You are on page 1of 28

DESIGN OF ABUTMENT AND FOUNDATION

BRIDGE NO. 354


ABUTMENT NO. A1
SPAN ARRANGEMENT:- 3 x 12.2 m

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The system consists of a solid rectangular abutment with monolithic dirt wall, square return wall and solid
abutment cap. The top dimensions of the abutment cap are fixed so as to fit in the details of PSC Slab
superstucture.

2.0 REFERENCE
For the design of the abutment and its different components generally the provisions of IRS(Indian Railway
Standards) Codes have been followed. Followings are the main references.

i. IRS Bridge Rules v. IS:2911(Part1/Sec2)-2010


ii. IRS Concrete Bridge Codes-1997 vi. IS:14593-1998
iii. IRS Substructure codes. vii. IRC:78
iv.Seismic Guideline of RDSO-(Nov-2015)
3.0 DESIGN PARAMETERS
Proposed Rail Level RL 48.271 m
Proposed Rail Formation Level RL 47.533 m
Structural Depth of PSC Slab at center 1.100 m
Bottom of Girder Level RL 46.353 m
Top of Bed Block Level RL 46.353 m
Top of Abutment Level RL 45.753 m
Ground Level RL 40.423 m
Top of Pile Cap Level RL 39.653 m
Bottom of Pile Cap Level RL 37.853 m

Seismic Zone = V
Z = 0.36 Z/2R = 0.06
Importance Factor (I) = 1.5 Sa/g = 2.5
R = 3

4.0 SPAN DETAILS


The Abutment is supporting PSC Slab Super-structure of Effective Span 12.2 m. The Details of Span is gives as under

4.1 Span 1

Effective span between c/c of bearing = 12.79 m


Overall span = 13.38 m
Span between c/c of Expansion Joints = 13.40 m
5.0 SKETCHES

Rail Formation Lvl = 47.533 m

Top of bed block


46.353 m

45.753 m 0.6 m 1.41 m

-2 m

1.41 m
GL 40.423 m

T.O.Pc 39.653 m

37.853 m 1.8 m

1.145 m
7.7 m

ELEVATION

e= -2.000
C/L of Abutment C/L of Pile Cap

0.5 m

7.85 m 8.7 m
1.145 m

1.41 m
PLAN

+ -
6.0 DEAD LOAD CALCULATION
Anticlockwise Moments are taken as positive -
+

6.1 Dead Load from Superstructure PSC Slab (Refer Drawing No. RDSO/B-10271-Alt-1)
Load for DL = 163.26 T
Weight of superstructure (Span) = 163.26 T
Reaction on Abutment = 81.63 T
Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Abutment, eL1 = 0.410 m
Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Pile cap, eL2 -2 + 0.41 = -1.590 m

Longitudinal Moment due to DL about C/L of Abutment = 81.63 x 0.41 = 33.468 T-m
Longitudinal Moment due to DL about C/L of Pile cap = 81.63 x -1.59 = -129.792 T-m

The Superstructure is symmetric about Centre Line of Soffit; therefore there is no Transverse Eccentricty
Transverse Eccentricity of Reaction, eT = 0m
Transverse Moment due to DL = 81.63 x 0 = 0 T-m

6.2 Super Imposed Dead Load (SIDL) from Superstructure


Total Load for SIDL (considering SIDL @ 6.5 T/m) = 87.10 T
SIDL Reaction = 43.55 T
Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Abutment, eL1 = 0.410 m
Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Pile cap, eL2 = -1.590 m

Longitudinal Moment due to SIDL about C/L of Abutment = 43.55 x 0.41 = 17.856 T-m
Longitudinal Moment due to SIDL about C/L of Pile cap = 43.55 x -1.59 = -69.245 T-m

The Superstructure is symmetric about Centre Line of Soffit; therefore there is no Transverse Eccentricty
Transverse Eccentricity of Reaction, eT = 0m
Transverse Moment due to SIDL = 43.55 x 0 = 0 T-m

6.3 Dead Load from Abutment Cap 0.8 m


Length of bed block = 7.850 m
Width of bed block = 1.410 m
Depth of bed block = 0.600 m
1.18 m

1.41 m 0.6 m

C/L of bearing
C/L of abutment
0.41

1.41 m

[a] Dead Load of Dirt Wall


Dead Load = 1.18 x 0.8 x 7.85 x 2.5 = 18.526 T
Eccentricity w.r.t. Abutment CG = - ( 1.41 - 0.8 ) / 2 = -0.305 m
Eccentricity w.r.t. Pile Cap CG = ( 1.145 - 3.85 ) +0.4 = -2.305 m

[b] Dead Load of Abutment Cap


Dead Load = 1.41 x 0.6 x 7.85 x 2.5 = 16.603 T
Eccentricity w.r.t. Abutment CG = 0m
Eccentricity w.r.t. Pile Cap CG = ( 1.145 - 3.85 ) +0.705 = -2.000 m
[c] Dead Load of Raised Portion of Seismic Restrainer Block
s/w of seismic restrainer block = 2 x 1.6 x 1.525 x 0.80 x 2.5 = = 9.76 T
0.33 x 0.5875 x 0.80 x 2 x 2.5 = 0.776 T
Total = 10.536 T
Eccentricity w.r.t. Abutment CG 0.410 m
Eccentricity w.r.t. Pile Cap CG -1.590 m

Total Dead Load from Abutment Cap, dirt wall and seismic restrainer blocks
= 18.526 + 16.603 + 10.536 = 45.665 T
Total Longitudinal Moment about CL of Abutment due to above Dead Load
= 18.526 x -0.305 + 16.603 x 0+10.536x0.41 = -1.330 T-m
Total Longitudinal Moment about CL of Pile Cap due to above Dead Load
= 18.526 x -2.305 + 16.603 x -2+10.536x-1.59 = -92.660 T-m
6.4 Dead Load of Abutment Shaft
The Abutment has Rectangular Section.

1.41 m

TRAFFIC DIRECTION

7.85 m

Total height of abutment = 45.753 - 39.653 = 6.100 m


Sectional area of Abutment Shaft = 7.85 x 1.41 = 11.069 m2
Volume of Abutment Shaft = 6.1 x 11.0685 = 67.518 m3
Dead Load of Abutment Shaft = 67.51785 x 2.5 = 168.795 T
Longitudinal Eccentricity w.r.t. C/L of Pile Cap, eL = -2.000 m
Longitudinal Moment about C/L of Pile Cap = 168.794625 x -2 = -337.5893 T-m

6.5 Dead Load of Square Return


Length of Square Return = 1.145 m
Average width of Square Return = 0.5 m
Height of Square Return = 47.533 - 39.653 = 7.88 m
Weight of Two Square Returns = 2 x 1.145 x 0.5 x 7.88 x 2.5 = 22.56 T
Longitudinal Eccentricity w.r.t. C/L of Abutment
= - [ ( 1.145 + 1.41 ) / 2.0 ] = -1.278 m
Longitudinal Moment about C/L of Abutment = 22.557 x ( -1.2775 ) = -28.820 T-m
Longitudinal Eccentricity w.r.t. C/L of Pile Cap
= -{(7.7/2-1.145/2)} = -3.278 m
Longitudinal Moment about C/L of Pile Cap = 22.557 x (-3.2775) = -73.931 T-m

6.7 Dead Load of Pile Cap


Length of Pile Cap (perpendicular to track) = 8.7 m
Width of Pile Cap (parallel to track) = 7.70 m
Depth of Pile Cap = 1.8 m
7.7 m

