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Reservoir
engineering

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Reservoir engineering: is a part of petroleum science that provides the technical


basis for the recovery of petroleum fluids from subsurface sedimentary rock
reservoir.

Petroleum :- is a mineral substance composed of hydrocarbons and produced from


the natural accumulation of organic matter. Petroleum is gas or liquid substance
present in pore space of porous rocks referred to as reservoir rock.

Note : hydrocarbons are less dense than water therefore free from source rock and
they tend to migrate up wards in the direction of the minmum pressure .

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Q:- what are forces cause migration of crude oil?

There are four agent cause migration of crude oil.

1- Compression of sediment to increase the depth of immersion.

2- Ground movement causing the differential pressure .

3- Capillary forces .that cause displace nonwetting phase by wetting phase.

4- Gravity that cause isolate the fluid because the different in specific weight.

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Q1: on what depend classify Petroleum reservoirs?

Petroleum reservoirs are broadly1 classified as oil or gas reservoirs. These broad
classifications are further subdivided depending on:

The composition of the reservoir hydrocarbon mixture


Initial reservoir pressure and temperature
Pressure and temperature of the surface production

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1- Broadly :
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Q2:classify reservoirs?

reservoirs can be classified into basically two types. These are:

Oil reservoirsIf the reservoir temperature T is less than the critical


temperature Tc of the reservoir fluid, the reservoir is classified as an oil
reservoir.

Gas reservoirsIf the reservoir temperature is greater than the critical


temperature of the hydrocarbon fluid, the reservoir is considered a gas
reservoir.
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Q2: classify oil reservoir?

Oil Reservoirs
Depending upon initial reservoir pressure pi, oil reservoirs can be subclassified
into the following categories:
1. Undersaturated oil reservoir. If the initial reservoir pressure pi , is greater than
the bubble-point pressure pb of the reservoir fluid, the reservoir is labeled1 an
under saturated
oil reservoir.

2. Saturated oil reservoir. When the initial reservoir pressure is equal to


the bubble-point pressure of the reservoir fluid, the reservoir is called a saturated
oil reservoir.
3. Gas-cap reservoir. If the initial reservoir pressure is below the bubblepoint
pressure of the reservoir fluid
the reservoir is termed a gas-cap or two-phase reservoir, in which
the gas or vapor phase is underlain2 by an oil phase.

1- Labeled :

2- Underlain :
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Q3: classify crude oil?


Crude oils are commonly classified into the following types:

1- black oil reservoir(low shrinkage crude oil or ordinary oil)

a- gas-oil ratios between 200700 scf/STB


b- oil gravities of 15 to 40 API
c -The stock tank oil is usually brown to dark green in color

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2. Volatile crude oil.( high shrinkage crude oil or near critical oil )
Oil formation volume factor less than 2 bbl/STB
Gas-oil ratios between 2,0003,200 scf/STB
Oil gravities between 4555 API
Lower liquid recovery of separator conditions
Greenish to orange in color

Notes: Another characteristic of volatile oil reservoirs is that the API gravity of the
stock-tank liquid will increase in the later life of the reservoirs.

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For Gas Reservoirs


natural gases can be classified into four categories.
Retrograde gas-condensate
Wet gas
Dry gas

Retrograde gas-condensate reservoir:- If the reservoir temperature


T lies between the critical temperature Tc and cricondentherm Tct
of the reservoir fluid,

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Wet-gas reservoir
Wet-gas reservoirs are characterized by the following properties:
Gas oil ratios between 60,000 to 100,000 scf/STB
Stock-tank oil gravity above 60 API
Liquid is water-white in color
Separator conditions, i.e., separator pressure and temperature, lie within
the two-phase region

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Dry-gas reservoir.

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GASES


A gas is defined as a homogeneous fluid of low viscosity and density
that has no definite volume but expands to completely fill the vessel in
which it is placed.

These properties include:

Apparent molecular weight, Ma


Specific gravity, g
Compressibility factor, z
Density, g
Specific volume, v
Isothermal gas compressibility coefficient, cg
Gas formation volume factor, Bg
Gas expansion factor, Eg
Viscosity,

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PROPERTIES OF CRUDE OIL SYSTEMS

Fluid gravity
Specific gravity of the solution gas
Gas solubility
Bubble-point pressure
Oil formation volume factor
Isothermal compressibility coefficient of undersaturated crude oils
Oil density
Total formation volume factor
Crude oil viscosity
Surface tension
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Defines

1-The gas solubility Rs: is defined as the number of standard cubic feet of
gas that will dissolve in one stock-tank barrel of crude oil at certain pressure
and temperature

2- The bubble-point pressure pb of a hydrocarbon system: is defined as the


highest pressure at which a bubble of gas is first liberated from the oil.

3- The oil formation volume factor, Bo,: is defined as the ratio of the volume
of oil at reservoir temperature and pressure to the volume of oil at standard
conditions. Bo is always greater than or equal to unity.

4- Cricondentherm (Tct)The Cricondentherm is defined as the maximum


temperature above which liquid cannot be formed regardless of
Pressure.
5- Cricondenbar (pcb)The Cricondenbar is the maximum pressure above
which no gas can be formed regardless of temperature

6- Critical pointThe critical point for a multicomponent mixture is


referred to as the state of pressure and temperature at which all intensive
properties of the gas and liquid phases are equal .

7- Phase envelope (two-phase region)The region enclosed by the bubble-


point curve and the dew-point curve.

8- Bubble-point curveThe bubble-point curve is defined as


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the line separating the liquid-phase region from the two-phase region.

