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Cc kha cnh an ton thc phm v s tch t cht c hi trong c t cc ao cha nc thi

H ni, Vit nam

Helle Marcussen1,2, Peter E. Holm1, Le Thai Ha3 and Anders Dalsgaard2

1. Ban khoa hc t nhin, khoa khoa hc cuc sng, i hc Copenhagen, Copenhagen, an


mch
2. Ban th y, khoa khoa hc cuc sng, i hc Copenhagen, Copenhagen, an mch
3. S y t mi trng, Vin sc khe Ngh nghip v Mi trng Quc gia, B y t, H ni,
Vit nam

Tm tt Mc tiu : nh gi an ton thc phm ca c t cc h thng sn xut trong


H ni c nui bi cht thi t cc h gia nh v cng nghip i vi nhng yu t tim tang
c nh thch tn ( As), cadmium (Cd) v ch (Pb)

PHNG PHP: C chp (cyprinus carpio), c chp bc (


Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ) v c r phi ( Oreochromis niloticus) c ly mu t cc ao b
nc thi v ton b mt ca As, Cd v Pb c xc nh trong da, gan v cc m c.

KT QU: As v Pb c mt nhn chung thp v i vi nhiu mu di


gii hn d tm. Cc mt cao nht ca Cd v Pb c tm thy trong gan ca c r phi v mt
cao nht ca As c tm thy trong cc m c ca c r phi. Mt cc i ca As, Cd v Pb
trong cc m tht ln lt l 0,120 ; 0,079 v 0,082mg/kg trng lng ti. Vi vic tiu th c vi
mt cc i cc m c nh vy cho nn mi ngi ch cho php nhn vo 6,2% ; 8,7% v
2,5% lng u vo ca cc cht ny c thit lp bi U ban tiu chun thc phm Codex Quc
t .

KT LUN: Vic tiu th c chp, c chp bc v c r phi c nui trong


cc ao cha nc thi i vi cc cht As, Cd v Pb dng nh cha th to thnh mt vn an
ton thc phm

T kha: Cyprinus carpio, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Oreochromis


