # " #

3 4 1 7 31 47 2 3

(ii) = =

2 0 8 1 2 (8) 0 1 6 1

" # " #

2 4 0 3 4

(iii) + cannot be done as the orders are different.

1 3 5 2 0

When a matrix is multiplied by a real number (called a scalar), each element is multiplied by

the scalar. The result is another matrix of the same order.

Examples:

2 1 42 41 8 4

(i) 4 3 9

= 4 3 4 9 = 12 36

0 5 40 4 5 0 20

1h i h i

(ii) 7 8 10 6 0.4 = 3.5 4 5 3 0.2

2

" # " # " # " # " #

5 3 3 4 10 6 9 12 1 18

(iii) 2 3 = =

0 6 1 7 0 12 3 21 3 33

Matrices 2007 Maths IA & IMA Revision/2

When giving matrices a name, use capital letters such as A, B, etc to distinguish them from

algebraic scalars such as a, b, etc.

Exercises

(1) Given that

" # " # " # " # 0 1

1 2 0 7 1 3 1 2 11 5

A= B= C= D= E= 1 0

4 5 3 2 0 6 4 9 0 2

0 3

find the following (if possible):

Matrix Multiplication

row 1 of A col 1 of B row 1 of A col 2 of B row 1 of A col 3 of B ...

row 2 of A col 1 of B row 2 of A col 2 of B row 2 of A col 3 of B ...

AB =

.. .. ..

. . .

where row i of A col j of B is a single number and stands for each entry in row i of A is

multiplied by the corresponding entry in column j of B and the results are added together.

Examples:

" # 4 5 " # " # " #

2 1 3 1 2 1 5 1 0

A= B = 1 2 C =

D= I=

1 4 5 3 4 6 7 0 1

0 3

" #" #

1 2 2 1 3

(i) CA =

3 4 1 4 5

" # " #

1 2 + 2 1 1 (1) + 2 4 1 3 + 2 5 4 7 13

= =

3 2 + 4 1 3 (1) + 4 4 3 3 + 4 5 10 13 29

" # 4 5

2 1 3

(ii) AB = 1 2

1 4 5

0 3

" # " #

2 4 + (1) (1) + 3 0 2 (5) + (1) (2) + 3 3 9 1

= =

14+ 4 (1) + 5 0 1 (5) + 4 (2) + 5 3 0 2

" # 4 5

1 2

(iii) CB = 1 2

3 4

0 3

This is not possible because there are fewer entries in the rows of C (two) than in the

columns of B (three).

Matrices 2007 Maths IA & IMA Revision/3

in the first matrix equals the number of rows in the second.

" # " #

13 19 16 22

(iv) CD = but DC = so CD 6= DC.

27 43 27 40

1 2 1 0 11+20 10+21

(v) CI = =

3 4 0 1 31+40 30+41

" #

1 2

= = C (unchanged)

3 4

" #" # " #

1 0 1 2 1 2

(vi) IC = = = C (unchanged)

0 1 3 4 3 4

matrix equivalent of the number 1 in scalar multiplication.

Notes: 1. The identity is an exception to the general rule for matrix multiplication since

CI = IC = C.

2. Identity matrices only exist for square matrices. The matrix I used in Ex-

amples (v) and (vi) is called the identity

matrix

for a 2 2 matrix. The

1 0 0

identity matrix for a 3 3 matrix is 0 1 0 .

0 0 1

Exercises

" # " # 1 1 2 0 " #

1 0 2 3 1 3 2

A= B= C= 2 D= 0 1 2 E=

1 2 3 1 2 1 7

2 1 3 4

(2) Using the above matrices, calculate the following (if possible):

1

a = aa1 = a1 a = 1 (a 6= 0).

a

We call a1 the multiplicative inverse of a.

Matrices 2007 Maths IA & IMA Revision/4

For square matrices, we define the inverse A1 as having the property that

A A1 = A1 A = I.

" #

a b

If A = then

c d

" #

1 d b

A1 =

det(A) c a

not defined for matrices.

2. A matrix has no inverse if its determinant (ad bc) equals 0 (hence the name

determinant).