9- Dew-point curveThe dew-point curve is defined as the line separating the


vapor-phase region from the two-phase region.
10- Eguifer :- is water that find under lines the the hydrocarbons and
bearing part of the trap.
11- Mobility : is ratio between permeability and viscosity. k/m

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Q3: explain oil formation factor curve?

A typical oil formation factor curve, as a function of pressure for an


undersaturated crude oil (pi > pb), is shown in Figure 2-8. As the pressure
is reduced below the initial reservoir pressure pi, the oil volume increases
due to the oil expansion. This behavior results in an increase in the oil formation
volume factor and will continue until the bubble-point pressure is
reached. At pb, the oil reaches its maximum expansion and consequently
attains a maximum value of Bob for the oil formation volume factor. As the
pressure is reduced below pb, volume of the oil and Bo are decreased as the
solution gas is liberated. When the pressure is reduced to atmospheric
pressure and the temperature to 60F, the value of Bo is equal to one.
Most of the published empirical Bo correlations utilize the following
generalized relationship:
Bo f(Rs, g, o,T)

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Physical properties of reservoir Rocks

Porosity
Permeability
Saturation

Anthor special properties of reservoir Rocks


Overburden pressure
Capillary pressure
Relative permeability
Wettability
Surface and interfacial tension

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POROSITY
The porosity of a rock is a measure of the storage capacity (pore volume) that is
capable of holding fluids. Quantitatively, the porosity is the ratio of the pore volume
to the total volume (bulk volume). This important rock property is determined
mathematically by the following generalized Relationship.

There are two distinct types of porosity.

Absolute porosity
Effective porosity

The absolute porosity is defined as the ratio of the total pore space in
the rock to that of the bulk volume.

The effective porosity is the percentage of interconnected pore space


with respect to the bulk volume.or The effective porosity is the value that is used in
all reservoir engineering calculations because it represents the interconnected pore
space that contains the recoverable hydrocarbon fluids
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Bulk volume =43,560 Ah, ft3 or Bulk volume 7,758 Ah, bbl
pore volume PV =43,560 Ah, ft3 or pore volume PV 7,758 Ah, bbl

we can classify porosity two types according to Its formed.


1- Primary porosity.
2- Secondary porosity.

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Secondary porosity

Is porosity that that developed by some geologic process subsequent1 to deposition


of the rock . It classified in to :
1- Solution porosity.called too vugular porosity is porosity that formed a result
dissolve apart of rock that ability to solution by filtrated surface water and
groundwater that carried on carbonic acid and some organic acid others.
2- Fracture, fissure and joint.
Is type of secondary porosity that occurs as aresult structural collapse of the
rock by pressure effect because ground movement such as fold and faults.
3- Dolomitization
Is method that change limestone ( caco3 ) to dolomite (camg)co3 .

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Basic agents that depend on the porosity .

1- Arrangement of grain size.


2- Degree of cementation.
3- Packing
4- Grain shape
Some of real values of measured porosity .
1- For sandstone = 10 40 % depending on the nature of cement and state of
consolidated.
2- Limestone and dolomite = 5 - 25 %
3- Clay = 20 45 %

Negligible2 if < 5 %
Low if = 5 - 10 %
Good if = 10 - 20 %
Very good > 20 %
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1- Subsequent : ,
2- Negligible : ,

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Permeability
Permeability : It is a property of the porous medium that measure the capacity and
ability of the formation to transmit fluid . It is a very important rock property
because it control the direction movement and the flow rate of the reservoir fluids
in the formation .

We can measure the permeability (k) by Darcy's law.


Q = KA P \ ML

The measure unit of permeability is darcy .


One darcy :- is define as that permeability permitting a fluid of one centipoises
viscosity to flow at of one cubic centimeter per second through across section
area of square centimeter when the pressure gradient is one atmospheric per
centimeter.
Condition apply Darcy's law
1- No reaction occur between the rock and fluid .
2- Laminar flow exist.
3- Incompressible fluid .
4- One fluid completely saturation the core .
5- Permeability a constant
6- Flow system steady state

Dimensions of permeability

Q= L3 \T , L=L , M = M\L.T , P = M.L \ L2 . T2 , A = L 2

K=Q.M.L\A. P K= L2

Units of permeability

Q = cm3 , L= cm , M = 1 cp = 10 -2 poise = 10 -2 dyn. Sec \ cm2 ,


A=cm2

P = 1 atm = 1.013 10 -6 dyn \ cm2 , K(darcy) =9.87 10 -9 cm2

Note: the permeability always less than 1 darcy .

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Classification of permeability
1- Absolute permeability: is permeability of rock to fluid when the rock is 100% saturated
with that fluid such as oil , gas or water .
2- Effective permeability : is permeability of rock when the rock containing more one fluid .
3- Relative permeability : is the ratio of the effective permeability to absolute permeability .

Note :- permeability of the petroleum reservoir rocks may range from 0.1 to 1ooo or more m.d .
the quality of permeability may be :
1- Poor if k <1
2- Fair if 1< k<10
3- Moderate if 10<k<50
4- Good if 50<k<250
5- Very good if k >250 m.d

The reservoir pore size can often be related


approximately to permeability,
and where this applies, it can be stated that high
permeability
reservoirs will have shorter transition zones than low permeability reservoirs
as shown graphically in Figure 4-13. As shown by Cole (Figure
4-14), a tilted water-oil contact could be caused by a change in permeability
across the reservoir. It should be emphasized that the factor
responsible for this change in the location of the water-oil contact is actually
a change in the size of the pores in the reservoir rock system.

