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# KE36303 CONTROL SYSTEMS

## Assoc. Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang

BEng(Hons) MSc PhD MIEM PEng
Room 28 Level 3 Block A
Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
KE36303 CONTROL SYSTEMS

## Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 2

OVERVIEW
General.

Routh-Hurwitz criterion.

Stability design.

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GENERAL
Transient requirements: time constant, rise
time, settling time, peak overshoot,
damping ratio etc

## Stability: MOST IMPORTANT SYSTEM

SPECIFICATION! WHY?
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GENERAL
If system is unstable need not consider other
specifications no basis for controller design.

Formal definitions:
An LTI system is stable if the natural response approaches zero as time
approaches infinity.

## An LTI system is unstable if the natural response grows without bound

as time approaches infinity.

## An LTI system is marginally stable if the natural response neither

decays nor grows but remains constant or oscillates as time approaches
infinity.
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GENERAL
OR can be described as:
A system is stable if every bounded input
yields a bounded output

## A system is unstable if any bounded input

yields an unbounded output

## this definition is more relevant in terms of control system

stability!
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GENERAL
Remember which part of the transfer function effects
system stability?

Hint:
if poles in left half plane (s-plane).

GENERAL

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GENERAL
Unstable systems- physically results in
and most importantly human lives.

## Systems are designed with limit stops to

prevent total runaway.

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GENERAL
Not all mathematical models or transfer
functions are easily factorised for you to
observe their poles conveniently!

For example l
ant f
ev y o
re ilit
it ll lab n?
s ai tio
e
u av isa
s
is t or
his e fac
t th r
is fo
e
ith war
w oft
s

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

## This method- yields stability information without

the need to solve for the closed loop poles.

## Results- the number of closed loop system poles

in the left half plane, in the right half plane and
on the j axis.

How many but not where! So back to the previous questions why
is this method still relevant? Hint: for controller design able to yield
a range of parameters to ensure stability of system.

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

## Interpret the Routh table to know how many

closed loop poles are in the left half plane
etc...

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

## Generating the Routh table:

For example:

Begin by labeling the rows with powers of s from the highest of the
denominator of the closed loop transfer function to s0

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

s in the denominator and list
horizontally in the first row, every other
coeff.

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

## In the second row, list horizontally

starting with the next highest power of
s, every coeff that was skipped in the
first row.

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

## Generating the Routh table: the remaining

entry
Each entry is a negative determinant of entries in the previous
two rows divided by the entry in the first columns directly above
the calculated row.

## The left hand column of the determinant is always the first

column of the previous two rows, and the right hand column is
the elements of the column above and to the right.

The table is complete when all the rows are completed down to
s0.

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

For example:

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

## for convenience any row can be multiplied by a positive constant

without changing the value of the rows below. Not to be multiplied by
negative constants!

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Interpretation:
The Routh-Hurwitz criterion declares that the number
of roots of the polynomial that are in the right half
plane is equal to the number of sign changes in the
first column.

## If closed loop tf has all poles in LHP then system is

stable; no sign change in the first column!

## From the example shown two poles in right RHP

Why? (based on Routh-Hurwitz criterion)
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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Positive number

Negative number

Positive number

unstable

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Special cases:

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

## For example (zero in first column):

T(s)= 10/s5+2s4+3s3+6s2+5s+3

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

quantity .

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

## Whether positive or negative, results of

interpretation will be the same.

poles in RHP.

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Alternatively

## Write a polynomial that has reciprocal

roots of the denominator write the
denominator in reverse order,

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

## Via the same example:

T(s)= 10/s5+2s4+3s3+6s2+5s+3

## The denominator in reverse order

D(s)= 3s5+5s4+6s3+3s2+2s+1

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

## Two sign changes hence system

is unstable and has two RHP
poles!

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

## For example (row of zeros*):

T(s)= 10/s5+7s4+6s3+42s2+8s+56

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

## Observe the row immediately above the row of zeros,

use entries in that row for coeff to form polynomial to
replace all zeros in the 3rd row.

P(s)=s4+6s2+8

Differentiating, dP(s)/ds=4s3+12s+0
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ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Use the coeff from the differentiated polynomial to replace the zeros,

4s3+12s+0

## Remainder of row is formed in a straightforward manner by following

the standard form.

STABILITY DESIGN

## Stability design example: find the range of gain K for

system to be stable, unstable and marginally stable.
Assume K>0.

## Find the closed loop transfer function.

Form the Routh table

STABILITY DESIGN

STABILITY DESIGN

## Since K is assumed positive, we see all elements in the first

column are always positive except for the s1 row.

## If K < 1386 all terms will be positive, hence no sign change- 3

poles on the LHP and stable.

## If K > 1386 the s1 term will be negative, hence 2 sign change-

2 poles on the RHP and 1 pole in LHP, system unstable.

STABILITY DESIGN

polynomial,
P(s)=18s2+1386

dP(s)/ds = 36s+0

## hence replace coeff in the row of zeros

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STABILITY DESIGN

STABILITY DESIGN

## No change of sign hence the even polynomial down

to bottom of table.

## No sign change above even polynomial, hence

remaining root is in LHP-  system is marginally
stable.

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NEXT LECTURE
Root Locus:
Basic stuff- significance etc.
Plotting and sketching

## What you need to do!

Review this lecture and try out examples in Chp 5, Nise till pg
305. They are all relevant for your understanding and for you to
be familiar with forming the Routh table and stability design via
Routh Hurwitz.