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EVOLUTION PRACTICE TEST #1

1. The diagram below shows a comparison of nitrogen base sequences in the DNA of some organisms
to those of a human. According to this diagram, humans may be most closely related to the
(1.) gorilla (2.) ancestral primate (3.) orangutan (4.) chimpanzee

2. Blood proteins in horses are chemically similar to blood proteins in monkeys. This similarity
suggests that horses and monkeys
(1.) can interbreed
(2.) evolved at the same time
(3.) live in the same habitat
(4.) have a common ancestor

3. The diagram below shows the gradual change over time in the anatomy of the horse. Which concept
is best illustrated by the physical variations in the horse as its body size and structure change over
time?

(1.) acquired characteristics (2.) artificial selection (3.) intermediate inheritance (4.) organic evolution

4. Fossils of an extinct species of giant armadillo were found to be similar to a smaller species of
armadillo presently inhabiting the same region. This similarity could best be explained on the basis of
(1.) evolution from older forms
(2.) use and disuse
(3.) inheritance of acquired characteristics
(4.) the heterotroph hypothesis
5. A study of the position and shape of the bones in the forelimbs of a flying squirrel, a bat, and a beaver
showed that the beaver and the flying squirrel appear to be most closely related. This determination was most
likely based on a study in the field of comparative
(1.) anatomy (2.) biochemistry (3.) embryology (4.) cytology

6. Fossils would most likely be found in


(1.) amber that is over 8 billion years old
(2.) icebergs that are 500 billion years old
(3.) sedimentary rocks that are 500 million years old
(4.) volcanic rocks that are 50 million years old

7. The diagram below shows undisturbed sedimentary strata at the bottom of an ocean. The fossils found in
layer B resemble the fossils found in layer A. This similarity suggests that
(1.) the fossils in layer B were formed before the fossils in layer A
(2.) modern forms of life may have evolved from earlier forms of life
(3.) vertebrate fossils are only found in sediments
(4.) the fossils in layer A must be more complex than those in layer B

8. According to Darwin's theory of evolution, differences between species may be the result of
(1.) the disuse of body structures
(2.) the transmission of acquired characteristics
(3.) natural selection
(4.) mutagenic agents

9. Two nucleotide sequences found in two different species are almost exactly the same. This suggests that
these species
(1.) are evolving into the same species
(2.) contain identical DNA
(3.) may have similar evolutionary histories
(4.) have the same number of mutations

10. According to Charles Darwin, one factor that affects the evolution of a species is
(1.) variation due to genetic mutations
(2.) rapid fossil formation
(3.) survival of the fittest
(4.) exposure to environmental pollutants
11. The diagrams below represent stages in the embryonic development of four organisms. The similarities
in embryonic development shown in the diagram suggest that these organisms
(1.) are all members of the same species
(2.) all undergo external development
(3.) may have evolved from a common ancestor
(4.) have adaptations for the same environment as adults

12. In the diagram of a whale below, the bones labeled "pelvis" and "femur" appear to be useless. The
possibility that these bones were once useful gives support to the
(1.) modern theory of evolution (2.) heterotroph hypothesis
(3.) concept of fossil formation (4.) concept of stable gene frequencies

13. Which statement best describes evolution?


(1.) Evolution is a predictable change from simple to complex organisms.
(2.) Evolution is a process of change through time.
(3.) Evolution often proceeds from complex to simpler organisms.
(4.) Evolution causes organisms to develop characteristics they need.

