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ABILITY TESTING

Tests of Intellectual Ability

All psychological tests are designed to measure behavior


Hence the selection of proper tests and the interpretation of tests results require knowledge about human
behavior
Familiarity with relevant behavioral research is needed not only by the test constructor but also by the test user.
What can psychological research contribute to the understanding of the behavior measured by tests of cognitive
abilities or intelligence?

The Nature of Intelligence

A convenient index of intelligence is the intelligence quotient or the IQ


It expresses intelligence as a ration of mental age to chronological age:

IQ =

MA is obtained by summing the number of items passed at each level.


(Suggested by German psychologist William Stern, adopted by Lewis Terman)

NOTE: THE IQ IS NO LONGER CALCULATED USING THIS EQUATION

Tables are used to convert raw scores on the test to standard scores that are adjusted so the mean at each age
equals 100
IMPORTANT
o When considering the numerical value of each given IQ, one should always specify the test from which it
was derived
o Different intelligence tests that yield an IQ differ in content and in other ways that affect the interpretation
of their scores.

SOME CONSIDERATIONS IN USING THE SYMBOL IQ:

1. Tested intelligence should be regarded as a descriptive rather than an explanatory concept


An IQ is an expression of an individuals ability level at a given point in time, in relation to the available
age norms
No intelligence test can indicate the reasons for ones performance
Intelligence tests should be used not to label individuals but to help in understanding them.
2. Intelligence is not a single, unitary ability, but a composite of several functions.
The term is commonly used to cover that combination of abilities required for survival and advancement
within a particular culture
Implications:
o Specific abilities in this composite way with time and place
o In different cultures and at different historical periods within that culture, the qualifications for
successful achievement differs
o One individual varies from infancy to adulthood

ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS:

To base decisions on tests alone, and especially on one or two tests alone, is clearly a misuse of tests
Decisions must be made by persons
Tests represent one set of data utilized in making decisions; they are not themselves decision-making instruments
At a broader level, all tests results can be best understood within a contextual framework

DEFINING INTELLIGENCE BINETS VIEWPOINT

Alfred Binet defined intelligence as the capacity:


1. To find and maintain a definite direction or purpose
2. To make necessary adaptations that is, strategy adjustments to achieve that purpose, and
3. To engage in self-criticism so that necessary adjustments in strategy can be made

In developing tasks to measure judgment, attention, and reasoning. Binet was guided by two principles of test
construction:

Principle 1: Age Differentiation

Refers to the simple fact that one differentiate older children from younger children by the formers greater
capabilities
o Binet assembled a set of tasks that an increasing proportion of children could complete as a function of
age
o Using these tasks, he was able to estimate the mental ability of a child in terms of his or her completion of
the tasks designed for the average child of a particular age, regardless of the childs actual or
chronological age.

With the principle of differentiation, one could determine the equivalent age capabilities of a child independent of her
chronological age.

Principle 2: General Mental Ability

Refers to the total product of the various separated and distinct elements of intelligence
With this concept, Binet freed himself from the burden of identifying each element or independent aspect of
intelligence; he was also freed from finding the relation of each element to the whole
His decision to measure general ability was based on practical considerations.

SPEARMANS MODEL OF GENERAL MENTAL ABILITY

Binet was not alone in his conception of general mental ability. Before Binet, the idea was propounded by Francis
Galton (1869) in his book Hereditary Genius
Working independently of Binet, in Great Britain, Charles Spearman (1904, 1927) advanced this idea;
o Intelligence consists of one general factor(g) plus a large number of specific factors
Spearmans general mental ability which he referred to as psychometric g (or simply g), was based on the
well documented phenomenon that when a set of diverse ability tests are administered to large unbiased sample
of the population, almost all of the correlations are positive
This phenomenon is called positive manifold, which according to Spearman resulted from the fact that all tests,
no matted how diverse, are influenced by g.

FACTOR ANALYSIS

To support the notion of g. Spearman developed a statistical technique called factor analysis a method for
reducing a set of variable of scored to a smaller number of hypothetical variable called factors.
Through factor analysis, one can determine the common variance of all factors. This common variance represents
the g factor.
Today, Spearmans g is the most established and ubiquitous predictor of occupational and educational
performance

Implications of General Mental Intelligence (g)

1. A persons intelligence can best be represented by a single score, g, that presumably reflects the shared
variance underlying performance on a diverse set of tests
2. Differences in unique ability stemming from the specific task lend to cancel each others, and overall performance
comes to depend most heavily on the general factor.

