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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

SOHRAB WELL HEAD NO.1 FLOW LINE TO


Project: SOUTH AZADEGAN NORTH CLUSTER
Client Project No.: 14-71-148 Page 1 OF 35
Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

SOHRAB WELL HEAD NO.1 FLOW LINE TO


Project: SOUTH AZADEGAN NORTH CLUSTER
Client Project No.: 14-71-148 Page 2 OF 35
Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

Revision Summary Index


Modified In Rev. Number Modified In Rev. Number Modified In Rev. Number
Page Page Page
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Revision B0
Issued for TENDER
Date 92.12.05
Consultant

Prepared B.SH

Checked B.GH

Approved M.N

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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

SOHRAB WELL HEAD NO.1 FLOW LINE TO


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Client Project No.: 14-71-148 Page 3 OF 35
Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 4
1.1 Terms and Definitions.................................................................................................. 4
2.0 GENERAL .......................................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Meteorological /Environmental Data ............................................................................ 5
2.2 Units Of Measure ........................................................................................................ 5
3.0 PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA.......................................................................................... 6
3.1 Design Standard and Codes ....................................................................................... 6
3.2 Symbol& Legend ......................................................................................................... 7
3.3 Piping .......................................................................................................................... 7
3.3.1 General Design and Hydraulics ............................................................................ 7
3.3.2 Two-phase Flow Regions ..................................................................................... 7
3.3.3 Two-Phase Flow Unit Loss ................................................................................... 9
3.3.4 Valves and Fittings............................................................................................. 13
3.3.5 Line Sizing .......................................................................................................... 14
3.3.6 Line Sizing Criteria ............................................................................................. 14
3.3.7 Liquid Line Sizing Criteria ................................................................................... 16
3.3.8 Vapors/Gases Line Sizing Criteria...................................................................... 18
3.3.9 Liquid Vapor Mixed Phase ................................................................................. 18
3.3.10 Pipeline Hydraulics ............................................................................................. 19
3.4 Design Over Sizing Factor ......................................................................................... 20
3.4.1 Pump Sizing ........................................................................................................ 20
3.4.2 Line sizing .......................................................................................................... 21
3.5 Design Pressure & Temperature of Pressure Vessel ................................................ 21
3.5.1 Design Pressure ................................................................................................. 21
3.5.2 Pressure Conditions ........................................................................................... 21
3.5.3 Design Temperature ........................................................................................... 22
3.5.4 Temperature Conditions ..................................................................................... 22
4.0 PUMP CALCULATION ..................................................................................................... 23
5.0 RELIEF SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA ............................................................................. 25
6.0 NOZZLE, MAN WAY AND CONNECTION ON PRESSURE VESSELS .......................... 26
6.1 Vent, Drain And Steam Out Connection .................................................................... 26
6.2 Man Way ................................................................................................................... 27
6.3 Vessel Nozzles .......................................................................................................... 28
7.0 CONTROL VALVE SIZING CRITERIA ............................................................................. 28
7.1 Control Valve Manifold .............................................................................................. 29
7.2 Selection of Valves .................................................................................................... 33
7.3 Battery Limit Block Valves ......................................................................................... 34
7.4 Pressure Thermal Relief System Design Criteria ...................................................... 34

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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

SOHRAB WELL HEAD NO.1 FLOW LINE TO


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Client Project No.: 14-71-148 Page 4 OF 35
Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Arvandan Oil and Gas company intends to construct an 8" N.B. buried flowline
from Sohrab WH1 to South Azadegan North Cluster.

Sohrab Field is located at North of Azadegan Field, and 115 Km North West of
Ahwaz right along the international border with Iraq.

The major sections of the project are:

- Wellhead facilities (at WH No.1).


- 8" N.B, 50 Km (Approx.) buried flow line.
- Receiving trap facility at South Azadegan North Cluster.

1.1 Terms and Definitions


Owner/ client: Arvandan Oil & Gas Company (AOGC)

EPC Contractor: Shall Mean The Contractor Responsible For


Engineering, Procurement & Construction Of
The Project.

Consultant: Enerchimi Engineering Company (EEC)

Vendor/ Supplier: Refers to firm or person who will supply


and/or fabricate the equipment or material.

Will: is normally used in connection with the action


by the "company" rather than by a contractor,
supplier or vendor.

May: is used where a provision is completely


discretionary.

Should: is used where a provision is advisory only.

Shall: is used where a provision is mandatory.

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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

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Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

2.0 GENERAL

2.1 Meteorological /Environmental Data

According to Project Design Basis Document.