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SATURATION

Saturation is defined as that fraction, or percent, of the pore volume


occupied by a particular fluid (oil, gas, or water). This property is
expressed mathematically by the following relationship:

total volume of the fluid


fluid saturation = ------------------------------
pore volume

where So =oil saturation


Sg =gas saturation
Sw =water saturation
Thus, all saturation values are based on pore volume and not on the

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gross reservoir volume. The saturation of each individual phase ranges between
zero to 100%.

By definition, the sum of the saturations is 100%, therefore


Sg +So +Sw =1.0

oil overlain by gas and underlain by water. In addition to the bottom (or edge)
water, there will be connate water distributed throughout
the oil and gas zones. The water in these zones will have been
reduced to some irreducible minimum. The forces retaining the water in
the oil and gas zones are referred to as capillary forces because they are
important only in pore spaces of capillary size.

notes: Critical saturation:- is measured in the direction of increasing saturation

irreducible saturation:- is measured in the direction of reducing saturation

Critical oil saturation, Soc:- is the saturation of the oil must exceed1 a certain Value
where the oil remains in the pores and will not flow.

Residual oil saturation, Sor :is the saturation of oil that remain after displace it by
gas or water. The term residual saturation is usually associated with the nonwetting
phase when it is being displaced by a wetting phase.or sor : is saturation of oil in
secondary production state such as injection and It must exceed critical saturation.

Important defines

Imbibitions2 : is method of flow result on Its increase in saturation of wetting


phase.
Drainage3 : is method of result on Its decrease in saturation of wetting phase.
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3- Exceed :
4- Imbibitions :
5- Drainage :
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WETTABILITY
Wettability is defined as the tendency1 of one fluid to spread on or adhere2 to a solid
surface in the presence3 of other immiscible fluids4.

the contact angle =is angle a measure of wettability where the contact angle
decreases, the wetting characteristics of the liquid increase and Complete
wettability would be evidenced5 by a zero contact angle, and complete nonwetting
would be evidenced by a contact angle of 180. contact angles of 60 to 90 will tend
to repel6 the liquid.
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CAPILLARY PRESSURE
The capillary forces in a petroleum reservoir are the result of the combined
effect of the surface and interfacial tensions of the rock and fluids,
the pore size and geometry, and the wetting characteristics of the system.
Any curved surface between two immiscible fluids has the tendency to
contract into the smallest possible area per unit volume. This is true
whether the fluids are oil and water, water and gas (even air), or oil and
gas. When two immiscible fluids are in contact, a discontinuity in pressure
exists between the two fluids, which depends upon the curvature of
the interface separating the fluids. We call this pressure difference the
capillary pressure and it is referred to by pc.
Capillary pressure (pressure of the nonwetting phase) (pressure of the wetting phase)

pc pnw pw , pc = gh (w air) = gh

6- Tendency:
7- Adhere :
8- Presence:
9- immiscible fluids :
10- evidenced:
11- repel:
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Traps
Beneath1 the earth's surface, oil will ooze2 through rocks if there is enough space between
them, but this oil will not accumulate into large quantities unless something traps it in a
particular place. There are a variety of geologic traps, which themselves can be broken
into categories:

1- Structural trap types: anticline, fault, salt


2- Stratigraphic trap types: unconformity, lens, pinch-out: A stratigraphic trap
accumulates oil due to changes of rock character rather than3 faulting or folding of
the rock
3- Combination traps.

Structural Traps

There are three basic forms of a structural trap in petroleum geology:

Anticline Trap
Fault Trap
Salt Dome Trap

The common link between these three is simple: some part of the earth has moved in the
past, creating an impedence to oil flow.

Anticline Trap

An anticline is an example of rocks which were previously flat, but have been bent into
an arch. Oil that finds its way into a reservoir rock that has been bent into an arch will
flow to the crest of the arch, and get stuck (provided, of course, that there is a trap rock
above the arch to seal the oil in place).

1-
2- ,
3- rather than :
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A cross section of the Earth


showing typical Anticline
Traps. Reseroir rock that
isn't completely filled with
oil also contains large
amounts of salt water.

Fault Trap

Fault traps are formed by movement of rock along a fault line. In some cases, the
reservoir rock has moved opposite a layer of impermeable rock. The impermeable rock
thus prevents the oil from escaping. In other cases, the fault itself can be a very effective
trap. Clays within the fault zone are smeared as the layers of rock slip past one another.
This is known as fault gouge.

A cross section of rock


showing a fault trap - in
this case, an example of
gouge. This is because the
reservoir rock on both sides
of the fault would be
connected, if not for the
fault seperating the two. In
this example, it is the fault
itself that is trapping the
oil.

Salt Dome Trap


Salt is a peculiar substance. If you put enough heat and pressure on it, the salt will slowly
flow, much like a glacier that slowly but continually moves downhill. Unike glaciers, salt
which is buried kilometers below the surface of the Earth can move upward until it
breaks through to the Earth's surface, where it is then dissolved by ground- and rain-
water. To get all the way to the Earth's surface, salt has to push aside and break through
many layers of rock in its path. This is what ultimately will create the oil trap.

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Here we see salt that has


moved up through the
Earth, punching through
and bending rock along the
way. Oil can come to rest
right up against the salt,
which makes salt an
effective trap rock.
However, many times, the
salt chemically changes the
rocks next to it in such a
way that oil will no longer
seep into them. In a sense,
it destroys the porosity of a
reservoir
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Types of reservoir drive mechanism.