niloticus, thch tn, cadmium, ch, H ni, nc thi

M u

Cht thi c ngun gc t cc h gia nh v khu cng nghip th thng c s dng nh


mt ngun nc v ngun cht dinh dng gi r i vi vic nui c v cc loi thc vt sng
di nc cc vng cn th ca cc thnh ph ln ng Nam ( Edwards 2005a,b; Phuong
& Tuan 2005). Nc thi t cc thnh ph c x ra trn cc tng nc mt nh ao h, sng lm
cho cc thit b x l kh c th vn hnh hoc vn hnh km. Vic s dng nc khng qua x l
c th dn n s tch tr cc cht gy nhim cng nghip cho c v cc loi thc vt di nc,
ng thi biu th mt nguy c v an ton thc phm. Nhng kim loi v kim c c quan tm
c bit khi chng c gii phng trong nc thi t cc khu cng nghip nh xng thuc da,
ni sn xut thuc nhum, dt nhum thc vt, k thut kim loi, ca hng m in v nh my
giy ( Bartone & Benavides 1997).
Nhng kim loi v kim tim tang c nh thch tn (As), Cadmium(Cd) v ch(Pb) c th tch ly
trong c bi v s phi nhim v s hp th thng qua mang c ( Hollis et al. 2001; Long & Wang
2005; Ruangsomboon & Wongrat 2006). S phn b cc yu t tim tang c trong cc b phn
khc nhau ca c ph thuc vo yu t, loi c, thi gian phi nhim v tuyn ng phi nhim.
Nhn chung mt Cd v Pb gan cao hn so vi trong da v cc m c ( Al-Yousuf et al.2000;
Hollis et al. 2001; Kuznetsova et al. 2002; Canli & Atli 2003; Licata et al. 2005; Dural et al.2006;
Reynders et al.2006) trong khi As tch t ch yu gan,vy v da c nc ngt ( Takatsu et
al.1999; Pedlar & Klaverkamp 2002). Vic gia tng mc As, Cd v Pb trong thc n c th to
thnh nguy c v an ton thc phm. S hp th As c th dn n nhng bnh v mch mu v
cc trng hp cc oan nh bnh bn chn en hay bnh v da nh tng lp sng v thay i mu
da ( WHO 2001; Jarup 2003). Ung th phi, da v bang quang c tng quan vi lng As i vo
c th thng qua vic ung nc (WHO 2001). S i vo ca Pb c th gy tn hi n h h thng
trung tm no b v h thn kinh ngoi vi, lm mt tr nh v gim kh nng tr tu i vi tr em (
Verity 1995; Jarup 2003). C Cd v Pb u c th gy ra tn hi n thn ( Goyer & Cherian 1995),
v s phi nhim lu di i vi Cd s dn n vic h hi xng, thm ch gy xng ( Alfven et
al. 2000). U ban tiu chun thc phm codex Quc t thit lp nhng tiu chun i vi u
vo c cho php tm thi ( PTI) cng nh u vo cc i tm thi c cho pho ca cc kim
loi c khc nhau, v cc ngng gi tr khi con ngi tiu th i vi nhng kim loi c trong
c cng c thit lp bi U nhim Chu u ( EC 2002; FAO/WHO 2003). Hu ht nc thi ca
cc h gia nh v khu cng nghip t ni thnh H ni c thi ra khng qua x l ti sng T
Lch v sng Kim Ngu, c 2 dng chy u xuyn qua Qun Hong mai pha nam H ni ( hnh
1). Nm 2004, dn s H ni l 3,12 triu ngi, 274 khu cng nghip ln trong c 68 khu cng
nghip l lm nhim nng ( HSO 2005; DNREH 2006) . Ti y cng c 4340 khu cng nghip
nh hn x nc thi m cht lng nc cha c kim nghim ( DNREH 2006). c tnh c
khong 458000 m3nc thi c gii phng mi ngy H ni trong 41% l t cc h gia
nh, 57% t cc khu cng nghip v 2% t cc bnh vin , ch c 4% lng nc thi x ra c
x l ( DSTE 2003). Nc t sng T lch v sng Kim ngu c bm vo cc ao ti qun Hong
mai v Thanh tr ph v cho vic nui c v cc loi thc vt di nc ( Hnh 1). Mc tiu c
bit ca nghin cu ny l nh gi mt v nhng nguy c v an ton thc phm ca As, Cd
v Pb trong c t cc h thng ao h c cung cp nc thi t sng T lch v Kim ngu H
ni.
Nguyn liu v phng php

C c thu thp t 2 ao m trong cha 4 n 5 loi c, ln lt l c chp ( cyprinus carpio) ,


c chp bc ( hypophthalmichthys molitrix) v c r phi ( oreochromis niloticus) c chn ly
mu v phn tch v nhng loi ny c nui trng ph bin trong cc ao cha nc thi. Mt ao
nm ti x Yn s v bm nc 24 gi v 4 ngy mt tun t sng Kim ngu, ao cn li nm x
Hong Lit v bm nc ta sng T lch 3-4 ngy mt tun ( Hnh 1). Trong c 2 ao, c c lu
tr nh nhng vt nh v phi nhim trong nc thi cho n thi gian thu hoch kt qu. Khong
thi gian phi nhim trong nc thi khng c xc nh i vi tng c th nh mt s loi c s
tip tc c lu tr, nhng c ln nht c thi gian phi nhim c trng trong nc thi l
khong 10 pht.