2.2 Units Of Measure

As a general rule, the SI metric system of units shall be used and particularly:

Pressure (gauge) psig

Pressure (absolute) psia

Mass kg

Length m & mm except the pipes diameter for which inches are
allowed

Liquid relative density sp. gr. TC/15C

Liquid absolute density kg/m3 at 15C

Vapour flowing density kg/m3

Flow rates

- Mass kg/h

- Vapour kg/h

- Liquid bbl/d, l/min for Fire Fighting

Normal conditions

- Vapour Nm3 (m3 at 0C & 1.013 bar a) or Sm3


vapour (m3at 15C & 1.013 bara)

- Liquid Std bbl (bbl at 15C)

Specific enthalpy kJ/kg

Heat rate MW

Gross calorific value kJ / kg


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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

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Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

Viscosity (kinematic) cp

For complete list of SI-Units refer to ISO 31-0


In addition to the above units, the following units shall be used for material
balance purposes:

Vapour flow rate = MMSCFD Million Standard cubic feet per day
(at 15C & 1.013 bara).

Liquid flow rate = SBLPD or SBOPD Standard barrel of liquid, or


of oil, per day(at 15C & 1.013 bara).

Temperature = C

Pressure (absolute) = Psia

3.0 PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

3.1 Design Standard and Codes

In design of this plant all of the IPS standard relevant to process design such
as following must be completed.

Units E-GN-100

Basic Design Package & Recommended Practice for Feasibility Studies E-PR-
150

Process Flow Diagram E-PR-170

Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) E-PR-230

Plant Operating Manuals E-PR-290

Plant Technical and Equipment Manuals (Engineering Dossiers) E-PR-300

Process Design of Flare & Blow down Systems E-PR-460

Process Design of Pressure Relieving Systems Inclusive Safety

Relief Valves E-PR-450

Onshore Transportation Pipelines C-PI-140 & E-PI-140


Plant Piping Systems E-PI-240 & E-PI-240

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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


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Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

Plant Piping System Pressure Testing C-PI-350

Transportation Pipelines(Onshore) Pressure Testing C-PI-370

Besides IPS, the following standards shall be utilized:

Pressure vessel ASME Sec. VIII, DIV 1 or


2

Piping ,Oil pipeline ASME/ANSI B31.3,B31.4

Guide for pressure relieving & depressurizing API- 521


system
Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage API- 2000
Tanks

3.2 Symbol& Legend

Symbol & legend is utilized in P& ID diagram.

3.3 Piping

3.3.1 General Design and Hydraulics

This section provides the Process Engineer with methods for sizing process
piping and calculating pressure drops in straight pipes and associated fittings.
It also provides some useful design data for pipes and fittings required for
sizing purposes.

3.3.2 Two-phase Flow Regions

The two-phase flow patterns are shown in Table 3-1 first column. The
selection of one of these flow patterns is made using Fig. 3-1. The borders of
the various flow pattern regions in Fig. 3-1 are shown as lines. In reality these
boarders are rather broad transition zone.

Baker parameters

A particular flow region can be determined by the Baker parameters Bx and


By. Using data supplied or usually available to the process piping designer,
the Baker parameters can be expressed as follows:

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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

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Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

K = 7.1 106 SI K = 2.16 English

"By" depends on the vapor phase flow rate, on vapor and liquid densities, and
on the pipe size. The practical significance of the later variable is that by
changing pipe diameters, the type of flow might also be changed, which is in
turn, also changes friction losses in pipe.

K = 212 SI K = 531 English

Note:

Percent liquid/percent vapor, can be substituted for WL/Wv and

L . V. / L2/3 =( V0.5/ L0.166) and also L1/3=L0.33

As Equation above shows "Bx" depends on the mass-flow ratio and the
physical properties of the liquid and vapor phase. Once calculated, it does
not change with alternative pipe diameters. The position of the Bx line in Fig.
6-4-2/1 changes only if the liquid-vapor mixture proportion changes and, to a
much lesser extent, if the physical properties of the concurrently flowing liquid
and vapor changes. This can occur in long pipe lines where relatively high
friction losses reduce the pressure. Consequently, the vapor content of the
mixture in equilibrium increases with corresponding decrease in vapor density.
The Bx line will shift somewhat to the left.

The intersection of Bx and By on Fig. 3-1 determines the flow region for the
calculated liquid- vapor proportion and physical properties of the liquid and
vapor. With increasing vapor content, the intersection point moves up and to
the left.

It is suggested that the designer calculate By first. If By 80,000 the flow will fall
in dispersed flow region for hydrocarbon liquids of normal viscosities, then, the
long multiplication of Bx does not have to be calculated. This can be expected
when the vapor content is 25 percent or more of the total mass flow rate.

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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

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Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

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Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

TWO-PHASE FLOW REGION SELECTION GRAPH

Fig. 3-1

3.3.3 Two-Phase Flow Unit Loss

There are different methods to calculate Unit losses for vapor-liquid


mixtures. At this stage the Lockhard-Martinelli method widely used in the
chemical industries mostly for horizontal Pipes. In oil & gas transmission
lines there are different correlations methods which the BBM (Beggs-
Brill- Moody) is the most popular.

