You are on page 1of 63

A Training Report

On

CNC MACHINE TOOL &


VMC + AUTOCAD + DELCAM
Submitted to MDU in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of

TRAINING REPORT
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Submitted By

Name: - Shubham goyal


Roll No. - 15 me 62
Semester: - 5th

DEPTT. OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


RPSCET BALANA, MOHINDERGARH-123029

Page | 1
PREFACE

Training is an integral part of B. Tech and each and every student has to
undergo the training for 4-6 weeks in a company.

This record is concerned about our practical training during the Summer
Vacations after the 2nd year. We have taken our Practical training in Krishna
Automation Industrial Training Centre. During this training, we got to
learn many new things about the CNC machine tools, VMC, AutoCAD and
Delcam and the current requirements of companies. This training proved to be
a milestone in our knowledge of present industry. Every say and every moment
was an experience in itself, an experience which theoretical study cant
provide.

Page | 2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is my pleasure to be indebted to various people, who directly or indirectly contributed in


the development of this work and who influenced my thinking, behavior and acts during the
course of study.

I express my sincere gratitude to MR. Gopal Singh Chaudhary for providing me an


opportunity to undergo summer training at Krishna Automation Industrial Training
Centre.

And I also express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Mahesh K. Yadav (The Director), Mr.
Devender S. Yadav (The Registrar) and Mr. Rajender S. Yadav (The Dean of
Academic Affairs) for providing me a Platform like KITC to increase my technical
knowledge as well as gaining practical knowledge in CNC Machine Tools, which will help
me to achieve a better job opportunity in my field.

I am also thankful to Mr. Balwant Singh for his support, co-operation, and motivation
provided me during the training for constant inspiration, presence and blessings.

I also extend my sincere appreciation to MR. Rajesh Rana (Head of Department) &
Faculty of Mechanical Deptt. who provided his valuable suggestions and precious time in
accomplishing my training report.

Lastly, I would like to thank the almighty and my parents for their moral support and my
friends with whom I shared my day-to-day experience and received lots of suggestions that
my quality of work.

Shubham goyal
Roll no. 15 me 62
Page | 3
DECLARATION

I Shubham goyal, Roll No. 15 me 62, B. Tech (Semester- V) of the RPS Engineering College,

Balana (Mohindergarh) hereby declare that the Training Report entitled Training

Report on CNC Machine Tool and VMC + AutoCAD + Delcam is an original work and data

provided in the study is authentic to the best of my knowledge. This report has not been submitted

to any other Institute for the award of any other degree.

Shubham goyal

Roll no. 15 me 62

Place: RPSCET, Balana, M/Garh, Haryana

Date: 20th November 2017

Page | 4
CERTIFICATE

Page | 5
TABLE OF CONTENTS
S. No. DESCRIPTION Page. No.

1. INTRODUCTION.10
1.1 COMPANY PROFILE.10
1.2 M.D. MESSEGE..11
1.3 MISSION & VISSION OF COMPANY.12
2. CNC WORK THEORY.13
2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF CNC MACHINE...15
2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEM16
3. COMPANY PRODUCTS.18
3.1 TURNING / TURNMILL CENTER (TMC)18
3.2 VERTICAL MACHINING CENTER (VMC).19
3.3 HORIZONTAL MACHINING CENTER (HMC)...21
4. COMPONENTS OF CNC...22
4.1 SPINDLE.22
4.2 SADDLE...22
4.3 BASE.22
4.4 LINEAR MOTION GUID WAYS (LM).22
4.5 PALLETE.23
4.6 AUTOMATIC TOOL CHANGER...23
4.7 HEAD STOCK.23
4.8 TAILSTOCK.24
4.9 TURRET ASSEMBLY.24
4.10 CONTROLLER....25
4.11 PUMPS.25
4.12 MOTORS...25
4.13 OUTER SHEET METAL BODY.25
5. ASSEMBLY OF CNC MACHINE.26
6. TYPES OF CNC PROGRAMING...29
6.1 CNC PROGRAMING ELEMENT30
Page | 6
6.2 OPERATING MODE34
6.3 CNC M/C PARTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS36
6.4 G CODES AND THEIR GROUP.37
6.5 METHOD OF INSERTING NEW PROGRAM..41
7. CNC M/C START PROCEDURE..42
8. OPERATING PANEL KEY OF CNC LATHE M/C..43
9. CNC OPERATING..44
9.1 OPERATING PANNEL KEYS........44
9.2 OPERATING MODE45
10. CNC SETTING47
10.1 METHODE OF MAKING GEOMETRIC OFFSET.48
11. CNC TOOLING49
12. PROJECT WORK ON CNC LATHE MACHINE...53
12.1 TURNING OPERATION.53
12.2 TAPERING OPERATION53
12.3 PATTERN REPEATING...55
12.4 THREADING57
13. IMPORTANT ABBREVIATIONS & SYMBOLS.59
14. DELCAM.60
14.1 FEATURECAM.61
14.2 POWERMILL61
15. RESULT AND CONCLUSION62
16. REFERENCES.63

Page | 7
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure. No. Figure of Page No.

2 Block diagram of CNC lathe machine.14

3.1.1 CNC lathe machine..18

3.1.2 PLC unit of CNC lathe machine..18

3.3 General sketch of CNC.......21

4.5 Pallet....23

4.7 Head Stoke..23

4.8 Tail Stoke....23

4.9 Turret...23

5.1 3 - Point leveling..26

5.2 Chuck..27

5.3 Saddle (Model DX-200)..28

9.2 Seven types of Operating mode46

10.1 Method of Geometric Offset.48

11.1 CNC Tooling.49 - 50

11.3 Tool Holder Designation System.51 52

12.1 Turning Operation...53

12.2 Tapering Operation.54

12.3 Pattern Repeating....56

12.4 Treading Operation.....58

13.1 Abbreviation & Symbols59

14.1 Feature Cam Software Interface.61

14.2 Powermill Software Interface.61

Page | 8
LIST OF TABLES

Table. No. Table of Page No.