THE GF-GC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE

Recent theories of intelligence have suggested that human intelligence can be best conceptualized in terms of
multiple intelligences rather than a single score. One such theory is called the gf-gc theory.
According to this theory, there are two basic types of intelligence: fluid (f) and crystallized (c).
Fluid intelligence can best thought of as those abilities that allow us to reason, think, and acquired new knowledge
Crystallized intelligence represents the knowledge and understanding that we have acquired.

INDIVIDUAL TESTS

1. Standford- Binet Intelligence Scale


For use from the age of two years to the adult level
15 tests representing five major cognitive areas:
o Fluid Reasoning (FR)
o Knowledge (KN)
o Quantitative reasoning (QR)
o Visual/Spatial reasoning (VS)
o Working Memory (WM)
1905 Binet-Simon Scale
1908 Binet Simon Scale
1916 Standford Binet Intelligence Scale
1937 Standford Binet
1960 Standford Binet
1986 Standfod Binet (4TH edition)
Current edition: 5TH edition, 2003

2. The Wechsler Scales original 1939)


a. Overemphasis on speed in most tests; this handicaps the older adult
b. Routine manipulation of words received undue weight in the traditional intelligence test
c. Inapplicability of mental age norms to adults; few adults had previously been included in the
standardization sample for intelligence tests
Although both Binet and Terman considered the influence of nonintelligence factors on results from
intelligence tests, David Wechsler, author of the Wechsler scales, has been perhaps one of the most
influential advocates of the role of nonintellectiive factors in these tests.
Throughout his career, Wechsler emphasized that factors other than intellectual ability are involved in
intelligent behavior

POINT AND PERFORMANCE SCALE CONCEPTS

Two of the most critical difference between the Wechsler and the original Binet scale were
1. Wechslers use of the point scale concept rather than an age scale
2. Wechslers inclusion of a performance scale

THE POINT SCALE CONCEPT

Credits or points are assigned to each items


An individual receives a specific amount of credit for each item passed.
The point scale offers an inherent advantage:
o It make it easy to group item of a particular content together (Binet did not do this until the 1986 version)
By arranging items according to content and assigning a specific number of points to each item, the Wechsler
yielded not only a total overall score but also scores for each content area

THE PERFORMANCE SCALE CONCEPT

The early Binet scale was criticized for emphasizing language and verbal skills
Wechsler included a measure of nonverbal intelligence: a performance scale
Consisted of tasks that require the person to do something (e.g., copy symbols of point to a missing detail) rather
than a merely answer questions
The performance scale attempts to overcome biased caused by language, culture and education

The Wechsler Scales

Wechsler-Bellevue Scale (1939)


o Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (1955)
o WAIS-R (1981)
o WAIS-III (1997)
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) (1949)
o Current edition: WISC-IV (2003)
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) (1967)
o Current edition: WPPSI (2002)

WECHSLERS DEFINITION OF INTELLIGENCE

Like Binet Wechsler defined intelligence as the capacity to act purposefully and to adapt to the environment
In his words, intelligence is the aggregated or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think
rationally and to deal effectively with his/her environment
Intelligence comprises several specific interrelated functions or elements and general intelligence results from the
interplay of these elements

WECHSLER SUBTESTS

Subtest Major function measured


Verbal Scales
Vocabulary Vocabulary level
Similarities Abstract thinking
Arithmetic Concentration
Digit Span Immediate memory, anxiety
Information Range of knowledge
Comprehension Judgment
Letter-number sequencing Freedom of distractibility
Performance Scale
Picture Completion Alertness to details
Digit symbol-coding Visual-motor functioning
Block design Nonverbal reasoning
Matrix reasoning Inductive reasoning
Picture arrangement Planning ability
Symbol research Information-processing speed
Object assembly Analysis part-whole relationships