JOGIGHOPA STATION PANCHARATNA STATION

8.7 m

Traffic Direction

PLAN OF PILE CAP


Weight of Pile Cap = 8.7 x 7.7 x 1.8 x 2.50 = 301.455 T

7.0 VERTICAL LIVE LOAD CALCULATION


Standard of Loading 25t Loading-2008
(Note : Please Refer Appendix XXIII of IRS:Bridge Rules)
Loaded Length (Overall length) = 13.380 m
Total EUDL Load (Shear) for 13.38 m span ( for single track loaded) = 177.430 T
Here total 1 Nos. tracks are placed on single sub-structure
Total EUDL Load (Shear) for 13.38 m span ( when 1 track loaded, concentrically ) = 177.430 T

Longitudinal Eccentricity w.r.t C/L of Abutment, eL1 = 0.410 m


Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Pile Cap, eL2 = -1.590 m

Calculation of transverse eccentricity

[a] When single track at edge loaded


Transverse Eccentricity w.r.t. C/L of Abutment, eT = 0.100 m
(Note : Please Refer Cl: 2.5.1 of IRS:Bridge Rule for Transverse Eccentricity )

Computation of Moment Due to LL


(Note : Please refer clause 2.4.1.1 (a) of IRS:Bridge Rule)
CDA = 0.15 + [ 8 / (6 + L)] Subject to Maximum of 1.0
Therefore, CDA = 0.15 + [ 8 / ( 6 + 13.38 ) ] = 0.563
Augmented load calculation
[a] When single track at edge loaded
Total Live Load (Shear) = 177.43 x (1 + 0.563 ) = 277.323 T
Live Load Reaction on Abutment = 277.323 / 2.0 = 138.662 T
Longitudinal Moment due to LL on Abutment, ML = 138.6615 x 0.41 = 56.851 T-m
Transverse Moment due to LL on Abutment, MT = 138.6615 x 0.1 = 13.866 T-m

For Design of Deep Foundation (Pile Foundation)


Therefore, CDA for Foundation = 0.563
Augmented load calculation
[a] When single track at edge loaded
Total Live Load (Shear) excluding CDA = 177.43 x (1 + 0.563 ) = 277.323 T
Live Load Reaction on Abutment = 277.323 / 2.0 = 138.662 T
Longitudinal Moment due to LL on Pile Cap, ML = 138.6615 x -1.59 = -220.472 T-m
Transverse Moment due to LL on Pile Cap, MT = 138.6615 x 0.1 = 13.866 T-m
8.0 HORIZONTAL LOAD CALCULATION
8.1 TRACTIVE EFFORT / BRAKING FORCE
(Please Refer Appendix XXIV of IRS Bridge Rules )
Loaded Length (Edge to Edge of Superstructure) = 13.380 m
Tractive Force for 13.38 m Loaded Span = 63.000 T
Braking Force for 13.38 m Loaded Span = 37.5 T
Governing Longitudinal Force = max ( 63 , 37.5 ) = 63.000 T
Dispersion of Longitudinal Force = 0.00 %
(Note : Refer Clause 2.8.3.4, IRS : Bridge Rules)
Net Longitudinal Force = 63 x ( 1.0 - 0 / 100 ) = 63 T
Type of bearing = Bitumen layer
Percent Force Transferred to Abutment = 50.00 %

Therefore, Net Longitudinal Force Transferred to Abutment = 31.5 T


Tractive force for Type A Live Load = 31.5 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 - 39.653 = 6.700 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Pile Cap = 46.353 - 37.853 = 8.500 m

Moment Calculation
[a] When single track at edge loaded (Type A)
Moment about Base of Abutment = 31.5 x 6.7 = 211.050 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 31.5 x 8.5 = 267.750 T-m

8.2 FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE DUE TO BEARING


(Please Refer Cl:5.6.2 of IRS:Bridge & Substructure Code & Cl:2.7 of IRS:Bridge Rule)

Co-efficient of Friction = 0.500


For Type A loading
Total Frictional Force = 0.5 x ( 81.63 + 43.55 ) = 62.590 T
Frictional Force = 62.590 T

Moment about Base of Abutment = 62.59 x 6.7 = 419.35 T-m


Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 62.59 x 8.5 = 532.02 T-m

8.3 EARTH PRESSURE


8.3.1 ACTIVE EARTH PRTESSURE DUE TO BACKFILL
(Note : Please Refer CL. 5.7.1 Of IRS : Substructure & Foundation Code.)

φ = 30 ° = 0.524 radians
i = 0 ° = 0.000 radians
δ = 10.00 ° = 0.175 radians
α = 0 ° = 0.000 radians
γ = 1.8 T per cum

Co-efficient of active earth pressure

Cos (φ-α)/[Cos αCos(α+δ)[1+√((Sin(φ+δ)Sin(φ-i))/(Cos(α+δ)Cos(α-i)))] ]


2 2 2
Ka =
Ka = 0.308
KaH= = 0.303

FORMATION LEVEL 47.533 m

7.88 m
9.68

39.653 m 4.298 T/m2


TOP OF PILE CAP
1.8 37.853 m 5.279 T/m2
BOTTOM OF PILE CAP
At base of Abutment Wall
Earth Pressure at Abutment Base = KaHγH
2
= 0.303 x 1.8 x 7.88 = 4.298 T/m
Total Force at Abutment Base = 0.5 x 4.298 x 7.88 x 6.85 = 115.999 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 7.88 / 3.0 = 2.627 m
Moment about Base of Abutment Wall = 115.999 x 2.627 = 304.729 T-m

At base of Pile Cap


Earth Pressure at base of Pile Cap = 0.303 x 1.8 x 9.68 = 5.279 T/m2
Force on Pile Cap only = 0.50 x ( 4.298 + 5.279 ) x 1.8 x 8.7 = 74.988 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Pile Cap Base = ( 1.8 / 3 ) x [ ( 2 x 4.298 + 5.279) / ( 4.298 + 5.279 ) ]
= 0.869 m
Total Force at bottom of Pile Cap = 115.999 + 74.988 = 190.987 T
Total Moment at bottom of Pile Cap = 115.999 x ( 2.627 + 1.8 ) + 74.988 x 0.869
= 578.692 T-m

8.3.2 ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE DUE TO SURCHARGE EFFECT


(Note : Please Refer CL. 5.8.2 Of IRS : Substructure & Foundation Code.)

Dead Load Surcharge = V = 6.5 T/m


Live Load Surchage = S = 13.7 T/m
Surcharge Width at Formation Level = B = 3.0 m
Length of Abutment = L = 7.85 m
Height of Abutment = h = 7.880 m
Thickness of Pile Cap = D = 1.800 m
Total height with Pile Cap = H = 9.68 m
Length of Pile Cap = Lp = 8.7 m
L-B= 7.85 - 3 = 4.850 m
Therefore, H > (L - B), Case-2 is applicable
calculation required for Case - 2

Case - 2 a b 2.040 c

P1&P1'
Height of abutment = 7.880 m
4.85 m

9.68 m 3.03 m g d P2'


Bottom of Abutment
1.8 m P2

f e
0.780

Pressure at Top = [ (S + V ) / B ] Ka = [ ( 13.7 + 6.5 ) / 3 ] x 0.303


= 2.040 T/m2
Pressure at Bottom = [ (S + V ) / L ] Ka = [ ( 13.7 + 6.5 ) / 7.85 ] x 0.303
= 0.780 T/m2
Surcharge Pressure at Bottom of Abutment = 0.780 T/m2
Calculation for Bottom of Pile Cap :
P1 = 4.85 x (2.04+0.78) / 2 = 6.839 T/m
acting at 9.68-((4.85/3)x(2x0.78+2.04)/(0.78+2.04)) = 7.616 m
P2 = 0.78x(3.03+1.8) = 3.767 T/m
acting at (1.8+3.03)/2 = 2.415 m
Calculation for bottom of Abutment :
P1' = 4.85 x (2.04+0.78) / 2 = 6.839 T/m
acting at 7.88-((4.85/3)x(2x0.78+2.04)/(0.78+2.04)) = 5.816 m
P2' = 0.78x3.03 = 2.363 T/m
acting at 3.03/2 = 1.515 m