2.2 Plane Selection in CNC lathe machine16

6.3 CNC machine parts and their function36

6.4 G Codes and their group...37 38

6.4.1 Tan Values.38 39

6.4.2 Sin Values .39 40

9.1 Types of Keys of CNC lathe m/c on its Operating panel..44 45

12.2 Dimension Calculation54

12.4 Standard values for Threading..57

Page | 9
1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 COMPANY PROFILE


Krishna Automation Training Institute has one of the largest training centre networks
in Gurgaon & Bhiwadi. This provides technical qualification & technical skills on
same platform simultaneously for industrial environment. For technical skill and
qualification up gradation the courses are designed keeping in view the current and
future demands of industries. Our trained students are getting job immediately in
industries and those in job, get immediate benefit in salary, their skill and
designation. Most of the industries need the person who is having skill in their field.
Growth of person depends on their skill.

Krishna Automation Training Institute an ISO 9001: 2008 Certified Company. It was set
up primarily with a view to training people in CNC / PLC programming and operations.
The company currently provides In-House training on CNC Programming and
Operations.

At Krishna Automation, courses are designed to develop and strengthen the foundation
of CNC machine users knowledge in terms of Operation, Part Programming, and
Connect setting of tools & work piece, metal cutting principle and above all the safe use
of CNC machines. Our courses are industry specific and aim to provide skills.
Classroom activities are supplemented by practice sessions and projects. Successful
participants will receive an international validity, a true testimony of skill.

Page | 10
1.2 Message from The Desk of Managing Director

Dear Students,

I welcome you to the family of students in KRISHNA AUTOMATION


INDUSTRIAL TRAINING CENTER. Our aim is to make a successive person through
technical skill enhancement and technical qualification upgradation. after that level of
opportunity is increased. KRISHNA Automation is providing Industry oriented training
programs by wide experienced persons. I hope the programs offered by us will approach you as
a successive suitable person for all type of industries like Automobile industries, Moulding
industries, Rubber Industries, Plastic Industries, Textile Industries, Construction industries,
Export House etc. our instructional excellence is well regardedover thousands of satisfied
students/customers have benefited from it.

With best wishes for Your carrier

Sincerely Yours,

G.S. Chaudhary

Page | 11
1.3 MISSION AND VISION OF THE COMPANY

Our aim is to make a successive person through technical skill and technical qualification
up gradation after that opportunity automatically invites for betterment. Krishna Automation
Training Institute is providing job oriented training programmers by wide experienced
persons. This training program will approach you as a successive suitable person for auto
industries, export houses, textile industries, medicine industries, rubber, plastic and other
areas.

i. Have presence in all major engineering hubs globally.

ii. Contribute humbly in making of a developed Nation by Technological advancements,


catering to 20% of the Domestic Market, establishing Technology Centers in 10 major
cities.

iii. Patronize technical education by Instituting a Machine Tool Academy.

iv. Promote Eco-friendliness by developing energy efficient solutions.

v. Facilitate all the team members to enjoy the higher standards of living for a happier &
healthier life.

vi. Create a work environment that fosters- passion, creativity and optimism with fun,
respect and pride for all individuals.

vi. Being exceptionally customer centric, delight all our customers by all means and
action.

viii. Deeply admire brand among the Machine Tool fraternity.

Page | 12
2. CNC WORK THEORY

Computer Numerical control (CNC) is used to automate the machine tools that are operated by
precisely programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled
manually via hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone.

Computers play an integral part of the control. In modern CNC system computer-aided design
(CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) programs are used for development and
machining of the final finished product.

The series of steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that
closely matches the original CAD design. Modern CNC mills differ little in concept from the
original model built at MIT in 1952.

Mills typically consist of a table that moves in the X and Y axes, and a tool spindle that moves
in the Z (depth).

The position of the tool is driven by motors through a series of step-down gears in order to
provide highly accurate movements, or in modern designs, direct-drive stepper motor or servo
motors.

Open-loop control works as long as the forces are kept small enough and speeds are not too
great.

On commercial metalworking machines closed loop controls are standard and required in order
to provide the accuracy, speed, and repeatability demanded.

As the controller hardware evolved, the mills themselves also evolved. One change has been to
enclose the entire mechanism in a large box as a safety measure, often with additional safety
interlocks to ensure the operator is far enough from the working piece for safe operation.

Page | 13
Most new CNC systems built today are completely electronically controlled. CNC-like systems
are now used for any process that can be described as a series of movements and operations.

These include laser cutting, welding, friction stir welding, ultrasonic welding, flame and plasma
cutting, bending, spinning, hole-punching, pinning, gluing, fabric cutting, sewing, tape and fiber
placement, routing, picking and placing (PnP), and sawing.

Most CNC machines use Siemens or Fanuc made control systems.

For Fanuc generally the coding is done using G codes and M codes. G codes are used for
machining operations and movement of the tools whereas M codes are used for controlling the
spindle movement like on/off, rotation in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction and also for tool
change operation.

Figure 2: - Block Diagram of CNC Lathe

Page | 14
2.1 Classification of CNC Machine

CNC: - CNC is stand for Computerized Numerical Control. A machine which is controlled by
computer with Numerical values is known as CNC Machine.

Turning Machine
+
NC System

NC Machine
+
Computer

CNC Machine

Two Axis More than Two Axis


(x & z) (x, y, z, a, b, c, .)

CNC Turning CNC Wire Cut CNC Milling CNC Grinding

VMC HMC
(Vertical Machining Centre) (Horizontal Machining Centre)

Page | 15
2.2 Coordinate System

Coordinate system is used for getting point to point movement of tool according to
coordinates of points.

AXIS: - Horizontal and vertical lines are known as Axis.

Horizontal Axis Vertical Axis

Plane: - A plane has two axes.

+Y

Center of Origin

-X +X
0

-Y

Plane selection in CNC: -

Code Plane selection Used

G17 X-Y VMC

G18 X-Z CNC turning

G19 Y-Z HMC

Table 2.2: - Plane Selection in CNC Lathe M/C.

