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Practice Problems on ANOVA

1. Three different sale closing methods were used. Three groups of four salespeople were
randomly chosen. Each group was instructed to use only one of the closing methods for all
of their sales. Sales totals of each salesperson over the next two weeks were collected.
Determine with a 95% level of certainty whether there is a difference in the effectiveness
of the closing methods.

Following are sales results for all 12 salespeople:

Sales Group 1 Closing Method 1 - Sales


Salesperson 1 16
Salesperson 2 21
Salesperson 3 18
Salesperson 4 13
Sales Group 2 Closing Method 2 - Sales
Salesperson 5 19
Salesperson 6 20
Salesperson 7 21
Salesperson 8 20
Sales Group 3 Closing Method 3 - Sales
Salesperson 9 24
Salesperson 10 21
Salesperson 11 22
Salesperson 12 25

2. Suppose the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) wants to examine the safety of
compact cars, midsize cars, and full-size cars. It collects a sample of three for each of the
treatments (cars types). Using the hypothetical data provided below, test whether the mean
pressure applied to the drivers head during a crash test is equal for each types of car. Use
= 5%.

Compact cars: 643, 655, 702

Midsize cars: 469, 427, 525

Full-size cars: 484, 456, 402


3. Consider an experimental situation where a company is applying a sensory test for a set of
15 panellists in three different brands of chocolate. Three brands are compared, one being
the reference, and the goal is to verify the difference of marks with the control. At each
assessment the assessor must determine the difference on a scale 0-7. Data is given below
where -th observation under each brand corresponds to the score given by -th panellist in
order ( = 1,2, ,15). Carry out a suitable test 5% level to see whether there is any
significant effect of tasters.

Brand-A: 5, 4, 5, 5, 7, 7, 6, 4, 6, 7, 2, 5, 7, 4, 6

Brand-B: 7, 2, 3, 6, 4, 7, 6, 6, 4, 7, 4, 7, 5, 5, 6

Brand-C: 3, 6, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 3

4. Emergency Room Waiting Time in Minutes


Hospital A Hospital B Hospital C Hospital D
10 8 5 0
19 25 11 20
5 17 24 9
26 36 16 5
11 18 10
29 12
15

Do the mean waiting times differ significantly for these 4 hospital (each observation is
one patient)?
Or are we just seeing random variation in the samples?

5. A new apple juice product was entering the marketplace. It had three distinct advantages
relative to existing apple juices. First, it was not a concentrate and was therefore considered
to be of higher quality than many similar products. Second, as one of the first juices
packaged in cartons, it was cheaper than competing products. Third, partly because of the
packaging, it was more convenient. The director of marketing for the company would like
to know which advantage should be emphasized in advertisements. The director would also
like to know whether local television or newspapers are better for sales.

Consequently, six cities with similar demographics are chosen, and a different combination
of Media and Marketing Strategy is tried in each. The unit sales of apple juice for the ten
weeks immediately following the start of the ad campaigns are recorded for each city. The
two-way table below describes the city assignments for the six possible combinations
(treatments) of levels for the two factors.
Convenience Quality Price

Local Television City 1 City 3 City 5


Newspaper City 2 City 4 City 6

Table below lays out the assignments of Media used (factor A) to the row factor, and the
Marketing Strategy employed (factor B) to the column factor. For convenience, I've
included the data as well ( =10 observations per treatment).

Factor
Convenience Quality Price
Levels
( j=1) ( j=2) ( j=3)
(i, j)
Local
492, 712, 559, 447, 480, 676, 626, 589, 631, 682, 577, 616, 708, 486, 480,
Television
624, 547, 444, 583, 672 759, 689, 547, 578, 643 652, 585, 538, 581, 797
(i=1)

Newspaper 464, 559, 759, 558, 528, 690, 650, 705, 653, 577, 805, 585, 527, 499, 815,
(i=2) 670, 534, 657, 557, 474 837, 629, 799, 498, 842 566, 710, 547, 618, 588

Show that interactions between the factors Media and Marketing Strategy are not
significant and can be ignored (we'll take up the problem of interactions later). What
message may be conveyed to the director after appropriate analysis.

6. A consulting firm is considering a problem related to investment in Real Estate. Before


taking any decision, they want to study whether there is any significant change in the house
prices in a given locality over the last few years. In order to verify this, suppose they
consider a random sample of size = 5 from the estate properties sold in that particular
locality, in each of the last three years. They observe the following data where the figures
are in Price per Square foot in rupees.
2014: 30000 34000 36000 38000 40000
2015: 30000 35000 37000 38000 40000
2016: 40000 41000 43000 44000 50000
Carry out an ANOVA to determine whether there is evidence to support the claim that the
average price per square feet in that locality was not the same for each of the three years
considered.
7. Consider the clinical trial outlined above in which three competing treatments for joint pain
are compared in terms of their mean time to pain relief in patients with osteoarthritis.
Because investigators hypothesize that there may be a difference in time to pain relief in
men versus women, they randomly assign 15 participating men to one of the three
competing treatments and randomly assign 15 participating women to one of the three
competing treatments (i.e., stratified randomization). Participating men and women do not
know to which treatment they are assigned. They are instructed to take the assigned
medication when they experience joint pain and to record the time, in minutes, until the
pain subsides. The data (times to pain relief) are shown below and are organized by the
assigned treatment and gender of the participant.

Table of Time to Pain Relief by Treatment and Gender

Treatment Male Female


A 12 21
15 19
16 18
17 24
14 25
B 14 21
17 20
19 23
20 27
17 25
C 25 37
27 34
29 36
24 26
22 29

8. A study of depression and exercise was conducted. Three groups were used: those in a
designed exercise program; a group that is sedentary; and a group of runners. A depression
rating was given to members in each group. Small random samples from each groups provided
the following data:

Exercise Group: 63 58 61 60 62 59
Sedentary Group: 71 64 68 65 67 67
Runners: 49 52 47 51 48
Further we have: SS(Treatment) = 853.5, SSE = 64.7

Fill in the ANOVA table.

SOURCE DF SS MS F
Treatment
Error
Total

Does the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate a difference among the population
means? Test using 0.10.