At Base of Abutment Wall


Horizontal Force at Base of Abutment Wall = (6.839+2.363) x 7.85 = 72.236 T/m
Moment about Base of Abutment Wall = (6.839 x 5.816 + 2.363 x 1.515) x 7.85 = 340.341 T-m

At Base of Pile Cap


Horizontal force on Pile Cap = (6.839+3.767) x 8.7 = 92.272 T/m
Total Moment about Base of Pile Cap (6.839 x 7.616 + 3.767 x 2.415) x 8.7 = 532.300 T-m

8.4.1 Centrifugal Force


(Please Refer Cl:2.5.3(b) of IRS:Bridge Rule)
W= = 13.261 T/m
V= = 160 KmPh
R= = 875 m
C1= = 3.05 T/m
Degree of curve( º)= 2 º
Span Length= = 13.38 m
Total force act on abutment= = 20.438 T

Centrifugal force for Type A Live Load = 10.219 T


Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Pier = 1.83+48.271-39.653 = 10.448 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Foundation = 1.83+48.271-37.853 = 12.248 m
[a] When single track, single span loaded (Type A)
Moment about Base of abutment 10.219 x 10.448 = 106.768 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Foundation 10.219 x 12.248 = 125.162 T-m

8.4.2 Temperature Load


8.4.2.1 Thermal Expansion/Contraction of Slab
Horizontal load due to thermal expan/contraction of slab (B-10271) = 15.86*4/2 = 31.72 T
Total moment at base of abutment=31.72x(0.6+(45.753-39.653)) = = 212.524 T-m
Total moment at base of pile cap=31.72x(0.6+(45.753-39.653)+1.8) = = 269.62 T-m
8.4.2.2 Thermal Expansion/Contraction of Retainer
Horizontal load due to thermal expan/contraction of slab = 8.78*2/2 = 8.78 T
Total moment at base of abutment=8.78x(0.6+(45.753-39.653)) = = 58.826 T-m
Total moment at base of pile cap=8.78x(0.6+(45.753-39.653)+1.8) = = 74.63 T-m

9.0 VERTICAL LOAD DUE TO EARTH


9.1 VERTICAL LOAD DUE TO BACKFILL ON PILE CAP
Height of back fill behind abutment wall = 7.880 m
Avg. height of back fill beyond Return Wall in Trans. Direction = 7.880 m
Eff. width of outer cantilever Pile Cap loaded with Earthfill = 0.425 m
W = ( 2 x 0.425 + 7.85 - 2 x 0.5 ) x 1.145 x 7.88 x 1.8 = 125.053 T
Eccentricity w.r.t. CG of Pile Group = - [ ( 1.145 + 1.41 ) / 2.0 ] = -3.278 m
Longitudinal Moment about CG of Pile Group = 125.053 x ( -3.2775 ) = -409.861 T-m

10.0 SEISMIC FORCE


(Note : Please refer RDSO guideline on seismic design of railway bridge)
Design Horizontal Seismic Coefficient αh = 2.5 x 1.5 x 0.06 = 0.225
Design Vertical Seismic Coefficient αv = 2/3 x αh 2/3 x 0.225 = 0.150

10.1 ON SUPER STRUCTURE DEAD LOAD


Longitudinal direction
(Note : Seismic Force will act at Top of Bed Block)
Horizontal Seismic Force for 13.4 (c/c Bearing) Span = 0.225 x 81.63 = 18.367 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 + 0 - 39.653 = 6.700 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 46.353 + 0 - 37.853 = 8.500 m
Moment about Base of Abutment = 18.367 x 6.7 = 123.059 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 18.367 x 8.5 = 156.120 T-m

Transverse direction
(Note : Seismic Force will act at Top of Bed Block )
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 + 0 - 39.653 = 6.700 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 46.353 + 0 - 37.853 = 8.500 m
Moment about Base of Abutment = 18.367 x 6.7 = 123.059 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 18.367 x 8.5 = 156.120 T-m

10.2 ON SUPER IMPOSED DEAD LOAD (SIDL)


Longitudinal direction
(Note : Seismic Force will act at Top of Bed Block)
Horizontal Seismic Force for 13.4 (c/c Bearing) Span = 0.225 x 43.55 = 9.799 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 + 0 - 39.653 = 6.700 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 46.353 + 0 - 37.853 = 8.500 m
Moment about Base of Abutment = 9.799 x 6.7 = 65.653 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 9.799 x 8.5 = 83.292 T-m

Transverse direction
(Note : Seismic Force will act at Top of Bed Block )
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 + 0 - 39.653 = 6.700 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 46.353 + 0 - 37.853 = 8.500 m
Moment about Base of Abutment = 9.799 x 6.7 = 65.653 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 9.799 x 8.5 = 83.292 T-m

10.3 ON ABUTMENT CAP


[a] Dirt Wall
Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 18.526 = 4.168 T
Distance of C.G. of Dirt Wall From B/O of Dirt Wall = 1.18 / 2.0 = 0.590 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 + 0.59 - 39.653 = 7.290 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 46.353 + 0.59 - 37.853 = 9.090 m

[b] Abutment Cap


Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 16.603 = 3.736 T
Distance of C.G. of Abutment Cap From B/O of Abutment Cap = 0.6 / 2.0 = 0.300 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 45.753 + 0.3 - 39.653 = 6.400 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 45.753 + 0.3 - 37.853 = 8.200 m

Total Horizontal Load Due to Abutment Cap Components = 4.168 + 3.736


= 7.904 T
Moment about Base of Abutment = 4.168 x 7.29 + 3.736 x 6.4
= 54.295 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 4.168 x 9.09 + 3.736 x 8.2
= 68.522 T-m

10.4 ON ABUTMENT WALL


Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 168.794625 = 37.979 T
Level of C. G. of Abutment (RL) = ( 45.753 + 39.653 ) / 2.0 = 42.703 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 42.703 - 39.653 = 3.050 m
Lever Arm w.r.t to Bottom of Pile Cap = 42.703 - 37.853 = 4.850 m
Moment about Base of Abutment = 37.979 x 3.05 = 115.836 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 37.979 x 4.85 = 184.198 T-m

10.5 ON SQUARE RETURN


Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 22.557 = 5.075 T
Level of C. G. of Square Return (RL) = ( 47.533 + 39.653 ) / 2 = 43.593 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 43.593 - 39.653 = 3.940 m
Lever Arm w.r.t to Bottom of Pile Cap = 43.593 - 37.853 = 5.740 m
Moment about Base of Abutment = 5.075 x 3.94 = 19.996 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 5.075 x 5.74 = 29.131 T-m
10.7 ON PILE CAP
Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 301.455 = 67.827 T
Level of C. G. of Pile Cap (RL) = ( 37.853 + 39.653 ) / 2 = 38.753 m
Lever Arm w.r.t to Bottom of Pile Cap = 38.753 - 37.853 = 0.900 m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 67.827 x 0.9 = 61.044 T-m

10.8 SUMMARY OF SEISMIC FORCES DUE TO DEAD LOADS


Total Horizontal Seismic Force on Abutment due to Dead Loads
= 18.367 + 9.799 + 7.904 + 37.979+5.075 = 79.124 T
Total Horizontal Seismic Force on Pile Cap due to Dead Loads
= 79.124 + 67.827 = 146.951 T
Total Longitudinal Moment about Base of Abutment due to Dead Loads
= 123.059 + 65.653 + 54.295 + 115.83595+19.9955 = 378.838 T-m
Total Longitudinal Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap due to Dead Loads
= 156.12 + 83.292 + 68.522 + 184.19815 + 29.131 + 0 + 61.044 = 582.307 T-m
Total Transverse Moment about Base of Abutment due to Dead Loads
= 123.059 + 65.6533 + 54.295 + 115.83595+19.9955 = 378.839 T-m
Total Transverse Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap due to Dead Loads
= 156.12 + 83.2915 + 68.522 + 184.19815 + 29.131 + 61.044 = 582.307 T-m