INDIVIDUAL TESTS VS. GROUP TESTS

Individual Tests Group Tests

One subject is tested at a time Many subjects are tested at a time


Examiner records responses Subjects record own responses
Scoring required considerable skill Scoring is straightforward and objective

Examiner flexibility can elicit maximum performance


There are no safegurds
if permitted by standardization

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVATAGES OF GROUP TESTS

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

Less opportunity to establish rapport, obtain


Large scale or mass testing
cooperation, and maintain the interest of the client

Any temporary condition (e.g., illness, fatigue,


Eliminate need for a one-to-one relationship
worry) is less readily detected

Greatly simplifying examiners role

More uniform conditions than in individual testing


Lack flexibility (individual tests typically provide
examiner to choose items on the basis of the test-
Provision of better established norms
takers prior performances)

Testing of large, representative sample in the


standardization process is possible

GROUP TESTS

1. Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT)


2. Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM)
3. The Culture Fair Intelligence Tests
4. Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT)
5. Purdue Non-Language Test (PNLT)
6. Goodenough Harris Drawing Test (G-HDT)

PERSONALITY TESTING

INTRODUCTION

Tests of mental ability were created to distinguish those with subnormal mental abilities from those with normal
abilities in order to enhance the education of both groups
However, it is not enough to know that a person is high or low in such factors as speed of calculation, memory,
range of knowledge, and abstract thinking
To make full use of information about a persons mental abilities, one must also know how that person used those
abilities

THE STUDY OF PERSONALITY

The nonintellective aspects of human behavior, typically distinguished from mental abilities are called personality
characteristics
Personality is the relatively stable and distinctive patterns of behavior that characterize an individual and her or
his reaction to the environment

STRUCTURED PERSONALITY TESTS

Structured personality tests attempt to evaluate personality traits, personality types, personality states, and
other aspects of personality such as self-concept
Personality traits refer to relatively enduring dispositions tendencies to act, think, or feel in a certain manner in
any given circumstances and that distinguish one person from another

PERSONALITY TYPES AND PERSONALITY STATES

Personality types are general descriptions of people


o For example, avoiding types have low social interests and low activity and cope by avoiding social
situations
Personality states are emotional reactions that vary from one situation to another

SELF-CONCEPT

Self-concept is a persons self-definition, or, according to Carl R. Rogers


o An organized and relatively consistent set of assumptions that a person has about himself or herself

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY TESTING

Binet and others (e.g., Terman, Spearman, Thorndlike) believed that a persons pattern of intellectual
functioning might reveal information about personality factors
However, specific tests of personality were not developed until World War I when there was a need to distinguish
people on the basis of their emotional well-being
Psychologists used self-report questionnaires that provided a list of statements and required people to respond
in some way,
o e.g., True or False to indicate whether the statement applied to them

SELF-REPOR STRUCTURED PERSONALITY TESTS

The general procedure in which the person is asked to respond to a written statement is known as the structured
or objective method at personality assessment, as distinguished from the projective method.
A clear and definite stimulus is provided and the requirements for responding are evident and specific.
For example, to respond yes or no to the statement, I am happy

STRATEGIES FOR STRUCTURED PERSONALITY TEST CONSTRUCTION

Like measures of mental ability, personality measures evolved through several phases
o Deductive strategies comprise the logical-content and the theoretical approach
o Empirical strategies comprise the criterion-group and the factor analysis method
Some procedures combine two or more of these strategies

Applications in Clinical and Counseling Settings

Deductive

o Logical-content also called


Content approach
Intuitive approach
Rational approach
Empirical
o Criterion-group, also called
Contrasted group method
External strategy
Empirical strategy
Criterion-keying method
o Factor Analysis

DEDUCTIVE APPROACH CONSTRUCTING PERSONALITY TESTS

Deductive strategies use reason and deductive logic to determine the meaning of a test response
The logical-content method has designers select items on the basis of simple face validity
In the theoretical approach, test construction guided by a particular psychological theory

EMPIRICAL APPROACH

Empirical strategies rely on data collection and statistical analysis to determine the meaning of a test response of
the nature of personality
These strategies retain the self-report features of the deductive strategies in that persons are asked to respond to
items that describe their own views, opinions, and feelings
However, empirical strategies use experimental research to determine empirically the meaning of a test
response, the major dimensions of personality, or both
In the criterion-group approach, test designers choose items to distinguish a group of individuals with certain
characteristics, the criterion group, from control group
The factor analytic approach uses the statistical technique of factor analysis to determine the meaning of test
items

