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Motivation it requires communication.

Willingness, capacity and opportunity to perform

Models of communication (Potential Human Performance = Motivation x Ability)

Motivation drives (McClellands)

1. Achievements accomplishment objectives. need for competitive success measured against a personal
standard of excellence
2. Affiliation relate to others. need for warm, friendly relationships with others, interpersonal relationships
3. Competence high quality of works
4. Power influence people and situation. need to control and influence others

Human needs

1. Primary/Basic need foods, sleep and other biological aspects


2. Secondary/Social/Psychological learned and vary by culture and individual

Maslows hierarchy of needs

Self-Actualization

Self esteem

Social and belonging

Safety and security

Physiological

Frederick Herzberg Two Factor Model

1. Maintenance/Hygiene - dissatisfiers; their absence would demotivate people, but their presence not necessarily
improves motivation; essentially describe the environment, little effect on positive job attitudes
Job content environment surrounding work
2. Motivators/Satisfiers - factors that really motivate people, also called satisfiers, provide intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation - self generated factors (responsibility, freedom to act, scope to use and develop skills and
abilities, interesting and challenging work, opportunities for advancement) they have a deeper and longer-
term effect

Clayton Alderfers ERG model

Existence - need for material and energy exchange; basic physiological and safety needs

Relatedness - transactions with human environment, process of sharing or mutuality; need for interpersonal
relationships and attention; is about equivalent to Maslows social needs and part of the esteem needs

Growth - people make creative or productive efforts for themselves; need for personal growth and self-
development; part of Maslows esteem needs and self-fulfillment needs

Behavior motivation/Organizational Behavior Theory by B.F. Skinner

1. Law of effect
2. Learning theory

Alternative consequence
1. Positive reinforcement
Shaping
Extinction
2. Negative reinforcement
Punishment
Schedule of reinforcement
1. Continuous
2. Partial
a. Fixed interval
b. Variable interval
c. Fixed ratio
d. Variable ratio

Social learning/Vicarious learning by albert bandura

Goal

Goal setting

1. Acceptance
2. Specificity
3. Challenge
4. Performance monitoring and feedback

Self-efficacy