Page | 16
Origin or Center Point: -
It is the point at a plane where value of both axes zero.

Coordinate: - The value of axis at any point of a plane known as coordinate.

Types of Coordinates: -

I. Absolute Coordinate: - The value of any point will be taken with respect to center point.

II. Incremental Coordinate: - The value of any point will be taken with respect to previous point.

Page | 17
3. COMPANY PRODUCTS

Company mainly has following categories of CNC machines:

3.1 TURNING/TURN MILL CENTERS (TMC)

i. Horizontal turning

a. Simple turning

b. Twin Spindle turning

c. Turn-Mill Centre

ii. Vertical turning center

a. Inverted turning line machine

iii. Oval turning center

This CNC machines are mainly used for facing, turning and center drilling operations. Oval
Turning center is used for oval turning mainly for pistons of an engine.

Figure 3.1.1: - CNC Lathe Machine


Figure 3.1.2: - PLC Unit of CNC Lathe

Page | 18
3.2 VERTICAL MACHINING CENTERS (VMC)
i. 3 Axis machines

a. C- frame machines (PX series, VMC series)

b. Fixed table travelling column

c. Double column machines

d. High speed bridge type machines

e. High speed gantry machines

ii. 5-Axis machines

a. High speed bridge type machines

b. Double column high speed machines

c. High speed machines

Virtual Machining Center (VMC): -

VMC machines were developed for higher precision and high speed over TMC machines. It
has moving table for easy access. The main difference between TMC and VMC is tool holder
(Headstock) is rotating and job which clamped on pallet (table) moves in X-Y directions.

Many operations like facing, turning, milling, profile cutting, boring, drilling can be
done easily with the help of VMC.

Mainly machine has three axis to move job and vertical column X-Y-Z. Usually pallet can only
move in X-Y direction and vertical column can move in Z- direction. In addition to this 3 axis
two more axis are available mainly for rotation and tilting action for easy machining of even
complex profiles.
Continued
Page | 19
Continued.

VMC has ATC (Automatic Tool Changer) controlled by three servo motors to automatically
change the tool during machining process according to the requirement. Vertical spindle can rotate
up to 15000 rpm. Maximum torque that is available in any axis is 700 Nm.

For fast work both two and six pallet VMC is also available which has APC (automatic pallet
changer) in which after completion of one operation in one job, pallet is automatically rotated and
another pallet is positioned for machining operation.

VMC can hold up to 120 tools in the tool post.


All movements of pallet and vertical column are through bolt screw. For less friction
movement of saddle and pallet over Linear Motion Guide ways (LM) either pneumatic or
hydraulic system is used. The whole VMC machine is operated by mainly Siemens and Fanuc
controllers.

Job has to be cooled down while operation is being done on it due to friction between tool and
job. Cooling system of job is also installed along with vertical column. Generally, 1000 liters
coolant tank is used.

Usually cooling fluid is mixture of water and cutting oil of job. Scrap cleaning system is also
installed in VMC so that accumulated scrap or chips can easily be drained by flow of fluid.

Page | 20
3.3 HORIZONTAL MACHINING CENTERS (HMC)

4-Axis machines
HMC 560 is high speed, high precision 4 axis Horizontal Machining Center with worlds best
available features to match the demanding requirement of the industry.

The machine has special features like Three Point Leveling, axis rotary table and Electro
Spindle. Maximum of 10,000 rpm is available for spindle. It is available either for single,
double or six pallets out of which all of them are rotary tables.

All the features are almost same as that of VMC but major difference is VMC has vertical
spindle axis whereas HMC has horizontal spindle axis. Also HMC is used for machining
bigger size components and is more precise.

Figure 3.3: - General Sketch of CNC

Page | 21
4. COMPONENTS OF CNC

4.1 SPINDLE
The spindle is directly coupled with the spindle motor refer Figure 4 and avoids any errors in
indirect drive mechanism.

This high speed spindle is specially designed to meet the requirement of small component
machining with high precision and dynamism.

Spindle is having BT-40 and 50Tool, HSK 100 interface taper for VMC machines.

4.2 SADDLE
Saddle is the part of CNC which is mounted on the Linea Motion guide ways (LM).

They provide for the linear motion in either X or Y axis.

4.3 BASE
Base is the base structure of CNC on which the entire operation of CNC is performed. It is
made of rigid structure of Cast Iron because of good compressive strength and vibrational
damping capacity.

4.4 LINEAR MOTION GUIDE WAYS (LM)


Linear motion guide ways or LMs are V or U shaped solid structure mounted on base for
saddle and on saddle for pallet to allow the saddle and pallet to slide over them linearly along
X and Y axis respectively.

Page | 22
4.5 PALLET

Figure 4.5: - Pallet

Pallet is used to clamp or unclamp job piece. It is mounted on LM which are mounted on
saddle. They are perpendicular to the LM mounted on base. That is, if one is in X- direction
then other one is in Y- direction.

4.6 AUTOMATIC TOOL CHANGER


The tool changer is an umbrella type Servo ATC having a 12 Tool magazine.

The tool change time is 3.5 seconds. Its main function is to change the tool during the
machining according to the requirement.

It works with 3 servo motors. One for vertical motion up-down, one for rotary action about
Z-axis and one for clamping and releasing the tool.

4.7 HEAD STOCK


It supports chuck and its mechanism. It possesses system which clamps and de-clamps of
Work-piece.

Figure 4.7: - Head Stock


Page | 23
4.8 TAIL STOCK
It possesses the supporting elements. It is also used for supporting the long job pieces and
also used for centering and drilling purpose.

Figure 4.8: - Tail-Stock

4.9 TURRET ASSEMBLY

It is that part of machine which has tools to work on job. Generally, it has ten to twelve
tools. It is used for holding the tools to carry out machining operations.