14. In Yellowstone National Part, some species of algae and bacteria can survive and reproduce in hot
springs at temperatures near the boiling point of water. The ability to survive and reproduce at these
temperatures is an example of
(1.) aggregate formation (2.) adaptation (3.) artificial selection (4.) reproductive isolation

15. The diagrams below show embryos of three different vertebrate species. According to one theory,
similarities in these embryos suggest common ancestry. As these embryos mature, they will most likely
(1.) develop new organs according to the nutritional requirements of each organism
(2.) show no similarity as adults
(3.) continue to closely resemble each other as adults
(4.) develop the distinctive characteristics of their species
16. Darwin's studies of finches on the Galapagos Islands suggest that the finches' differences in beak
structure were most directly due to
(1.) acquired characteristics in the parent finches
(2.) the size of the island where the finches live
(3.) mating behaviors of the different finch species
(4.) adaptations of the finches to different environments

17. The diagrams below represent homologous structures. The study of the evolutionary relationships
between these structures is known as comparative
(1.) cytology (2.) biochemistry (3.) anatomy (4.) embryology

18. Biologically similar organisms have similar DNA and proteins. This statement supports the concept of
(1.) diversity in species (2.) acquired characteristics (3.) use and disuse (4.) organic evolution

19. The embryos of fish, chickens, and pigs have gill slits & a tail. The presence of these features suggests
(1.) all these animals can swim
(2.) these animals may have had a common ancestor
(3.) gill slits and tails are required for embryonic development
(4.) pigs developed from chickens

20. Characteristics of a species that make its members better able to live and reproduce in their environment
are known as (1.) abiotic factors (2.) biotic factors (3.) favorable adaptations (4.) homologous structures

21. The diagram below represents undisturbed rock strata in a given region. A representative fossil of an
organism is illustrated in each layer. Which statement best describes a relationship between these
representative organisms?
(1.) Organism A was probably more structurally advanced than organism B and organism C.
(2.) Organism C probably gave rise to organism A and organism B.
(3.) All of these organisms probably evolved at the same time.
(4.) Organism A was probably more primitive than organism B and organism C.
22. In the early stages of development, the embryos of birds and reptiles resemble each other in many ways.
This resemblance suggests that they
(1.) belong to the same species (2.) are adapted for life in the same habitat
(3.) share a common ancestry (4.) are both animal-like protists

23. In his theory of evolution, Charles Darwin was not able to explain
(1.) competition (2.) overproduction (3.) reproduction (4.) causes of variation

24. Which statement is best supported by the theory of organic evolution?


(1.) Every period of time in earth's history has its own group of species.
(2.) Present day species developed from early distinctly different species.
(3.) Every different location on the surface of the earth has its own distinctly different species.
(4.) A new species moves into a habitat when another becomes extinct.

25. In the early stages of development, both chicken and pig embryos have gills slits, two-chambered hearts,
and tails. This similarity suggests that chickens and pigs most probably
(1.) have a common ancestry (2.) carry on aerobic respiration as adults
(3.) use gills for breathing during embryonic development (4.) have inadequate circulation

26. Charles Darwin proposed that organisms produce many more offspring than can possible survive on the
limited amount of resources available to them. According to Darwin, the offspring that are most likely to
survive are those that
(1.) are born first and grow fastest
(2.) are largest and most aggressive
(3.) have no natural predators
(4.) are best adapted to the environment

27. The graph below shows the results of an investigation related to evolution. This graph was most likely
developed from data involving a study of the
(1.) transmission of acquired characteristics (2.) concept of punctuated equilibrium
(3.) concept of gradualism (4.) variation within a species

28. One concept that supports the theory of evolution states that organisms best adapted for survival are the
ones that will reproduce and pass traits on to future generations. Adaptations that can be passed on do not
include
(1.) the basic structure of the organism
(2.) the reflex actions of the organism
(3.) the manner in which the organism carries out respiration
(4.) techniques for hunting food taught by the parents of the organism
29. In the diagram below B, C, and D represent organisms that exist in the present time and show a striking
similarity to each other in their bone structure. In the diagram, letter A most likely represents
(1.) homologous structures (2.) a common ancestor
(3.) an acquired characteristic (4.) geographic distribution

30. Which area of biology compares and attempts to explain the structural changes that have taken place in
living things over millions of years, as well as those changes occurring today?
(1.) classification (2.) reproduction (3.) physiology (4.) evolution

31. Two organisms are closely related and are thought to share a similar evolutionary history. If this
assumption is correct, these organisms most likely have
(1.) no structural differences (2.) few biochemical similarities
(3.) identical chromosome mutations (4.) similar embryological development

Use the information provided in the chart below questions 32 and 33, and your knowledge of the living
environment to answer questions 32 and 33 which follow.