However, the calculations of the unit losses for vapor-liquid mixtures are
based on the method of Messrs. Lockhart and Martinelli. Only the essential
necessary relationship are repeated here and used with the customary data of
practical process piping design. The general equation for calculating two-
phase flow unit losses is:

P100 (two-phase) = P100 (vapor) ()

Calculate the pressure drop of the vapor phase, assuming that there is only
vapor flowing in the pipeline. It is assumed that the two-phase flow is
isothermal and turbulent in both liquid and vapor phases and that the pressure
loss is less than 10% of the absolute upstream pressure.

In Equation above is the two-phase flow modulus, is a function of the


Lockhart-Martinelli two-
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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

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Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

phase modulus X as follows :

Correct the calculated P100 (vapor) with the correlations listed in Table below second
column.

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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

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Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

Table 3-1. SUMMARY OF TWO-PHASE FLOW UNIT FRICTION LOSS


CALCULATIONS

a = 4.8-0.0123 d

HORIZONTAL

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National Iranian Oil Company


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Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

The form of the correlations is identical:

Where "a" includes the vapor-phase flow rate and the pipe cross section and
"b" is a constant, except for annular flow where in "a" and "b" only pipe
diameters appear as variants.

As mentioned previously X is the Lockhart-Martinelli, two-phase modulus:

Inserting Darcys (or Wiesbachs) equation in the numerator and


denominator of Equation above (deleting the identical constants and
symbols), the two-phase flow modulus will be equal to:

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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

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Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

fL and fv is the liquid and vapor-phase friction factor. It can be obtained


directly by calculating the liquid vapor phase Reynolds numbers and using the
Moody friction factor diagram for commercial steel pipes.

Usually both phases fall in transitional turbulent zone, where the friction factor
varies with varying
Reynolds numbers, fL/fv increases with the increasing vapor content of liquid.

Reynolds number is calculated separately for the vapor and liquid-phase using
the same diameter, corresponding flow rates and viscosities.

Re = 353.7W/d.

A convenient form of Darcys equation for unit pressure loss calculations for
liquid or vapor as previously stated is:

P100 = 62530 (fD.W2)/d5. Bar/100 m

Use the same diameter for liquid and vapor-phase and corresponding phase
flow rate, density and friction factor.
As with all line sizing procedures pipe sizes must be estimated first. After pipe
size selection, flow region coordinates can be calculated and the flow type
determined. After finding the vapor-phase unit loss and applicable two phase
flow correlation (in Table 3-1), two-phase flow Unit losses can be calculated by
mentioned Equations. can be also found through Fig. 3-1 or Table 3-1.

The over-all friction loss in the pipe between two points will be:

P =P100 (two-phase)(L/100)

Where L is the equivalent length of the pipe and fittings in meter.

3.3.4 Valves and Fittings

The pressure drop resulting from friction is only one part of the total pressure
drop in a piping system. In addition to friction, other factors that cause
pressure drop are:

- Changes in the direction of flow (bends, elbows, tees, etc)

- Changes in the cross-sectional area (diameter changes)

- Other obstructions (valves and fittings)


When the flow is completely turbulent, the friction factor is a constant and
L/D can be used to calculate pressure drops through fittings.
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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

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Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

3.3.5 Line Sizing

Before final line sizing, the system shall be evaluated with the objective of
resulting in a total cost effective design. This may include evaluation of
functional requirements, cost of equipment and piping, space requirements
and weight, energy costs, mechanical and process limitations, maintenance
cost etc.

3.3.6 Line Sizing Criteria

The following design criteria are observed during engineering design and
material sizing/selection.

3.3.6.1 Line Sizing Considerations

Considering the economics of the project, one of the following factors may be
used in selecting a line size:

Available pressure drop


Velocity limitation
Stability of mixed phase flow

Generally, the line shall be sized based on the friction loss. Velocity limit may
be used for checking, or making preliminary sizing. In some cases, the size is
determined by a maximum velocity limit:

Available pressure drop

Line sizing shall be based on the total available pressure drop, which will
ensure a minimum line diameter. Care shall be exercised to limit the velocity in
the pipes. The pressure drop limitations are shown on the next pages. These
values are somewhat arbitrary, which may be applied for continuous services
and may be exceeded for intermittent services, while problems of noise,
erosion, and water hammer shall be considered.

Limitations of velocity

The velocity limitation shall be used as the main factor for avoiding erosion,
liquid hammer, pressure surge, noise, vibration and reaction and or chocked
flow. In some cases, a minimum velocity is required. A compromise between
line size and pump power has to be taken.

Depending on the flow regime, the liquid in a two-phase flow system can be
accelerated to velocities approaching or exceeding the vapor velocity. In
some cases, these velocities are higher than what would be desirable for
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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

National Iranian Oil Company


Arvandan Oil and Gas Company ENERCHIMI ENG. CO.