Figure 4.9: - Turret

Page | 24
4.10 CONTROLLER
It contains Siemens or Fanuc or Heidenhaim controller which controls the whole machine.

4.11 PUMPS
There are generally two pumps in CNC. One is for hydraulic oil transmission and another
for coolant circulation. Thus pump keeps the cooling and the lubrication system of the
CNC alive.

4.12 MOTORS
There are many different motors used mainly for revolving of chuck, another two for bolt
screw, revolving of turret, and motion of work table i.e. pallet in X and Y-axes.

4.13 OUTER SHEET METAL BODY


It provides safety to user and adds aesthetic value to the machine.

Page | 25
5. ASSEMBLY OF CNC MACHINE

First step of assembly is to do three point leveling system by spirit level and then tight the
other 3 points. Thus the Base of CNC is fixed on the floor.

Figure 5.1: - 3-Point leveling

Second step is to scrapping the paint from guide-ways for fitting L.M.. Then worker clean the
surface by diesel and air cleaner. Then fit the L.M. and it is supported by eccentric head bolts.

Then worker uses spray-cleaner to remove dust and mounts saddle on it. After that, he does
Auto-collimator Test for measuring allowances for top and side of L.M. Same process is
carried out for L.M. of saddle and then bolt-screw is mounted on saddle with two bearing and
its run-out testing is carried out and then again top and side of bolt-screw is maintained in
tolerance limit with help of dial-gauge indicator.

Dial gauge indicator is most important testing device for which range is between 2 m to 10
m for different purposes.

Page | 26
After that saddle is mounted on CNC bed. Then bolt-screw is mounted on CNC bed for z-axis.
Than the same process is carried out as it is carried out for bolt-screw of saddle. Then lock-nut
is mounted on it.

If surface plate is not accurately machined, scrapping is carried out till it slides thoroughly on
L.M.

During this process another worker mounts head-stock and tail stock on its base.

After that chuck, pulley, motor and spindle is mounted on head-stock. Then mandrel is
mounted on chuck.

Figure 5.2: - Chuck

Center line of head-stock and tail-stock must be co-lined, if not then it must carried out with
the help of height-gauge. Then the ATC is mounted and at the same time all the wirings are
connected with the motors and the pumps and then the entire electrical system is mounted.

After that telescopic cover is mounted on saddle to cover sliding mechanism from coolant.

After that hydraulic oil system is fitted with its all mountings like oil sump with nitrogen gas
accumulator, solenoid valves, pipe.

Finally, the cold roll coil sheets are used for final guard (from metal chips and from water-oil
coolant). For preventing leakage of coolant, copper stripes are rigidly fitted with silicone gel.

Then Siemens or Fanuc controller is attached to the machine. Finally, the doors are fitted so that
entire machine remains closed during operation for the safety of the operators. Chip removal
system and cooling fluid system was installed according to the demand.

Now the machine is started and data is loaded on it.


Page | 27
Some of the CNC machine models are:

VMC -640, DX-250, ATM-160, VMC-430, TM-020, AM-430, TMC-350

Given is an example of DX-200 and DX-250.

i. Complete CNC machine Dx-200 is completely assembled within 6-7 days, while Dx-
250 takes 8 to 10 days.

ii. Minimum rpm is 1 and maximum rpm can be up to 6000.

iii. Hydraulic power pack is installed (hydraulic pressure up to 70 bar is generally used).

iv. Hydraulic system used is oil based.

iv. It uses 440V AC source.

v. Has pneumatic pressured air cleaning gun.

vi. For all movement bolt screw is used.

vii. Tool post (turret) can hold up to 24 tools at a time.

viii. Using the Siemens controller operation begins and can prepare most complicated
operation with high accuracy.

Model Dx-250 is also available which is bigger in size than Dx-200, main difference in
assembling method between them is, In Dx-200 saddle is assembled at inclination keeping base
horizontal while in Dx-250 the saddle is assembled keeping the base inclined at 45degree for
assembly ease.

Figure 5.3: - Saddle (Model Dx-200)


Page | 28
6. TYPES OF CNC PROGRAMING

CNC Programming is made of blocks & blocks are made by commands. Commands are provided for
different functions.

Page | 29
6.1 CNC Programming Elements: -
I. Command, II. Block,

III. Different Addressing Code, IV. Program Scan,

V. Program Header, VI. Program Footer

I. Command: - Command is the combination of alphabetic character & numerical value where
alphabetic is used for address & numerical is used for value. Alphabet A to Z,
numerical 0-9. Ex - G0 X4 Z2 N1

II. Block: - Group of commands known as block. One block has one or more commands. Block is
started from sequence Number & ended by end of block command Where sequence no. is
optional.

III. Different Addressing Code: -

III.I G Code: - These are Preparatory function codes & used for different function.

A. Axis Movement: - G0/G01/G02/G03 codes are used for programming of any axis.

Code G00 = This code is used for tool positioning & free movement in air.

Format G00 X... Z;

Code G01 = This code is used for linear movement of axis

Format G01 X... Z F;

Code G02 = This code is used for circular clock wise movement of any axis.

Format G02 X... Z R F;

Code G03 = This code is used for circular anticlockwise movement of any axis.

Format G03 X... Z R F;

Code G28 = This code is used for homing of any axis.

Format G28 U0.0 W0.0;

Page | 30
B. Dwell Time: -

G04 X. (time in second)


G04 U. (time in second)
G04 P. (time in m.s.)

C. Plane Selection: -

G17 X-Y plane selection


G18 X-Z plane selection
G19 Y-Z plane selection

D. Inch./mm Mode Setting: -

G20 program in inch.


G21 program in mm.

E. Stroke Check Function: -

G22 stored Stroke check function On


G23 - stored Stroke check function Off

F. Reference Return: -

G27 reference return check


G28 1st ref. point
G29 return from 0 point
G30 2nd ref. point

G. Skip Function: -

G31 skip function

H. Thread Cutting: -

G32 thread cutting


G34 variable lead thread cutting

Page | 31
I. Tool Nose Radius: -

G40 Tool nose radius compensation cancel


G41 - Tool nose radius compensation left
G42 - Tool nose radius compensation right

J. Coordinate System (50 Series): -

G50 coordinate sys. setting or max. spindle rpm.