1- Natural drive mechanisms. Hydrocarbons produced by reservoir original


drive energy are referred to as primary production.
2- Dissolved gas drive (5 % - 30 %).
When oil is produced , reservoir pressure decrease and dissolved gas bubbles
out of the reservoir oil . the gas expand in the pore space and pushes the
reservoir oil through the pores to production well.
3- Gas cup drive (20-40%) . because the gas is less dense than crude oil and
water. Natural gas segregates1 and occupies2the high zones with in a reservoir
, natural gas in gas cup expand and pushes the oil through the reservoir pores
to a production well.
4- Gravity drive (50 40 %):- this is very important mechanism for
production well .
5- Water drive (35 65 %) :-
6- Combination drive (20 % - 65 %) :-

1- segregates :- ,
2- occupies : ,

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Distribution of fluid phase.

1- The gas oil contact: the gas cap above oil zone , It was dissolve in oil and
liberated because initial pressure declined .
2- The oil water contact :
3- The free water level :

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Distribution of pressure in reservoir
Overburden pressure :- the total pressure at any depth due to the weight of the
overlying fluid saturation rock column.
Overburden pressure = fluid pressure (formation pressure ) + matrix1 pressure .

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Flow regime
1- Steady state p \ t = 0
2- Unsteady state p\t = f (I,t)
3- Pseudo steady p \ t = constant.

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Reservoir geometry
1- Radial flow
2- Linear flow
3- Spherical flow

1- matrix :
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Drilling
engineering

Written by
Kadhim . hmood . AL- Bhadli

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Drilling
Rotary drilling : is method a very modern for drilling wells and were applied
the first time by French (lechot) in year 1863.

Basic rig component.

1- Derricks , masts and substructures

2- Draw works

3- Mud pumps

4- Main engines

5- The drilling string

6- Bits

7- Drilling line

8- Miscellaneous1 and auxiliary equipment.

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There are two types of derricks
1. Standerd :- are derricks that cannot be lifted as an integrated unit , but
it is linked at the site of work piece after piece.

2. Portable : are derricks that can be lifted as an integrated unit.

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There are five component of drilling string .
1. Kelly: is a ribbed tube to fit with the rotary table so as to transfer
rotation motion of all parts of drilling string.
2. Tool joint
3. Drill pipe: is steel pipes using as stream of drilling fluid and it giving
length necessary.
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4. Drill collars : is a steel pipes with a thick wall and external diameter to
provide compressive load on the bit and allow the drill pipes to be in a
state of tension.
5. Bit : there are three types of bit . 1. Drag type 2. Roller bit 3.
Diamond.
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Travelling block: - is a set of rollers that link drill rope with hook and swivel.
Swivel : is which allow the passage of drill fluid coming from mud hose in to
drilling string.
Rotary table : its task
1. Transfer rotational motion to drilling string.
2. Suspend the weight of drilling pipe during the process of connect pipes.
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Blow out preventers: the main task of blow out preventers is to ensure a
means1 to close the annular between drill pipe and casing.

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Drilling fluid properties
1. Density 2. Viscocity 3. Gel strength 4. Filtration 5.
Filtrate 6- PH 7. Sand content 8. Stability 9. Finess
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Important the density measurement.
To evaluation hydrostatic pressure on any point in well
depth .
The column of drilling fluid in the well exerts hydrostatic pressure on the
wellbore. Under normal drilling conditions, this pressure should balance or
exceed the natural formation pressure to help prevent an influx2 of gas or other

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formation fluids. As the formation pressures increase, the density of the drilling
fluid is increased to help maintain a safe margin1 and prevent kicks or
blowouts; however, if the density of the fluid becomes too heavy, the formation
can break down. If drilling fluid is lost in the resultant fractures, a reduction of
hydrostatic pressure occurs. This pressure reduction also can lead to an influx
from a pressured formation. Therefore, maintaining2 the appropriate3 fluid density
for the wellbore pressure regime is critical to safety and wellbore stability

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There are two types of fluid


1. Newtonian fluid:
in laminar flow, is define by a straight line relationship
between shear stress and shear strain with slope equal to
the dynamic viscosity of the fluid . =. The viscosity of
a Newtonian fluid is constant and is only influenced by
changes in temperature and pressure. Examples of
Newtonian fluids include oil and water.
In turbulent flow , Newtonian fluid exhibit a non-linear
relationship between shear stress and shear rate.

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2
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3

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2. Non-Newtonian fluid.
Is characterized by a non-linear relationship between shear
stress and shear strain , viscosity is not constant , examples
include drilling mud and cement slurries1.

There are two main types of non-Newtonian fluid interest to the


drilling engineer.
1. Bingham plastic fluid:- in this type of fluid deformation take
place after a minimum value of shear stress is exceeded
.this minimum value is referred to as the yield point (Yp).
beyond the YP the relationship between shear stress and
shear rate is linear with a constant value of viscosity
known as plastic viscosity. This plastic viscosity(PV) is
dependent on temperature and pressure.
Note: the PV gives a measure of the concentration of solid in a
drilling fluid and the YP gives a measure of the electrochemical
force in a fluid under flowing condition.
Mud engineers often use the value of PV to determine the
dilution requirement and the YP value determine the need
for chemical treatment.
It should be noted that the Bingham plastic model is only
applicable to laminar flow.

1
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Mathematically , the bingham plastic model is written as


follows.
= YP + (PV) = YP + PV(-dV\dr) (straight line)
Qu) draw two curves present Bingham plastic model and apparent viscosity?

2. Power law fluids:-


In a power law fluid and are related by the following expression :

= k ()n where n = flow behaviour index and K =


consistency1 index this equation can be rearitten
Log = logK + n log this is straight line .