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Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

process piping. Such high velocities lead to phenomena known as "erosion-


corrosion", where the corrosion rate of material is accelerated by an erosive
material or force (in this case, the high-velocity liquid).

An index based on velocity head can indicate whether erosion-corrosion may


become significant at a particular velocity and can be used to determine the
range of mixture densities and velocities below which erosion-corrosion should
not occur.

This index is:

Where the mixture or average density:

The corrosional velocity limitations may be determined experimentally. The


limitation for corrosional velocity is based on the inhibitor film resistance and
experiments. It is normally less than erosional velocity and is basis for design
velocity in pipelines.

Stability of Mixed Phase Flow

PIPEPHASE software with BBM model will be used for pipeline


calculation. Beggs & Brill correlation predicts the most consistent results for
wide ranges of conditions.

Each mixed phase flow line shall be handled as special case, taking the
following considerations into account:

Stable flow pattern shall be maintained for the two-phase flow line.

The flow pattern shall be checked for maximum turn down flow rates.

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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

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Doc. No.: AOGC-036-PR-DSC-001 Consultant Project No.: 19381 Rev.: B0
Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

3.3.6.2 Permissible Pipe Sizes

A minimum size of 2" should in general be used for all process, process
support and utility piping to ensure adequate mechanical integrity. Smaller
piping can be used, where protection and/or support is provided for the
following services:

Instrument air.

Chemical injection.

Auxiliary services such as pump cooling.

Services where a minimum velocity is required.

Internal piping on equipment skids.

Sample connections.

Instrument connections.

Minimum size for the sewage and open drain header shall be 4" and sub-
headers 3".

3.3.7 Liquid Line Sizing Criteria

The following general guidelines, taking the following considerations into


account, should be used to size piping of in-plant.

For corrosive or erosive fluids in carbon steel pipe, the velocity will be
reduced to half.

When available pressure drop in the system dictates a lower friction loss
velocity as compared to the mentioned range, then such lower friction loss
/ velocity shall apply.

When pressure drop is not a limiting factor or in intermittent services, the


mentioned values and limits can be exceeded in short branch lines.

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Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

3.3.7.1 Pressure Drop Limitation for Liquids

3.3.7.2 Velocity Limitation for Liquids

P (bar/km) Max. Velocity. (m/s) (2)


Liquid line type 3" to 8" to From
Norm. Max. To 2"
6" 18" 20"
Pump suction
- Liquid at bubble point with dissolved gas 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5
- Non boiling liquid 2.3 3.5 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8
Unit Lines
- Liquid at bubble point with dissolved gas 0.6 1.0 0.6 1.0 1.4 1.8
- Non boiling liquid 2.3 3.5 0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4

Pump discharge (1)


- Disch. Pres. <= 50 bar g 3.5 4.5 1.5 to 4.5 m/s 6.0
- Disch. Pres. > 50 bar g 7.0 9.0 1.5 to 4.5 m/s 6.0

Column Outlet 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.9

Gravity flow 0.25 0.45 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

Water lines (CS) (3)


- Cooling water & service water (4)
Large feeders between pumps and units 1.5 1.5 to 3.0 m/s
Unit lines (long) 1.5 1.5 2.5 3.0 3.0
Unit lines (short) 3.5 1.5 2.5 3.0 3.0
- Boiler feed
- Pres. <= 50 bar g 3.5 4.5 1.5 to 4.5 m/s 6.0
- Pres. > 50 bar g 7.0 9.0 1.5 to 4.5 m/s 6.0

- Sea water lines 2.5 to 3.5 m/s (2 m/s mini)

- Steam cond. return 1 to 1.5 m/s

- Reboiler feed (for indication) 0.2 0.4

Notes:
(1) 3.0 m/s maximum (2 m/s average) at storage tank inlet or in loading.
(2) Vendor and/or Licenser requirements could supersede maximum velocity values upon Company
approval.
(3) Special considerations can be applied for copper-nickel or glass reinforced plastic piping upon
Client approval.
(4) Velocities below 0.91 m/s should not be used for cooling water service to avoid solids deposition.
(5) For amine service velocity should not exceed 1 m/s to avoid corrosion/erosion.
(6) For lines containing mixtures of hydrocarbon and water, velocity should be limited to 1 m/s to
avoid generation of static charge.