ALL AVAILABLE STRUCTURED PERSONALITY TESTS CAN BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO WHETHER THE USE
ONE OR SOME COMBINATION OF THE FOUR STRATEGIES:

Logical-content
Theoretical
Criterion-group
Factor analytic

THE LOGICAL-CONTENT STRATEGY

The first personality test ever developed was the Woodworth Personal Data Sheet (1920), based on the
logical-content strategy
It was developed during World War I and published at the end of the war. Its purpose was to identify military
recruits who would likely to break down in combat

WOOD WORTH QUESTIONS:

Items were selected from lists of known symptoms of emotional disorders and from questions asked by
psychiatrists in a screening interview
Final from contained116 items
o Do you wet the bed at night?
o Do you usually feel in good health?
o Do you frequently daydream?
o Do you usually sleep soundly at night?
A single score is provided a global measure of functioning

OTHER TESTS USING LOGICAL CONTENT STRATEGY

Bell Adjustment Inventory


o Evaluated persons adjustment in areas such as home life, social life and emotional functioning
Bemreuter Personality Inventory
o Included items related to sex personality traits including introversion, confidence, and sociability
Mooney Problem Checklist (1950)
o Lists problems that recur in clinical case history data and in written statements of problems listed by 4000
high school students (U.S.)

THE CRITERION-GROUP STRATEGY

Main idea: assume nothing about the meaning of a persons response to a test item
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by Hathaway and McKinley
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (1989)
Sample statements
o I like good food
o I never have trouble falling asleep
Raw scores are converted to T scores

MMPI AND MMPI 2

Contains a validity scale that provide information on the persons approach to testing
o Fake bad endorsing more items of pathological content than any persons actual problems could justify
o Fake good avoiding pathological items
Like the Woodworth, the purpose of MMPI and MMPI 2 is to assist in distinguishing normal from abnormal groups
University of Minnesota Hospital patients (n=800_ divided into eight group according to psychiatric diagnosis, and
compared with controls (n= 700) composed of relatives and visitor of the patients
Final criterion groups:
o Hypochondriacs
o Depressed patients
o Hysterics
o Psychopathic deviates
o Paranoid
o Psychasthenics
o Schizophrenics
o Hypomaniacs

ORIGINAL VALIDTY SCALE OF THE MMPI

Lie scale (L)


o 15 rationally derived items to evaluate nave attempt to present oneself in a favorable light. People who
score high on L are unwilling to acknowledge minor flaws (weaknesses).
o Example: I never lose control of myself when I drive/
Infrequency Scale (F)
o Items that are scored infrequency (less than 10%) by the normal population. High scored invalidate the
profile
o Example: I am aware of a special presence that others cannot perceive.
K scale
o 30 ITEMS that detect attempt to deny problems and present oneself in a favorable light
o Individuals attempt to project an image of self-control and personal effectiveness

MMP I AND MMPI 2

Symbol
Number of Common interpretations of
currently in Old name
items in scale elevation
use
Validity Scales
L Lie Scale 13 Nave attempt to face good
F K Scale 30 Defensiveness
K P scale 64 Attempt to fake bad
Clinical Scales
1 Hypochondriasis 33 Physical complaints
2 Depression 60 Depressions
3 Hysteria 60 Immaturity
4 Psychopathic deviate 50 Authority conflict
5 Masculinity-femininity 60 Masculine or feminine interests
6 Paranoia 40 Suspicion, Hostility
7 Psychasthemia 48 Anxiety
8 Schizophrenic 78 Alienation, withdrawal
9 Hypomania 46 Elated mood, high energy
0 Social Introversion 70 Introversion, Shy

CALIFORNIA PSYCHOLOGGICAL INVENTORY (CPI. 3RD EDITION)