32. According to this information in the chart that follows, the closest evolutionary relationship most likely
exists between the
(1.) human and chimpanzee (2.) human and the gorilla
(3.) chimpanzee and the gorilla (4.) horse and the zebra

33. The information in the chart provides data that can help in the identification of possible evolutionary
relationships from the study of comparative (1.) cytology (2.) embryology (3.) anatomy (4.) biochemistry

34. Many biologists believe that the great number of different species of organisms which exist on the
planet and the present time has resulted from billions of years of
(1.) gel electrophoresis (2.) recombinant DNA (3.) cloning (4.) evolution

35. What is the most probable reason that fossils found in lower layers of undisturbed rock are not found in
upper layers of undisturbed rock in the same rock sequence?
(1.) The development of many different organisms is part of an evolutionary process which has
occurred for billions of years.
(2.) Fossils of early organisms are much more complex than those of later organisms.
(3.) Organisms living today show no relationship to organisms living billions of years ago.
(4.) Changing environments on the earth have resulted in the extinction of many organisms.
True/False Section: Indicate whether the following statements are true or false based on your knowledge of
the living environment and study of evolutionary theories.

1. The concept of biological evolution is that the Earth's present-day species developed from earlier,
distinctly different species.

2. The sorting and recombination of genes during mitosis and fertilization result in a great variety of
different gene combinations which drive the process of evolution.

3. New heritable characteristics can result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of
genes in reproductive cells.

4. Gene mutations can be caused by agents such as radiation and chemicals.

5. Only gene mutations which occur in gametes or sex cells can be passed on to the offspring.

6. Asexually reproducing species have more variations which make the species more likely to survive
changing conditions.

7. Natural selection and its evolutionary consequences provide a scientific explanation for the fossil record
of ancient life forms, as well as for the molecular and structural similarities seen amongst many diverse
organisms living today.

8. Individuals with advantageous adaptations to the environment tend to increase in numbers.

Constructed Response Section

1. Use the terms gene, variation, adaptation, and survival of the fittest to
explain the evolution of resistance to a virus in gerbils. Underline these key
terms in your explanation. Your explanation should be in accordance with the
theory of natural selection.

2. The diagram at the right shows a


series of homologous bone structures
in four different species of
vertebrates. Explain how these
structures support the theory of
organic evolution.
3. Use the chart at the right which compares
similarities between nitrogenous base
sequences in different primates and your
knowledge of the living environment to answer
the following questions.

(a.) Based on the information provided, which


primate is mostly closely related to humans?
Why?

(b.) Based on the chart at the right, explain


why chimpanzees, humans, and gorillas
produce enzymes and hormones with identical
sequences of amino acids.

5. List and explain three sources of variation in sexually reproducing living things.
Multiple Choice Section

1. 4 10. 3 19. 2 28. 4

2. 4 11. 3 20. 3 29. 2

3. 4 12. 1 21. 4 30. 4

4. 1 13. 2 22. 3 31. 4

5. 1 14. 2 23. 4 32. 1

6. 3 15. 4 24. 2 33. 4

7. 2 16. 4 25. 1 34. 4

8. 3 17. 3 26. 4 35. 4

9. 3 18. 4 27. 4

True/False Section

1. True 2. False (would be true if the word mitosis said meiosis)3. True 4. True 5. True

6. False (would be true if the word asexually was replaced by the word sexually)

7. True 8. True

Constructed Response Section (keep in mind that other responses may be acceptable)

1. Different kinds of variations of gerbils existed having slightly different DNA sequences or genes.
Some gerbils with this different genetic makeup were not harmed by a particular virus. This was
anadaptation which better suited this variety of gerbils for surviving an outbreak of this virus. This ability
to be better suited for survival in this particular situation is referred to as survival of the fittest in Darwin's
theory of natural selection.