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CLIENT: CONSULTANT:

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Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

3.3.8 Vapors/Gases Line Sizing Criteria

3.3.8.1 Pressure Drop Limitation for Vapors/Gases

3.3.8.2 Velocity Limitation for Vapors/Gases

SERVICE Max. Velocity P


(m/s) (Norm./Max)
(bar/km)
- Single phase
0 < 10 kg/m3 25
3
10 < 20 kg/m 17
0.4/1
20 < 40 kg/m3 14
40 < 60 kg/m3 12
> 60 kg/m3 11
- Compressor Suction Same as Single 0.2/0.7
Phase in
- Compressor Discharge Continuous 0.4/1
Operation
- Two Phase
G.O.R > 1000 15
0.4/1
G.O.R < 1000 20
- Steam
P 2 barg 30 0.1/0.2
2 < P < 14 barg 40 0.2/0.7
P > 14 barg 50 0.2/0.9

3.3.9 Liquid Vapor Mixed Phase

Two-phase flow should be sized primary based on flow velocity. Flow


velocity should be kept below erosional velocity. The velocity above which
erosion may occur can be determined by the following empirical equation:

Where:

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Document Title: PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA

Ve = Fluid erosion velocity, ft/s

C = Empirical constant

= 100 for solids free fluids and continuous service

= 125 for intermittent service

m = gas / liquid mixture density at flowing pressure and temperature, lbs/ft3

P =Operating Pressure, psia


SL =Liquid specific gravity (water=1, use average gravity for hydrocarbon-
Water mixtures) at standard condition
R =Gas/liquid ratio, ft3/barrel at standard conditions
T =Operating temperature, R
Sg =Gas specific gravity (air=1) at standard conditions
Z =Gas compressibility factor, dimensionless

Note:

1) Different values of C may be used where specific application studies have shown
them to be appropriate.

2) If solids production is anticipated, fluid velocities should be significantly reduced.

3.3.10 Pipeline Hydraulics

For liquid lines the normal average flow velocities should be selected between
1 and 2 m/s. Operations above 4 m/s should be avoided and lines containing a
separate water phase.

For gas lines, the normal average flow velocities should be selected between
5 to 10 m/s. In special cases, continuous operations up to 20 m/s. Velocities
lower than 5 m/s may have to be used for fluids containing solid particles
where maximum velocity will be dictated by the occurrence of erosion.

The maximum velocity that can be attained by a compressible fluid is the


critical or sonic velocity. In no case should the operating velocity exceed one
half of the critical velocity. For an ideal gas:

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Where

K = Ratio of specific heats, Cp/Cv

R = Universal gas constant = 8314.47 J/kmole.K

T = Flowing temperature, K

Mw = Molecular weight, Kg/Kmole

Where a mixture of gas and liquid is being transported, the erosional should
be used as maximum velocity.

If sand or other erosive solids are expected to be present, the fluid velocity
should be reduced and/or special materials selected to avoid or reduce
erosion.
However in two-phase lines (especially for long lines with elevation changes)
the velocity shall be selected to have a suitable flow regime with minimum
pressure drop across the lines.

3.4 Design Over Sizing Factor

The design philosophy concerning sizing factors to be applied for sizing


equipments and machinery are as follows:

3.4.1 Pump Sizing

Conditions Description
10% on maximum normal flow rate Centrifugal pumps
20% on maximum normal flow rate Chemical injection
15% on maximum normal flow rate Reciprocating & Rotary pumps

For pump design capacity and head the following equation shall be used:
Design capacity = (max. normal flow rate) x (design over sizing factor)
Design head = Pump head at maximum normal flow rate.
Fluid characteristics always quote at pumping temperature i.e. normal
suction temperature.

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For an estimate, 30% of normal flow is used for pump minimum flow. For
existing pumps minimum flow shall be obtained from vendor data sheets

3.4.2 Line sizing

10% of maximum flow rate.

3.5 Design Pressure & Temperature of Pressure Vessel

3.5.1 Design Pressure

The design pressure is the value used in determining the minimum permissible
thickness or physical characteristics of the different parts of the vessel or
equipment as follows:

TABLE 3-5

Maximum continuous operating Minimum design pressure


pressure (bar g) MOP (bar g)

Under vacuum Full vacuum, Max 3.5 barg


External Pressure 0.5 barg using ASME
Code
< 1.5 3.5 minimum
1.5 17 MOP + 1.7 bar
17 70 MOP + 10%
70 140 MOP + 7
Above 140 1.05 OP

3.5.2 Pressure Conditions

Design pressure applies at the top of vessels, i.e. above any liquid level.
Mechanical thickness calculations take in consideration a maximum liquid
density and a maximum liquid level as well as the design pressure.

Pressure vessels should normally have a design pressure of not less than
3.5 barg, especially when fitted with relief valves relieving to flare systems.
Lower design pressures can result in increased sizing of the flare system
to limit acceptable backpressures. However, consideration may be given
to increasing the design pressure if this can significantly reduce, or
eliminate, relief loads.
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Design Pressure at the pump discharge, as a maximum requirement, shall


be set to pump shut-off pressure. When accurate information is
unavailable, the shut-off pressure for centrifugal pumps should be
determined by choosing the greater of the two following criteria:

1) Maximum suction pressure +1.2 times the normal differential pressure


developed by the pump. Where,

Maximum suction pressure = Vessel design pressure + liquid head in


suction

2) Maximum suction pressure at relieving conditions plus the normal


differential pressure developed by the pump.