The CPI (1987) is a second example of a structured personality test constructed primarily by the criterion-group
strategy
For 3 of the 36 CPI scales, criterion groups (men vs. women, homosexual vs. heterosexual men) were contrasted
to produce measure of personality categorized as 1) introversion-extroversion, 2) conventional vs.
unconventional, and 3) self-realization and sense of integration.
In contrast to MMPI and MMPI 2, the CPI attempts to evaluate personality in normally adjusted individuals.
20 scale each of which is grouped into one of four classes
o Class I: poise, self-assurance, interpersonal effectiveness
o Class II: socialization, maturity, responsibility
o Class III: achievement potential, intellectual efficiency
o Class IV: interest modes
13 scale are designed for special purposes:
o Managerial potential, tough mindedness, creativity

THE FACTOR ANALYTICAL STRATEGY

Structured personality tests shares one common set of assumptions


Human possess characteristics or traits that are static, vary from individual to individual, and can be
measured
Nowhere are these assumptions better illustrated than in factor analytic strategy

GUILFORDS PIONEERING EFFORTS

J.R. Guilford determined the interrelationship (intercorrelation) of a wide variety of tests and factor analyzed the
results to find the man dimensions underlying all personality traits
Came up with the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey (1956)
10 dimensions with 30 items each

GUILFORD-ZIMMERMAN TEMPERAMENT SURVEY DIMENSIONS

General Activity
Restraint
Ascendance (leadership)
Sociability
Emotional stability
Objectivity
Friendliness
Thoughtfulness
Personal relations
Masculinity

CATTELLS CONTRIBUTION

R.B. Cattell began with all adjectives applicable to human beings to determine the essence of personality
Allport and Odbert (1936) reduced an adjective list from a dictionary to 4504 traits
Cattell added to the list traits found in psychological literature: and reduced the list to 171 items
College students rated their friendship on the 171 traits and the results were factor analyzed
The 171 were reduced to 36 dimensions, called surface traits
Subsequent investigations by factor analysis produced 16 distinct factors which Cattell called source traits
In subsequent factor analysis, items that correlate highly with each of the 16 source traits were included and
those with low correlations, excluded.

THE THEORITICAL STRATEGY

Items are selected to measure the variable or constructs specified by a major theory of personality
These questionnaires were based on Murrays need theory
o Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (1954)
o Personality Research Form (PRF) (1967)
o Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) (1976)

EDWARDS PERSONAL PREFERENCE SCHEDULE (EPPS)

Based on the need system proposed by Henry Alexander Murray (1936)


Edwards selected 15 needs from Murrays theory and constructed items with content validity for each
Edwards included a consistency scale to check on validity of EPPS results
15 pairs of statements are repeated in identical form
TRAIT DESCRIPTIONS FOR THE JACKSON PERSONALITY INVENTORY
Social Trait Trait Description
Anxiety Tendency to worry over minor matters
Breadth of interest Curiosity, inquisitiveness
Complexity Preference for abstract versus concrete though
Conformity Compliance, cooperativeness
Energy level Energy, enthusiasm
Innovation Originality, imagination
Interpersonal affect Ability to identify with others
Organization Playfulness: systematic versus disorganized
Responsibility Responsibility; dependability
Risk taking Reckless and bold versus cautious and hesitant
Self-esteem Self-assured versus self-conscious
Social adroitness Skill in persuading others
Social participation Sociable & gregarious versus withdrawn and a
loner
Tolerance Broad-minded and open versus intolerant and
uncompromising
Value orthodoxy Moralistic & conventional versus modern and liberal
Infrequency Validity of profile

SELF-CONCEPT

The set of assumptions a person has about himself or herself


Q-sort Technique is based on Rogers theory of the self
o Set of cards with self-statements are sorted into two:
The first describes who the person really is (real self)
The second describes what the person believes he or she should be (ideal self)
Rogers theory predicts that large discrepancies between the real and ideal selves reflect
poor adjustment and low self-esteem

COMBINATION STRATEGIES

The modern trend is to use a mix of strategies for developing structured personality tests
Indeed, most of the personality tests use factor analysis regardless of their main strategy
NEO Personality Inventories is agood example of a test of personality characteristics that relies on a
combination of strategies in scale development