G52 local coordinate system setting
G53 machine coordinate system setting
G54 work piece coordinate system 1 selection
G55 work piece coordinate system 2 selection
G56 work piece coordinate system 3 selection
G57 work piece coordinate system 4 selection
G58 work piece coordinate system 5 selection
G59 work piece coordinate system 6 selection

K. Canned cycle (G70 & G80 Series): -

G70 finishing cycle of G71, G72 & G73


G71 - stock removal of turning
G72 stock removal of facing
G73 pattern repeating
G74 end face peck drilling
G75 outer diameter / internal diameter drilling
G76 multiple threading cycle
G77 pocket cutting & turning
G78 single threading cycle
G79 pocket cutting in facing
G80 canned cycle cancel

L. Mode Setting (G90 Series): -

G90 absolute programming


G91 incremental programming
G92 max. spindle rpm
G94 feed mm per min.
G95 feed mm per revolution
G96 constant surface speed control
G97 cancellation of G96
Page | 32
G98 return to initial point
G99 return to r point

III.II M Code: - These are miscellaneous function codes and it is used for Start / Stop of any
function.

MO program stop
MO1 program optional stop
MO2 program optional end
MO3 spindle on clock wise
MO4 spindle on anti-clock wise
MO5 spindle stop
MO6 tool changing in VMC
MO7 coolant on
MO8 coolant on/off
MO9 cool off
M19 spindle orientation
M30 program end reset

Different addressing codes used in CNC: -

A extra axis
B extra axis
C extra axis
D cutter diameter in VMC
F feed on axis
G G code program
H tool length offset in VMC
I the value of X from start point of radius to center of radius.
J the value of Y from start point of radius to center of radius.
K the value of X from start point of radius to center of radius.
L loop in VMC
M m code groups
N sequence no.
O program no.
P peak depth in X
Q peak depth in Z
R radius
S spindle
T tool no. & offset no. in CNC
U X axis value in incremental program
V Y axis value in incremental program
W Z axis value in incremental program

Page | 33
X X axis value in absolute program
Y Y axis value in absolute program
Z Z axis value in absolute program

IV. Program Scan: - CNC M/c Scan the program sequentially in Blocks from Top block to
bottom block.

V. Program Header: -

Program No.
Sequence No.
Cancellation command
M/c Home position
Tool & Offset selection
Spindle R.P.M with direction
Coolant On
Tool positioning

VI. Program Footer: -

Tool return to Home position


Spindle stop
Coolant off
Program End & Reset

6.2 Operating Mode: -


1. Manual mode manual mode is used for individual start / stop of any function.
Different functions:

Chuck clamp/D clamp chuck is used for holding the job.


Method
Step 1 select jog mode
Step 2 chuck clamp / D clamp by foot switch

Conditions all axis should be at home.

Page | 34
Turret index turret is the tool holding device used for holding the tool & supporting against
cutting force.
Different stations are used for holding different tools 8 station turret is using in this machine.
Conditions all axis should be at home.

2. Auto mode auto is used for automatic running of NC program.

Single block block by block running program.

Method
Step 1 select auto
Step 2 select single block
Step 3 press cycle start button -> single block
Will work on pressing one time to the cycle start button for next block repeating cycle start button.

Page | 35
6.3 CNC Machine parts and their Function: -
OPERATING MODES WITH PROCEDURE
SNO. FUNCTION ACTIVITY JOG HANDLE MDI AUTO/PROG.
MAIN on direct direct direct direct
1 SWITCH &
SERVO STAB. off direct direct direct direct
on direct direct direct direct
2 CNC off direct direct direct direct
on direct direct direct direct
3 HYDRAULIC off direct direct direct direct
MO3
CW PB NA S1200 ; MO3 S1200 ;
4 SPINDLE MO4
CCW PB NA S.. ; MO4 S.. ;
stop PB NA MO5 ; MO5 ;
on PB NA MO7 ; MO7 ;
5 COOLENT off PB NA M09 ; M09 ;
clamp foot switch NA M10 ; M10 ;
6 CHUCK D clamp foot switch NA M11 ; M11 ;
PB NA T0202 ; T0202 ;
TURRET
7 Note : Turret index will be possible when X & Z
INDEX are at home
GO X..
+ Select JOG Select handle Z; GO X.. Z;
- Select AXIS select (X) or (Z)
then (+) or (-) select speed
speed control by [X1], [X10],
feed override [X100]
8 X AXIS
move MPG
speed control
depends on
handle rotate &
speed
select
select reference
return mode
press [X]
REFERENCE press [+]
9
RETURN press [Z]
press [+]
Note : Speed control will be done by feed
override
FORWORD foot switch NA M27 M27
10 TAIL STOCK REVERSE foot switch NA M28 M28
NOTE : Do not use JOG mode for X Axis & Z Axis travel
Table 6.3: - CNC machine parts and their function Page | 36
6.4 Some G codes and their Group: -
G CODE SYSTEM GROUP FUNCTION
A B C
G00 G00 G00 Positioning (Rapid Travels)
G01 G01 G01 Linear interpolation (cutting Feed)
01
G02 G02 G02 Circular interpolation CW
G03 G03 G03 Circular interpolation CCW
G04 G04 G04 Dwell
G10 G10 G10 00 Programmable data input
G11 G11 G11 Programmable data input cancel+E30
G18 G18 G18 16 ZpXp plane selection
G20 G20 G70 Input in inch
06
G21 G21 G21 Input in inch
G22 G22 G22 Stored stroke check function on
09
G23 G23 G23 Stored stroke check function on
G27 G27 G27 Reference position return check
G28 G28 G28 Return to reference position
00
G30 G30 G30 2nd,3rd & 4th reference position return
G31 G31 G31 Skip function
G32 G33 G33 Thread cutting
01
G34 G34 G34 Variable-lead thread cutting
G40 G40 G40 Tool nose radius compensation cancel
G41 G41 G41 07 Tool nose radius compensation left
G42 G42 G42 Tool nose radius compensation right
Coordinate system setting or max spindle
G50 G92 G92 00 speed setting
G50.3 G92.1 G92.1 Work piece coordinate system preset
G52 G52 G52 Local coordinate system setting
00
G53 G53 G53 Machine coordinate system setting
G54 G54 G54 Work piece coordinate system 1 selection
G55 G55 G55 Work piece coordinate system 2 selection
G56 G56 G56 Work piece coordinate system 3 selection
14
G57 G57 G57 Work piece coordinate system 4 selection
G58 G58 G58 Work piece coordinate system 5 selection
G59 G59 G59 Work piece coordinate system 6 selection
G65 G65 G65 00 Macro calling
G66 G66 G66 Macro model call
12
G67 G67 G67 Macro model call cancel
G70 G70 G72 Finishing cycle
G71 G71 G73 00 Stock removal in turning
G72 G72 G74 Stock removal in facing
Page | 37
G73 G73 G75 Pattern repeating
G74 G74 G76 End face peck drilling
G75 G75 G77 Outer diameter / internal diameter drilling
G76 G76 G78 Multiple threading cycle
Outer diameter / internal diameter cutting
G90 G77 G20 cycle
01
G92 G78 G21 Thread cutting cycle
G94 G79 G24 End face turning cycle
G96 G96 G96 Constant surface speed control
02
G97 G97 G97 constant surface speed control cancel
G98 G94 G94 Per minute feed
05
G99 G95 G95 Per revolution feed
G90 G90 Absolute programming
03
G91 G91 Incremental programming
G93 G98 Return to initial level
11
G99 G99 Return to R point level
Table 6.4: - G Codes & their Group

