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Abutment & Foundation Design_Br. No.-354 on N F Railway

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ABUTMENT NO. A1

SPAN ARRANGEMENT:- 3 x 12.2 m

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The system consists of a solid rectangular abutment with monolithic dirt wall, square return wall and solid

abutment cap. The top dimensions of the abutment cap are fixed so as to fit in the details of PSC Slab

superstucture.

2.0 REFERENCE

For the design of the abutment and its different components generally the provisions of IRS(Indian Railway

Standards) Codes have been followed. Followings are the main references.

ii. IRS Concrete Bridge Codes-1997 vi. IS:14593-1998

iii. IRS Substructure codes. vii. IRC:78

iv.Seismic Guideline of RDSO-(Nov-2015)

3.0 DESIGN PARAMETERS

Proposed Rail Level RL 48.271 m

Proposed Rail Formation Level RL 47.533 m

Structural Depth of PSC Slab at center 1.100 m

Bottom of Girder Level RL 46.353 m

Top of Bed Block Level RL 46.353 m

Top of Abutment Level RL 45.753 m

Ground Level RL 40.423 m

Top of Pile Cap Level RL 39.653 m

Bottom of Pile Cap Level RL 37.853 m

Seismic Zone = V

Z = 0.36 Z/2R = 0.06

Importance Factor (I) = 1.5 Sa/g = 2.5

R = 3

The Abutment is supporting PSC Slab Super-structure of Effective Span 12.2 m. The Details of Span is gives as under

4.1 Span 1

Overall span = 13.38 m

Span between c/c of Expansion Joints = 13.40 m

5.0 SKETCHES

46.353 m

-2 m

1.41 m

GL 40.423 m

T.O.Pc 39.653 m

37.853 m 1.8 m

1.145 m

7.7 m

ELEVATION

e= -2.000

C/L of Abutment C/L of Pile Cap

0.5 m

7.85 m 8.7 m

1.145 m

1.41 m

PLAN

+ -

6.0 DEAD LOAD CALCULATION

Anticlockwise Moments are taken as positive -

+

6.1 Dead Load from Superstructure PSC Slab (Refer Drawing No. RDSO/B-10271-Alt-1)

Load for DL = 163.26 T

Weight of superstructure (Span) = 163.26 T

Reaction on Abutment = 81.63 T

Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Abutment, eL1 = 0.410 m

Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Pile cap, eL2 -2 + 0.41 = -1.590 m

Longitudinal Moment due to DL about C/L of Abutment = 81.63 x 0.41 = 33.468 T-m

Longitudinal Moment due to DL about C/L of Pile cap = 81.63 x -1.59 = -129.792 T-m

The Superstructure is symmetric about Centre Line of Soffit; therefore there is no Transverse Eccentricty

Transverse Eccentricity of Reaction, eT = 0m

Transverse Moment due to DL = 81.63 x 0 = 0 T-m

Total Load for SIDL (considering SIDL @ 6.5 T/m) = 87.10 T

SIDL Reaction = 43.55 T

Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Abutment, eL1 = 0.410 m

Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Pile cap, eL2 = -1.590 m

Longitudinal Moment due to SIDL about C/L of Abutment = 43.55 x 0.41 = 17.856 T-m

Longitudinal Moment due to SIDL about C/L of Pile cap = 43.55 x -1.59 = -69.245 T-m

The Superstructure is symmetric about Centre Line of Soffit; therefore there is no Transverse Eccentricty

Transverse Eccentricity of Reaction, eT = 0m

Transverse Moment due to SIDL = 43.55 x 0 = 0 T-m

Length of bed block = 7.850 m

Width of bed block = 1.410 m

Depth of bed block = 0.600 m

1.18 m

1.41 m 0.6 m

C/L of bearing

C/L of abutment

0.41

1.41 m

Dead Load = 1.18 x 0.8 x 7.85 x 2.5 = 18.526 T

Eccentricity w.r.t. Abutment CG = - ( 1.41 - 0.8 ) / 2 = -0.305 m

Eccentricity w.r.t. Pile Cap CG = ( 1.145 - 3.85 ) +0.4 = -2.305 m

Dead Load = 1.41 x 0.6 x 7.85 x 2.5 = 16.603 T

Eccentricity w.r.t. Abutment CG = 0m

Eccentricity w.r.t. Pile Cap CG = ( 1.145 - 3.85 ) +0.705 = -2.000 m

[c] Dead Load of Raised Portion of Seismic Restrainer Block

s/w of seismic restrainer block = 2 x 1.6 x 1.525 x 0.80 x 2.5 = = 9.76 T

0.33 x 0.5875 x 0.80 x 2 x 2.5 = 0.776 T

Total = 10.536 T

Eccentricity w.r.t. Abutment CG 0.410 m

Eccentricity w.r.t. Pile Cap CG -1.590 m

Total Dead Load from Abutment Cap, dirt wall and seismic restrainer blocks

= 18.526 + 16.603 + 10.536 = 45.665 T

Total Longitudinal Moment about CL of Abutment due to above Dead Load

= 18.526 x -0.305 + 16.603 x 0+10.536x0.41 = -1.330 T-m

Total Longitudinal Moment about CL of Pile Cap due to above Dead Load

= 18.526 x -2.305 + 16.603 x -2+10.536x-1.59 = -92.660 T-m

6.4 Dead Load of Abutment Shaft

The Abutment has Rectangular Section.

