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Contoh Contoh Soal Getaran Bebas Tanpa Redaman.

#1.
Satu beban 3 kg tergantung pada pegas sehingga pegas
berdefleksi memanjang 42 mm. Hitung konstanta
kekakuan pegas k itu.

#2.
Hitung frekuensi pribadi fn dari sistim massa-
pegas seperti pada gambar disamping.

#3.
Satu sistim massa-pegas seperti gambar
disamping ditarik kebawah sejauh 100 mm
dari titik posisi setimbangnya (equilibrium)
kemudian dilepas. Hitung periode getarannya
, defleksi statiknya pada saat sistim diam
st , dan kecepatan maksimumnya vmax.
#4.
Suatu plunyer vertikal dengan massa 2,5 kg
terpasang seperti pada gambar yaitu ditahan oleh
2 buah pegas dengan konstanta kekakuan masing-
masing yang dalam keadaan tertekan. Hitung
frekuensi pribadi fn getaran dari plunyer ini.

#5.
Dalam keadaan setimbang silinder dengan massa
30 kg menekan pegas spiral pada gambar
disamping sehingga berdefleksi tertekan sejauh
50 mm. Kemudian silinder tersebut ditekan lagi
kebawah sejauh 25 mm dan dilepaskan. Hitung
berapa Hz frekuensi getaran pribadi fn sistim ini
kemudian bergetar.
#6.
Satu silinder dengan massa 10 kg diikat dengan
pegas dan melalui pulli pulli seperti pada gambar
disamping. Hitung frekuensi pribadi fn sistim ini
bila bergetar.

#7.
Suatu peluncur dengan massa 0,1 kg
berosilasi didalam lubang. Peluncur itu
disebelah kanan ditahan oleh 1 buah pegas,
dan di sebelah kiri ditahan oleh 2 buah
pegas yang masing mempunyai konstanta
kekakuan pegas k = 90 N/m. Pada saat
awal t = 0 simpangan x0 = 3 mm dan kecepatannya v = 12 mm/detik. Hitung
besarnya simpangan dan kecepatannya setelah waktu t = 2 detik. Hitung pula
periode getarannya .
#8.
Tentukan konstanta kekakuan pegas eqivalen keq
pengganti pegas pegas pada gambar (a) dan (b)
disamping ini.

#9.
Seorang wanita dengan berat
massa 55 kg berdiri ditengah papan
sehingga papan tersebut
berdefleksi ditengah sejauh 22mm.
Bila wanita itu bergerak sehingga
papan bergetar, hitung berapa
frekuensi pribadi fn getaran papan
tersebut.
#10.
Massa sebesar 25 kg tergantung pada 2 buah pegas
melalui katrol atau pulli dengan masing masing
konstanta kekakuan k = 1200 N/m. hitung frekuensi
pribadi fn getaran dari sistim ini.

#11.
Hitung frekuensi pribadi fn getaran dari
sistim katrol seperti pada gambar
disamping.
#12.
Hitung frekuensi pribadi fn getaran
dari sistim katrol seperti pada
gambar disamping.
c08.qxd 6/28/06 4:48 PM Page 609

Article 8/2 Free Vibration of Particles 609

Sample Problem 8/1

A body weighing 25 lb is suspended from a spring of constant k  160 lb/ft.


At time t  0, it has a downward velocity of 2 ft/sec as it passes through the posi-
tion of static equilibrium. Determine k = 160 lb /ft
(a) the static spring deflection st
(b) the natural frequency of the system in both rad/sec (n) and
cycles/sec ( n )
W = 25 lb
(c) the system period 
(d) the displacement x as a function of time, where x is measured from the
position of static equilibrium Fs = kst
(e) the maximum velocity vmax attained by the mass k( st + x) kx
st
( ) the maximum acceleration amax attained by the mass. Equilibrium
position x


Solution. (a) From the spring relationship Fs  kx, we see that at equilibrium
mg
mg 25 mg
 mg  kst st    0.1562 ft or 1.875 in. Ans.
k 160
Helpful Hints
(b) n   k
m
  160
25/32.2
 14.36 rad/sec Ans.  You should always exercise extreme
caution in the matter of units. In the
 (14.36)   2.28 cycles/sec
1 Ans. subject of vibrations, it is quite easy
n
2 to commit errors due to mixing of
feet and inches, cycles and radians,
1 1 and other pairs which frequently
(c)    0.438 sec Ans.
n 2.28 enter the calculations.