2. These similarities in bone structure indicate that these four mammals may have evolved from a common
ancestor.

3. (a.) The chimpanzee has a 98.2% similarity with the human nitrogenous base sequence and would be
considered evolutionally most similar.

(b.) Enzymes and hormones are proteins composed of amino acid sequences. The more similar the
nitrogenous base sequences making up the DNA of different organisms, the more similar their proteins, such
as enzymes and hormones are likely to be. Since all these primates have very similar nitrogenous base
sequences, it is reasonable that they will have many common enzymes, hormones, and other proteins.

4. Mutations are changes in DNA. Recombination occurs when the Mother and Father's genes are mixed
at fertilization. Crossing over is the exchange of chromosome pieces in the first meiotic division. This
means essentially that no two gametes producing offspring from any parent will be the same.
Evolution Practice Test #2

1. Which statement is best supported by fossil records?


(1) Many organisms that lived in the past are now extinct.
(2) Species occupying the same habitat have identical environmental needs.
(3) The struggle for existence between organisms results in changes in populations.
(4) Structures such as leg bones and wing bones can originate from the same type of tissue found in embryos.

2. The first life-forms to appear on Earth were most likely


(1) complex single-celled organisms (2) complex multicellular organisms
(3) simple single-celled organisms (4) simple multicellular organisms

3. One explanation for the variety of organisms present on Earth today is that over time
(1) new species have adapted to fill available niches in the environment
(2) evolution has caused the appearance of organisms that are similar to each other
(3) each niche has changed to support a certain variety of organism
(4) the environment has remained unchanged, causing rapid evolution

Base your answers to questions 4 and 5 on the diagram below and on your knowledge
of biology. Letters A through J represent different species of organisms. The vertical distances
between the dotted lines represent long periods of time in which major environmental changes occurred.

4. Which species was the first to become extinct? (1) E (2) J (3) C (4) D

5. Which species appears to have been most successful in surviving changes in the
environment over time? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D

6. According to the interpretation of the fossil record by many scientists, at which point did multicellular
organisms appear first on Earth?

(1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D (5) E


Base your answers to questions 7 and 8 on the diagram appearing on the next page and on your knowledge of
biology. The diagram shows an interpretation of relationships based on evolutionary theory. The letters
represent different species.

7. Explain why species B and C are more closely related than species A and C are.

8. The diagram indicates that a common ancestor for species C and E is species
(1) F (2) G (3) H (4) K

9. What is the most probable reason for the increase in the percentage of variety A in the population of the
species shown in the graph below?

(1) There is no chance for variety A to mate with variety B.


(2) There is no genetic difference between variety A and variety B.
(3) Variety A is less fit to survive than variety B is.
(4) Variety A has some adaptive advantage that variety B does not have.

10. Which statement represents the major concept of the biological theory of evolution?
(1) A new species moves into a habitat when another species becomes extinct.
(2) Every period of time in Earths history has its own group of organisms.
(3) Present-day organisms on Earth developed from earlier, distinctly different organisms.
(4) Every location on Earths surface has its own unique group of organisms.

11. Some behaviors such as mating and caring for young are genetically determined in certain species of
birds. The presence of these behaviors is most likely due to the fact that
(1) birds do not have the ability to learn
(2) individual birds need to learn to survive and reproduce
(3) these behaviors helped birds to survive in the past
(4) within their lifetimes, birds developed these behaviors
12. Which statement concerning the first appearance of the organisms over the time period represented in
the chart above is most likely correct?
(1) Life on Earth has remained the same.
(2) Life on Earth has changed from primitive organisms to more complex organisms.
(3) Life on Earth began with complex organisms and changed to more complex organisms.
(4) Life on Earth has changed rapidly.

