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UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK ETANOL

BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepa L. var. Ascalonicum)


TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN
Escherichia coli
Nazla Al amri*, Indah .P. Kiay DEmak**,
Nur Asmar Salikunna***
*Mahasiswa Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu
Kesehatan, Univesitas Tadulako.
**Staff Pengajar Fakultas Kedokteran and Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas Tadulako.
***Bagian patologi anatomi,Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan,
Universitas Tadulako.
ABSTRAK

Latar belakang: Tanaman bawang merah atau (Allium cepa L.var.Ascalonicum)


termasuk familia Liliaceae, banyak tumbuh di daerah-daerah di Indonesia.
Menurut beberapa penelitian bawang merah memiliki berbagai efek farmakologis,
antara lain analgesik, antiinflamasi, antibakteri, dan antioksidan. Uji fitokimia
menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak bawang merah mengandung flavonoid, saponin,
tanin dan minyak atsiri yang memiliki sifat antibakteria. Escherichia coli
merupakan bakteri yang umum ditemukan dalam usus manusia,beberapa bersifat
patogen dan dapat menyebabkan diare.
Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak bawang merah (Allium cepa
L.var.Ascalonicum) terhadap bakteri Escherichia coli secara in vitro.
Metode: Eksperimental laboratorium murni (true experiment) dengan rancangan
eksperimen sederhana (posttest only control group design). Metode ekstraksi yang
digunakan adalah metode maserasi. Pengujian aktivitas antibakteri menggunakan
metode difusi agar (metode sumur) dengan konsentrasi ekstrak 25%, 50%, 75%,
100% dan cefotaxim sebagai kontrol positif dan Aquades sebagai kontrol negatif.
Masing-masing perlakuan direplikasi sebanyak enam kali.
Hasil: Ekstrak Bawang merah dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri
Escherichia coli pada konsentrasi 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% dengan hasil berturut-
turut yaitu 1,80 mm, 2,00 mm, 2,10 mm, dan 2,50 mm. Kadar Hambat Minimal
(KHM) pada konsentrasi 25% (1,80 mm). Hasil uji statistik menggunakan One
Way ANOVA didapatkan nilai signifikansi p<0,05, yang berarti terdapat perbedaan
signifikan dari ekstrak bawang merah yang diberikan kepada bakteri Escherichia
coli.

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Kesimpulan: Ekstrak bawang merah (Allium cepa L.var.Ascalonicum) memiliki
efek terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Escherichia coli. Didapatkan Kadar Hambat
Minimal adalah pada konsentrasi 25%.

Kata kunci: Ekstrak etanol Bawang merah (Allium cepa L.var.Ascalonicum),


Escherichia coli, Antibakteri, Zona Hambat, Kadar Hambat Minimal.
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY TEST ETHANOL
EXTRACT SHALLOT (Allium cepa L. var. Ascalonicum)
ON THE GROWTH
Escherichia coli
Nazla Al amri*, Indah .P. Kiay DEmak**,
Nur Asmar Salikunna***
*Medical Student, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Tadulako University
**Lecturer, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Tadulako University
***Department of Patology Anatomi, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science,
Tadulako University

ABSTRACT

Background : Shallot (Allium Cepa L.var.Ascalonicum) including familia


Liliaceae, grows in many regions in Indonesia. According to some studies Shallot
has a variety of pharmacological effects, such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory,
antibacterial and antioxidant. Phytochemical test showed that onion extract
containing flavonoids, saponin, Allisin, Fitosterol, Tanin and essential oils have
antibacterial properties. Escherichia coli is a bacterium that is commonly found in
the intestines of humans, some are pathogenic and can cause diarrhea.

Objective : To determine the antibacterial effects of extracts of shallot (Allium


cepa L.var.Ascalonicum) against Escherichia coli in vitro.

Methods : Experimental of pure laboratory (true experiment) with a simple


experimental design (posttest only control group design). The extraction method
used is the method of maceration. Testing for antibacterial activity using agar
diffusion method (method wells) with extract concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75%,
100% and cefotaxime as a positive control and distilled as a negative control.
Each treatment was replicated six times.

Result : Shallot extract can inhibit the growth of bacteria Escherichia coli at a
concentration of 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% with the results, respectively, are 1.80
mm, 2.00 mm, 2.10 mm, and 2.50 mm. Minimal Inhibitory levels (MIC) at a
concentration of 25% (1.80 mm). Statistical test results obtained using One Way
ANOVA significance value of p <0.05, which means that there are significant
differences of onion extract given to the bacterium Escherichia coli.

Conclusion : Extract of Shallot (Allium cepa L.var.Ascalonicum) has an effect on


the growth of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Minimal Inhibitory concentration
was obtained at a concentration of 25%.

Key Words: The Ethanol Extracts of Shallot (Allium cepa L. var. Ascalonicum),
Escherichia coli, antibacterials, Zone of Inhibition, Minimal Inhibitory levels.