(d) From Eq. 8/6:
 Recall that when we refer the mo-
x 0 tion to the position of static equilib-
x  x0 cos nt  sin nt rium, the equation of motion, and
n
2 therefore its solution, for the pres-
 (0) cos 14.36t  sin 14.36t ent system is identical to that for
14.36
the horizontally vibrating system.
 0.1393 sin 14.36t Ans.

As an exercise, let us determine x from the alternative Eq. 8/7:

  x 
x 0 n
x  x02  (x 0 /n)2 sin nt  tan1
0

 0   sin 14.36t  tan  


14.36
2 (0)(14.36)
2 2 1
2

 0.1393 sin 14.36t

(e) The velocity is x  14.36(0.1393) cos 14.36t  2 cos 14.36t. Because the
cosine function cannot be greater than 1 or less than 1, the maximum velocity
vmax is 2 ft/sec, which, in this case, is the initial velocity. Ans.

( ) The acceleration is

x  14.36(2) sin 14.36t  28.7 sin 14.36t

The maximum acceleration amax is 28.7 ft/sec2. Ans.


c08.qxd 6/28/06 4:48 PM Page 610

610 Chapter 8 Vibration and Time Response

Sample Problem 8/2


x
The 8-kg body is moved 0.2 m to the right of the equilibrium position and c
released from rest at time t  0. Determine its displacement at time t  2 s. The
viscous damping coefficient c is 20 N  s/m, and the spring stiffness k is 32 N/m. 8 kg

Solution. We must first determine whether the system is underdamped, criti- k


cally damped, or overdamped. For that purpose, we compute the damping ratio .

c 20 Equilibrium
n  k/m  32/8  2 rad/s    0.625
2mn 2(8)(2) position
x
Since   1, the system is underdamped. The damped natural frequency is mg
d  n1  2  21  (0.625)2  1.561 rad/s. The motion is given by Eq. 8/12
and is cx = 20x

x  Cent sin (dt  )  Ce1.25t sin (1.561t  ) kx = 32x


The velocity is then
x  1.25Ce1.25t sin (1.561t  )  1.561Ce1.25t cos (1.561t  ) N

Evaluating the displacement and velocity at time t  0 gives


x0  C sin   0.2 x 0  1.25C sin   1.561C cos   0 Helpful Hint
Solving the two equations for C and  yields C  0.256 m and   0.896 rad.  We note that the exponential factor
Therefore, the displacement in meters is e1.25t is 0.0821 at t  2 s. Thus,
  0.625 represents severe damp-
x  0.256e1.25t sin (1.561t  0.896)
ing, although the motion is still
 Evaluation for time t  2 s gives x2  0.01616 m. Ans. oscillatory.

Sample Problem 8/3

The two fixed counterrotating pulleys are driven at the same angular speed
0. A round bar is placed off center on the pulleys as shown. Determine the nat- 0 0
a
ural frequency of the resulting bar motion. The coefficient of kinetic friction be-
tween the bar and pulleys is k. Central y
position
Solution. The free-body diagram of the bar is constructed for an arbitrary dis- a a

placement x from the central position as shown. The governing equations are 2 2
x

[Fx  mx] k NA  k NB  mx
A G B
[Fy  0] NA  NB  mg  0 k NA k NB
NA mg NB
 [MA  0] aNB a2  xmg  0 Helpful Hints
Eliminating NA and NB from the first equation yields  Because the bar is slender and does
2k g not rotate, the use of a moment
 x  a x  0 equilibrium equation is justified.
 We note that the angular speed 0
We recognize the form of this equation as that of Eq. 8/2, so that the natural fre-
does not enter the equation of mo-
quency in radians per second is n  2k g/a and the natural frequency in cy-
tion. The reason for this is our as-
cles per second is
sumption that the kinetic friction
1 force does not depend on the relative
n  2k g/a Ans.
2 velocity at the contacting surface.
c08.qxd 6/28/06 4:48 PM Page 627

Article 8/3 Forced Vibration of Particles 627

Sample Problem 8/4

A 50-kg instrument is supported by four springs, each of stiffness 7500 N/m.