13. The diagram below shows the bones in the forelimbs of two different vertebrate species.

The position and structure of these bones could best be used to make inferences about the
(1) food preferences of these vertebrate species
(2) intelligence of these vertebrate species
(3) evolutionary history of these vertebrate species
(4) reproductive behavior of these vertebrate species

14. The diagram below shows the evolution of some different species of flowers.

Which statement about the species is correct?


(1) Species A, B, C, and D came from different ancestors
(2) Species C evolved from species B.
(3) Species A, B, and C can interbreed successfully.
(4) Species A became extinct.
Use the information below and your knowledge of biology to answer questions 15 and 16 which follow.

15. Which statement best explains why some mosquitoes survived after the first spraying?
(1) Some mosquitoes were adapted to the climatic change that occurred over the several-month
period of spraying.
(2) All of the mosquitoes contained DNA unique to the species.
(3) The spraying of the insecticide represented a change in the environment to which all adult
mosquitoes were adapted.
(4) A natural variation existed within the mosquito population.

16. Which statement best explains the decreased effectiveness of the insecticide?
(1) The insecticide caused mutations that resulted in immunity in the mosquito.
(2) Mosquitoes resistant to the insecticide lived and produced offspring.
(3) The insecticide reacted chemically with the DNA of the mosquitoes and was destroyed.
(4) All of the mosquitoes produced antibodies that activated the insecticide.

17. In addition to the basic ideas of Darwin , the modern theory of evolution includes the concept that
(1.) variations are the result of mutations and gene recombination
(2.) variations exist only in large populations
(3.) overproduction of organisms leads to extinction
(4.) competition occurs only between members of the same.

18. The Florida panther, a member of the cat family, has a population of fewer than 100 individuals and has
limited genetic variation. Which inference based on this information is valid?
(1) These animals will begin to evolve rapidly.
(2) Over time, these animals will become less likely to survive in a changing environment.
(3) These animals are easily able to adapt to the environment.
(4) Over time, these animals will become more likely to be resistant to disease.

19.. According to the heterotroph hypothesis, some early heterotrophs evolved into autotrophs because of
their ability to synthesize organic compounds from water and
(1.) carbon dioxide (2.) oxygen (3.) hydrochloric acid (4.) hydrogen

20. Modern evolutionary theory consists of the concepts of Darwin modified by knowledge concerning
(1.) overpopulation (2.) survival of the fittest (3.) the genetic basis of variation (4.) competition
21. A change in genetic material that produces a variation in a species may be a result of
(1.) a mutation (2.) overproduction of a species (3.) competition (4.) a struggle for survival

22. Variations within a species are most likely the result of


(1.) mutations and sexual reproduction (2.) mitosis and asexual reproduction
(3.) synapsis and disjunction (4.) overpopulation and recombination

23. Which statement is not included as a part of the modern theory of evolution?
(1.) Sexual reproduction and mutation provide variation among organisms.
(2.) More offspring are produced than can possibly survive.
(3.) Traits are transmitted by genes and chromosomes.
(4.) New organs arise when they are needed

24. The concept that new varieties of organisms are still evolving is best supported by the
(1.) increasing need for new antibiotics
(2.) decreasing number of new fossils discovered in undisturbed rock layers
(3.) increasing number of individuals in the human population
(4.) decreasing activity of photosynthetic organisms due to warming of the atmosphere

25. Which factor may have played a role in the development of the polar bear in Alaska and the brown bear
in Russia into separate species?
(1.) geographic isolation (2.) asexual reproduction (3.) mitotic cell division (4.) artificial selection

26. Since the time of Darwin, increased knowledge of heredity has resulted in
(1). the addition of the concept of use and disuse to his theory
(2.) increased support for the theory of natural selection
(3.) the elimination of all previous evolutionary theories
(4.) disagreement with Mendel's discoveries