C c thu hoch c ging li bt vo thng 3 v thng 4 2005 v 10 con c c kch c c th


tiu th c ca 3 loi s c chn la ngu nhin t mi ao. Sau khi trng lng v chiu di
c ghi li, c c co vy v m ly mu th m c, gan v da c. Mu th m tht c trn
vi nhng mnh nh titanium trong my xay nh bp cho n khi thnh mt khi mn ; mu th da
c ct thnh nhng mnh nh bng ko thp khng r. Bi v lng mu th ca gan nh, khng
c nhng bc x l u trc khi tiu ha. Tt c cc loi mu th u c ct gi trong my
p lnh cho n khi c cch x l tt hn. Nhng mu th c mng ( 0.25g) c tiu ha trong
6ml HNO3 70% ( th bnh m Instra _ ngi phn tch, th bnh m Mallinckrodt, Deventer, H
Lan) v 2ml H2O2 30% ( Suprapure, Merck, Darmstadt, c) s dng mt h thng bnh kn
Teflon c h tr bi sng radio ( speedwave MWS -3+, berghof GmbH, eningen, c). Lp trnh
nhit 3 bc di y c p dng : 145*C vi thi gian dc l 10 pht v thi gian gi l 5
pht; 150*C vi c thi gian dc v thi gian gi l 5 pht; 190*C vi thi gian dc l 1 pht v
thi gian gi l 15 pht. m bo cht lng, chng ti a vo cc mu phn tch trng v mt
mu nguyn liu tham chiu ni b bao gm c ng kh ng lnh t c quan thc phm ca an
mch cng vi cc mu kim tra c chun b c cng c tnh nh cc mu nghin cu. Nguyn
liu tham chiu c ng cha cc cht As, Cd v Pb vi mt l 3.22 0.33, 0.078 0.018 and
1.10 0.13 mg kg trng lng kh ( D.w), v phc hi c trong khong 10% gi tr c chng
nhn. trong vic tiu ha c, As, Cd v Pb c o lng bi phng php ph hp thu nguyn t
(ETAAS) s dng hiu ng Zeeman hiu chnh s liu ( Perkin Elmer 5100 ASS, HGA-600
graphite furnace, Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT, USA) v b iu chnh palladium magie vi cc ln
lp li phn tch xc nh As . Mt c biu th qua mg/kg trng lng ti (f.w). gii hn
d tm (LOD) c xc nh bi 3 ln lch chun ca 8 ln lp li phn tch iu chnh mu
trng.

Nhng mu lng cn c thu thp nh cc mu hn hp vi bn ln ti to ti ca vo, gia


v ca ra ca cc ao vi mc trn 10cm tng cn vi mt thit b ly mu cn KC Kajak ( KC an
mch A/S, Silkeborg , an mch). Mu th c sy kh nhit 45*C, thng qua li bng
thp khng r, c nghin thnh bt trong mt ci my nghin v tiu ha theo phng php EPA
3052( usepa 1996) . Mt ca As, Cd v Pbc xc nh bi ETAAS v c biu th bi mg/kg
d.w. m bo cht lng, chng ti cho vo cc mu phn tch trng v nguyn liu tham chiu
NT-2711( t Montana ). Phc hi c trong khong 10% gi tr c chng nhn.

Cc phn chnh trong cc ln lp li c nng ca As, Cd v Pb di LOD, v d liu khng theo


mt phn phi chun. kim tra nu mt ca As, Cd v Pb l khc nhau gia cc loi c v cc
loi m, th nghim Kruskal- wallis s da trn cc nhm d liu hot ng. phng php
thng k ny c cp cho cc nhm d liu vi mu th di LOD( helsel 2005). Cc mu th
nh vy c quy nh l gi tr thp nht trong nhm d liu.

