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PART I

FOREWORD

Peace be upon you, and Allah mercy and blessings


Praise GOD Almighty, who has given the power and opportunity to us, so this paper can be
resolved by the time expected, although in a very simple form, which this paper discusses the
'DISEASE DENGUE FEVER (DBD) "and presumably this paper can be improve our
knowledge, especially about how and what the dangers of dengue fever disease.
With the existence of this paper, hopefully can help increase interest in reading and learning
teman.selain friends that we also hope that all can know and understand about this material,
as it will improve the quality of people we
We are well aware that in making this paper is still very minimal, sehing suggestion of
lecturers as well as criticism from all sides still we had hoped for improvements in this report.
We would like to thank all those who have helped us in completing this paper.
A. Background
The rainy season it is necessary to watch out for the puddles - puddles that occur in
the gutters are clogged , sewer - sewer is not smooth and floods prolonged , need to watch
their place of reproduction or breeding of mosquitoes in the puddle - the reservoir so as to
result in the mosquito season has arrived Similarly , those were the words that attach to this
time. time for us to anticipate their season mosquitoes with mosquito control approach to
treating non-chemical sanitation or proper is preferred prior to chemical control .
During this time all men must mengatahui and recognize insects called mosquitoes .
Between mosquitoes and humans can coexist even say almost without limit. However ,
humans and mosquitoes berdampingannya not in a positive sense . But mosquitoes disturbing
the life of mankind . Although the number of mosquitoes were killed humans far more than
the number of people who died because of the mosquitoes , the mosquitoes seemed to be a
war against its ongoing activities undertaken by humans.
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) {medical language is called Dengue
Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF)} is a disease caused by dengue virus is transmitted through the
bite of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which causes disturbances in capillary blood
vessels and the blood clotting system, resulting in bleeding-perdarahan.Penyakit is commonly
found tropical areas like Southeast Asia, India, Brazil, the United States including in all
corners of Indonesia, except in places a height of more than 1000 meters above sea level.
Doctors and other health professionals such as midwives and Mr. M Dengue Hemorrhagic
Fever (DHF) is now going around, I wonder if the disease is caused panic in the society. This
is because the disease has claimed many lives. Based on data from the Ministry of Health
there are 14 provinces in the period from July to August 2005 the number of people recorded
as many as 1781 people died in the incident 54 people.
Dengue is not a new disease , but seven years ago even this disease has infected 27
provinces in Indonesia and caused 16,000 people to suffer , and 429 people died , this
happens all the months of January to April 1998 ( Tempo , 2004) . WHO estimates that even
50 million citizens of the world , especially young boys with fragile endurance , infected with
dengue each year .
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is a dengue fever is accompanied by
enlargement of the liver and hemorrhagic manifestations. In severe circumstances that could
occur circulatory failure and the patient's blood fell hypovolemic shock due to leakage of
plasma. Dengue is a disease caused by dengue virus is transmitted from one patient to another
patient is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Therefore, steps can be taken to prevent the
spread of dengue is spread by cutting cycle by eradicating mosquitoes. One way to combat
the mosquito Aedes aegypti is to do fogging. It also can be done mosquito nest eradication
(PSN) and abatisasi to eradicate mosquito larvae. Environmental Health Study Program
Diploma Program FIK UMS three Health as one of the institutions that can carry out fogging
feel a responsibility to prevent the spread of this disease. As a form of concern that the
program carried out fogging in some areas.
Various efforts to control dengue hemorrhagic fever ( DHF ) has been implemented
include: health promotion on mosquito eradication , prevention and control of risk factors as
well as cooperation across programs and sectors related to the level of the village / sub-
district for mosquito eradication . The main problem in the effort to reduce the number of
DHF cases are not optimal movement efforts community participation in mosquito
eradication Dengue Fever . Therefore, participation in the dengue mosquito eradication needs
to be improved include larvae survey regularly and continuously , and mobilize the
community in dengue mosquito eradication .
A. Problem Formulation
As for some of the issues that will be formulated in solving the problem of dengue
fever , among others :
1. What is dengue fever and what causes it?
2. How transmission of dengue fever and the life cycle of dengue vector -borne diseases ?
3. What is the pathogenicity of dengue to humans ?
4. How does the prevention of dengue disease ?
5. How to combat dengue fever in order not endemic ?
6. What are some ways the treatment of dengue fever ?