POSTIVE PERSONALITY MEASUREMENT

Early history of personality measurement focused on negative characteristics such as anxiety,


depressions, and other manifestations of psychopathology
Research suggests advantages in evaluating individuals positive characteristic to understand individual
resources
o Kabasa (1979) studied hardiness
o Bandura (1986) studied Self-efficacy strong belief in the ability to organize resources and manage
situations

POSITIVE PERSONALITY MEASUREMENT AND THE NEO PERSONALITY INVENTORY-REVISED (NEO-PI-R)

The developers of NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1985) used both factor analysis and theory in item development
and scale construction
A multipurpose inventory for predicting interests, health and illness behavior, psychological well-being, an
characteristics coping styles
Based on review of factor analytic studies and personality theory, the authors identified 3 broad domains:
neuroticism (N), extroversion (E), and openness (O). Each domain has six facets

FACETS IF EACH DOMAIN IN THE NEO-PI-R

Neuroticism (N)
o Anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability
Extraversion (E)
o Warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement, seeking an positive emotions
Openness (O)
o Fantasy, aesthetics, feelings (openness to feelings of self and others), actions (willingness to try new
activities), ideas (intellectual curiosity), and values
THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY

Research with the NEO has supported five dimensions (considered the minimum number of dimensions to
describe the human personality):
1. Extroversion
2. Neuroticism
3. Conscientiousness
4. Agreeableness
5. Openness to experience

THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY

1. Extroversion the degree to which a person is sociable, leader-like and assertive as opposed to withdrawn, quiet,
and reserved
2. Neuroticism the degree to which a person is anxious and insecure as opposed to cal and self-confident
3. Conscientiousness the degree to which a person is persevering, responsible, and organized as opposed to lazy,
irresponsible and impulsive
4. Agreeableness the degree to which a person is warm and cooperative as opposed to unpleasant and
disagreeable
5. Openness to experience the degree to which a person is imaginative and curious as opposed to concrete-mined
and narrow in thinking

FREQUENTLY USED MEASURES OF POSITIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale


General Self-Efficacy Scale
Ego Resiliency Scale
Dispositional Resilience Scale
Hope Scale
Life Orientation Test-Revised
Satisfaction with Life Scale
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
Coping Intervention for Stressful Situations
Core Self-Evaluation

PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES: INRODUCTION

PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE HAS A LONG AND RICH HISTORY:

- Leonardo da Vinci used ambiguous figures to evaluate young art students


- William Shakespeare wrote about the projective qualities of clouds. He said, Nothing is either good or bad, but
thinking make it so.
- William Stern used cloud as test stimuli before Rorschach and his inkblots
- Francis Galton (1879) suggested word-association method and Kraepelin made use of them
- Binet and Henri (1896) experimented with pictures as projective devices
- Alfred Adler asked patients to recall their first memory, which is also kind of projective approach.

HERMANN RORSCHACH

- The real impetus for projective techniques can be traced to Rorchachs classic 1921 monograph, in which he
described the use of inkblots as a method for the differential diagnosis of psychopathology
- Later, in the 1920s David Levy brought the inkblot test to America, and it was not long before Beck, Klopfer, and
Hertz all began teacing Rorchach course

MORGAN AND MURRAY

- In 1935, Christiana Morgan and Henry Murray introduced the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), and in the 1938,
Murray carefully described the process of projection
- The term projective really came into popular use following L.K. Frans widelh discussed 1939 paper on projective
methods.

THE PROJECTIVVE HYPOTHESIS


- Numerous definitions have been advanced for the primary rationale underling projective tests, known as the
projective hypothesis, with credit for the most complete analysis usually given to L.K. Frank (1939)
- Simply started, this hypothesis proposes that:
o When people attempt to understand an ambiguous or vague stimulus, their interpretation of the stimulus
reflects their needs, feelings, experiences, prior conditioning, thought processes, and so forth.