It should be noted that when n=1 this equation reduces to that of


Newtonian fluid where :

= K = this equation of Newtonian fluid.

1
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Eq) draw represent power law model

Note: the n value is decreased the degree of non-Newtonian behavior is


increased .also deceasing the n value results in a decrease in the shear rate
across the flow section.

Equation) what are main fluid properties required for hydraulic calculation?

1. Density

2. Plastic viscosity

3. Yield point

4. Gel strength

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Q) what are types of the flowing


There are three types of flow:
1. plug flow :-is special type of laminar flow and only occurs
with yield stress materials moving at low velocities.
2. laminar flow: occurs at low fluid velocities and highly
viscous fluid.
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3. turbulent flow:- occurs at high fluid velocities and low


viscous fluid.
Q) compare
Q)what are factors that affect on flow properties?
The flow properties of each type are dependent on the
properties of drilling fluids , pressure and temperature.
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Q) define Rhology ?
Rhology : is used to describe the study of fluid flow and
deformation.
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Q) what is Reynolds number(Re)?
Reynolds number :- is certain critical value of the flow pattern
changes from laminar to turbulent.
This critical value depends on many factors.
1. Pipe wall roughness
2. Viscosity of fluid
3. Type of fluid
4. Proximity of vibrations

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Re values great than 2900 is turbulent , and Re less than 2100 is


always laminar flow and between these values is transitional
flow.
Re= 1000 (Dv / ) at metric unit
Re= 15.46 (Dv / ) at field unit
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The problem of drilling
1. Pipe Sticking:

During drilling operations, a pipe is considered stuck if it cannot be freed and


pulled1 out of the hole without damaging the pipe and without exceeding2 the
drilling rigs maximum allowed hook load. Differential pressure pipe sticking
and mechanical pipe sticking are addressed in Differential-pressure pipe
sticking occurs when a portion3 of the drillstring becomes embedded4 in a
mud cake (an impermeable film of fine solids). The causes of mechanical
pipe sticking are inadequate5 removal of drilled cuttings from the annulus;
borehole instabilities, such as hole caving, sloughing, collapse; plastic shale
or salt sections squeezing (creeping6)

2. Loss of Circulation

Lost circulation is defined as the uncontrolled flow of whole mud into a


formation, sometimes referred to as thief zone. Partial and total lost-
circulation zones. In partial lost circulation, mud continues to flow to surface
with some loss to the formation. Total lost circulation, however, occurs

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when all the mud flows into a formation with no return to surface. If drilling
continues during total lost circulation, it is referred to as blind drilling. This
is not a common practice in the field unless the formation above the thief
zone is mechanically stable, there is no production, and the fluid is clear
water. Blind drilling also may continue if it is economically feasible1 and
safe

. Prevention of Lost Circulation. The complete prevention of lost circulation is impossible


because some formations, such as inherently fractured, cavernous, or
high-permeability zones, are not avoidable if the target zone is to be
reached. However, limiting circulation loss is possible if certain precautions
are taken, especially those related to induced fractures. These precautions
include maintaining proper mud weight, minimizing annular-friction
pressure losses.

1. Hole Deviation
2. Drillpipe Failures
3. Borehole Instability
4. Mud Contamination2
5. Producing Formation Damage
6. Hole Cleaning.
Equation) what are problems associated with hole cleaning?
1. Formation of bridges in the annulus which can lead to pipe stick.
2. decreased bit life and slow penetration rate resulting from regrinding of drill
cuttings.
3. Increase in annular density and the increased hydrostatic pressure of mud
cause fracture of exposed3 weak formations resulting in lost circulation.
7. Hydrogen-Sulfide-Bearing Zones and Shallow Gas
8. Equipment and Personnel-Related Problems

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M.O.C

Basic Functions of a Drilling Fluid.

Cleans the hole by transporting drilled cuttings to the surface, where they can
be mechanically removed from the fluid before it is recirculated downhole.
Balances or overcomes1 formation pressures in the wellbore to minimize the
risk of wellcontrol Issues
Supports and stabilizes the walls of the wellbore until casing can be set and
cemented or openhole-completion equipment can be installed.
Prevents or minimizes damage to the producing formation(s).
Cools and lubricates the drillstring and bit.
Transmits hydraulic horsepower to the bit.
Allows information about the producing formation(s) to be retrieved through
cuttings analysis, logging-while-drilling data, and wireline logs.

Or ------------------------------ other functions

deliver sufficient energy to the bit to assist drilling.


clean the drilling face of newly made cuttings.
cool, clean and lubricate the bit.
drive any downhole motor or turbine.
transport the cuttings out of the hole.
suspend the cuttings during periods without circulation.
stabilise the sides of the borehole.
maintain an impermeable barrier on the borehole wall opposite porous and
permeable formations
provide hydrostatic head to avoid the influx of formation fluids into the
borehole.
release the carried cuttings before recirculating into the hole.
to transmit data to surface.

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M.O.C

Undesirable material that add to mud drilling to treatment lost


circulatiom.

1. fibrous material as magma ,corks1 and sawdust2


2. bridging material as nutshells3
3. plate material as mica

q) what are factors that affect performznce drilling Bit?

There are many factors affect performance drilling bit.

1. Mechanical energy :- is product of wieght on bit and rotation speed.


2. Hydraulical energy :- is product of flow rate and the pressure drop .

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Casing

Casing and tubing strings are the main parts of the well construction4. All
wells drilled for the purpose of oil/gas production (or injecting materials into
underground formations) .

Casing is the major structural component of a well.