10.9 ON 50% LIVE LOAD IN TRANSVERSE DIRECTION


(Note : Refer clause 2.12.6, IRS:Bridge Rules)
Point of application of the force at Top of Bed Block = 46.353 m RL
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 - 39.653 = 6.700 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 46.353 - 37.853 = 8.500 m
[a] When single track at edge loaded (Type A)
Horizontal Seismic Force = [ 138.6615 / ( 1 + 0.563 ) ] x 0.50 x 0.225 = 9.980 T
Moment about Base of Abutment = 9.98 x 6.7 = 66.866 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 9.98 x 8.5 = 84.830 T-m
10.10 SEISMIC FORCES IN VERTICAL DIRECTION DUE TO DEAD LOADS
Seismic Force on Abutment due to Dead Loads in Vertical Direction
= 79.124 x 0.15 / 0.225 = 52.749 T
Seismic Force on Pile Cap due to Dead Loads in Vertical Direction
= 146.951 x 0.15 / 0.225 = 97.970 T

10.11 SEISMIC FORCES IN VERTICAL DIRECTION DUE TO LIVE LOADS


[a] When single track at edge loaded (Type A)
Seismic Force due to Live Load in Vertical Direction = 9.98 x 0.15 / 0.225 = 6.654 T

11.0 DYNAMIC INCREMENT OF EARTH PRESSURE


(Note : Please Refer Cl. 5.12.6 Of IRS:Substructure & Foundation Code )
αh = 0.225 φ = 30 °
αv = 0.15 δ = 10.00 °
For + ve αv
λ = tan [αh / (1 + αv)]
-1

= 0.1932 radians = 11.070 °


For - ve αv
λ = tan [αh / (1 - αv)]
-1

= 0.2588 radians = 14.826 °

Active Earth Pressure Coefficient


Ca =
(((1 + αv) x cos2(φ-α-λ))/(cosλ x cos2α x cos(δ + α + λ))) x [1 / (1 + √((sin(φ + δ) x sin(φ - i - λ)) / (cos(δ + α + λ) x cos(α - i))]2

λ Ca Co-efficient of dynamic increment


11.070 0.518 Ca = Max (0.518 , 0.441 )
14.826 0.441 = 0.518
11.1 DYNAMIC INCREMENT DUE TO ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE OF BACKFILL
At Base of Abutment Wall
Increment in Force = [ ( 0.518 - 0.303 ) / 0.303 ] x 115.999 = 82.310 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 7.88 / 2.0 = 3.94 m
Increment in Moment about Abutment Base = 82.31 x 3.94 = 324.30 T-m

At Base of Pile Cap


Increment in Force = [ ( 0.518 - 0.303 ) / 0.303 ] x 190.987 = 135.519 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Pile Cap Bottom = 9.68 / 2.0 = 4.84 m
Increment in Moment about Pile Cap Bottom = 135.519 x 4.84 = 655.91 T-m

11.2 DYNAMIC INCREMENT DUE TO ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE OF SURCHARGE


At Abutment Base
Increment in Force = [ ( 0.518 - 0.303 ) / 0.303 ] x 72.236 = 51.257 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 0.66 x 7.88 = 5.201 m
Increment in Moment about Abutment Base = 51.257 x 5.201 = 266.588 T-m

At Base of Pile Cap


Increment in Force = [ ( 0.518 - 0.303 ) / 0.303 ] x 92.272 = 65.474 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Pile Cap Bottom = 0.66 x 9.68 = 6.389 m
Increment in Moment about Pile Cap Bottom = 65.474 x 6.389 = 418.313 T-m

SUMMARY OF LOADS IN TABULAR FORM


At the bottom of abutment
SL No. LOAD DESCRIPTION V ML MT HL HT
a Dead Load
6.1 From Super-structure 81.630 33.47 0 0 0
6.2 SIDL 43.550 17.856 0 0 0
6.3 From Abt. Cap, railing, pedestal, OHE 45.665 -1.330 0 0 0
6.4 From Abutment wall 168.795 -337.589 0 0 0
6.5 From square return 22.557 -28.820 0 0 0
b Live Load
7.0 When single track loaded 138.662 56.851 13.866 0 0
c Tractive force/Braking force
8.1 When single track loaded 0 211.050 0 31.50 0
d Frictional Resistance
8.2 When single track loaded 0 419.35 0 62.590 0
e Earth Pressure
8.3.1 Due to backfill 0 304.729 0 115.999 0
8.3.2 Due to surcharge effect 0 340.341 0 72.236 0
f Temperature load + Centrifugal load
8.4.1/2 Thermal Expansion of Slab and Retainer+Centrifugal load 0 271.350 106.768 40.500 20.438
g Seismic force
10.10 Dead Load seismic 52.750 378.838 378.839 79.124 79.124
10.11 When single track loaded 6.654 0 66.866 0 9.980
11.10 Dynamic incr. of earth pressure 0 324.301 0 82.310 0
11.20 Dynamic incr. of surcharge earth pressure 0 266.588 0 51.257 0

IRS CBC TABLE-12 Cl-6.7 RDSO Seismic Guideline


Normal condition Seismic Condition
Case-1 ULS SLS Case-2 ULS SLS Description ULS SLS
DL 1.25 1 DL 1.25 1 DL 1.25 1
SIDL 2 1.2 SIDL 2 1.2 SIDL 1.5 1.2
TEMP 1.5 1 Frictional 1.5 1 LL 0.5 0.5
EP 1.7 1 EP 1.7 1 EQ 1.2 1
LL 1.4 1 EP 1.7 1
12.0 Combination of Loads and Moments at Base of Abutment
12.1 Servicebility Limit State (SLS)
(Note : Partial Safety Factors are as per Table 12, IRS Concrete Bridge Code)
Case - I ( Vertical Load Case-Considering LL & Temperature Load)
Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625 +22.557 +0 ) + 1.20 x ( 43.55) + 1.0 x ( 138.6615 ) = 509.568 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33 +-28.82+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 17.8555 ) + 1.0 x ( 56.851215) +1.0x(211.05 ) + 1.0 x (304.729 + 340.341+ 1.0 x 271.35 ) = 871.48 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 1.0 x ( 13.86615+106.768) ) = 120.634 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
= 1.0 x ( 31.5 ) + 1.0 x ( 40.5 + 1.0 x ( 115.999 + 72.236 ) = 260.235 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Case - II (Vertical Load Case-Considering Frictional Load Case)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625 +22.557 +0 ) + 1.20 x ( 43.55) = 370.907 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33 +-337.58925 + -28.82+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 17.8555 ) + 1.0 x ( 419.35 ) + 1.0 x (304.729 + 340.341 ) = 751.576 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 0.000 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
= 1.1 x ( 62.59 ) + 1.0 x ( 115.999 + 72.236 ) = 250.825 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - III (Normal Load +Longitudinal Seismic+Vertical Seismic UP)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 43.55) + 0.5 x ( 138.6615 ) - 1 x 52.75)
= 387.487 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33+-337.58925+-28.82+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 17.8555 ) +0.5 x ( 56.851215+ 211.05 ) + 1.0 x (304.729
= +1435.904
340.341 )T-m
+ 1.0 x ( 378.83845 +324.301 +266.588 )
Transverse Moment (MT) =
0.5 x ( 13.86615+106.768 ) = 60.317 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 31.5+ 1.0 x (115.999+72.236) + 1.0 x ( 79.124 +82.31 + 51.257 ) = 416.676 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Case - IV (Normal Load + Transverse Seismic + Vertical Seismic UP)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 43.55) + 0.5 x ( 138.6615 )
- 1.0 x (52.75 ) = 387.487 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33+-28.82+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 17.8555 ) + 0.5 x ( 56.851215+211.05)
+ 1.0 x (304.729 + 340.341 ) = 466.176 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 0.5 x ( 13.86615+106.768 ) + 1.0 x (378.839 +66.866 = 506.022 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 31.5+ 1.0 x (115.999+72.236) = 203.985 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) =
1.0 x (79.124+9.98) = 89.104 T