27. A large population of houseflies was sprayed with a newly developed, fast-acting insecticide. The
appearance of some houseflies that are resistant to this insecticide supports the concept that
(1.) species traits tend to remain constant (2.) variation exists within a species
(3.) biocides cause mutations (4.) the environment does not change

28. If a species of bear in Russia and the brown bear in the United States have a common ancestor, the
differences between these two species most likely resulted from
(1.) mutations and genetic recombination
(2.) the inheritance of acquired traits
(3.) mutations and asexual reproduction
(4.) the development of structures for climbing trees

29. The evolution of new insect populations that are resistant to chemical insecticides illustrates
(1.) biological control (2.) natural selection (3.) use and disuse (4.) low survival value

30. In addition to the basic ideas of Darwin, the modern theory of evolution includes the concept that
(1.) variations are the result of mutations and gene recombination
(2.) variations exist only in large populations
(3.) overproduction of organisms leads to extinction
(4.) competition occurs only between members of the same species

31. In his theory of evolution, Charles Darwin was not able to explain
(1.) competition (2.) reproduction (3.) overproduction (4.) variation
32. Base your answer on the given information and statement.

The Galapagos Islands in the Pacific were probably never connected to South America. However, in the
various habitats on the islands, there are about 14 species of finchlike birds that appear to be related to the
finches on the South American mainland. Although the Galapagos finches vary in beak structure, there is a
close resemblance between these species in plumage, calls, nests, and eggs. These species do not interbreed
and do not compete for food.

Statement: Isolation from the South American mainland and different habitats on the Galapagos Islands are
important factors in the production of new species.
(1.) The statement is supported by the information given.
(2.) The statement is contradicted by the information given.
(3.) The statement is not supported by the information given.
(4.) No relevant information is given regarding the statement.

33. One way that the modern theory of evolution differs from the theory of evolution proposed by Charles
Darwin is that the modern theory
(1.) includes the concept of use and disuse
(2.) identifies mutations as one explanation for variations
(3.) does not include the concept of overproduction
(4.) does not consider the effects of genetic change

34. Based on modern evolutionary theory, how long ago is it thought that complex multicellular organisms
appeared on earth?
(1.) 1 million years ago (2.) 100 million years ago (3.) 1 billion years ago (4.) 4 billion years ago

35. What will most likely happen if the gene frequencies in a given population remain constant?
(1.) Recessive characteristics will increase in the population.
(2.) Evolution will not take place within that population.
(3.) Dominant characteristics will increase within that population.
(4.) Evolution within that population will occur at a faster rate.

36. A large population of cougars is separated into smaller populations as a result of geographic isolation.
Over a long period of time, these groups will most likely become
(1.) identical in genotypes (2.) identical in phenotypes
(3.) artificially selected (4.) reproductively isolated

37. Which gas was added to the environment by the first heterotrophs?
(1.) oxygen (2.) ammonia (3.) carbon dioxide (4.) sulfur dioxide

38. Geographic isolation of a small population from the main group may contribute to the development of
new species. This speciation is more likely to happen if members of the geographically isolated population,
compared to members of the main group, have
(1.) an inability to survive environmental conditions
(2.) the ability to resist genetic mutations
(3.) different environmental factors acting on them
(4.) the same initial gene frequencies

39. Distinct species of birds living on two different islands have similar characteristics which indicate
common ancestry. The differences that have evolved to make these species distinct have resulted in
(1.) the inheritance of acquired traits (2.) frequent interbreeding
(3.) the elimination of variations (4.) reproductive isolation
40. What would most likely be the result of two subdivisions of a population remaining geographically
isolated from each other for several hundred generations?
(1.) Variations in one subdivision would differ from the variations in the other subdivision.
(2.) Variations in both subdivisions would be identical.
(3.) Neither subdivision would show any variations.
(4.) Both subdivisions would show variations resulting in similar mating patterns.