If the instrument foundation undergoes harmonic motion given in meters by
xB  0.002 cos 50t, determine the amplitude of the steady-state motion of the in-
strument. Damping is negligible. xB

Solution. For harmonic oscillation of the base, we substitute kb for F0 in our par-
ticular-solution results, so that, from Eq. 8/17, the steady-state amplitude becomes

b
 X Helpful Hints
1  (/n)2
 Note that either sin 50 t or cos 50 t
The resonant frequency is n  k/m  4(7500)/50  24.5 rad/s, and the im- can be used for the forcing function
pressed frequency   50 rad/s is given. Thus, with this same result.
0.002
 X  6.32(104) m or 0.632 mm Ans.  The minus sign indicates that the
1  (50/24.5)2 motion is 180 out of phase with the
Note that the frequency ratio /n is approximately 2, so that the condition of applied excitation.
resonance is avoided.

Neutral position
Sample Problem 8/5 xB = b cos t
k
The spring attachment point B is given a horizontal motion xB  b cos t.
Determine the critical driving frequency c for which the oscillations of the mass
m tend to become excessively large. Neglect the friction and mass associated B
with the pulleys. The two springs have the same stiffness k.
T T

Equilibrium
position
Solution. The free-body diagram is drawn for arbitrary positive displacements x m
x and xB. The motion variable x is measured downward from the position of sta-
tic equilibrium defined as that which exists when xB  0. The additional stretch
 in the upper spring, beyond that which exists at static equilibrium, is 2x  xB. k
Therefore, the dynamic spring force in the upper spring, and hence the dynamic
 tension T in the cable, is k(2x  xB). Summing forces in the x-direction gives
kx
[Fx  mx] 2k(2x  xB)  kx  mx (Dynamic forces only)

which becomes Helpful Hints

5k 2kb cos t  If a review of the kinematics of con-


x  x strained motion is necessary, see
m m
Art. 2/9.
The natural frequency of the system is n  5k/m. Thus,  We learned from the discussion in
Art. 8/2 that the equal and opposite
c n  5k/m Ans. forces associated with the position of
static equilibrium may be omitted
from the analysis. Our use of the
terms dynamic spring force and dy-
namic tension stresses that only the
force increments in addition to the
static values need be considered.
c08.qxd 6/28/06 4:48 PM Page 636

636 Chapter 8 Vibration and Time Response

Sample Problem 8/7 Oy

A simplified version of a pendulum used in impact tests is shown in the figure.


Derive the equation of motion and determine the period for small oscillations
O Ox
about the pivot. The mass center G is located a distance r  0.9 m from O, and the
radius of gyration about O is kO  0.95 m. The friction of the bearing is negligible.

r r
Solution. We draw the free-body diagram for an arbitrary, positive value of the
angular-displacement variable , which is measured counterclockwise for the coor-
dinate system chosen. Next we apply the governing equation of motion to obtain G

 [MO  IO ] mgr sin  mkO2

gr
or  sin  0 Ans.
kO2
mg
Note that the governing equation is independent of the mass. When is small,
sin  , and our equation of motion may be written as Helpful Hints
gr  With our choice of point O as the
 0
kO2 moment center, the bearing reac-
tions Ox and Oy never enter the
 The frequency in cycles per second and the period in seconds are equation of motion.

k  gr
1 gr 1 kO2  For large angles of oscillation, deter-
n    2 Ans.
2 O
2 n mining the period for the pendulum
requires the evaluation of an elliptic
(9.81)(0.9)  2.01 s
2
(0.95)
For the given properties:   2 Ans. integral.

l l

2 2
Sample Problem 8/8 O
m
The uniform bar of mass m and length l is pivoted at its center. The spring k k
of constant k at the left end is attached to a stationary surface, but the right-end
spring, also of constant k, is attached to a support which undergoes a harmonic B
yB = b sin t
motion given by yB  b sin t. Determine the driving frequency c which causes
resonance.
Helpful Hints
 As previously, we consider only the
Solution. We use the moment equation of motion about the fixed point O to changes in the forces due to a move-
obtain ment away from the equilibrium
position.
 