3.5.3 Design Temperature

The design temperature is the maximum and/or minimum value for


which the mechanical calculation of the equipment shall be performed.
The following criteria are set for design temperature:

TABLE 3-6

OPERATING TEMP (C) DESIGN TEMP


OT < 0 MIN : OT*-6C
MAX : SUN TEMP
0 60 SUN TEMP (85C)
61 343 OT + 28C or SUN TEMP which ever is greater
343C OT + 15C

* Minimum Continuous Operating Temp (C).

3.5.4 Temperature Conditions

The startup. Shut down, upset, or any other condition shall be considered
to determine the minimum operating temperature.

Vessels and instruments subject to steam-out shall be designed to


meet pressure and temperature during steam-out operation.

Material shall be selected on the basis of the given operating temperature


and shall determine the design temperature

In exceptional cases, the design temperature may be chosen closer to the


maximum operating temperature for reasons of economy or suitability of
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materials of construction, e.g. to avoid the use of exotic materials or a


higher flange rating.

4.0 PUMP CALCULATION

Over capacity is defined as the percentage difference between the normal and
rated flows. Normal and rated flows will be set by the process section and will
be indicated on the pump head calculation sheet.

The over capacity provided is a minimum of 10%.

Design margins as set out as table below are to be applied when setting pump
design capacities.

Pump Suction Pressure

The pump suction pressure shall be calculated as the minimum continuous


operating pressure of the suction vessel plus the liquid static head from the
vessel tangent on vertical vessels and the bottom of horizontal vessels, to the
pump center line minus the suction piping loss.

Suction Calculation

This calculation yields the system pressure available at the pump centerline of
horizontal pumps or at the centerline of the suction inlet nozzle for vertical
shaft pumps. It involves the summation of the feed vessels normal operating
pressure and the static head less the pressure drop in the suction piping
resulting from friction, inlet-exit, and other losses.

The static head for vertical vessels is calculated from the bottom tangent line
while for horizontal vessels, the bottom invert line is used. Usually no credit is
taken for the head contributed by liquid operating levels in a vessel.

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Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA)

The minimum available NPSH is the difference between the pump suction
pressure and the fluids vapor pressure at the flow conditions. For NPSHA,
normally, a minimum of 610 mm differential head shall be provided over NPSH
requirement of pumps.

NPSHA is calculated by deducting the Vapor Pressure of the fluid at pumping


conditions from the
Suction Pressure and converting it to pressure head in terms of liquid column.

In reporting the vapor pressure, use the notation Bubble Point Fluid for
boiling point liquids instead of numerical values.

Process engineers are to include a Safety Factor of 0.61m (2 feet) in the


NPSH calculated for:-
a) All boiling point fluids either single or multi-component.

b) Fluids that contain dissolved gas.

c) Foaming fluids.

In the special case of boiler feed water pumps, a margin of 2.0 m (6.6 feet) is
to be used.

Shut off pressure

Shut off pressure shall be calculated as maximum suction pressure plus 120
% of differential pressure. The shutoff pressure of a typical centrifugal pump is
approximately equal to the sum of the maximum suction pressure and 120%
of the net differential pressure generated by the pump, based on the
maximum anticipated fluid density. Other pumps with steep H-Q curves such
as turbine, multistage and mixed flow pumps, however, will have higher shutoff
pressures. The process engineer specifying these types of pumps shall
consult with the Rotating Equipment Group to determine this value since it
may influence the design pressure of downstream equipment.

The maximum discharge pressure sets the design pressure of a pump casing.

This is the sum of the maximum suction pressure and maximum differential
pressure, which usually occurs at zero flow. In cases where the feed vessel is
protected by a safety relief valve, the maximum suction pressure will be equal
to the sum of the safety valve set pressure and the maximum static head.

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5.0 RELIEF SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA

Design of pressure relieving devices will be in accordance with the API


recommended practice 520 & 521.

The safety relief valves shall be manufactured according to the ASME code
section VIII.

TYPICAL INSTALLATION OF RELIEF VALVES ON EQUIPMENT

All pressure relief valves should be equipped with L/O blocked valves at
inlet & outlet as in above.

Relief valves should be located on equipment rather than associated


piping whenever possible.

For liquid systems, proper thermal relief protection shall be provided.

Double relief valve system shall be used for all equipment, which cannot
be removed from service without plant shut down.

Multiple valves are necessary because the required capacity cannot be


provided in a single valve or are preferred for particular services.

Upstream of relieving devices

For line sizing, the maximum capacity of the PSV shall be considered, even if
this figure exceeds the actual maximum flow rate set by process limitations.

P between the protected equipment and the PSV < 3% of PSV set
pressure (API RP 520 part II).

Diameters of inlet lines must be greater than or equal to PSV inlet


diameters.

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Downstream of relieving devices

The minimum line size shall be 2 in and the back-pressure shall be


compatible with protected equipment.

