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BEng(Hons) MSc PhD MIEM PEng

Room 28 Level 3 Block A

Faculty of Engineering

Universiti Malaysia Sabah

KE36303 CONTROL SYSTEMS

OVERVIEW

General.

Routh-Hurwitz criterion.

Stability design.

GENERAL

Transient requirements: time constant, rise

time, settling time, peak overshoot,

damping ratio etc

SPECIFICATION! WHY?

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 4

GENERAL

If system is unstable need not consider other

specifications no basis for controller design.

Formal definitions:

An LTI system is stable if the natural response approaches zero as time

approaches infinity.

as time approaches infinity.

decays nor grows but remains constant or oscillates as time approaches

infinity.

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 5

GENERAL

OR can be described as:

A system is stable if every bounded input

yields a bounded output

yields an unbounded output

stability!

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 6

GENERAL

Remember which part of the transfer function effects

system stability?

Hint:

if poles in left half plane (s-plane).

GENERAL

GENERAL

Unstable systems- physically results in

damage of equipment, adjacent properties

and most importantly human lives.

prevent total runaway.

GENERAL

Not all mathematical models or transfer

functions are easily factorised for you to

observe their poles conveniently!

For example l

ant f

ev y o

re ilit

it ll lab n?

s ai tio

e

u av isa

s

is t or

his e fac

t th r

is fo

e

ith war

w oft

s

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

the need to solve for the closed loop poles.

in the left half plane, in the right half plane and

on the j axis.

How many but not where! So back to the previous questions why

is this method still relevant? Hint: for controller design able to yield

a range of parameters to ensure stability of system.

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

closed loop poles are in the left half plane

etc...

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

For example:

Begin by labeling the rows with powers of s from the highest of the

denominator of the closed loop transfer function to s0

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

s in the denominator and list

horizontally in the first row, every other

coeff.

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

starting with the next highest power of

s, every coeff that was skipped in the

first row.

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

entry

Each entry is a negative determinant of entries in the previous

two rows divided by the entry in the first columns directly above

the calculated row.

column of the previous two rows, and the right hand column is

the elements of the column above and to the right.

The table is complete when all the rows are completed down to

s0.

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

For example:

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

without changing the value of the rows below. Not to be multiplied by

negative constants!

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Interpretation:

The Routh-Hurwitz criterion declares that the number

of roots of the polynomial that are in the right half

plane is equal to the number of sign changes in the

first column.

stable; no sign change in the first column!

Why? (based on Routh-Hurwitz criterion)

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 20

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Positive number

Negative number

Positive number

unstable

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Special cases:

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

T(s)= 10/s5+2s4+3s3+6s2+5s+3

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

quantity .

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

interpretation will be the same.

poles in RHP.

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Alternatively

roots of the denominator write the

denominator in reverse order,

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

T(s)= 10/s5+2s4+3s3+6s2+5s+3

D(s)= 3s5+5s4+6s3+3s2+2s+1

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

is unstable and has two RHP

poles!

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

T(s)= 10/s5+7s4+6s3+42s2+8s+56

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

use entries in that row for coeff to form polynomial to

replace all zeros in the 3rd row.

P(s)=s4+6s2+8

Differentiating, dP(s)/ds=4s3+12s+0

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 33

ROUTH-HURWITZ CRITERION

Use the coeff from the differentiated polynomial to replace the zeros,

4s3+12s+0

the standard form.

STABILITY DESIGN

system to be stable, unstable and marginally stable.

Assume K>0.

Form the Routh table

STABILITY DESIGN

STABILITY DESIGN

column are always positive except for the s1 row.

poles on the LHP and stable.

2 poles on the RHP and 1 pole in LHP, system unstable.

STABILITY DESIGN

polynomial,

P(s)=18s2+1386

dP(s)/ds = 36s+0

Assoc Prof Ir Dr Yang Soo Siang 38

STABILITY DESIGN

STABILITY DESIGN

to bottom of table.

remaining root is in LHP- system is marginally

stable.

NEXT LECTURE

Root Locus:

Basic stuff- significance etc.

Plotting and sketching

Review this lecture and try out examples in Chp 5, Nise till pg

305. They are all relevant for your understanding and for you to

be familiar with forming the Routh table and stability design via

Routh Hurwitz.

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