B. Purpose
Interest in him this paper are :
1. Give knowledge about dengue fever and its causes .
2. Provide knowledge about modes of transmission and the vector of dengue fever
3. Provide knowledge about dengue patogenitas
4. Provide information on how to eradicate dengue.
5. Provide knowledge about the treatment of dengue fever.
6. Knowing the symptoms and prevention of various diseases such dengue fever .
CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

A. Definition of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF )


Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever ( DHF ) { medical language is called Dengue
Hemorrhagic Fever ( DHF ) } is a disease caused by dengue virus is transmitted through the
bite of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus , which causes disturbances in capillary blood
vessels and the blood clotting system , resulting in hemorrhage - bleeding .
The disease is commonly found tropical areas like Southeast Asia , India , Brazil ,
the United States including in all corners of Indonesia , except in places a height of more than
1000 meters above sea level . Doctors and other health professionals such as midwives and
Mantrihas ;-) diagnosis is often wrong in the rule , because of the tendency of early
symptoms that mimic other diseases such as influenza and typhoid ( Typhoid ) .
Signs and Symptoms of Dengue Fever Masa bud / incubation for 3-15 days after a
person stricken with dengue virus, then the patient will show a variety of signs and symptoms
of dengue fever as follows:
1. sudden high fever 2-7 days (38-40 degrees Celsius).
2. On examination torniquet test, looked the larva (puspura) bleeding.
3. The presence of bleeding dikelopak inner eye (conjunctiva), nosebleed (Epitaksis), Dispose
of water with feces (Peaces) in the form of mucus mixed with blood (Melena), and others.
4. liver enlargement (Hepatomegaly).
5. Blood pressure decreases, causing shock.
6. In laboratory tests (blood) days to 3-7 a decline in platelets below 100,000 / mm3
(thrombocytopenia), increased hematocrit values above 20% of the normal value
(Hemoconcentration).
7. The emergence of several clinical symptoms that accompany such as nausea, vomiting,
decreased appetite (anorexia), abdominal pain, diarrhea, chills, cramps and headaches.
8. Experiencing bleeding in the nose (nosebleeds) and gums.
9. Fever sufferers perceived cause complaints soreness / pain in the joints.
10. The appearance of red spots on the skin due to rupture of blood vessels.
C. ETIOLOGY
1. DENGUE VIRUS
Dengue virus that causes the disease is included in the Arbovirus ( Arthropodborn
virus ) group B , but of the four types of dengue virus types , namely 1,2,3 and 4. The four
types of dengue virus is present in Indonesia and can be distinguished from one another by
serological.

2. VECROR
Dengue virus serotypes 1 , 2 , 3 , and 4 are transmitted by vectors , namely Aedes
aegypt, alboptictus aedes mosquito, Aedes polynesiensis and some other species is a vector
that is a lesser role .
Aedes mosquitoes breed in pools of standing water is clean contained vessel - a vessel found
in the house ( Aedes aegypti ) and located outside the home in the hole - a tree hole in a piece
of bamboo, the tuck leaves and puddles of water and other natural ( Aedes albopictus ) ,
Female mosquitoes prefer to suck his victims' blood during the day, especially during the
morning and evening .

3. HOST
If a person gets dengue infection for the first time then he will get the specific
immunization but not perfect , so it is still possible to be infected with the same type of
dengue virus and dengue virus types. Dengue Haemoragic Fever ( DHF ) will occur if a
person ever getting dengue virus infection specific types get reinfection for the second time
or more, and can also occur in infants who received dengue virus infection for the first time if
he has got immunity against dengue from mother to child through placenta.