 k
l
2 
sin
l
2
l
cos  k sin  yB
2 
l
2
cos 
1
12
ml2  Oy

Assuming small deflections and simplifying give us Ox


6k
m

6kb
ml
sin t
k
2(
l sin
) mg (l sin y
k
2 B )
 The natural frequency should be recognized from the now-familiar form of the
 The standard form here is  n2 
equation to be
M0 sin t klb
, where M0  and IO 
n  6k/m IO 2
1
12 ml . The natural frequency n of a
2

Thus, c  n  6k/m will result in resonance (as well as violation of our small- system does not depend on the exter-
angle assumption!). Ans. nal disturbance.
c08.qxd 6/28/06 4:48 PM Page 636

636 Chapter 8 Vibration and Time Response

Sample Problem 8/7 Oy

A simplified version of a pendulum used in impact tests is shown in the figure.


Derive the equation of motion and determine the period for small oscillations
O Ox
about the pivot. The mass center G is located a distance r  0.9 m from O, and the
radius of gyration about O is kO  0.95 m. The friction of the bearing is negligible.

r r
Solution. We draw the free-body diagram for an arbitrary, positive value of the
angular-displacement variable , which is measured counterclockwise for the coor-
dinate system chosen. Next we apply the governing equation of motion to obtain G

 [MO  IO ] mgr sin  mkO2

gr
or  sin  0 Ans.
kO2
mg
Note that the governing equation is independent of the mass. When is small,
sin  , and our equation of motion may be written as Helpful Hints
gr  With our choice of point O as the
 0
kO2 moment center, the bearing reac-
tions Ox and Oy never enter the
 The frequency in cycles per second and the period in seconds are equation of motion.

k  gr
1 gr 1 kO2  For large angles of oscillation, deter-
n    2 Ans.
2 O
2 n mining the period for the pendulum
requires the evaluation of an elliptic
(9.81)(0.9)  2.01 s
2
(0.95)
For the given properties:   2 Ans. integral.

l l

2 2
Sample Problem 8/8 O
m
The uniform bar of mass m and length l is pivoted at its center. The spring k k
of constant k at the left end is attached to a stationary surface, but the right-end
spring, also of constant k, is attached to a support which undergoes a harmonic B
yB = b sin t
motion given by yB  b sin t. Determine the driving frequency c which causes
resonance.
Helpful Hints
 As previously, we consider only the
Solution. We use the moment equation of motion about the fixed point O to changes in the forces due to a move-
obtain ment away from the equilibrium
position.
 
 k
l
2 
sin
l
2
l
cos  k sin  yB
2 
l
2
cos 
1
12
ml2  Oy

Assuming small deflections and simplifying give us Ox


6k
m

6kb
ml
sin t
k
2(
l sin
) mg (l sin y
k
2 B )
 The natural frequency should be recognized from the now-familiar form of the
 The standard form here is  n2 
equation to be
M0 sin t klb
, where M0  and IO 
n  6k/m IO 2
1
12 ml . The natural frequency n of a
2

Thus, c  n  6k/m will result in resonance (as well as violation of our small- system does not depend on the exter-
angle assumption!). Ans. nal disturbance.
c08.qxd 6/28/06 4:48 PM Page 646

646 Chapter 8 Vibration and Time Response

Sample Problem 8/10

The small sphere of mass m is mounted on the light rod pivoted at O and b
k
supported at end A by the vertical spring of stiffness k. End A is displaced a
O
small distance y0 below the horizontal equilibrium position and released. By the m A
energy method, derive the differential equation of motion for small oscillations
of the rod and determine the expression for its natural frequency n of vibration. l
Damping is negligible.

Solution. With the displacement y of the end of the bar measured from the b y k
equilibrium position, the potential energy in the displaced position for small val-
O l st
ues of y becomes y

 V  V e  Vg 
1
2
1 b
k(y  st)2  kst2  mg y
2 l   m A
Equilibrium
position
where st is the static deflection of the spring at equilibrium. But the force in
the spring in the equilibrium position, from a zero moment sum about O, is
(b/l)mg  kst. Substituting this value in the expression for V and simplifying yield Helpful Hints
 For large values of y, the circular
1 2
 V ky motion of the end of the bar would
2
cause our expression for the deflec-
The kinetic energy in the displaced position is tion of the spring to be in error.