Table for Tan : -

TABLE FOR TAN VALUE


TAN1=0.017455 TAN31=0.60086 TAN61=1.8040
TAN2=0.03492 TAN32=0.6248 TAN62=1.8807
TAN3=0.0524 TAN33=0.6496 TAN63=1.9526
TAN4=0.06992 TAN34=0.6745 TAN64=2.0503
TAN 5=0.08748 TAN35=0.7002 TAN65=2.1445
TAN6=0.01051 TAN36=0.7265 TAN66=2.246
TAN7=0.12278 TAN37=0.7536 TAN67=3558
TAN8=0.14054 TAN38=0.7812 TAN68=2.475
TAN9=0.15838 TAN39=0.8057 TAN69=2.605
TAN10=0.17632 TAN40=0.83909 TAN70=2.7474
TAN11-0.19438 TAN41=0.8692 TAN71=2.9042
TAN12=0.2125 TAN42=0.9004 TAN72=3.0776
TAN13=0.2308 TAN43=0.8325 TAN73=3.2708
TAN14=0.24932 TAN44=0.9656 TAN74=3.4874
TAN15=0.2679 TAN45=.1 TAN75=3.7320
TAN16=0.2867 TAN46=1.0355 TAN76=4.0107
TAN17=0.3057 TAN47=1.0723 TAN77=4.3314
TAN18=0.3249 TAN48=1.1106 TAN78=4.7046
Page | 38
TAN19=0.3443 TAN49=1.1503 TAN79=5.1445
TAN20=0.3639 TAN50=1.1917 TAN80=5.68712
TAN21=0.38386 TAN51=1.2348 TAN81=6.3137
TAN22=0.404 TAN52=1.2799 TAN82=7.1153
TAN23=0.4244 TAN53=1.3270 TAN83=8.1443
TAN24=0.4452 TAN54=1.3763 TAN84=9.5143
TAN25=0.4663 TAN55=1.4281 TAN85=11.630
TAN26=0.4877 TAN56=1.4825
TAN27=0.5095 TAN57=1.5398
TAN28=0.5317 TAN58=1.6003
TAN29=0.5543 TAN59=1.6642
TAN30=0.57735 TAN60=1.732

Table 6.4.1: - Tan Values

Table for Sin : -

TABLE FOR SIN VALUE


SIN1=0.017452406 SIN31=0.5150 SIN61=0.8746 SIN91=0.9998475
SIN2=0.034899 SIN32=0.5299 SIN62=0.8829 SIN92=0.99939
SIN3=0.05233 SIN33=0.5446 SIN63=0.891 SIN93=0.99862
SIN4=0.0697564 SIN34=0.5591 SIN64=0.89879 SIN94=0.99755
SIN5=0.0597564 SIN35=0.573576 SIN65=0.9063 SIN95=0.996194
SIN6=0.10452 SIN36=0.58778 SIN66=0.91354 SIN96=0.99452
SIN7=0.121869 SIN37=0.6018 SIN67=0.920 SIN97=0.99254
SIN8=0.139173 SIN38=0.61556 SIN68=0.9271 SIN98=0.99026
SIN9=0.156434 SIN39=0.62932 SIN69=0.93358 SIN99=0.987688
SIN10=0.173648 SIN40=0.642787 SIN70=0.93969 SIN100=0.9848077
SIN11=0.19080 SIN41=0.6560 SIN71=0.9455
SIN12=O.2079 SIN42=0.6691 SIN72=0.951
SIN13=022495 SIN43=0.68199 SIN73=0.9563
SIN14=0.24192 SIN44=0.6946 SIN74=0.96126
SIN15=0.2588190 SIN45=0.707 SIN75=0.96592
SIN16=0.27563 SIN46=0.71933 SIN76=0.970
SIN17=0.29237 SIN47=0.731353 SIN77=0.97437
SIN18=0.3090 SIN48=0.7431448 SIN78=0.97814
SIN19=0.3255 SIN49=0.75470 SIN79=0.981627
Page | 39
SIN20=0.3420 SIN50=0.7660 SIN80=0.9848
SIN21=0.35836 SIN51=0.777 SIN81=0.987688
SIN22=0.3746 SIN52=0.7800 SIN82=0.990
SIN23=0.3907 SIN53=0.7986 SIN83=0.99254
SIN24=0.40673 SIN54=0.809 SIN84=0.99452
SIN25=0.42261 SIN55=0.8191 SIN85=0.99619
SIN26=0.43837 SIN56=0.829 SIN86=0.99756
SIN27=0.45399 SIN57=0.8386 SIN87=0.998629
SIN28=0.46947 SIN58=0.8480 SIN88=0.9939
SIN29=0.48480 SIN59=0.857 SIN89=0.99984
SIN30=0.5 SIN60=0.866 SIN90=1
Table 6.4.2: - Sin Values

Page | 40
6.5 Method of inserting new program: -

Note: 1. End of Block (EOB) not use in time of inserting program no.