1- Casing is needed to maintain borehole stability,
2- prevent contamination5 of water sands,
3- isolate water from producing formations,
4- control well pressures during drilling, production, and workover operations.
5- Casing provides locations for the installation of blowout preventers,
wellhead equipment, production packers, and production tubing.
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-
There are six basic types of casing strings.

1- Conductor Casing. Conductor1 casing is the first string set below the
structural casing (drive pipe or marine conductor run to protect loose2 near-
surface formations and to enable circulation of drilling fluid). The conductor
isolates unconsolidated3 formations and water sands and protects against
shallow gas.
2- Surface Casing. Surface casing is set to provide blowout protection,
isolate water sands, and prevent lost circulation.

3- Intermediate Casing. Intermediate casing is set to isolate unstable hole


sections, lost-circulation zones, low-pressure zones, and production zones. It is
often set in the transition zone from normal to abnormal pressure. The casing
cement top must isolate any hydrocarbon zones. Some wells require multiple
intermediate strings. Some intermediate strings may also be production strings
if a liner is run beneath them.

4- Production Casing. Production casing is used to isolate production zones


and contain formation pressures in the event of a tubing leak.

5- Liner. Liner is a casing string that does not extend back to the wellhead but
instead is hung from another casing string. Liners are used instead of full
casing strings to reduce cost, improve hydraulic performance when drilling
deeper, allow the use of larger tubing above the liner top, and not represent a
tension limitation for a rig. Liners can be either an intermediate or a production
string. Liners are typically cemented over their entire length.

6- Tieback String. Tieback string is a casing string that provides additional


pressure integrity4 from the liner top to the wellhead. An intermediate tieback is
used to isolate a casing string that cannot withstand possible pressure loads5 if
drilling is continued (usually because of excessive wear or higher than
anticipated pressures6). Similarly, a production tieback isolates an intermediate

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string from production loads. Tiebacks can be uncemented or partially


cemented.
Tubing is the conduit1 through which oil and gas are brought from the producing
formations to the field surface.
Note : If external pressure exceeds internal pressure, the casing is subjected2 to
collapse3

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cementing operations
can be divided into two broad categories: primary cementing and remedial
cementing. The objective of primary cementing is to provide zonal isolation.
Cementing is the process of mixing a slurry of cement and water and pumping it
down through casing to critical points in the annulus around the casing or in the
open hole below the casing string. The two principal functions of the cementing
process are to restrict4 fluid movement between the formations and to bond and
support the casing.
A kick is a well control problem in which the pressure found within the drilled
rock is
higher than the mud hydrostatic pressure acting on the borehole or rock face.
When this occurs, the greater formation pressure has a tendency to force
formation fluids into the wellbore. This forced fluid flow is called a kick. If the flow
is successfully controlled, the kick is considered to have been killed5. An
uncontrolled kick that increases in severity6 may result in what is known as a
blowout.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Loss circulation

Loss circulation : is characterized by a reduction in the rate of mud returns from the
well compared to the rate at which it is pumped downhole (flow out < flow in).

if the wellbore pressure exceeds the fracture pressure, fluids will be lost to the
formation. If the wellbore pressure falls below the pore pressure, fluids will flow

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into the wellbore, perhaps causing a blowout. is clear that accurate wellbore
pressure prediction is necessary1.

There are two type of loss circulation


1- Complete loss of fluid

2- Partial loss of fluid

Lost circulation can occur in the following formations

1- Cavernous/ Vugular formations

2- Fractured formations

3- Permeable formations

Examples
1.) What are causes stationary mud and surge pressure and swab pressure?

The stationary mud resulting the exial movement of pipe in and out of liquid
filled boreholes.
Surge pressure resulting the downward movement of pipe (when running in hole)
Swab pressure resulting the upward movement of pipe (when pulling out of
hole).or called sometime Negative surges.

2.) What is effect surge pressure and swab pressure?

The combined effect of surge pressure and the hydrostatic pressure of mud can cause the
BHP to exceed the rock strength resulting in rock fracture and loss of circulation .
Similarly, the combined effect of swab pressure (Negative surge pressure ) and
hydrostatic pressure of mud can cause the BHP to fall below2 the formation pressure and
cause a kick.

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M.O.C

production
engineering

Written by
Kadhim . hmood . AL- Bhadli

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M.O.C

Factors that take into account when designing the completed the well.

1. Production rate

2. Multiple completion

3. Reservoir drive mechanism

4. Secondary recovery

5. Well stimulation

6. Sand control problem

7. Work over frequency

There are two ways that during production

1. Production casing

2. Production tubing
.

Define:-
1. Secondary recovery: - is process of oil production by wells prepared for the
purpose of oil recovery after becoming unable to primary recovery.

2. Wells stimulation :- treatment process is formation reservoir by acidizing and


fracturing for the purpose of increasing production.

Number the ways secondary recovery

1. Water flooding

2. Gas injection

3. Thermal recovery

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M.O.C

The completion
The completion: Is the process of making a well ready for production or injection

Number ways the completion.

1. Open hole completion :- is completion where install the casing production above
the layer that carry oil before its drilling after that production or injection from
this layer direct with out casing.