Maximum velocity in a sub header is 0.7 Mach for short duration relieves only.
Maximum flowing velocity in the lines between of the PSV's to the first sub
header shall in general be less than 0.7 Mach. For the PSV's where the outlet
velocity is higher, a reducer shall be installed as close as possible to the PSV
to increase line size and hence limit the velocity to max 0.7 Mach downstream
at the reducer.
Flare stack diameter is generally sized on a velocity of up to 0.5 Mach for a
peak, short-term, infrequent flow, with 0.2 Mach maintained for the more
normal and possibly more frequent conditions for low-pressure flares.
However, sonic velocity operation may be appropriate for high-pressure flares.
The tip pressure drop is taken from vendor's information. For sonic type tip the
backpressure will be assumed 2 to 5 Barg depending on load, when there is
not any information.

6.0 NOZZLE, MAN WAY AND CONNECTION ON PRESSURE VESSELS

All pressure vessels shall be provided with not operating valve vents
and drains discharging to atmosphere vents shall be located on top of vessel
and blinded or plugged.

Drain shall be blinded or plugged and preferably located on the low point of
the bottom outlet piping, outside the skirt. If there is no bottom line or said line
does not allow complete drainage of the vessels, the drain shall be connected
to a separate nozzle on the bottom head.

6.1 Vent, Drain And Steam Out Connection

All vents on the piping shall have minimum size of inch.

Hydrostatic test vent connections shall be plugged, capped or blind flange


in accordance with piping material specification.

Size of vent, Drain and steam out nozzles on vessels shall select as per
following table:

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Table 6-1

VESSEL DIAMETER VENT (INCH) DRAIN (*) STEAM OUT (INCH)


(MM) (INCH)

UP TO 1200 1" 1" 1"


1200-2500 2" 2" 1"
2500-3500 3" 3" 1"
3500-6000 4" 3" 2"
>6000 4" 3" 3"

(*)Selected drain size to be as process line, in case process connection is to


be smaller than the above table.
6.2 Man Way

A) Horizontal vessels

900mm to 1300mm ID Man way, on the head, 18" ID

Larger than 1300mm ID Man way, on the side or on the top, 20" ID (1) Higher
size man way shall be provided if required to accommodate internals.

B) Vertical Vessels

Under 900mm ID Top head flanged

900mm to 1300mm ID Man way, in shell, 18" ID Larger than 1300mm ID


Man way, in shell, 20" ID (1)
(1) Higher size man way shall be provided if required to accommodate
internals.

C) Packed vessels

Each packed bed shall have a man way at above of bed and a man
way at bottom for withdrawal.

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6.3 Vessel Nozzles

The size of the nozzle on the vessels shall be equal to size of the
connecting pipe.

If the process has set a larger size than the pipe attached to it, then the
size shall remain larger as per process requirements.

If the process the set a smaller nozzle size than the pipe attached to it,
then the size shall be increased to the pipe size provided that the process
shall not be affected.

Auxiliary Nozzles

Auxiliary nozzles will in general be provided in accordance with the minimum


sizes given in the following table:

Vessel Volume, m3 Vent Drain Pump Steam Blow down


Up to 1.4 1 1 1 1 2
1.4 to 5.7 1 1.5 1.5 1 3
5.7 to 17 2 2 2 1 3
17 to 71 2 3 3 2 4
71 and over 2 3 3 3 4

Blow down and Pump out Nozzles

Blow down and pump out nozzles may or may not be provided depending on
the safety system used and the clients preference. When provided, they are
connected to the vessel in the same manner as the drain line.

Safety Valve Nozzles

A drum, not open to atmosphere, is always provided with a safety valve


unless it can be relieved through the safety valve of an adjacent vessel and
there is no isolating block valve between the vessels.

7.0 CONTROL VALVE SIZING CRITERIA

Generally, the range of control valve opening should be between 10% for
minimum flow rate and 80% for maximum (design) flow rate. At the normal
flow rate valve opening percent should be 60%-70%.

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For control valves, allowable pressure drop specified in data sheets


shall be used as a general guideline. If not specified, the following
procedure is used as a general guideline. Whichever greater of the below
Pcv is selected as the design pressure drop of the control valve.

Pcv = Pfriction - Pstatic, where, Pfriction is assumed 20-25% of


circuit friction losses (excluding the control valve) at maximum normal
flow rate. Pstatic is assumed as 5-10% of circuit static pressure difference.

Pcv = Static head of 5m liquid height.