KT QU V THO LUN

lch trung bnh v chun cho trng lng ca c chp v c r phi nh sau: 675 144, 233
110 v 159 58g . Nng As, Cd v Pb trong c, gan v da c chp, c chp bc v c r phi
c trng ao nui c nc ngt ti x Yn Th v Hong Lit nhn chung thp so vi cc gi tr
ngng c thnh lp bi y ban chu u (Bng 1) (EC 2002). Ch c gan c r phi c nng
Cd v Pb vt qu gii hn pht hin trong tt c 10 mu nhn bn. Cc gii hn pht hin tng
ng l 0,011, 0,0047 v 0,033 mg / kg f.w. cho As, Cd v Pb . ti liu v kim loi nng trong c
nc ngt t nc thi ao l khan him. Shereif v Mancy (1995) nghin cu nng Cd v Pb
trong O. niloticusand Mugil c sn xut H Manzala, ni nhn c nc thi th khng
c x l v nc thi nng nghip . Nng cao hn ngng gi tr do y ban chu u cho Cd
0,05 v cho Pb 0,2 mg / kg f.w. (EC 2002). Trong cng mt nghin cu, Pb v nng Cd thp hn
O. niloticusand cephalzproduced trong nc thi t nc thi ao n nh, mc d Pb v trong
mt s trng hp Cd vn cn to thnh nguy c v an ton thc phm vi nng trn cc gi tr
ngng ca U ban chu u (Shereif & Mancy 1995; EC 2002). Mansour v Sidky (2002) cng
tm thy nng Cd v Pb trn chu u. y ban ngng gi tr trong c t mt h nhn c nc
t nng nghip v nui trng thu sn. Trn nng kim loi c hi trong c hoang d t cc con
sng thot nc thi c tm thy to thnh mt vn an ton thc phm (Al-Ogailyet
1999;Bosniret al. 2003). Cc xt nghim thng k cho thy nng Cd v Pb cao hn ng k
trong gan c r phi so vi c, da v so snh vi cc mu gan t c chp v c chp bc. Xu hng
ca Cd v Pb tch t trong gan xc nhn nhng pht hin ca trc cc nghin cu (Al-
Yousufet, 2000, Canli & Atli 2003, Licataet al. 2005; Dural et al. 2006). y ban chu u thit
lp cc gi tr gii hn cho Cd v Pb trong c i vi con ngi tiu dng m khng p dng cho
As (EC 2002). Nng Cd trong gan ca c r phi c gi tr trung bnh l 0.166 mg / kg f.w. trong
c t Yn So v 0.576 mg / kg f.w. trong c t Hng Lit, c hai u cao hn EU ngng gi tr
0,05 mg / kg f.w. (EC 2002). Nng Pb trong gan t c r phi c trng Hong X Lit 0.45
mg / kg f.w. cng trn Gi tr ngng ca y ban Chu u l 0,2 mg / kg f.w.(EC 2002). Tiu th
gan t c R phi c sn xut vi nc thi H Ni, do , c lin quan vi nguy c sc kho.
Tuy nhin, y ban chu u gi tr ngng cho Cd v Pb l cho ton b ctiu th, trong khi gan ch
chim mt phn nh tng trng lng, v c r phi, tiu dng H Ni l hn ch. Trong ni tng
ca c, ch yu l rut v bng quang c tiu th. Da ca c r phi c mc trung bnh cao hn
ng k Khi nng v t t hn so vi m gan v c v da. Trong ni tng ca c, ch yu l rut
vbng quang c tiu th. Da ca c r phi c mc trung bnh cao hn ng k khi nng v
t t hn so vi m gan v c v da. c chp v c chp bc. Asen c xu hng tch ly trong da v
gan nhng khng phi c ca c nc ngt. Trong mt s s tch t c trong da cao hn gan v
ngc li (Takatsu v cng s, 1999; Pedlar & Klaverkamp 2002). Nng Cd v Pb trong gan v
trong da cho thy rng c r phi c th l mt ch bo tt hn nhim kim loi c hi so vi c
chp v c chp bc.Tuy nhin, nghin cu thm v vic s dng mt s loi c v cc ch s v
nhim kim loi c hi c bo m. Nng trm tch c xc nh trong nghin cu ny dao
ng t 7,4-9,4 mg / kg d.w. i vi As, 0,6-2,1 mg / kg d.w. cho Cd v 36-71 mg / kg d.w. cho Pb.
Cd v Pb nng gim ng k so vi nc thi u vo n li thot trong c ao nui, cho thy
nhim nh vi cc yu t ny. Nng As, Cd v Pb c thp v nng tng i thp trong
trm tch c th lin quan n vic duy tr nhng yu t ny trong trm tch ca sng T Lch v
Kim Ngu.

Bng 1: Nng cc i ca thch tn(As), cadmium ( Cd) v Ch (Pb) (mg/kg trng lng ti)
trong m c, gan v da (n=10) t c b tng ln trong nc thi ti Yn s v Hong lit, H ni,
Vit nam. S lng mu th vi nng di gii hn d tm ( LOD) v nng trung bnh i
vi mu th trn gii hn d tm cho. Ga tr trung bnh vi nng trn ngng gi tr EU l
0,05 V 0,2 mg/kg c ch ra mt cch r nt.