2. Liner completion : there are two type

a. screen and liner completion

b. perforated liner completion

3. Perforated casing completion (close hole completion)

Open hole completion:-

Properties of this type of completion:-

1. Able control to properties of drilling mud to reduce the degree of damage.

2. There is not extra cost because of cementing , casing and perforated.

3. The possibility of deepening the well easily.

4. The possibility to change this type to other types of completion.

5. Diameter productive largest of the well.

The limiltations of this type of completion:-

1. The difficulty of controlling the production of gas and water.

2. Cannot be conduct stimulation in product selection.

3. Requires cleaning from time to time.

4. Cannot product from two formations in the same well.

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M.O.C

Liner completion

There are two types of this completion

1. Screen and liner completion :-

Properties of this type of completion:-

A. There is not extra cost because of perforated.

B. Reduce formation damage

C. No need to cleaning the wellbore

D. Use this type to control on sand

-:The limiltations of this type of completion

A .The difficulty of controlling the production of gas and water

B.Can not be conduct stimulation in product selection

C. difficult of deepening the well

D. Required extra time to rig.

2. Perforated liner completion

Properties of this type of completion:-

A. Reduce the formation damage

B. Able to controlling the production of gas and water

C. Able to conduct stimulation in product selection

D. The possibility to deepening the well

E. The possibility to control on product sand.

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M.O.C

The limitations of this type of completion:-

A.There is extra cost because of cementing , casing and perforated

B. can not conduct some logs

C. difficult csing perforated liner.

Perforated casing completion

Properties of this type of completion:-

A . Able to controlling the production of gas and water

B. able to conduct stimulation in product selection

C. The possibility of deepening the well easily

E.The possibility to control on product sand

F. able to completion more one layer.

The limitations of this type of completion:-

A.There is extra cost because of cementing , casing and perforated

B. can not conduct some logs

C. severity due to formation damage.

Conventional tubular configuration

There are two types of this kind

1. Conventional tubular configuration

2. Unconventional tubular configuration

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M.O.C

Conventional tubular configuration

4.5 -:

single zine completion .1

.2 multiple zone completion


( )triple completion .

faster payout .

-:
.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Unconventional tubular configuration

( )permanent well
.

---------- -------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

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M.O.C

.1 production tube

. ( )corrosion inhibitor
.

. .

.2 -:
.

.3 : .

backer .1

No go nipple .2

bottom hole ckoke .3

safety valve .4

flow regulater .5

landing nipple .6

flow coupling .7

circulating sleeve .8

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M.O.C

-: :

-:permanent type . .1

Is backer that cannot be takeout only by grinding and cleaning.

.2 -:retrievable type
.

Is backer that can be restored mechanically and re use them again.

.1 .

Protection of the upper parts of high pressure in case production or injection


stimulation.

.2 .

Protect the well from any leaks occur in the casing.

.3 .

Preparation completion fluid in annulus use to kill the well when necessary.

.4 .

Ensure safety of well and control the flow of fluid when provides backer by
subsurface safety valves.

No- go nipple

.
.

landing :

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M.O.C

flow coupling

Is device installed above landing nipple to absorb the effect of turbulence in the
flow.

circulating sleeve

-:

o -: alternate completion
.

- Alternate completion: Is the perforation section for the alternative product


section after its depletion.

o -:depletion
.

o -:super charge
.
.

o -:uniform completion
.

- uniform completion :- Is completion , which is where the production pipeline with


a fixed diameter and contain a fluid one in which casing of a constants internal
diameter and annulus contains a fluid one too.

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M.O.C

completion equipment

production casing .1 -:

tubing .2

liner .3

economy in the commissioning .

control of sand problem .

production packer .4

sliding sleeve .5

subsurface control equipment .6

safety valve for production tubing subsurface .

bottom hole chokes and regulations .

(. )reverse flow

check valves . .

Christmas tree and well head assembly .7 .

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M.O.C

mechanical setting .1 :

weight set packers .

tension set packers .

rotational set packers .

Hydraulic setting .2

electric setting .3

Perforating oil and gas wells

perforating techniques

.1 bullet perforator

Jet perforators .2

Hydraulic perforating .3

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

perforating fluid

salt water and oil .1

acetic acid .2

Nitrogen gas .3

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M.O.C

selection of perforated intervals

-:

electric , sound and Radiating logs .1

Data of formation test during drilling .2 .

coring .3

Geological information .4

.1

.2 .

.3 ()shale

.4 ()casing collars

.5 .

.6 .

------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

water and gas coning

( )flowing pressure gradient


(.)bedding planes across

.1 stable cones

.2 unstable cones

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M.O.C

stable cones

.1

.2 ( )drainage area

.3

unstable cones

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

.1 .

.2 .

.3

------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------

.1 ( )clay minerals Swelling clay mineral in .


reservoir causes reduction in permeability

.2
deposition of solids this liquid cause closure of some parts of formation this .
lead to reduce permeability.

.3 .

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M.O.C

skin factor

( )formation damage
( . )positive skin factor

stimulation

(. )negative skin factor

ST :

.1 Sfm

.2 Sc

.3 Spp

( )flow Efficiency ( )FE


. .

) FE = ln (re \ rw) \ ln (re \ rw + S

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M.O.C

Where Ka

ra

: ( )FE
( ( ST )
( ST )

---------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

.1 :perforation phase is distribution the .


perforate on casing

.2 :perforation density .

.3 :completion efficiency
.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------

completion fluids

fluid density .1

solids content .2

filtrate characteristics .3

fluid loss .4

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M.O.C

viscosity Related characteristics .5

yield point .1

plastic viscosity .2

gel strength .3

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

)Drill stem testing (DST

-:

.

surface pressure control equipment .1

drill pipe .2 ( )

reverse circulation sub .3

.4 drill collars

closed in pressure valve .5

.6 Reverse circulating ports

flow choke .7

.8 Tester valve

upper pressure Recorder .9

Hydraulic Jar .11

safety joint .11

backer .12

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M.O.C

perforated pipe .13

temperature Recorder .14

Lower pressure Recorder .15

Tail pipe anchor .16

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A: initial hydrostatic mud pressure D: final flow pressure


B: initial shut-in pressure E: final shut-in pressure
C: initial flow pressure F: final hydrostatic mud pressure

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M.O.C

Horner Equation


. :

transmissibility

----------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------

Hooks Law effect .1

.2 helical buckling effect

ballooning effect .3

temperature effect .3

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M.O.C

inflow performance

: .