D. PATHOGENESIS
Dengue virus enters the body through mosquito bites and infection may first give
symptoms as dengue fever . Very different reactions will appear when someone gets repeated
infections with different types of dengue virus.
Hypothesis secondary infection ( the secamdary heterologous infection / the sequential
infection hypothesis) states that dengue fever can occur when a person is infected with
dengue after the first got the other dengue recurrent infections . Re - this infection will cause
a reaction amnestif antibodies that will occur within a few days resulting in proliferation and
transformation limsofit by producing antibodies Ig G high point antidengue.
Besides, dengue virus replication occurs also in limsofit transformed with the result
of the presence of the virus in large quantities . This will result in the formation of a complex
virus antigen - antibody ( antibody virus complex ) which in turn will result in activation of
the complement system due to the release of C3a and C5a activation of C3 and C5
permeabilitis cause an increase in blood vessel walls and intrusion -dried from the
intravascular space to the extravascular space.

E. CLINICAL
Clinical features arising varies based on the degree of DHF with anatara incubation
period of 13-15 days , but the average 5-8 days . Clinical symptoms occur suddenly in the
form of high temperature , pain in the muscles and bones , nausea , sometimes vomiting and a
mild cough . Headaches can be exhaustive or supra orbital centered on the area and
retroorbital . Pain in the muscles , especially the abdominal muscles felt when pressed.
Swelling around the eyes may be found , lacrimation , photophobia , the muscles around the
eyes ached . Eksantem classic found in two phases , first at the beginning of fever ( 6-12
hours before the temperature rises first time ) , is clearly visible on the face and the chest that
lasts for several hours and is usually not noticed by the patient.
The next rash started between days 3-6 , early - early form of macular big then
sticking back together , and then raised blotches petechiae . Basically it is seen on the arms
and legs , then spread throughout the body. At the time the temperature dropped to normal,
this rash is reduced and quickly disappeared, traces can sometimes feel itchy . The patient's
pulse at first rapidly and become normal or slower on the day of the 4th and 5th.
Bradycardia may persist for several days convalescing. Bleeding symptoms began
on day 3 or all 5 in the form of petechiae, purpura, ecchymosis, hematemesis, epistaxis. Also
sometimes occur shock, which usually occur during the fever has declined between days 3
and 7 with a sign : the child becomes increasingly weak, fingertips, ears, nose felt cold and
moist, the pulse was fast, small and decreased blood pressure with a systolic pressure of 80
mmHg or less.
Clinical manifestations of dengue virus infection in humans is very varied. The
spectrum is so wide variations, ranging from asymptomatic, mild non-specific fever, Dengue
Fever, Dengue Fever, to the most severe, namely Dengue Shock Syndrome ( DSS ), (
Soegijanto , 2000) .
Dengue Diagnosis is made based on the diagnostic criteria according to the WHO in
1997 , consist of clinical and laboratory criteria . The use of this criteria is intended to reduce
the excessive diagnosis ( overdiagnosis ) .
Clinical manifestations of dengue fever vary greatly, WHO (1997 ) divided into 4 degrees,
namely :
Grade I :
Fever with general symptoms that are not typical and spontaneous bleeding
manifestations is the only positive tourniquet test .
Degree II :
The symptoms of grade I , accompanied by symptoms of skin spontaneous bleeding
or hemorrhagic manifestations are more severe .
Grade III :
Obtained circulatory failure , which is rapid and weak pulse , narrow pulse pressure
( < 20 mmHg ) , hypotension , cyanosis around the mouth , skin cold and damp , uneasy .
Degree IV :
Severe shock ( profound shock ) , the pulse can not be palpated and blood pressure
measured .