12.0 Combination of Loads and Moments at Base of Abutment


12.2 Ultimate Limit State (ULS)
(Note : Partial Safety Factors are as per Table 12, IRS Concrete Bridge Code)
Case - I ( Vertical Load Case-Considering LL & Temperature Load)
Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625 +22.557 +0 ) + 2.0 x ( 43.55) + 1.4 x ( 138.6615 )
= 679.534 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33 +-337.58925+-28.82+0 ) + 2.0 x ( 17.8555 ) + 1.4 x ( 56.851215+211.05 ) + 1.7 x (304.729 + 340.341 ) + 1.5 x 271.35)
= 1496.578 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 1.4x ( 13.86615+106.768 ) = 168.888 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
= 1.4 x ( 31.5) + 1.7 x ( 115.999 + 72.236 ) + 1.5 x40.5) = 424.850 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Case - II (Vertical Load Case-Considering Frictional Load )


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625 +22.557 +0 ) + 2.0 x ( 43.55 ) = 485.408 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33 +-337.58925+-28.82+0 ) + 2.0 x ( 17.8555 ) + 1.5 x ( 419.35 ) + 1.7 x (304.729 + 340.341 ) = 1343.516 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 0.000 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
= 1.5x ( 62.59 ) + 1.7 x ( 115.999 + 72.236 ) = 413.885 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - III (Normal Load +Longitudinal Seismic+Vertical Seismic UP)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0 ) + 1.5 x ( 43.55) + 0.5 x ( 138.6615 ) - 1.2 x 52.75
= 469.664 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33+-28.82+0 ) + 1.5 x ( 17.8555 ) + 0.5 x(56.851215+211.05 ) + 1.7 x (304.729 + 340.341
= ) 2425.17 T-m
+ 1.2 x ( 378.83845 +324.301 +266.588 )
Transverse Moment (MT) =
0.5 x ( 13.86615+106.768) = 60.317 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5x 31.5+ 1.7 x (115.999+72.236) + 1.2 x ( 79.124 +82.31 + 51.257 ) = 590.979 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Case - IV (Normal Load + Transverse Seismic + Vertical Seismic UP)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0 ) + 2.0 x ( 43.55) + 1.4 x ( 138.6615 ) = 469.664 T
- 1.2 x (52.75 )
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33+-28.82+0 ) + 1.5 x ( 17.8555 ) + 0.5 x (56.851215 + 211.05)
+ 1.7 x (304.729 + 340.341 ) = 1261.501 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 0.5 x ( 13.86615 ) + 1.20 x (378.839 +66.866) = 541.779 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 31.5+ 1.7 x (115.999+72.236) ) = 335.750 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) =
1.2 x (79.124+9.98) = 106.925 T
At the Bottom of Pile Cap
SL No. LOAD DESCRIPTION V ML MT HL HT
a Dead Load
6.1 From Super-structure 81.630 -129.792 0 0 0
6.2 SIDL 43.550 -69.245 0 0 0
6.3 From Abt. Cap, railing, pedestal, OHE 45.665 -1.330 0 0 0
6.4 From Abt. Shaft 168.795 -337.589 0 0 0
6.7 From pile cap 301.455 0.000 0 0 0
6.5 From square return 22.557 -73.931 0 0 0
9.1 Weight of backfill 125.053 -409.861 0 0 0
9.2 Due to Dead Load and LL Surcharge 0.000 0.000 0 0 0
b Live Load
7.0 When single track loaded 138.662 -220.472 13.866 0 0
c Tractive force/Braking force
8.1 When single track loaded 0 267.750 0 31.500 0
d Frictional Resistance for bearing
8.2 When single track loaded 0 532.015 0 62.590 0
e Earth Pressure
8.3.1 Due to backfill 0 578.692 0 190.987 0
8.3.2 Due to surcharge effect 0 532.300 0 92.272 0
f Temperature load + Centrifugal load
8.4.1/2 Thermal Expansion of Slab and Retainer + Centrifugal load 0 344.250 125.162 40.500 20.438
g Seismic force
10.10 Dead Load seismic 97.970 582.307 582.307 146.951 146.951
10.11 When single track loaded 6.654 0.000 84.830 0 9.980
11.10 Dynamic incr. of earth pressure 0 655.912 0 135.519 0
11.20 Dynamic incr. of surcharge earth pressure 0 418.313 0 65.474 0

13.0 Combination of Loads and Moments at Base of Pile Cap


13.1 Servicibility Limit State
Case - I (Vertical Load-Considering Live Load & Temperature)
Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+301.455+22.557+0 ) + 1.2 x ( 43.55) + 1.0 x ( 138.6615 )
+ 1.0 x ( 125.053 + 0 + 0) = 936.076 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( -129.7917 + -1.33 + -337.58925 + 0 + -73.9305675 + 0 ) + 1.2 x ( -69.2445 ) + 1.0 x ( -220.471785+267.75)
+ 1.0 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 ) + 1.0 x (-409.861 + 0+0 )+ 1 x344.25 = 466.924 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 1.0 x ( 13.86615+125.162 ) = 139.0 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
1.0 x 31.5+ 1 x 40.5+ 1.0 x (190.987+92.272) = 355.259 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Case - II ( vertical load case-Cosidering Frictional Load Case)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+301.455+22.557+0 ) + 1.2 x ( 43.55)
+ 1.0 x ( 125.053 + 0 + 0) = 797.415 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( -129.7917 + -1.33 + -337.58925 + 0 + -73.9305675 + 0 ) + 1.2x ( -69.2445 )
+ 1 x 532.015 1.0 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 ) + 1.0 x (-409.861 + 0+0 ) = 607.411 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 0.0 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
1.0 x 62.59+ 1.0 x (190.987+92.272)+1 x40.5 = 345.849 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T
Case - III (Normal Load +Longitudinal Seismic+Vertical Seismic Up )
Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0+301.455 ) + 1.2 x ( 43.55)
+ 1.0 x 138.6615+ 1.0 x ( 125.053 + 0 + 0) - 1.0 x (97.97) = 768.775 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( -129.7917 + -1.33 + -337.58925 + 0 + -73.9305675 + 0 ) + 1.2 x ( -69.2445 )+ 1.0 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 )
+ 1.0 x (-409.861 + 0+0 ) + 1.0 x (582.307 + 655.912+418.313 )
= 1755.567 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
=0.5 x ( 13.86615+125.162 ) = 69.514 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 31.5+ 1.0 x (190.987+92.272) + 1.0 x (146.951) = 646.953 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Case - IV (Normal Load + Transverse Seismic + Vertical Seismic Up )


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0+301.455 ) + 1.2 x ( 43.55)
+ 1.0 x 138.6615+ 1.0 x ( 125.053 + 0 + 0) - 1.0 x (97.97) = 768.775 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( -129.7917 + -337.58925 + 0 + -1.33 + -73.9305675 + 0 ) + 1.2 x ( -69.2445 )
+ 1.0 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 ) + 1.0 x (-409.861 + 0+0 )+0.5 x (-220.471785 + 267.75) ) = 99.035 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =


= 0.5 x ( 13.86615+125.162 ) + 1.0 x (582.307 +84.83) ) = 736.651 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 31.5+ 1.0 x (190.987+92.272) = 299.009 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 1.0 x ( 146.951+9.98 ) = 156.931 T

13.2 Load Combination for Ultimate Limit State


Case - I (Vertical Load-Considering Live Load & Temperature)
Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0+301.455+125.053 ) + 2.0 x ( 43.55) + 1.4 x ( 138.6615 )
= 1212.669 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( -129.7917 + -337.58925 + -1.33 + 0 + -73.9305675 + 0+-409.861 ) + 2.0 x ( -69.2445 ) + 1.4x ( -220.471785+267.75)
+1.5x(344.25)+ 1.7 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 ) = 1142.134 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 1.4 x ( 13.86615+125.162 ) = 48.0 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
1.4 x 31.5+ 1.7 x (190.987+92.272) + 1.5 x 40.5 = 586.390 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Case - II ( vertical load case-Cosidering Frictional Load Case)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0+301.455 +125.053) + 2.0 x ( 43.55)
= 1018.543 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( -129.7917 + -337.58925 + -1.33 + 0 + -73.9305675 + 0 ) + 2.0 x ( -69.2445 ) )+1.5x(532.015)
+ 1.7 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 ) = 1357.592 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 0.0 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
1.5x 0+ 1.7 x (190.987+92.272) = 575.425 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - III (Normal Load +Longitudinal Seismic+Vertical Seismic )


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+301.455+22.557+0+125.053 ) + 1.5 x ( 43.55) +0.5X(138.6615)
- 1.2 x (97.97 ) = 948.535 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( -129.7917 + -1.33 + -337.58925 + 0 + -73.9305675 + -409.861 ) + 2.0 x ( -69.2445 )
+ 1.7 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 ) + 1.2 x (582.307 + 655.912+418.313 ) = 2605.669 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
=0.5 x(13.86615+125.162) = 69.514 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 31.5+ 1.7 x (190.987+92.272) + 1.2 x (146.951+135.519+65.474) = 914.823 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - IV (Normal Load + Transverse Seismic - Vertical Seismic )


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+301.455+22.557+0+125.053 ) + 1.5 x ( 43.55)
+ 0.5 x 138.6615 - 1.2 x (97.97) = 948.535 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( -129.7917 + -1.33 + -337.58925 + 0 + -73.9305675 + 0+-409.861 ) + 1.5 x ( -69.2445 )
0.5 x ( -220.471785+267.75) + 1.7 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 )
= 617.831 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 0.5 x ( 13.86615+125.162 ) + 1.2 x (582.307 +84.83) = 870.078 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 31.5+ 1.7 x (190.987+92.272) = 497.290 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 1.2 x ( 146.951+9.98 ) = 188.317 T

14 Summary of Forces
14.1 at Base of Abutment
Serviceability Limit State (SLS) Ultimate Limit State (ULS)
all Loads are in ton all Loads are in ton
Case - I Case - II Case - III Case - IV Case - I Case - II Case - III Case - IV
V 509.57 370.907 387.49 387.49 V 679.53 485.408 469.66 469.66
ML 871.48 751.57565 1435.90 466.18 ML 1496.58 1343.516 2425.17 1261.50
MT 120.63 0.000 60.32 506.02 MT 168.89 0.000 60.32 541.78
HL 260.24 250.825 416.68 203.99 HL 424.85 413.885 590.98 335.75
HT 20.44 0 20.44 89.10 HT 20.44 0 20.44 106.92

14.2 at Base of Pile cap


Servicibility Limit State (SLS)
all Loads are in ton
Case - I Case - II Case - III Case - IV
V (T) 936.08 797.415 768.78 768.78
ML (T-m) 466.92 607.411 1755.57 99.04
MT (T-m) 139.03 0.0 69.51 736.65
HL (T) 355.26 345.849 646.95 299.01
HT (T) 20.44 0 20.44 156.93

Ultimate Limit State (ULS)


all Loads are in ton
Case - I Case - II Case - III Case - IV
V (T) 1212.67 1018.543 948.54 948.54
ML (T-m) 1142.13 1357.592 2605.67 617.83
MT (T-m) 48.03 0.0 69.51 870.08
HL (T) 586.39 575.425 914.82 497.29
HT (T) 20.44 0 0.00 188.32

15 Design of Abutment Shaft


the Abutment section is checked for Ultimate Limit State

Charateristics compressive stress for concrete (fck) = 35 mPa


Charateristics Tensile stress for concrete (fy) = 500 Mpa

1.410 m

7.850 m
Section area of Abutment = Ac = (1.41 x7.85) = 11.069 m2
Therefore, allowable axial compressive load = ( 0.1 x35 x11.0685 ) x 100 = 3873.975 T
Maximum axial compressive load (Pmax) = 680 T
Hence OK

Abutment wall can be treated as cantilever slab where the ultimate Axial load is less than 0.1 fck Ac. And shall be designed
in accordance with cl: 15.4.2.1.2 of IRS:Concrete Bridge Code.

Maximum Ultimate longitudinal Moment = ML = 2425.174 T-m


Maximum Ultimate Transverse Moment = MT = 541.8 T-m
Resultant Moment = MR = sqrt (2425.174^2 +541.779^2 ) = 2484.953 T-m

Design Moment per unit width = 2484.953 /7.85 = 316.55 T-m/m

Overall depth = 1410 mm


Clear cover = 75 mm
Dia. of main Bar (vertical) = 25
Dia. of Distribution Bar (horizontal) = 16
Effective cover 75+16+25 / 2 = = 116 mm
Effective depth = 1294 mm
Spacing of main bar = 125 mm
2
Area of tensile steel provided on each face (per m width) Ast = 7854 mm

here, fy = 500 mPa


fck = 35 mPa

z = ( 1 - 1.1 x500 x 7853.982 / (35 x 1000 x1294 ) d


0.9 d< 0.95 d (As per Cl No.15.4.2.2.1)
= 1164.60 mm
From IRS ,CBC 15.4.2.2.1
Mu = 0.15 fck b d2
So,
Mu
dreqd = Sqrt =776.51mm
0.15 x fck x b

dprovided = 1294 mm Hence ok

Check for reinforcement

Mu = 0.87 fy As z (Z= 1164.600 mm)


So,
Mu (As per Cl No.15.4.2.2.1 of IRS CBC)
Astrequired = = 6248.60 Sqmm
0.87xfyx Z

Ast provided = 7854 Sqmm Hence ok

Ref. cl: 15.9.4.2 of IRS Concrete Bridge Code.

minimum reinforcement % in a wall section = Ast min = 0.2% of bd = 2588 mm2/m

Provide 25 mm dia @ 125 mm spacing c/c in Layer I . Total area = 3927 mm2
Provide 25 mm dia @ 125 mm spacing c/c in Layer II Total area = 3927 mm2

Total area of Longitudinal steel provided = 7854 mm2


Hence OK
Secondary Reinforcement:

Minimum secondary reinforcement = 0.12 % of bd = 1552.8 mm2

Provide 16 mm dia @ 125 mm spacing c/c as transverse reinf. Total area= 1608 mm2

Side face reinforcement Hence OK


Min side face reinforcement required = 0.05 % bt d = 5078.95 Sqmm (Each face)
Provide 25 mm dia bar 11 Nos bar on each face. (As per Cl No.15.9.4.2 of
So, (Ast)Provided = 5399.61237 Sqmm > (Ast)Required IRS CBC)
Hence Ok
16 CHECK FOR SHEAR