 
2
T
1 b
m y  Here again, we note the simplicity of
2 l the expression for potential energy
when the displacement is measured
where we see that the vertical displacement of m is (b/l)y. Thus, with the energy
from the equilibrium position.
sum constant, its time derivative is zero, and we have

    12 ky   0
2
d d 1 b
(T  V)  m y 2
dt dt 2 l

which yields

l2 k
y  y0 Ans.
b2 m

when y is canceled. By analogy with Eq. 8/2, we may write the motion frequency
directly as

l
n  k/m Ans.
b

Alternatively, we can obtain the frequency by equating the maximum ki-


netic energy, which occurs at y  0, to the maximum potential energy, which oc-
curs at y  y0  ymax, where the deflection is a maximum. Thus,

 
2
1 b 1
Tmax  Vmax gives m y max  ky 2
2 l 2 max
Knowing that we have a harmonic oscillation, which can be expressed as y 
ymax sin nt, we have y max  ymaxn. Substituting this relation into our energy
balance gives us

 
2
1 b 1 l
m ymaxn  ky 2 so that n  k/m Ans.
2 l 2 max b

as before.
JURUSAN TEKNIK MESIN
FAKULTAS TEKNIK U.I.

Lengan AB dari keran pengangkat


muatan di kapal terbuat dari batang baja
uniform dengan panjang 10 m dan luas
penampang 2500 mm. Satu muatan
yang akan dimuat kedalam kapal
tergantung statis pada keran dengan
berat W. Kabel Penarik beban dan
penahan CDEBF terbuat dari baja pula
dengan luas penampang 100 mm.
Rangkaian kabel CDEB pada pulley bisa
diabaikan, dianggap satu kabel saja.
Hitung konstanta elastisitas (pegas
ekivalen) dari sistim pengangkat muatan
ini pada arah vertikal. Modulus Young
baja E = 207109 N/m.
Satu ocean-going luxury liner yang besar
mempunyai masalah getaran. Kapal ini
mempunyai 4 propeller dengan massa
12.200 kg setiap propellernya. Masing
masing propeller digerakkan oleh poros
berrongga yang panjang dengam ukuran
L= 71,6 m, ID= 0,28 m dan OD= 0,56 m.
Kapal berlayar dengan putaran poros
adalah 258 rpm.
Hitung frekuensi pribadi getaran
longitudinal dari poros panjang dan
propeller tersebut.
Apa yang terjadi bila propeller yang
digunakan mempunyai 4 sudu.
Bagaimana cara mengkoreksi masalah getaran tersebut.
Satu pesawat terbang ringan dengan
propulsi baling baling digerakkan oleh
motor bakar 4-langkah 9 silinder radial.
Daya motor diteruskan melalui satu poros
pendek kepada kedua bilah baling baling
yang terbuat dari aluminium. Momen
inersia baling baling arah aksial besarnya
adalah 17,62 kgm2, sedangkan momen
inersia efektif dari seluruh komponen
mesin radial yang bergerak/berputar adalah 0,544 kgm2. Konstanta elastisitas puntir
dari poros baling baling adalah 0,45106 Nm2/rad.
(a) Hitung berapa besarnya frekuensi pribadi dari sistim propulsi pesawat terbang
tersebut. (b) Bila motor radial penggerak itu dioperasikan pada kecepatan putaran
200 rpm, jelaskan apa yang kemungkinan terjadi.
Satu model rudder pesawat terbang bila
dipandang dari atas adalah seperti pada
gambar disamping, dan dapat dianggap
sebagai sebagai satu batang kaku dengan
engsel pegas torsi Kt. Bila tahanan udara
pada kedua sisi rudder dapat dianggap
sebagai pegas linier k1 dan k2, sedangkan
Xsint
aliran udara turbulensi pada rudder
dianggap menimbulkan eksitasi getaran paksa dengan respons simpangan Xsint
dan defleksi rudder adalah sudut yang kecil maka hitunglah frekuensi pribadi dari
rudder ini.
King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals
Mechanical Engineering Department
(Semester 061)

ME 482 Mechanical Vibrations HW # 1 - Solution


(Assigned: Monday, 5 March 2007 Due: Monday, 12 March 2007)
_____________________________________________________________________________

1) Write the equations of motion (EOM) and then find the natural frequency for the following
inclined mass-spring system.

2) Find the EOM, natural frequency and damping ratio for the following system.