2. Decimal point is must with X & Z value.

Page | 41
7. CNC Machine Start Procedure

Page | 42
8. Operating panel Keys

Page | 43
9. CNC Operating
9.1 Operator panel keys.

9.2 Operating mode keys.

9.3 MDI keys / CRT keys

9.1 Operating panel keys: -

Sr.no. Key Function Key type Description(use)


1 E. Stop Mushroom head red Used for stopping machine in emergency.
P.B.

2 CNC ON Green P.B. Used for making CNC M/C ON

3 CNC OFF Red P.B. Used for making CNC M/C OFF

4 Feed hold Yellow P.B. Stopping the tool feed

5 Program key Toggle(key) Program lock/unlock

6 Reset P.B. Removing the temporary alarm

7 Turret index S.P.B. Tool position change

8 Chuck clamp/D clamp Foot switch Clamp & D clamp of chuck

9 Chuck OD/ID S.P.B. OD or ID clamp selection

10 Tail stock Rev/Forw. Foot switch Reverse & forward moment of tail stock

11 Spindle clockwise S.P.B. Rotate spindle in clockwise.

11.1 Spindle CCW S.P.B. Rotate spindle in counter C.W.

11.2 Spindle stop S.P.B. Spindle stop

12 Spindle override S.S. Spindle speed override(40-120%)

13 X-Axis (+ve & -ve) S.P.B. Moment of X-axis in jog mode in +ve & -ve
direction

14 Z-Axis (+ve & -ve) S.P.B. Moment of Z-axis in jog mode in +ve & -ve
direction

Page | 44
15 MPG Rotary pulse Use of moment of X&Z axis in feed over ride in
generator +ve & -ve direction handle mode.

16 Feed over ride switch S.S. Axis feed over ride from 0 TO 120%.

17 X1 S.P.B.

X10 S.P.B. X & Z axis feed rate selection in handle mode

X100 S.P.B.

X1000 S.P.B.

18 Dry run S.P.B. Feed will be override

19 Program stop S.P.B. By dry run rate

20 M/c lock

21 Restart Cycle stop

22 Opt. stop

23 Block delete

Table 9.1: - Type of keys and their function

9.2 Operating mode: -

These operating modes are used for different functions.

Manual mode Auto mode Edit mode MDI Ref. return

JOG Handle Single block Auto

Page | 45
Seven Operating Modes are: -

Figure 9.2: - Seven types of Operating Mode

Page | 46
10. CNC Setting

OFFSET To make a new point in software or shifting any point


in software from its actual position known as offset.

GEOMETRY OFFSET Geometry Offset is used for making job origin or


job Centre at a distance from M/c home position. Geometry Offset is used for tool
held in the turret each tool requires separate geometry offset.

WEAR OFFSET Wear Offset is used for shifting the tool from its actual
position by giving the value in software. In CNC turning wear offset is used in
X&Z axis.

WORKSHIFT OFFSET Work shift Offset is used for shifting the job
origin from its actual position by giving the value in software.

Page | 47
10.1 Method of making Geometric offset

Figure 10.1: - Method of Geometric offset

Page | 48
11. CNC TOOLING

Figure 11.1: - CNC Tooling Page | 49


Figure 11.2: - CNC Tooling

Page | 50
Figure 11.3: - Tool Holder Designation System

Page | 51
Figure 11.4: - Tool Holder Designation System

Page | 52
12. PROJECT WORK ON CNC MACHINES

12.1 Turning operation:

Program:

0001;

N1;

G40;

G28 U0.0 W0.0;

T0303;

G97 S200 M03; 80.0 78.0

G21 G99 M07;


39.0
G00 X81.0 Z1.0;
60.0
G00 X81.0 Z-1.0; 0
Figure 12.1: - Turning Operation
G01 X-1.0 Z-1.0 F0.2;

G00 X78.0 Z0.0;

G01 X78.0 Z-40.0;

G01 X81.0 Z-40.0;

G28 U0.0 W0.0;

M05;

M09;

M30;

Page | 53
12.2 Tapering operation:

Program:
P X Z
0002;
A 36.0 0.0
N1;
B 40.0 -2.0
G40;
C 40.0 -12.0
G28 U0.0 W0.0;
D 50.0 -19.5
T0303;

G97 S200 M03; E 50.0 -49.5

G21 G99 M07; F 65.0 -60.21

Table 12.2: - Dimension Calculation


G00 X36.0 Z1.0;

G01 X36.0 Z0.0 F0.2;

G01 X40.0 Z-2.0; 350


F
G01 X40.0 Z-12.0; E D
2:3
G01 X50.0 Z-19.5; B
C
A
G01 X50.0 Z-49.5; 250
65.0 50.0 40.0
G01 X65.0 Z-60.21;

G28 U0.0 W0.0; 10.0


0
M05;
30.0
M09; 0

M30;
Figure 12.2: - Tapering Operation

Page | 54
12.3 Pattern Repeating:

Program:

0003;

N1;
Note: -In this Program we use the code G73
G40; which is used for Pattern Repeating and the code
G02 & G03 is the code of tool rotation in
G28 U0.0 W0.0; clockwise and anticlockwise.
T0303;

G97 S200 M03; Here some other terms are: -

G21 G99 M07; U = Total Depth

G00 X51.0 Z1.0; R = No. of Cut

P = Starting Sequence no.