7.1 Control Valve Manifold

The operation, severity, and maintenance frequency will dictate the


manifold configuration. The following table is taken as a guideline:

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TABLE 7-1

Design Criteria Guideline For Control Valve Manifold


1 Bypass valves shall be full manifold size globe valves up
through 6, and reduced size gate valves in larger sizes of
2 One ifld bleed valve shall be installed between the upstream and
downstream block and control valves
3 At least a 1/16 clearance shall be provide at each flange
accommodate the gaskets
4 Control valves above 2 size shall have a minimum ASME rating of
300#
5 A straight run of 8 diameters shall be provided downstream
of valves, in flashing services, and shall be reported on the
respective P & ID
6 All control valves without a bypass and a block valves shall
have manual operators or side hand wheel jacks

Exceptions to above guideline:

Full line size block and bypass valves are required for the following:

Use downstream line size for block valve size when vaporization or volume
increase full line capacity.

On gravity flow with small control value differential.

When future expansion is predicted / seen in the design

On higher-pressure drop where cavitations could occur (expansion shall be


used immediately at the control valve outlet).

Excessive noise.

Control valve identification on P & ID documents as it follows:

Tag number

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Size of CV, block and by pass

Fail safe position (FO, FC, FL)


Flashing services (FS)

Ration

Type of control valves (Ball, globe and butterfly)

TSO (Tight shut off) requirement.

The design of manifolds shall be in accordance with IPS-C-IN-160, ISA-RP-


75.6.

Control valves shall be arranged in horizontal lines with the valve actuator
above the valve.

The minimum clearance above a control valve shall be 300mm and


minimum bottom clearance shall be 500mm when possible. In all case
leave sufficient clearance for removal of diaphragm, plug and stem.

Where the line size is more than two sizes larger than the size of the control
valves, line size may be considered to sewage ahead of the manifold and then
the manifold shall be size as described before.

Control valves above 2" size shall have minimum ANSI rating of 300#.

A straight run of 8 diameters shall be provided downstream of valves, in


flashing services, and it shall be noted on the P & ID.

It is essential that all control valves without bypass and block


valves shall have manual operators or side hand wheel jacks.

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TABLE 7-2: Recommended Minimum block and bypass valve sizing

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Exceptions

Full line size block and bypass valves are required for the following:

a) Vaporization or volume increase full line capacity use downstream line size
for block valve size. b) Gravity flow with small control valve differential.
c) Requirement for future expansion.

d) High pressure drop where cavitations could occur. Expansion will be


used immediately at the control valve outlet.

e) Excessive noise.

TYPICAL INSTALLATION OF CONTROL VALVES

7.2 Selection of Valves

The following guide shall be used to select the type of valves for specific
application.

Gate valve may be used for on-off purpose especially for liquid lines when
throttling and tight shut-off is not required.

Ball or non-lubricated plug valves may be used at service air hose


connections.

Check valve shall be used for unidirectional flow and when return of flow
shall be avoided.

Globe valves shall be used in the followings:

a) Water services 1 or smaller b) Manual regulation of flow


c) Mixing

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d) For flow adjustment on lines not exceeding than 8


Needle valve may be used for sampling especially for high pressure
cases.
Ball valve shall be used in control valve manifold bypass or any service
where throttling are expected.

The type of ball valve shall be such that they provide metal to metal seating
upon the failure of the non-metallic parts during fire conditions (fire safe)

7.3 Battery Limit Block Valves

All pipes, which enter or exit from Battery Limit of unit shall be equipped with
Block Valve, Spectacle Blind, and vent and drain valves, which are installed
inside of Battery Limit.

Block valves for relief lines must be equipped with lock in open position.

In some cases which may back flow exists, a check valve shall be equipped in
up-stream of Block valve.

7.4 Pressure Thermal Relief System Design Criteria

Pressure relieving system design shall conform to the requirements of IPS-E-


PR-450, API-RP-520 and API-RP-521. In addition, IPS-G-ME-150, on
UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSELS and ASME code section VIII should be
consulted.

Some of the special considerations are discussed as follow:

A detailed analysis shall be made on every possible situation in order to


determine maximum loadings of relief system.

The probability of entirely unrelated failures occurring at the same time is


remote, and need not to be considered.

Fire proofing of selected equipment shall be considered in order to


maintain the relief systems size within acceptable limit, if fire conditions
are the controlling conditions of a particular relief system.

If a pressure relief header is being sized for fire condition, the fire area
shall be limited to 21m (70ft) in diameter within a single process unit.

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Flare line size above 24 inch in diameter shall be reviewed with project
lead engineer.

Relief valve header, which connects to a common system outside


plot limits, shall be in accordance with IPS-E-PR-460.

For liquid systems, proper thermal relief protection shall be provided.

Installation of relief valves on equipment shall be without requiring the


plant shut down during the removal of safety valves.

Double relief valve system should be used for all equipment, which cannot
be removed from service without plant shut down.

Each valve shall have 100% capacity, with inlet and outlet block valves
mechanically locked in open position. When relief system on the above
services consists of multiple relief valves, one additional relief valve with the
same capacity shall be installed, in order, to permit replacement of any of the
other valves.

Use of control valves in the bypass of the relief valves is prohibited.

Whenever possible, relief valves shall be installed on equipment rather


than associated piping

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