Maximum ultimate longitudinal force = HL = 590.979 T


Corresponding ultimate transverse force = HT = 20.437632 T
Resultant force = 591.33 T

So, ultimate shear force per unit width, vu = 75.33 T/m


as per cl: 15.4.3 of IRS concrete bridge code,
Direct shear stress (v) = 0.582 N/mm2

maximum shear stress = ζmax = 4.437 N/mm2

Hence OK

As per table: 15 of IRS concrete bridge code,

100 As/bd = 0.607 %

Ultimate shear stress in concrete (ζc) = 0.60 N/mm2


As per table 16 of IRS concrete bridge code,
Depth factor (s) = 0.788
as per cl no: 15.5.4.1.1, S x ζc = 0.471 N/mm2

As per table: 14 of IRS: Concerte Bridge Design


Aera of Lateral Shear Reinforcement to be provided is as follows:

For, v< = S x ζc, Asv>= 0.4 x b x sv /0.87 fyv here, fyv should not be more than
For, v > S x ζc, Asv>= b x sv x ( v + 0.4 - S x ζc)/0.87 x fyv 500 N/mm2

so, here, v > S x ζc

No. of Legs of Shear Reinforcement in per m width of Abutment = = 4


Dia. Of shear Reinforcement = 12 mm
Spacing of Shear reinforcement in vertical direction = sv = 200 mm

Asv_provided = = 452.4 mm2


Asv_required = = 234.8 mm2
Hence Ok
Stress Level Check (Longitudinal Direction)_Non Sismic
e1

1294mm 1049.966 0.4 Fck


dc
Abutment Shaft Strain Stress

M= 111.016 t-m/m
So,
0.4x Fck x dc x b =0.87 xFy x Ast provided
dc = 244.034 mm
M= σ x Ast x (d-0.5xdc)
σsteel = 120.608 Mpa < allowable stress = (375 Mpa)
Hence ok
Total force = 947.25 kN/m

Stress in concrete = 3.882 Mpa < allowable stress = (14 Mpa)


Hence oK

Stress Level Check (Longitudinal Direction)_ Sismic

M= 182.918 t-m/m
So, 0.4x Fck x dc x b =0.87 xFy x Ast provided

dc = 244.034 mm

M= σ x Ast x (d-0.5xdc)
σsteel = 198.721 Mpa < allowable stress = (562.5 Mpa)
Hence ok
Total force = 1560.75 kN/m

Stress in concrete = 6.396 Mpa < allowable stress = (21 Mpa)


Hence oK
Crack Width Check

According to 15.9.8.2.1 -IRS-CBC


Mg 407.66 t-m
Strain at reinforcement level = εs = 0.000603 Mq 267.901 t-m
Where
So, ε1 = 0.00067 εs = Starin in tension reinforcement
ε1 = Strain at level of cracking
3.8*bt*h(a'-dc) Moment at section due to
εm = ε1 - 1-Mq/Mg *10^-9 Mg =
εsAs(h-dc) Permanent Loads
Mq = Moment at section due to LL
= 0.00028 But not greater than ε1

Design crack width = 3acrεm


= 0.078mm
1+2(acr-cnom)/(h-dc)

Design for Crack Width


allowable crack width = 0.1 mm(Table 10 ,CBC)

hence ok
Design of Pile Foundation

Pile Cap Bottom Level = 37.853 m


Diameter of Pile (D) = 1.200 m
Grade of Concrete (fck) = 35 Mpa
Grade of Steel ( fy ) = 500 Mpa

Modulus of Elasticity of Pile Material (E) = 5000*SQRT ( fck )


= 29580.399 Mpa
= 29580399 2
kN / m
Moment of Inertia of Pile Section ( I ) π /64 x 1.2^4 4
= m
= 0.101788 m4
= 10178800 cm4

PILE REACTION FOR A RECTANGULAR PILE CAP AND CHECK FOR PILE CAPACITY

[A] Salient Dimensions

a) Length of Pile Cap along Longitudinal Direction = 7.70 m


b) Length of Pile Cap along Transverse Direction = 8.70 m
c) Thickness of Pile Cap = 1.800 m
d) Diameter of Pile = 1.200 m
e) Total No. of Piles in the Pile Cap = 9 nos

[B] Salient Levels


a) Top of Pile Cap = 39.653 m
c) Bottom of Pile Cap = 37.853 m

[C] Other Salient Design Data


a) Total Length of Pile (from below Pile Cap) = 29.00 m
b) RL at Depth of Fixity Level = 29.563 m
c) Unit weight of Concrete = 2.5 T/m3

7 4 1

2
[D] Co-ordinate of Piles

Longitudinal Transverse C
Pile No Co-Ordinate o-Ordinate n xi2 yi2
xi (m) yi (m)
P1 3.100 3.600 1 9.610 12.960
P2 3.100 0.0 1 9.610 0.000
P3 3.100 -3.600 1 9.610 12.960
P4 0.000 3.600 1 0.000 12.960
P5 0.000 0.0 1 0.000 0.000
P6 0.000 -3.600 1 0.000 12.960
P7 -3.100 3.600 1 9.610 12.960
P8 -3.100 0.000 1 9.610 0.000
P9 -3.100 -3.600 1 9.610 12.960
Total ∑ 9 57.66 77.76

Y
7 4 1

3.600

2
8 5 2
8.700 6
11
X
3.600 3.100
7

9 6 3

7.70

TRAFFIC DIRECTION (LONGITUDINAL)


PLAN OF PILE CAP
[E] Summary of Loads and Moments at Center Line of Pile Cap Base
WORKING LOAD CONDITION
Case - I (Vertical Load-Considering Live Load & Temperature)

Vertical Load (V) = 927.37 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) = 480.77 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) = 13.87 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) = 355.26 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = 0.00 T

Case - II ( vertical load case-Cosidering Frictional Load Case)

Vertical Load (V) = 788.70 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) = 958.85 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) = 0.00 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) = 345.85 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = 0.00 T

Case - III (Normal Load +Longitudinal Seismic+Vertical Seismic)

Vertical Load (V) = 1031.99 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) = 1659.18 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) = 13.87 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) = 646.95 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = 0.00 T

Case - IV (Normal Load + Transverse Seismic+ Vertical Seismic)

Vertical Load (V) = 1031.99 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) = 340.24 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) = 681.00 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) = 299.01 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = 156.93 T


Load/Case Case I Case II Case III Case IV
V (T) 927.37 788.70 1031.99 1031.99
ML (T - m) 480.77 958.85 1659.18 340.24
MT (T - m) 13.87 0.00 13.87 681.00
HL (T) 355.26 345.85 646.95 299.01
HT (T) 0.00 0.00 0.00 156.93

ULTIMATE LOAD CONDITION

Load/Case Case I Case II Case III Case IV


V (T) 1212.67 1018.543 948.54 948.54
ML (T - m) 1142.13 1357.592 2605.67 617.83
MT (T - m) 48.03 0.000 69.51 870.08
HL (T) 586.39 575.425 914.82 497.29
HT (T) 20.44 0.000 0.00 188.32

[F] Pile Reaction

ZL = 18.60 m3
ZT = 21.60 m3

For P1 = P/N+ML/ZL+MT/ZT
P2 = P/N+ML/ZL
P3 = P/N+ML/ZL-MT/ZT
P4 = P/N+MT/ZT
P5 = P/N
P6 = P/N-MT/ZT
P7 = P/N-ML/ZL+MT/ZT
P8 = P/N-ML/ZL
P9 = P/N-ML/ZL-MT/ZT

