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Fundamental Rules on
Citations

Introduction

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Why cite?

nAvoid plagiarizing anothers work


nAid
the future researcher find ones
sources
nProvide evidence for ones argument

How long does it take to cite?

nNot an overnight thing


nTip for the Midterms:
nFamiliarity with the rules

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Which sources should one cite?

nPrimary authorities
nSecondary authorities
nBooks
nJournal articles
nTheses
nNews clips
nReliable websites

How to cite?

nFootnotes
nALJ Legal Citation Guide
nThe Bluebook

nFull citations v. subsequent citations


nRequires precision

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Basics Footnotes

nPhilippine Constitution:
PHIL. CONST. art. ___, ___, ___.
Note:
Always cite the Constitution in full.

1. PHIL. CONST. art. II, 3.


2. PHIL. CONST. art. II, 3.

Basics Footnotes

nCodes/Statutes:

Full Title [Short Title], Statute Number,


subdivisions, (year).

3. An Act to Ordain and Institute the Civil


Code of the Philippines [CIVIL CODE],
Republic Act No. 386, art. 21 (1950).

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Basics Footnotes

nSubsequent citations:
Short Title, subdivisions.

4. PHIL. CONST. art. I.


5. CIVIL CODE, art. 3.
6. Id. art. 207.

Basics Footnotes

nSupreme Court Decisions:


Case Title, volume number SCRA/
SCAD/Phil. first page, cited page
(year).

7. Arriola v. Mandocdoc, 436 SCRA 30, 41


(2008).

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Basics Footnotes

nSubsequent citations:
First Party, volume number SCRA/SCAD/
Phil. at cited page.

8. PHIL. CONST. art. I.


9. Arriola, 436 SCRA at 54.
10. Id.
11. Id. at 52.

Basics Footnotes

nSeparate opinions
Cite like an ordinary case (J. Surname of
Justice, separate/concurring/dissenting
opinion).

12. Philippines v. Mandocdoc, 416 SCRA


20, 31 (2007) (J. Candelaria, dissenting
opinion).
13. Id. at 59 (J. Caguioa, concurring opinion).

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Basics Footnotes

nBooks with Single Author


AUTHOR, TITLE cited page (year of
publication or edition number year of
publication).

14. FLORENZ D. REGALADO, CRIMINAL LAW


CONSPECTUS 45 (4th ed. 2009).
15. Id. at 342.

Basics Footnotes

nBooks with Multiple Authors


AUTHOR 1 & AUTHOR 2 OR AUTHOR 1, ET
AL., TITLE cited page (year of publication
or edition number year of publication).

16. JOSE C. VITUG & ARNESTO D. ACOSTA, TAX


LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE 89 (3d ed. 2006).

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Basics Footnotes

nSubsequent Citations
SURNAME OF AUTHOR(S), supra note
footnote, at page being cited.

17. REGALADO, supra note 14, at 13.


18. VITUG & ACOSTA, supra note 16, at 432.

Basics Footnotes

nConsecutively Paginated Journals


Author, Title of the Article, volume number
JOURNAL first page, cited page (year).

19. Ryan Jeremiah D. Quan, Revisiting the


Element of Exploitation in the Definition
of Trafficking in Persons in Republic Act No.
9208, 57 ATENEO L.J. 402, 405 (2012).
20. Id. at 408.

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Basics Footnotes

nUnpublished Theses
Author, Title of the Article, at page number (date)
(description, institution that awarded the degree)
(source).

21. Jose P. Tejada, A Critique of the Jurisprudence


on the Matter of Supreme Courts Administrative
Supervision, at 11 (2002) (unpublished J.D.
thesis, Ateneo de Manila University) (on file with
the Professional Schools Library, Ateneo de
Manila University).

Basics Footnotes

nWebsites

Author, Title of the Article, available at


URL (last accessed date).

22. United Nations Office of the High


Commissioner for Human Rights, What are
human rights?, available at http://www.ohc
ch.or/en/issues/Pages/WhatareHumanRights.
aspx (last accessed June 26, 2016).

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Basics Footnotes

nNews Articles Online


Author (if available), Headline, NEWSPAPER, date
of publication, available at URL (last accessed
date).

23. Maila Ager, Tupas on disclosure of


evidence: Whats wrong?, PHIL. DAILY
INQ., Jan. 4, 2012, available at http://
newsinfo.inquirer.net/122301/tupas-on-
disclosure-of-evidence-whats-wrong (last
accessed June 26, 2016).

Basics Footnotes

nSubsequent Citations

24. Quan, supra note 19, at 430.


25. Tejada, surpa note 21, at 35.
26. Ager, supra note 23.

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Short Citation Forms Rules

Id. Supra.
Constitution
Laws, Cases
Treaties
Secondary Sources

Basics Footnotes

nOther uses of footnotes: Explanations

Has the Philippines successfully transitioned


from its Marcosian26 past?

26. The Proponent uses the term Marcosian


to refer to the massive violations of civil
and political rights and the economic
plunder committed by those in public
office during the time of Marcos.

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General Rules of Usage

Double Citations

nSource being cited is citing another source


nFormula:
n X (citing Y).
n X = source being cited by the student

n Y = source being cited by X

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Paraphrasing v. Quotations v.
Block Quotes
nQuotations 49 words or less
n In line with text
n Inside quotation marks
n Placement of footnote reference
n After punctuation/quotation mark
n ________.2
n ________?3

Paraphrasing v. Quotations v.
Block Quotes
nBlock Quotes 50 words and above
nSingle-spaced, indented on both sides,
justified
nNo more double quotation marks
nQuotations within block quotes single
nPlacement of the footnote reference
nLast sentence of the last paragraph

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Alterations and Omissions

nBrackets
nAlterations or substitution
nUnchanged significant mistakes in the
original
nOmitted letters or punctuations

nEllipsis
nOmissions in the middle of the quotation
nHe said that [t]he rules provide[.]

Emphasis

nEmphasis supplied
nEmphasis omitted
nEmphasis maintained?

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Refresher

True or False.

The Philippine Constitution must


always be cited in full. The words
Phil. and Const. must always be
in ALL CAPS.

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True or False.

The Philippine Constitution may be


cited using Id. if, and only if, the
immediately preceding footnote
cites the same provision of the
Philippine Constitution.

True or False.

Laws and statutes are generally


cited using this order: Full Title
[Short Title], Statute No., provision
being cited (year).

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True or False.

In citing laws and Supreme Court


cases, the short citation supra may
not be used.

True or False.

The short citation Id. may be used


in citing laws and cases if the
immediately preceding footnote
cites the same source.

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True or False.

The short citation Id. may not be


used if the immediately preceding
citation is located in another page.

True or False.

For secondary sources, like books


and journal articles, the name of the
author in the citation must be
indicated in the following order:
surname, first name, middle initial.

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True or False.

The rule on citing secondary


sources generally allows the use of
Id. and supra for subsequent
citations.

True or False.

For secondary sources with two


authors, only the name of the first
author must be indicated followed
by et al.

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True or False.

Citations for Internet sources end


with a date. This indicates the
sources latest date of publication or
revision.

FAQs

In a subsequent citation, the


number provided after supra note
refers to what?

Reyes, supra note 15, at 17.

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FAQs

What is the rule on double citation?

FAQs

Block quotes vs. direct quotes vs.


paraphrasing

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Thank you.

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