F. COMPLICATIONS AND DISABLED


Complications due to dengue
Most people who suffer from dengue recover within two weeks . However , for
certain people can continue for as long as several weeks hinga months. Clinical symptoms are
more severe in patients with dengue fever and dengue shock syndromes can develop into
blood vessel disorders and liver disorders . It certainly can be life-threatening.
1. Dengue Shock Syndrome ( SSD )
All the criteria of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever ( DHF ) is accompanied by
manifestations of circulatory failure :
- Nadi rapid and weak
- Blood pressure drops ( 20 mmHg )
- Hypotension ( compared to standard with age )
- The skin is cold and damp
- Restless
Dengue shock syndrome , according to a source etc3 : the DBD with shock , after
the fever has lasted for several days , the patient 's general condition suddenly deteriorated .
In the majority of patients found signs of circulatory failure is damp and cold clammy skin ,
cyanosis around the mouth , becomes rapid and weak pulse , smaller until it can not be
touched . Blood pressure dropped to 20 mmHg or less , and the systolic pressure decreased by
80 mmHg or lower . Patients seem lethargic , anxious , and quickly entered the critical phase
of shock . Patients often complain of pain in the abdomen shortly before shock arises . Severe
abdominal pain often precedes gastrointestinal bleeding , and pain in the retrosternal without
cause demonstrable provide clues terrific gastrointestinal bleeding . Shock that occurs during
periods of fever usually have a poor prognosis.
Management of dengue shock syndrome similar to dengue fever therapy , namely
providing adequately replace fluids . In most patients , premature replacement of plasma
effectively with fluids containing electrolytes , plasma expanders , or plasma , give good
results . Hematocrit and platelets should be checked every day , starting on day 3 ill until 1-2
days after the fever becomes normal . Examination that determines whether or not the patient
was treated and or get intravenous fluids .
Complications according to other sources :
1. Encephalopathy Dengue
In general encephalopathy occurs as a complication of prolonged shock with
bleeding , but may also occur in DHF are not accompanied by shock . Metabolic disorders
such as hypoxemia , hyponatremia , or bleeding , can be the cause of encephalopathy .
Viewed dengue encephalopathy temporary , the possibility can also be caused by vein
thrombosis -otak , while as a result of a thorough intravascular coagulation . Reported that
dengue virus can penetrate the blood-brain barrier . It also said that the state of
encephalopathy associated with acute liver failure.
Encephalopathy tend to occur danalkalosis brain edema, then when the shock has
resolved fluid replaced with a liquid that contains no liquid danjumlah HC03- must be
reduced. Ringer's lactate solution of dextrose immediately exchanged with a solution of NaCl
(0.9%): glucose (5%) = 1: 3. To reduce brain edema dexametason given 0.5 mg / kg / once
every 8 hours, but if there is gastrointestinal bleeding, corticosteroids should not be given. If
there are liver dysfunction, then given vitamin K 3-10 mg intravenously for 3 days, blood
sugar levels labored> 80 mg. Preventing the occurrence of increased intracranial pressure by
reducing the amount of liquid (if necessary diuretics), correction of acidosis and electrolyte.
Treatment of airway with adequate oxygen delivery. To reduce the production of ammonia
can be administered neomycin and lactulose. Try not to give drugs that are not needed (eg,
antacids, anti-vomiting) to reduce the burden of drug detoxification in the liver. Fresh blood
transfusions or components may be subject to appropriate indications. If necessary, exchange
transfusion. In the healing period can be given short-chain amino acids.

2. Kidney Disorders
Acute renal failure generally occurs in the terminal phase , as a result of shock that
is not resolved properly . Hemolytic uremic syndrome can be found rarely . To prevent the
kidney failure after shock is treated by replacing intravascular volume , important to consider
whether the shock has been resolved properly . Diuresis is an important parameter and easy to
do to find out if the shock has been resolved . Cultivated diuresis > 1 ml / kg body weight /
hour . Therefore, if the shock is not resolved properly , while the volume of the liquid has
been reduced shock may occur repeatedly . In a state of severe shock often encountered acute
tubular necrosis , marked decrease in the amount of urine and increased levels of urea and
creatinine.

3. Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema is a complication that may occur as a result of excessive fluid
administration . Giving fluids on the third to fifth day of illness according to the guidelines
given , it usually will not cause pulmonary edema due to plasma leakage still occurs . But in
the event of reabsorption in the plasma of space extravascular , when fluids are given excess (
error occurs when only see a decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit regardless of sick days )
, the patient will experience respiratory distress , accompanied by swollen on the eyelids , and
supported with a description of pulmonary edema in a photo chest X-ray.
Complication of dengue fever usually associated with increasing severity
experienced forms of dengue, bleeding, and shock syndrome. The most serious complications
rarely occur are as follows :
- Dehydration
- Bleeding
- The number of low platelet
- hypotension
- bradycardia
- Liver damage
Enlargement of the liver in general can be found at the beginning of the disease ,
vary from just palpable (just palpable ) up to 2-4 cm below the right costal arch , the degree
of enlargement of the liver is not parallel with disease severity . To find an enlarged liver ,
palpation should be done every day . Tenderness in the liver area often found and in a
minority of cases can be accompanied by jaundice . Tenderness in the liver area was evident
in children and is associated with major bleeding.
4. Disorders neurogik ( seizures , ensephalopati )

G. PROGNASIS
Prognosis DBD popularity and success but penetalaksanaan done . Proper and
prompt therapy will provide optimal results . Management of late will lead to complications
and management were not adequately tapat and will aggravate the situation .
Deaths due to dengue fever is almost non-existent. In DHF / SSD mortality is quite
high . Research in adults in Surabaya , Semarang , and Jakarta indicate that the prognosis and
course of the disease is generally milder in adults than in children.
DHF Grade I and II will give a good prognosis , management of rapid , precise will
determine prognosis . Generally DHF Grade I and II did not cause complications that can
recover completely.
DBD degrees III and IV are degrees of dengue shock syndrome where the patient
falls into a state of shock with or without loss of consciousness . Prognosis according
penetalaksanaan given Dubia at bonam .

H. EPIGEMIOLOGY
Dengue hemorrhagic fever was first suspected in Indonesia infected in Surabaya in
1968 , but the certainty of a new virologiknya acquired in 1970. Dengue hemorrhagic fever in
adults was first reported by Swandana (1970 ), which then drastically increased and spread
throughout Dati I, Indonesia.
Factors affecting the increase and spread of cases of Dengue Fever is very complex,
namely ( 1 ) growth of high population ( 2 ) The urbanization is unplanned and uncontrolled (
3 ) No control mosquito vectors effective in endemic areas , and ( 4 ) Improvement of
facilities transport.
In Indonesia , because the air temperature and humidity are not the same in every
place , the pattern of occurrence of the disease rather different to setipa place . In most
Javanese dengue virus infection occurred from the beginning of January , rose steadily so
most cases are in about a month from April to May every year.

B. Vector dengue fever


1. Classification vector of dengue fever
Aedes aegypti
scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum : Arthropods
Class : Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Culicidae
Genus : Aedes
Subgenus : Stegomyia
Species : Ae . aegypti

