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PAPERS "Polymer" Prepared to Meet Duties Course Basic chemistry ARRANGED BY :

Basirun chaniago 14A2019 first half INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING NATIONAL HIGH


SCHOOL TECHNOLOGY 2014/2015

Foreword
With Praise to God Almighty I can finish the task of making a paper entitled "Polymers"
smoothly.
In the preparation of the task or the material, not a few obstacles that authors face. However,
the author realized that fluency in the preparation of this material is not another thanks to the
help, encouragement, and guidance of parents, so that the obstacles facing writers resolved.
The paper is structured so that the reader can expand the science of chemistry, which we
presented is based on observations from a variety of sources. This paper collated by the
author with a variety of obstacles. Whether it will come from the author or from the outside.
But with patience and especially the help of God this paper finally be resolved.
Final words I hope this paper can be useful for the general reader and writer in particular, the
author realized that in making this paper is far from perfect, to the authors accept suggestions
and constructive criticism for improvement toward perfection. End the authors would like to
thank.

Jambi, October 2014

Author

PART I
PRELIMINARY
A. Background
In everyday life, we often use a variety of chemicals. Most of the people are unaware of the
dangers of these chemicals, chemicals widely used in everyday life does not leave as a result
of direct and rapid however, takes a long time.
We may know a polymer which is a class of chemicals widely used in our daily lives as well
as in industry. Polymers include plastics, rubber, fiber, and nylon. Some important
compounds in the living body, namely carbohydrates (polysaccharides), proteins, and nucleic
acids, also a polymer.

B. Purpose
The purpose of making this paper is one of the learning process Materials technique being
studied and discussed in Campus STITEKNAS Jambi, especially in the first half (one) in
Industrial Engineering in study year 2014/2015 in order to acquire knowledge and overview
neighbor learning materials in the study, as well as recognize further the understanding of the
learners about the material.

C. Formulation masalahan
Given the discussion of the material in the first half (one) this discussion much coverage, then
the materials in broken into several parts where the group of us get material that will discuss
polymer materials which include:
understanding polymer
The types of polymer
usefulness polymer
benefits Polymers
method of Manufacture

D. Method Approach
Papers and presentations method of approach is based on sources related material derived
from books, the internet and other sources to complement the preparation of this paper.

E. Benefits Preparation of Papers


Benefits preparation of the scientific work for the author are the following:
Training to develop skills to make paper.
Train to combine the written works from a variety of sources.
Expanding horizons and increase knowledge

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
A. Definition of Polymers
A giant molecules (macromolecules) formed from the composition of small molecules that
are bound by chemical bonds called polymers (poly = many; mer = part). A polymer is
formed when a hundred or a thousand units of small molecules (monomers), bind to each
other in a chain. The types of monomers are linked to each other to form a polymer of the
same or different times. The properties of different polymers from monomers which it is
composed.
1. Example of Polymers
Teflon (polytetrafluorethylene fluoroetilena) that are solid are created when molecules of
tetra-fluoroetilena gases react to form long chains. Another example, ethylene gas molecules
react to form a long chain polyethylene plastic that exist in milk cans. Vinyl chloride,
propene, tetra-fluoroetilena, and styrene. Acrylonitrile monomer to form a polymer of
polyacrylonitrile (PAN), which is known by the name of Orlon, and used as carpets and
clothing "knitted". Carbon double bond in the monomer turns into a single bond, and bonded
with other carbon atoms forming the polymer.
2. Structure of Polymers
If you want to understand the structure of the polymer, you can identify the monomer that
repeatedly preparing the polymer. Because the polymer is a large molecule, the polymer is
generally presented by describing just a chain. A chain described earlier should include at
least one unit complete redesign.
Cellulose, the main component of plants, an organic compound that is very abundant in the
earth's possibilities. This plant material found in the cell walls of fruits and vegetables, can
not be digested by humans. Cellulose pass through the digestive system is not changed, but
was used as a dietary fiber system receives the human digestive tract properly. The length of
the cellulose molecule is from a few hundred to a few thousand units of glucose, depending
on the source
Cellulose is a polymer found in the cell walls of plants such as wood, branches, and leaves.
Cellulose is what causes the structures of wood, branches and leaves to be strong. Can you
find a part of the molecular structure of cellulose that is repeated? Remember that part of the
ring of the cellulose molecules are all identical. There monomer units which combine to form
a polymer. Glucose is the monomer names found in the cellulose. Glucose unit depicted in a
simplified form without the carbon and hydrogen atoms. The complete structure of glucose is
described as follows.
B. Type - type Polymer
1. Poly Ethylene (PE)
Goods Plastics Used As Packing Liquid Beverages Or stuff.
2. Poly Propylene (PP)
Plastic Materials Used To Used In Dry Or Snack Food Packing.
3. Poly Vinly Chlorine (PVC)
The Plastic Materials used for Packing Oil Bottle, Meat, Plastic Water Pipes And Window.
4. Oriented Polystyrene (OPP)
Very Bening, Less Heat Resistant.
5. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
A Color White Material Plastic milk Or White Clean.
6. Rubber Materials
The Form is Rubber Rubber Bracelets Characteristically Transparent, strong and elastic.
7. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
Plastic Materials Used For Coating Cans.

8. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)


The polymer is lucid and powerful With the properties Gas and Moisture Retention.
9. Polystyrene (PS)
Changing nature Shapes And Sounds.
10.Lunchbox Polystyrene
Plastic Materials Used For Packing Snacks, Rice, etc.
11.Plastik Cor
Is Plastic Materials That Can be used for Foundry Building.

C. Uses Polymer
1. polythene
Polyethylene (abbreviated as PE) (IUPAC: polythene) is a thermo plastic or a plastic polymer
that are resilient (clay), the density is low, lithe, hard broken what if long in the open state in
the air or when exposed to mud, but can not stand the heat , Usefulness of polythene is to
produce sheets for plastic bags, wrappers page, buckets, etc.
2. Polipropena
Polypropylene or polipropena (PP) is a polymer thermo-plastics are made by the chemical
industry and is used in various applications, including packaging, textiles (eg ropes, thermal
underwear and carpets), stationery, various types of containers terpakaikan reset and plastic
parts , laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes.
Plastic is also used to make plastic bottles, sacks, tubs, rope and electrical kanel
(Insulator). Addition polymer made from the monomer propylene, uneven surface and
possess unusual resistance to most chemical solvents, bases and acids. Polipropena usually
recycled, and the recycling symbol is the number "5": 5 numbers are dkelilingi a recycling
symbol, with the letter "P P" below. Polipropena have the same properties with polythene.
Therefore, this plastic
also produced, only strength is greater than polythene and more heat resistant and resistant to
acidic and alkaline reaction. 3. PVC Polyvinyl chloride (IUPAC: Poly (kloroetanadiol)),
commonly abbreviated PVC, PVC plastic is a thermo plastic with strong resistance. This
plastic is also resistant and impermeable to oil and organic material. There are two types of
PVC plastic that forms rigid and flexible forms. Plastic used to make the rigid forms of
building construction, children's toys, PVC pipe (PVC), desks, cabinets, phonograph records,
and some components of the car. As for the form of flexible plastic, this type is used to make
plastic hoses and electrical insulation. In terms of usage, PVC plastic was third and about
68% is used for construction of the building (plumbing). 4. Teflon Teflon is another name
Politetrafluoroetena (PTFE). Teflon is a thin, highly heat-resistant and resistant to chemicals.
Teflon is used for coating the skillet (nonstick pan), a chemical in the plant tank coatings, anti
broken pipes and electric cables. 5. Polibutaena Polybutadiene is a synthetic rubber which is a
polymer formed from the 1,3-butadiene monomer polimerisasidari. Has a high resistance to
wear and is used primarily in the manufacture of tires. It has also been used to coat or
encapsulate electronic assemblies, offering extremely high electrical resistivity.
Polybutadiene most widely used to make automobile tires. Rubber can also be used in
railway sleepers, bridge blocks, golf balls, water hoses, etc.
6. Polyester
Polyester is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main
chain. Although there are many polyesters, the term "polyester" is as a specific ingredient
more commonly refers to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include natural
chemical substances, such as chitin of plant cuticles, as well as synthetic chemicals such as
polycarbonate and polybutyrate. Can be produced in various shapes such as sheets and three-
dimensional form, as thermoplastic polyester can change shape after heated. Although
combustible at high temperatures, polyesters tend crimped away from the fire and extinguish
themselves when combustion occurs. Polyester fibers have high strength and E-modulus and
low water absorption and shrinkage is minimal when compared with other industrial fibers.
Polyester used to make bottles, films, tarpaulin, canoes, liquid crystal displays, holograms,
filters, saput (film) dielectric for capacitors, insulating saput for wire and insulating tapes.
Tertenun polyester fabrics used in consumer clothing and home furnishings such as bed
sheets, bed covers, curtains and drapery. Pengutan industrial polyester used in tires, rope,
cloth made introductory machine belt (conveyor), safety belts, coated fabrics and plastic
reinforcements with high energy absorption. Polyester fiber is also used for filling pillows
and comforters.
7. Nylon 66
Nylon 6-6, also referred to as nylon 6,6, is a type of nylon. Nylon contained in various types,
the two most common for textile and plastics industry are: nylon 6 and nylon 6,6.Nilon used
for many things, such as carpet fibers, clothes, airbags, tires, rope, hose, stockings,
parachutes, etc. ,