C ca c chim t trng ln nht m mm. V vy, nh gi ri ro an ton thc phm lin quan
n vic tiu th c nc thi nn tp trung vo m c. Mt iu tra ca 5931 h min Bc Vit
Nam cho thy ngi tiu dng thch c nc ngt cho c bin v khong cch cho th trng c
nc ngt l ngn v c c coi l ti. Mc tiu th c trung bnh hng nm dao ng t 6,86-
19,32 kg / ngi / nm (18,7-52,9 g / ngi / ngy) mc thu nhp thp nht v cao nht phn t
(Deyet al. 2005). Theo mt Bng cn i lng thc ca FAO, mt ngi Vit Nam tiu th trung
bnh mi ngy c 14,7 kg c / nm (FAO 2003). y l trong phm vi c xut bn bi Deyet al.
(2005). Cc tiu chun y ban Tiu chun Codex cho PTI ca Nh, Cd, v Pb tng ng l 0.0021,
0.001 v 0.0036 mg / kg c thtrng lng / ngy (FAO / WHO 2003). Mt cuc kho st t nm
2000 m t trng lng trung bnh ca nam gii Vit Nam v ph n tui trn 18 chia lm 4
nhm tui(NIN 2003). Trng lng ca ph n tr hn giatui t 18 n 25 l 45,7 kg, trng
lng c s dng trong nh gi ri ro an ton thc phm v nhm ngi ln ny c trng
lng thp nht, v do , s c tip xc vi nng nguyn t cao nht trn mt kilogam trng
lng c th trn mt kilogram c tiu th. Tng 5% c thrng lng (n 48 kg) c gi nh t
nm 2000 v ni chung ci thin iu kin sng Vit Nam. Ri ro nh gi c tin hnh theo
kt qu c tnh (1)

S phi nhim( mg/kg trng lng c th) = mt trong c (mg/kg) * khi lng c tiu th (kg)

Trng lng c th(kg)

Gi s rng mt ngi vi trung bnh trng lng c th l 48kg tiu th 52,9g trng lng ti c
mi ngy vi nng cao nht mi nguyn t c hp thu trong m c, u vo ca As, Cd v Pb
s tng ng ln lt vi 6,2%, 8,7% v 2,5% ca u vo cho php. y l thn hung trng hp
xu nht v cc mu th c c nng cc cht thp hn nhiu. v vy, s xut hin vic tiu th
cc m c t ch chp, ch chp bc v c r phi c nui trong cc ao cha cht thi ti cc vng
cn th h ni s to thnh t hn, nu c, cc cht As, Cd v Pb s c nguy c gy hi n sc
khe.

Cui cng, vic tiu th c chp, c chp bc v c r phi t cc ao cha cht thi h ni nhn
cht thi t Sng Kim ngu v sng TLch s c hn ch hoc khng cn nguy c v an ton
thc phm i vi cc cht As, Cd v Pb. Cc nguyn tc trong vic s dng cht thi trong ngh
nui trng thy sn c pht trin t WHO (2006), tuy nhin tp trung vo s an ton sinh hc vi
m ca nc thi s dng trong nui trng thy sn v ch c t s tin b trong cc kha cnh v
sc khe ca cc yu t tim tang c. t ngi c bit v s tch t yu t c hi trong c nc
ngt t h thng nui bng cht thi v c nhiu nghin cu cn c pht trin ng li ch o
chun mc.

LI CM N

Chng ti rt bit n s h tr do Vin sc khe ngh nghip v mi trng Quc gia cung cp(
NIOEH). Trong vic tp hp mu v cung cp cc phng tin v phng th nghim ti Vit nam.
Nghin cu c tin hnh vi s h tr ti chnh t EU- D n cp vn s sn xut trong h
thng di nc cc vng cn th ti ng nam ( PAPUSSA); Hi ng nghin cu pht
trin (r), Danida, B ngoi thng an mch thng qua tr cp s 104.Dan.8.-887 s tch ly
kim loi v an ton thc phm trong h thng sn xut di nc cha cht thi ti Cambodia v
Vit nam. Trng hc nghin cu ha hc mi trng v cht c ( RECETO ) v khoa khoa hc
cuc sng ti trng Copenhagen, an mch.

XUNG T V LI CH

Tt c tc gi u tuyn b khng c xung t v li ch

NGUN THAM KHO

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