.
-:

.1 water drive

.2 .

solution gas drive .1

.2 .

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5 .

( : )productivity index
. .

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M.O.C

) ( )PI ()IPR

.
.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

.1
.2
.3
.4

:

.

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M.O.C

well potential

-:
.

-:

.1
.

.2 .

.3 .

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.1 -:Vogel's curve
.

.2 -:standings extension
.

.3 -: .

.4 -:Gilbert Log Log


.paper

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flow efficiency or productivity ratio

- : ( )actual well
( )ideal well .

: open hole completion


.

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M.O.C

-: close hole completion


.

------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------

multiphase flow in pipe

-:

vertical flow .1

horizontal flow .2

inclined flow .3

Direction flow .4

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Ball valve .1

Gate valves .2

needle valves .3

plug valves .4

check valves .5

Butter fly valves .6

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valves operators

manual operators .1

pneumatic operators .2

electric operators .3

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M.O.C

dual completion

Define dual completion :- a single well that produced from two separate formation at
the same time, production from each zone is segregated running two tubing string with
packer inside the single of production casing or by running on tubing string with a
packer through one zone while the other is produced through the annulus.

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M.O.C

Formation pressure :- The pressure under which the subsurface formation


fluids and gases are confined.

Hydrostatic pressure :- The pressure exerted a column of fluid in the


borehole. It is due to the column of drilling mud.

over pressure : - any pressure above the hydrostatic pressure .

Mathematical : Ph = 0.052 h (ft) (ppg)

Where :- Ph : hydrostatic pressure psi


h: high of liquid ft
: density ppg

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Geothermal gradients

G = 100 (Tf Ts ) / D

Where : D: depth

Tf : formation temperature

Ts : surface temperature

G : geothermal graduate . F / 100ft

Or :- Tf = Ts + (G /100) D
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M.O.C

Exam.: well full with drilling mud its density 13. 5 ppg find .
1) hydro . pressure at 1000 ft .

2) temp. at this depth if surface temp. 80 F and geothermal 1.o6


F/100 .

1. ph = 0.052 h

Ph = 0.052 1000 13.5 = 702 psi

2. Tf = Ts + (G/100)D

Tf = 80 + (1.06/100) 1000 = 90.6 F

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Phase : is any homogeneous and physically distinct1


part of system which is separated from other parts of
the system by definite boundary surfaces.

Physical properties

1. Intensive properties :- dependent of the quantity as


density , specific volume compressibility .
2. Extensive properties :- volume , mass.

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Phase diagram

vaper pressure line :- is line separates the pressure


temperature conditions for which substance is a liquid
from which the condition for which the substance is a
gas.
Pc (critical pressure):- the pressure above which liquid
and gas cannot coexist regardless of temperature.
Tc (critical temperature) :- the temperature above which
the gas can not be liquefied regardless of the pressure.
Triple point :- the point represent the pressure and
temperature at which soild , liquid and gas coexist under
equilibrium condition.
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M.O.C

The melting point line :- is vertical line above the triple


point.
Bubble point:- the point at which the first few molecules
leave the liquid and form a small bubble of gas.
Dew point :- the point at which only a small drop of liquid
remains.
Note :- the bubble point line and dew point line coincide1 at
the critical point or join at the critical point.

Two phase region :- is region confined between bubble


point line and dew point line is called often saturation
envelope or phase envelope.
Critical point:- the point at which all properties of liquid
and the gas become identical.
Cricondentherm :- the highest temperature on the
saturation envelope.
Cricondenbar:- the highest pressure on the saturation
envelope.
Retrograde condensation :- is the region occurs at
temperature between the critical temp. and the
cricondentherm.
Note :- this region (Retrograde saturation) confined between
upper dew point and lower dew point.in this region the liquid
equal 25 % and 75 % of gas. Show in following shape.

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M.O.C

Primary recovery

Primary recovery: - is recovery of oil by any of nature


drive mechanisms.

Primary recovery mechanism

1. Rock and liquid expansion drive


2. Depletion drive
3. gas cup drive
4. drive
5. gravity drainage drive
6. combination drive

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M.O.C

Q: what is types of depletion drive:

1. solution gas drive


2. dissolve gas drive
3. internal gas drive

Q:- what is characteristic depletion drive reservoir?


1. Reservoir pressure declines rapidly and continuously.
2. Gas oil ratio increasing to maximum and then declines.
3. None water production.
4. Well behavior requires pumping at early stage .
5. Oil recovery range 5% to 30 %. That large quantities of oil
remain in the reservoir.
6. Depletion drive reservoir are considered the best candidates
for secondary recovery applications.

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Q : define undersaturation oil reservoir ?

Undersaturation oil reservoir : is the reservoir when be its initial


pressure higher than bubble point pressure.

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M.O.C

Q: when and where is the gas oil ratio equal the gas solubility?

In rock and liquid expansion, at the bubble point pressure.

Q :- define Aquifer, what is geometries of aquifer?

Aquifer : is water bearing rocks that round for reservoir .

Aquifer geometries

1. Edge water drive


2. Bottom water drive

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