8. Polystyrene Polystyrene is a polymer with the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that
is commercially from petroleum. At room temperature, polystyrene is normally a solid
thermoplastic, can be melted at higher temperatures. Styrene classified as aromatic
compounds. Pure solid polystyrene is a colorless plastic, hard with limited flexibility which
can be formed into a wide variety of products with great detail. Addition to the rubber during
polymerization can increase the flexibility and shock resistance. Polystyrene this type are
known by the name of HighImpact Polystyrene (HIPS). Pure transparent polystyrene can be
made into various colors through the process of compounding polystyrene is widely used in
electronic products as casing, cabinet and other components. Household appliances made of
polystyrene: brooms, combs, basins, hangers, buckets. 9. Fleksiglas Polymethyl Methacrylate
PMMA has abbreviated trade name flexiglass. Polymethyl methacrylate is an addition
polymerization of monomers methyl methacrylate (H2C = CH-COOH3). PMMA is a robust
and transparent plastic. These polymers are used for aircraft windows and taillights (glass
alkrilik).

D. Benefits Polymers 1. Benefits of Plastic Polymers Plastic is derived from a variety of


monomer addition polymerization of the double bond. Here's an example of a plastic polymer
and benefits. polythene Polythene is the polymerisation of the monomer ethene. Polythene
has a boiling point 110o C and widely used for bottles, films, wrapping and insulating power
tools. Polypropylene Is a combination of molecules of propene. Similar in nature to the
polythene yet more powerful. Polypropylene is widely used to make ropes, bottles, sacks, and
so on. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Buddy count ever with PVC pipe that is usually to make
the waterways? The pipe was made of Polyvinylchloride. Benefits of the polymer to make
pipes, floor coatings, and sticks. Teflon (PTFE) Politetrafluoroetena (PTFE) or teflon
coating is mainly used for cooking tools. Teflon is tenacious, resilient, chemical resistant,
non-flammable, electrical insulator and a good heat, not easily sticky and sticking. With no
teflon in tools / cooking pot for frying is easier for us to cook and wash. Polyvinyl Acetate
(PVC) as emulsifiers paint
Polystyrene
Polystyrene is a combination of styrene. Benefits of these polymers for packaging food and
beverages (plastic cups).
Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA)
clear plastic shape. The structure is hard yet lightweight so widely used as a substitute for
glass and glass aircraft.
2. Benefits Polymers Rubber
Natural Rubber
Natural rubber is composed of a series of isoprene derived from nature. Buddy knew tires?
The benefits of this polymer is as a vehicle tire. Soft rubber that was originally going to be
hard after retreading by adding small amounts of sulfur.
Rubber Synthesis
neoprene: resistant to gasoline, kerosene, grease so many materials used to make hoses,
gloves, etc.
Nitrile Rubber: the benefit is similar polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol
Styrena Butadiene Rubber (SBR): if we have a natural synthesis of natural rubber when we
got SBR. Benefits of these polymers as a motorcycle tire.
3. Synthetic Fibers
Nylon 66
Is a polymer of hexa methylene diamine and adipic acid. Called nylon 66 as well hexa
methylene diamine and adipic acid each having 6 carbon atoms. Because of its resilient,
elastic and strong it is widely used material for making ropes, nets, parasites, tents, and so on.
Orlon (polyacrylonitrile)
Plomer benefits as a carpet and clothing.
Dacron (Ploetilentreftalat)
Dacron is widely used as beverage containers with good quality.

E. Methods of Making The method of making polymers through condensation polymerization


and addition. 1. Polymerization condensation polymerization is accompanied by the
formation of water molecules (H2O). Most of the monomer molecules are not included in the
final polymer. 2. Polymerization addition polymerization is accompanied by the termination
of the double bond followed by the addition of monomers. Monomer around you add the
other monomer so that the polymer product containing all atoms in the initial monomer.

CHAPTER III CONCLUSION Polymers are large molecules composed of repeating units
simple to join a covalent bond. macromolecules is a synonym of the polymer, while the
monomer is a raw material for making polymers. The macromolecules are molecules of
mercury (giant), which is composed of at least a thousand atoms bound together by covalent
bonds. monomers are substances that can be converted into a polymer. Ethylene is a
monomer that can be polymerized into polyethylene. Some important polymers, ie of
polythene, polipropena, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Teflon, polystyrene, polyvinyl alcohol,
dacron, nylon 66, bakelite, flexiglass, Orlon and natural rubber.
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