41. Which would best represent a quick biological adaptation?


(1.) The fossil record shows the existence of trilobites and dinosaurs in the past.
(2.) Building malls has decreased the available habitats for some organisms.
(3.) Some organisms have not changed in their characteristics for millions of years.
(4.) Species of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have developed in some hospital environments.

42 According to the theory of natural selection, genes responsible for new traits that usually beneficial to
the survival of a species in a particular environment will usually
(1.) decrease suddenly in frequency (2.) decrease gradually in frequency
(3.) not change in frequency (4.) increase in frequency

43. Which factor would have the least effect on changing the gene frequencies (percentages) within a
population?
(1.) geographic isolation (2.) asexual reproduction (3.) use and disuse (4.) gene pool (makeup) stability

True-False Section

1. Evolution necessitates long-term progress in any set direction.

2. An increased variation of organisms within a species decreases the possibility that some members of the
species will survive changed environmental conditions.

3. Many organism behaviors have evolved through natural selection.

4. Meiosis and fertilization make possible a great variety of gene combinations which drive natural
selection.

5. Evolutionary changes appear to be like the growth of a bush. Some branches survive from the beginning
with little or no change, many die out all together, and others branch repeatedly, sometimes giving rise to
more complex organisms.

6. The great diversity of organisms is thought by evolutionists to be the result of billions of years of
evolution that has filled the earth's niches with available life forms.

7. Extinction of species is relatively uncommon. Most of the species that have lived on the earth are
currently alive.

8. The closer the DNA sequences between two different organisms, the lesser the kinship or evolutionary
relationship between them.

9. Biological adaptation of species involves the selection of naturally occurring variations within
populations.
10. Biological adaptations include changes in structures, behaviors, or physiology that enhance survival
and reproductive success in a particular environment.

11. Biological evolution is thought to account for the diversity of species developed through processes over
many generations.

12. The fossil record indicates that very few organisms have actually become extinct.

13. Small differences between parents and offspring can accumulate in successive generations so that
descendants become very different from their parents.

14. Radiation or chemicals can not cause gene mutations.

15. Only gene mutations which occur in sex cells can be passed on to the offspring.

16. The extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of
the species are no longer sufficient to allow their survival.

17. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and insect resistance to pesticides is an ever increasing problem due
to natural selection processes in these organisms.

Constructed Response Section

Some bacteria have become resistant to penicillin by producing an enzyme called penicillinase to destroy this
antibiotic. In an essay, explain one mechanism of these bacteria developing resistance. Include the terms
variation, adaptation, natural selection, resistance, gene, and survival of the fittest correctly explained and
indicated in your response.

Multiple-Choice Questions

17. 1
18. 2

1. 1 11. 3 19. 1 28. 1 37. 3

2. 3 12. 3 20. 3 29. 2 38. 3

3. 1 13. 3 21. 1 30. 1 39. 4

4. 4 14. 4 22. 1 31. 4 40. 1

5. 2 15. 4 23. 4 32. 1 41. 4

6. 4 16. 2 24. 1 33. 2 42. 4

7. They have the most recent common ancestor which is species F (so they have had less time than the others to
become different).

8. 4 25. 1 34. 3 43. 2

9. 4 26. 2 35. 2

10. 3 27. 2 36. 4

True/False Section 1. F 10. T

2. F 11. T

3. T 12. F

4. T 13. T

5. T 14. F

6. T 15. T

7. F 16. T

8. F 17. T

9. T

Constructed Response Answer (other student responses may be acceptable)


There were in existence different variations of a species of bacteria. Some of these bacteria variations were
killed by penicillin, while others were not killed by this antibiotic. The varieties of bacteria that were not killed had
a resistance to penicillin. These resistant bacteria had different genes which made them genetically different to the
non-resistant bacteria. This adaptation better suited the resistant bacteria to survive in this environment with
penicillin. This ability to better survive a change in the environment is called survival of the fittest. The entire
process where a variation of a species survives and adapts while another does not and is removed from the population
is called natural selection.