Aedes aegypti is a type of mosquito that can carry dengue virus causes dengue
fever. In addition to dengue , A. aegypti is also a carrier of yellow fever virus (yellow fever)
and chikungunya . The spread of this type is very broad , covering almost all tropical regions
around the world . As a carrier of the dengue virus , A. aegypti is the main carrier (primary
vector ) and joint distribution of Aedes albopictus creates a cycle of dengue in the villages
and towns. Given the ferocity of dengue fever , people should be able to recognize and know
the ways to control this type to help reduce the spread of dengue fever.
The occurrence of dengue virus transmission can not be separated from the presence
of vector , because the absence of the vector of transmission will not occur . There are several
vectors that can transmit dengue virus but is considered an important vector in the
transmission of this virus is a mosquito Aedes aegypti although in some other countries is
quite important Aedes albopictus is the role as the results of research ever undertaken on the
island Mahu Republic of Seychelles ( Metsellar , 1997) .
Aedes albopictus to urban areas is less important role ( Luft , 1996) . In addition to
these two species there are several Aedes species of mosquitoes that can act as a vector for
dengue virus such as Aedes rotumae , Aedes cooki and others . A sub-family of Aedes are
Culicinae , Family Culicidae , sub Order Nematocera and including the Order Diptera ( WHO
, 2004) .
When the Aedes mosquitoes suck the blood of humans who are experiencing
viremia , the mosquitoes are infected by dengue virus and once into the infective mosquito
will infective forever ( JL Putman and Scott TW ., 1996 ) . Additionally infected female
mosquito can transmit the virus to the next generation through the ovaries but this is rare and
not much of a role in transmission to humans . The viruses in the body of the mosquito takes
8-10 days to become infective mosquitoes to humans and the period known as the incubation
period of the external ( WHO , 1997) .