3. A1 , if it exists, is unique.

" # " # " #

1 2 1 1 4 2 1 4 2

Example: If A = then A = =

3 4 1423 3 1 2 3 1

" # " # " #" #

1 1 2 1 4 2 1 1 2 4 2

AA = =

3 4 2 3 1 2 3 4 3 1

" # " #

1 2 0 1 0

= = =I

2 0 2 0 1

Exercises

(3) Show that the following pairs of matrices are inverses.

" # " # " # " #

3 4 7 4 3 2 1 2

(a) and (b) and

5 7 5 3 1 1 1 3

1 3 3 7 3 3

(c) 1 3 4 and 1 0 1

1 4 3 1 1 0

(4) Using the formula, find the inverses of the following matrices (if they exist).

" # " # " # " # " # " #

7 18 3 2 2 1 1 6 2 3 2 1 6

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

2 8 1 2 4 2 3 4 1 5 3 0 1

Matrices 2007 Maths IA & IMA Revision/5

x + 2y = 0

x + y = 3

" # " # " #

1 2 x 0

=

1 1 y 3

or A X = B.

If a unique solution exists, we can use the inverse matrix to solve the system, as follows:

AX = B

1

A AX = A1 B Note that A1 has been pre-multiplied on both sides.

Since order of multiplication is important, we cant use

BA1 (i.e. post-multiplication) on the RHS since we pre-

multiplied on the LHS.

IX = A1 B since A1 A = I

X = A1 B since IX = X

" # " #

1 2 1 1 1 2

In this example, we have A = and hence A = so

1 1 3 1 1

X = A1"B #" #

1 1 2 0

=

3 1 1 3

" #

1 6

=

3 3

" #

2

=

1

Hence x = 2 and y = 1 is the answer (check by substituting back into the original equations).

Exercises

(5) Rewrite the following pairs of equations in the form of a matrix equation, AX = B, and

solve (if a unique solution exists) using the inverse matrix of A.

(a) x y = 5 (b) 5x + y = 7 (c) x + 2y = 8

x + y = 1 3x 4y = 18 3x + 6y = 15

(d) 2x + 3y = 11

6x + 9y = 33

Matrices 2007 Maths IA & IMA Revision/6

Determinant of a 3 3 matrix

The inverse of a 3 3 matrix can be found using row operations (see revision sheet on Solving

Linear Equations) but the determinant is as follows:

a b c

If A = d e f

then

g h i

e f d f d e

det(A) = |A| = a b + c .

h i g i g h

This may seem like a complicated definition but the determinant can be thought of as a first

row expansion, where each entry in the first row is multiplied by the 2 2 determinant

created by removing the row and column containing that entry. Notice also that the signs

connecting the three terms alternate (+, , +).

Examples:

3 2 1

0 2 4 2 4 0

(i) 4 0 2 = 3 2 + = 3(0 4) 2(12 2) + (8 0) = 24

2 3 1 3 1 2

1 2 3

1 2 0

0 2 3 2 3 0

(ii) 3 0 2 = 2 + 0 = (0 + 4) 2(6 + 4) + 0 = 0

2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2

Exercises

(6) Find the following determinants:

1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 2 3 3 2

(a) 0 2 0 (b) 3 0 1

(c) 2 1 1 (d) 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 2 4 2 2 1

a b c

(7) Show that the upper triangular matrix 0 e f has determinant aei.

0 0 i

Matrices 2007 Maths IA & IMA Revision/7

Answers to Exercises

" # " # " #

6 3 3 12 7 10 3

(1) (a) (b) same as (a) (c) (d)

6 5 9 4 7 4 11

" # " #

10 3 3 6 0

(e) (f) not possible (g) not possible (h)

4 11 12 15 9

" #

13 9

(i) (j) not possible

8 16

" #

2 3 1

(2) (a) (b) not possible (c) D (d) D

8 5 5

3 " #

6

(e) not possible (f) 6 (g) (h) not possible

3

15

" #

11 8

(i) E 2 = EE = (j) not possible

4 51

2 9

10

" # " #

1 8 18 5 1 2 2

(4) (a) or (b)

20 2 7 1

10 7 4 1 3

20

" #

1 4 6

(c) determinant = 0 so no inverse exists (d)

14 3 1

" #

1 5 3

(e) (f) no inverse as the matrix is not square

13 1 2

(c) no solution (det(A) = 0). (The lines are parallel.)

(d) no unique solution (det(A) = 0). (The two equations represent the same line since

3(2x + 3y = 11) gives 6x + 9y = 33.)

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