Horizontal Load on Single Pile HR = (SQRT (HL^2 + HT^2 ))/ ∑n


WORKING LOAD CONDITION
Pile Load Case
Reaction Case I Case II Case III Case IV
P1 129.53 139.19 204.51 164.49
P2 128.89 139.19 203.87 132.96
P3 128.25 139.19 203.23 101.43
P4 103.68 87.63 115.31 146.19
P5 103.04 87.63 114.67 114.67
P6 102.40 87.63 114.02 83.14
P7 77.84 36.08 26.10 127.90
P8 77.19 36.08 25.46 96.37
P9 76.55 36.08 24.82 64.85
Max Value 178.73 188.38 202.97 170.95 Adding Self Weight of Pile
Min Value 125.75 85.28 74.02 114.04
HR (T) 39.47 38.43 57.51 30.02

Maximum design pile Capacity on Pile = 202.97 T


Maximum horizontal pile capacity = 39.47 T

Recommended Pile Capacity = 209 T


Recommended Horizontal Pile Capacity = 40 T

Length of Pile above Scour Level,1 L 0.000 m


Depth of Fixity 8.290 m
RL at Depth of Fixity 29.563 m

Keep Founding Level at 8.853 m

ULTIMATE LOAD CONDITION


Pile Reaction Load Cases
(T)
Case I Case II Case III Case IV

P1 198.37 186.16 248.70 178.89


P2 196.15 186.16 245.48 138.61
P3 193.92 186.16 242.26 98.33
P4 136.96 113.17 108.61 145.67
P5 134.74 113.17 105.39 105.39
P6 132.52 113.17 102.18 65.11
P7 75.559 40.183 -31.479 112.457
P8 73.336 40.183 -34.697 72.176
P9 71.113 40.183 -37.915 112.457
Max Value 247.57 235.36 297.90 228.09 Adding self weight of Pile
Min Value 120.31 89.38 11.28 114.31
HR (T) 65.194 63.936 101.647 59.084

Pmax = 297.90 T
Corresponding Horizontal load = = 101.647 T
Pmin = 11.28 T
Corresponding Horizontal load = = 101.647 T

DESIGN OF RCC PILE


The Pile is designed as per the "Charts for the Design of Circular columns" to SP:16.
(A) Material Property
Grade of Concrete ( fck ) = 35 mPa
Grade of Reinforcement ( fy ) = 500 mPa

(B)Section Property
Diameter of Pile Section (D) = 1200 mm
Clear cover = 75 mm
Diameter of Outer Links = 12 mm
Diameter of main vertical R/F outer layer = 25 mm
After multiplication of reduction factor with fixed head pile and free head pile , semi fix head
pile capacity moment is calculated
Moment per tonne Horizontal load = 3.36 t-m/m
Effective Cover (d') = (75 + 12 + 25 / 2) = 99.5 mm
d'/D = 99.5 / 1200 = 0.083 mm

(C) Critical Load Case 1 (Minimum load case)


Axial Load Pu(minimum load) = 11.28 T
Moment Mu = 101.647 x 3.36 = 341.53 T-m
Pu /fck D2 = 0.002
Mu / fck D3 = 0.06

From Chart- 60 of SP: 16 - 1980, which corresponds to Fe - 500 grade of Reinforcement


p/fck = 0.04
p = 1.4 %
Therefore; Asc = ( π / 4 x 1200^2x1.4%) = 15833.627 mm2
(D) Critical Load Case 2 (Maximum load case)
Axial Load Pu = 297.90 T
Moment Mu = 101.647 x 3.36 = 341.53 T-m
Pu /fck D2 = 0.06
Mu / fck D3 = 0.06

From Chart- 60 of SP: 16 - 1980, which corresponds to Fe - 500 grade of Reinforcement


p/fck = 0.03
p = 1.05 %
Therefore; Asc = ( π / 4 x 1200^2x1.05%) = 11875.220 mm2
(E) Reinforcement Computation
[Refer Cl: 5.11.1 of IS: 2911 Part 1 Sec 2 ]
Minimum % of Reinforcement in a Circular Section = 0.40 %
( π / 4 x 1200^2x0.4%) = 4523.9 mm2
Design Reinforcement = 15833.6 mm2

Let us provide
In Layer - I 18 nos. 25 mm diameter bars as main R/F in outer layer
In Layer - II 18 nos. 25 mm diameter bars as main R/F in outer layer
Provide T- 12 @ 150 mm c/c as Lateral Ties

(F) Check for Reinforcement Percentage


Gross Concrete Area Ac = 1.131 m2
Total Reinforcement Area As = 0.018 m2

Reqd. R/F Actual R/F Remarks


(%) (%)
1.40 1.59 OK
Serviceabilty Check of Abutment
M 132.63 Ton-m Grade of Concrete M35
P 125.75 Ton Grade of Steel Fe500
m 8.00
D 120 cm
Case: Seismic
Main bar dia= 25 mm
Distributor bar dia= 12 mm
Clea Cover= 75 mm
Allowable Stresses:
Charecteristic Compressive strength,f ck= 35 Mpa
Direct Compressive Stress ,σco= 10.5 Mpa (Table-23 IRS CBC:1997)
Flexural compressive Stress 14 Mpa (Table-23 IRS CBC:1997)
Modulus of Elasticity of concrete,e= 29580 Mpa

Deff 100.1 cm
Perimeter 314.473 cm
Provide 25 mm @ 174.707 mm c/c.
No.= 18 in layers 2
Ast= 176.625 sq.cm 1.56 % OK
Assume NA at a depth of 43.3 cm from extreme compression fibre.
x/D= 0.3605
A= 0.57
B= 0.26
C= 0.04
Distance of CG of effective segment from the centre of circle = 34.17 cm
Effective area of segment = 3751.2 sq.cm
Effective moment of inertia of segment about its own centroid = 455220 cm4
Transfomed are due to area of steel = 1236.38 sq.cm
Effective total area = 4987.58 sq.cm
Distance of CGeff of effective segment from the physical centroid of whole section is =
e' = 25.700 cm
e-e' = 79.773 cm
Ieff = 3167826 cm4
Distance of NA below Cgeff = 7.962 cm
compared to 8.960 cm Hence OK

Compressive stress in concrete= 25.212 + 108.616


= 133.828 Kg/sqcm 13.38 Mpa <17.5 Hence Ok
Tensile stress in steel= 1285.33 Kg/sqcm 128.53 Mpa
<375 Hence Ok
Design of Ductile Detailing
Appendix-'C Ductile Detailing Specifications
Clause-15.0

Concrete Grade , used in Abutment Shaft is M 35


This is greater than M25
Cl-2.1 Seismic Code Nov-2015
Hence Ok
Steel used in Abutment Fe 500 D with 14.5% elongation is required.
Cl-2.1 Seismic Code Nov-2015

Reinforcement provided at Abutment shaft 0.607


Hence Ok
Cl-6.3 Special Confining Reinforcement Shall extend a length of l0
Confining R/F shall extend a length of Lo

a) 1.5 times the column diameter i.e. 1.5 x d = 1.5 x 1.2 = 1.8 m
Max of ( Total length of confinement reinforcement = 1.5 x d
b) 600 mm
1.8 m

Hence , l0 = 1.8 m
Spacing of the bar =
a) 1/5 x 1200 = 240 mm
Min of( b)
c)
6 x bar dia 192
150
mm
mm
Provided, Sv = 100 mm

1.22 x 35
Asv = 0.09 x 100 x ( 1200-75 x 2 ) ( -1)
(1200-75-75)2 500

= 202.5 mm 2

Provided 16 mm dia 100 mm c/c


Hence Ok

Cl-6.4 Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement:


The Spacing of hoops used as special confining reinforcement shall not exceed.
(i) 1/5 times the least lateral dimensions of the cross section of column = 240 mm
Min of (ii) 6 times the diameter of the longitudinal bar = 192 mm
(iii) 150mm
Now provided 2L 12 mm dia 150 mm c/c spacing
Hence Ok