2. Morphological features
Aedes aegypti has a medium-size adult with brownish-black body . Body and legs
are covered with scales gari silvery - white lines . At the back ( dorsal ) body were two
vertical curved lines in the left and right that is characteristic of this species . The scales on
the body of mosquitoes are generally easy to fall off or be loosened so difficult to identify the
old mosquitoes . The size and color of mosquitoes this kind often differ among populations ,
depending on environmental conditions and nutrition gained during the development of
mosquitoes . Males and females did not differ in terms of size of male mosquitoes that are
generally smaller than females and the presence of thick hairs on the antennae of male
mosquitoes . Both of these characteristics can be observed with the naked eye .
For the genus Aedes mosquito abdomen shape characteristic of female taper ends
and has cerci longer than other mosquito cerci . Adult mosquitoes have the feature on a black
body having patches of silvery-white or yellowish-white , the dorsal part of the thoracic there
are patches are typical of two parallel lines in the middle and two curved lines around the
edges. Aedes albopictus has no curved lines on thoraknya . Aedes larvae have a siphon that is
not svelte form and only had one pair of hair tufts and Pecten growing imperfect and position
of Aedes larvae in water is usually an angle on the top surface.
Female mosquitoes lay their eggs above the water surface in a state attached to the
wall where perindukannya . Aedes aegypti eggs have striped walls and form the building
resembles a picture of the gauze . A female mosquito can lay an average of 100 eggs each
time laying. Growth from egg to adult takes approximately 9 days ( Srisasi G et al. , 2000) .
C. The behavior and life cycle of Aedes aegypti
Aedes aegypti is diurnal , or active in the morning until noon. Transmission of the
disease carried by female mosquitoes because only female mosquitoes suck blood. This was
done to obtain protein intake needed to produce eggs . Male mosquitoes do not require blood,
and obtain energy from the nectar of flowers or plants. This type enjoys dark areas and
objects are black or red . Dengue fever often affects children because children tend to sit in
the classroom during the morning until noon and their feet were hidden under the table
become easy targets for mosquitoes this type.
Adult female mosquitoes suck human blood during the day is done either in the
home or outside the home . Bloodsucking do from morning till evening with two peaks
named after sunrise ( 08:00 to 10:00 ) and before sunset ( 15:00 to 17:00 ) ( Srisasi G et al.,
2000) .
Virus infection in the mosquito's body can lead to behavioral changes that lead to an
increase in vector competence , ie the ability of mosquitoes to spread the virus . Virus
infection can result in less reliable mosquitoes suck blood , repeatedly jabbing his proboscis ,
but it did not work so the blood sucking mosquitoes move from one person to another .
Consequently, the risk of transmission of the virus is becoming increasingly large.
In Indonesia, A. aegypti mosquitoes generally have a habitat in a residential
neighborhood, where there are many puddles of water in the tub or jar . Therefore, this type
of urban nature, contrary to A. albopictus which tend to be in a lush wooded forest area (
sylvan areas) .
All storage areas clean calm water can become a breeding ground for Aedes eg pure
water jar, the empty cans contain rain water, the bath or in the folds and grooves that contain
rainwater leaves, flower vase filled with water and others. Aedes aegypti is more common
breed in containers that exist in the home.
Aedes aegypti mosquito life development from egg to adult takes about 10-12 days
and the life of the mosquito Aedes aegypti females ranging from 2 weeks to 3 months , or an
average of 1.5 months, depending on the temperature of the surrounding air humidity (
Biswas et al . , 1997) .
A.aegypti mosquitoes , as well as other culicines , lay eggs on the surface of the
water individually. Black egg-shaped ellipse and separate from one another . The eggs hatch
within 1 to 2 days into larvae . There are four stages in the development of so-called larval
instar . The development of the first instar to fourth instar takes about 5 days . Upon reaching
the 4th instar , the larvae turn into pupae in which the larva enters a period of dormancy. Pupa
survived for two days before finally adult mosquitoes out of the pupa . The development from
egg to adult mosquito takes 7 to 8 days , but can be longer if the environment does not
support.
Aedes aegypti eggs is drought resistant and can last up to 1 month in the dry state .
When submerged in water , dried egg can hatch into larvae . Instead , the larvae need water to
develop and mature . The condition develops when the larvae can affect the condition of adult
mosquitoes produced. For example, the larval populations that exceed the availability of food
will produce adult mosquitoes tend to be more voracious in sucking the blood . Conversely ,
nutrient-rich environment to produce mosquitoes.
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes prefer to find prey in the house and its surroundings in a
protected place or closed . This is somewhat different from the Aedes albopictus are often
found outside the home and the love that only exists naturally puddle outside the home such
as a piece of bamboo fences , shells , tree holes containing water ( Allan , 1998) . Resting
place of Aedes aegypti in the form of bushes or low plant , including grass in the yard /
garden / yard , also in the form of objects hanging in the home such as clothes , glove, cap ,
etc. ( Srisasi G et al . , 2000) .
Aedes aegypti is a mosquito species that are found in tropical and subtropical
regions , located between 35 north latitude and 35 south latitude . Moreover Aedes aegypti
is rarely found at an altitude of over 1,000 m . But in India ever found at an altitude of 2,121
m and 2,400 m in California . These mosquitoes are able to live in temperatures 8C - 37C .
Aedes aegypti is Anthropophilic and often live in the house ( WHO , 1997) .
The ability of the female mosquito can fly up to 2 km but the ability is normally
approximately 40 meters . Aedes mosquitoes bite in the habit of repeating (multiple bitters )
are alternately biting several people in a short time . This is caused by the Aedes aegypti
mosquito is very sensitive and easily distracted . This situation is very helpful in moving the
Aedes aegypti Dengue virus to several people at once so reported several dengue fever
patients in the home ( MoH , 2004) .
Monitor the Aedes aegypti population densities are important in evaluating the
threat of disease Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in an area and measuring the density of adult
mosquito populations that have not been done by examination of the breeding places inside
and outside the home. There are three numbers you need to know the index that houses the
index, an index of containers and Breteau index (Srisari G et al., 2000). Breteau index is the
number of positive containers with Aedes aegypti larvae in 100 homes were inspected.
Breteau index is the best indicator to express the density of mosquitoes, while the index of
house show wide spread of mosquitoes in the community. Home index is the percentage of
homes discovery of larvae of Aedes aegypti. Container Index is the percentage of positive
containers with Aedes aegypti larvae. Research from Bancroft in 1906 provided a solid
foundation to consider Aedes aegypti as the vector by infecting 2 volunteers at sites of natural
infection. This basic research is also supported by Cleland and his colleagues in 1917, as well
as research from Jupp 1993 in South Africa stating Aedes aegypti populations most potential
as a vector for the virus DEN-1 and DEN-2 (WHO, 2002).