SIGMUND FREUD

- The concept of projection originated with Freud (1911), who viewed it as a defense mechanism by which
individuals unconsciously attribute their negative personality traits and impulses to others.
- Nevertheless, the Freudian concept of projection (classical projection) has not fare well in laboratory studies.
- Instead, most of the projective techniques can be thought of as drawing on generalized or assimilative
projection, namely, the relatively uncontroversial tendency for individuals personality characteristics, needs, and
life experiences to influence their interpretation (apperception) of ambiguous stimuli

NATURE OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE

1. The assignment of relatively unstructured task, that is, a task that permits an almost unlimited variety of
responses.
o Examinees are forced to impose their own structure and, in so doing, reveal something of themselves
(such as needs, wishes, or conflicts).
2. Only brief, general instructions are provided. There is a freedom of response
3. Projective instruments represent disguised test procedure, in so far as test takers are rare aware of the type of
psychological interpretation that will be made of their responses.
o The method is indirect
4. There is a global approach to the appraisal personality. Attention is focused on a compose picture of the whole
personality rather than on a measurement of separate traits.
5. Projective techniques are especially effective revealing covert, latent, or unconscious aspects personality.

- Response interpretation deals with more variables.


- The more unstructured the test, it is argued, the more sensitive it is to such covert material.
- This follows from the assumption that more unstructured or ambiguous the stimuli, the less likely they are to
evoke defensive reactions on the part of the respondent.

THEORITICAL ROOTS

1. Projective method originated within clinical setting and have remained predominantly a tool for clinician
2. Some have evolved from the therapeutic procedures (such as art therapy) employed with psychiatric patients
3. Most techniques reflect the influence of traditional and modern psychoanalytic concepts
4. There have also been scattered attempts to lay a foundation for projective techniques in stimulusresponse
theory and in perceptual theories of personality

- It should be noted that the specific techniques need not be evaluated in the light of their particular theoretical
slants or historical origins
- A procedure prove to be practically useful or empirically valid for reasons other than those initially cited to justify
its introduction

PRINCIPAL ADVANTAGESOF MOST PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES

A. Their capacity to bypass or circumvent the conscious defenses of respondents, and


B. Their capacity to allow clinicians to gain privileged access to important psychological information (e.g., conflicts,
impulses) of which respondents are not consciously aware.

MAJOR SUBTYOES OF PROJCTIV TECHNIQUES

- (BASED ON LINDZEYS (1959) TAXONOMY)


1. Association
2. Construction
3. Completion
4. Arrangement/Selection
5. Expression

ASSOCIATION PROJECTIVES TECHNIQUES

- Examples:
o Rorschach Inkblot Test
(Respondents are shown 10 symmetrical inkblots and are asked to say what each look like to
them)
o Hand test (
Respondents are shown various pictures of moving hands, and are asked to guess what each
hand might be doing).

CONTRUCTION PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES

- Examples:
o Draw-A-Person Test
(Respondents are asked to draw a person on a blank sheet of paper, and are then asked to draw
another person of the opposite sex from the first person drawn).
o Thematic Apperception Test
(Respondents are shown pictures of ambiguous social situations and are asked to tell as story
concerning the characters in each picture).

COMPLETION PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES

- Examples:
o Washington University Sentence Completion Test
(Respondents are presented with various incomplete sentence stems (e.g., if my mother) and
are asked to complete each stem).
o Rosenweigh Picture Frustration Study
(Respondents are shown cartoons of various frustrating situations (e.g., being accidentally
splashed with water by a passing car) and are asked how they would respond verbally to each
situation).

ARRANGEMENT/SELECTION

- Examples:
o Standi Test
Respondents are shown photographs of individuals with different psychiatric disorders, and are
asked which patients they most and least prefer).
Luscher Color Test (Respondents are asked to rank order different colored cards in order of
preference).

EXPRESSIONS PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES

- Examples:
o Projective Puppet Play
(Children are asked to play the roles of other individuals (e.g., mother, father) or themselves
using puppets)Handwriting analysis)
o Handwriting analysis
(individuals are asked to provide spontaneous sample of their handwriting

A WORD REGARDING TERMINOLOGY

- The term projective techniques or instruments are used rather than projective tests because most of these as
used in daily clinical practice do not fulfill the traditional criteria for psychological tests

FEATURE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS

1. Standardized stimuli and testing instructions,


2. Systematic algorithms for scoring responses to these stimuli
3. Well calibrated norms for comparing responses with most of other individuals

The absence of these features, particularly 1 & 2, renders the literature on certain projective techniques difficult to
interpret, because some investigators have used markedly different stimuli, scoring methods, or both, across studies.