G73 U7.0 R8.0;
Q = Ending Sequence no.
G73 P20 Q30 U0.25 W0.25 F0.2;

N20 G00 X36.0 Z1.0;

G01 X36.0 Z0.0 F0.2;

G03 X40.0 Z-2.0 R2.0;

G01 X40.0 Z-22.0;

G02 X40.0 Z-25.0 R1.5;

G01 X40.0 Z-65.0;

N30 G01 X50.0 Z-65.0;

G70 P20 Q30;

G28 U0.0 W0.0;

M05;

M09;

M30; continued
Page | 55
Continued

N30 F
RR1.5
1.5 RR2.0
2.0
E D C B
N20
A

50.0

2.0
40.0
3.2

36.0

1.4
Figure 12.3: - Pattern Repeating

Page | 56
12.4 Threading:

Program:
Note: - For threading operation on CNC Lathe machine we use
0004;
two types of code i.e. G32 for Right Handed Thread and
N1; G33 for Left Handed Thread.

G40;

G28 U0.0 W0.0; Some Standards for Threading are --


T0303;
Thread Depth = 0.6134 X Pitch
G97 S200 M03; Minor Dia. = Major Dia. 2 X Thread Depth
First Depth of Cut = 100 to 200
G21 G99 M07;
Every Depth of Cut = 200 to 400
G00 X19.8 Z1.0; Spindle RPM = 600 to 800
G32 X19.8 Z-40.0 F2.0; Feed = Pitch

G00 X22.0 Z-40.0;


Some Standard Values for Threading Dimensions are
G00 X22.0 Z1.0;

G00 X19.4 Z1.0; Dia. Pitch.

G32 X19.4 Z-40.0; 6 1.0

G00 X22.0 Z-40.0; 8 1.5

G00 X22.0 Z1.0; 10 1.5

G00 X19.0 Z1.0; 12 2.0

G32 X19.0 Z-40.0; 16 2.0

G00 X22.0 Z-40.0; 20 2.0

G00 X22.0 Z1.0; 25 2.5

G00 X18.6 Z1.0; Table 12.4: - Standard Values for Threading

G32 X18.6 Z-40.0;

continued
Page | 57
Continued

G00 X21.0 Z-40.0;

G00 X21.0 Z1.0; Note: - The program written in Bold letters are the cutting
program and rest all are idle and Re-positioning of tool.
G00 X18.2 Z1.0;

G32 X18.2 Z-40.0;

G00 X21.0 Z-40.0;

G00 X21.0 Z1.0; M20 x 2.0

G00 X17.8 Z1.0;

G32 X17.8 Z-40.0;

G00 X21.0 Z-40.0; 20 17.56

G00 X21.0 Z1.0;

G00X17.56 Z1.0;

G32 X17.56 Z-40.0; 40

G00 X21.0 Z-40.0;

G28 U0.0 W0.0; Figure 12.4: - Threading Operation


M05;

M09;

M30;

Page | 58
13. IMPORTANTS ABBREVIATIONS & SYMBOLS

Figure 13.1: - Abbreviation & Symbols Page | 59


14. DELCAM

DELCAM is one of the leading software brand in CAD/CAM solution in India. It offers
various structured and tailor made training courses in its power solution range of software.

IN Krishna Industrial Training Center, Gurgaon Main Unit provide Delcam CAD/CAM
solution software (DELCAM TRAINING IN GURGAON) which is used for CNC and VMC
programming automatically. It replaces manual programming concepts.

Through this training you can get a good return on your investment in production as
soon as possible, through increased output, better quality and faster supplies.

Delcam having two software training programs as follows:

a. Delcam FeatureCAM for milling machines, turning and turn/mill Centres, and wire EDMs.

b. Delcam Power MILL for 2.5D to MultiAxis CAM.

Page | 60
14.1 FEATURE CAM: -

FeatureCAM deals a complete solution for milling, turning, turn/mill and wire EDM. All of
your machine tools can be programmed within a single user interface designed to shorten
programming times and reduce the learning curve for new users.
FeatureCAM is used in CNC CAD/CAM.

Figure 14.1: - Featurecam Software Interface

14.2 POWERMILL: -

Power MILL will quickly create gouge free cutter paths on imported component data. It
supports Wireframe, Triangle, Surface and Solid models created by other Delcam products or
from neutral formats such as IGES.

Figure 14.2: - Powermill Software Interface

Page | 61
15. Result & Conclusion

Hence I have successfully studied about the CNC machine tool


and their function. With their G & M codes and operation
performed on these type of machine tool.

The importance of lathes and milling machines even if they are


conventional cannot be undermined. These machines have
played a real important role in bringing about industrial
revolution and have laid the foundations. But the bringing about
of the new technology in the present era is very important. The
conventional machines are required in small quantities whereas
the CNC machines must be increased to improve the quantity
and quality of production.

Page | 62
16. References

1. About Krishna Automation from


(http://www.krishnaautomation.com/aboutus-krishnaautomation.html)
2. CNC Training at KITC in Gurugram (Gurgaon)
Link - http://www.kitc.in/index.html
3. Auto CAD Software - https://www.autodesk.com/products/autocad/free-trial
4. FeatureCam Software -
https://www.autodesk.com/products/featurecam/overview
5. Power mill Software -
https://www.autodesk.com/products/powermill/overview
6. Figure No. 3.1.1 & 3.1.2 are from KITC-
Link - http://www.kitc.in/Photogallery-KITC.html
7. Figure No. 12.1, 12.2, 12.3 & 12.4 are Created by Me through Various
Designing Softwares.
8. Tool Holder Designation and Important abbreviation & symbols are provided
by KITC.
9. Faculty Members of Mechanical Department, RPSCET Balana, Mohindergarh,
Haryana - 123029

Page | 63