1.41 m

TRAFFIC DIRECTION

7.85 m

Sectional area of Abutment Shaft = 7.85 x 1.41 = 11.069 m2

Volume of Abutment Shaft = 6.1 x 11.0685 = 67.518 m3

Dead Load of Abutment Shaft = 67.51785 x 2.5 = 168.795 T

Longitudinal Eccentricity w.r.t. C/L of Pile Cap, eL = -2.000 m

Longitudinal Moment about C/L of Pile Cap = 168.794625 x -2 = -337.5893 T-m

Length of Square Return = 1.145 m

Average width of Square Return = 0.5 m

Height of Square Return = 47.533 - 39.653 = 7.88 m

Weight of Two Square Returns = 2 x 1.145 x 0.5 x 7.88 x 2.5 = 22.56 T

Longitudinal Eccentricity w.r.t. C/L of Abutment

= - [ ( 1.145 + 1.41 ) / 2.0 ] = -1.278 m

Longitudinal Moment about C/L of Abutment = 22.557 x ( -1.2775 ) = -28.820 T-m

Longitudinal Eccentricity w.r.t. C/L of Pile Cap

= -{(7.7/2-1.145/2)} = -3.278 m

Longitudinal Moment about C/L of Pile Cap = 22.557 x (-3.2775) = -73.931 T-m

Length of Pile Cap (perpendicular to track) = 8.7 m

Width of Pile Cap (parallel to track) = 7.70 m

Depth of Pile Cap = 1.8 m

7.7 m

8.7 m

Traffic Direction

Weight of Pile Cap = 8.7 x 7.7 x 1.8 x 2.50 = 301.455 T

Standard of Loading 25t Loading-2008

(Note : Please Refer Appendix XXIII of IRS:Bridge Rules)

Loaded Length (Overall length) = 13.380 m

Total EUDL Load (Shear) for 13.38 m span ( for single track loaded) = 177.430 T

Here total 1 Nos. tracks are placed on single sub-structure

Total EUDL Load (Shear) for 13.38 m span ( when 1 track loaded, concentrically ) = 177.430 T

Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Pile Cap, eL2 = -1.590 m

Transverse Eccentricity w.r.t. C/L of Abutment, eT = 0.100 m

(Note : Please Refer Cl: 2.5.1 of IRS:Bridge Rule for Transverse Eccentricity )

(Note : Please refer clause 2.4.1.1 (a) of IRS:Bridge Rule)

CDA = 0.15 + [ 8 / (6 + L)] Subject to Maximum of 1.0

Therefore, CDA = 0.15 + [ 8 / ( 6 + 13.38 ) ] = 0.563

Augmented load calculation

[a] When single track at edge loaded

Total Live Load (Shear) = 177.43 x (1 + 0.563 ) = 277.323 T

Live Load Reaction on Abutment = 277.323 / 2.0 = 138.662 T

Longitudinal Moment due to LL on Abutment, ML = 138.6615 x 0.41 = 56.851 T-m

Transverse Moment due to LL on Abutment, MT = 138.6615 x 0.1 = 13.866 T-m

Therefore, CDA for Foundation = 0.563

Augmented load calculation

[a] When single track at edge loaded

Total Live Load (Shear) excluding CDA = 177.43 x (1 + 0.563 ) = 277.323 T

Live Load Reaction on Abutment = 277.323 / 2.0 = 138.662 T

Longitudinal Moment due to LL on Pile Cap, ML = 138.6615 x -1.59 = -220.472 T-m

Transverse Moment due to LL on Pile Cap, MT = 138.6615 x 0.1 = 13.866 T-m

8.0 HORIZONTAL LOAD CALCULATION

8.1 TRACTIVE EFFORT / BRAKING FORCE

(Please Refer Appendix XXIV of IRS Bridge Rules )

Loaded Length (Edge to Edge of Superstructure) = 13.380 m

Tractive Force for 13.38 m Loaded Span = 63.000 T

Braking Force for 13.38 m Loaded Span = 37.5 T

Governing Longitudinal Force = max ( 63 , 37.5 ) = 63.000 T

Dispersion of Longitudinal Force = 0.00 %

(Note : Refer Clause 2.8.3.4, IRS : Bridge Rules)

Net Longitudinal Force = 63 x ( 1.0 - 0 / 100 ) = 63 T

Type of bearing = Bitumen layer

Percent Force Transferred to Abutment = 50.00 %

Tractive force for Type A Live Load = 31.5 T

Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 - 39.653 = 6.700 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Pile Cap = 46.353 - 37.853 = 8.500 m

Moment Calculation

[a] When single track at edge loaded (Type A)

Moment about Base of Abutment = 31.5 x 6.7 = 211.050 T-m

Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 31.5 x 8.5 = 267.750 T-m

(Please Refer Cl:5.6.2 of IRS:Bridge & Substructure Code & Cl:2.7 of IRS:Bridge Rule)

For Type A loading

Total Frictional Force = 0.5 x ( 81.63 + 43.55 ) = 62.590 T

Frictional Force = 62.590 T

Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 62.59 x 8.5 = 532.02 T-m

8.3.1 ACTIVE EARTH PRTESSURE DUE TO BACKFILL

(Note : Please Refer CL. 5.7.1 Of IRS : Substructure & Foundation Code.)

φ = 30 ° = 0.524 radians

i = 0 ° = 0.000 radians

δ = 10.00 ° = 0.175 radians

α = 0 ° = 0.000 radians

γ = 1.8 T per cum

2 2 2

Ka =

Ka = 0.308

KaH= = 0.303

7.88 m

9.68

TOP OF PILE CAP

1.8 37.853 m 5.279 T/m2

BOTTOM OF PILE CAP

At base of Abutment Wall

Earth Pressure at Abutment Base = KaHγH

2

= 0.303 x 1.8 x 7.88 = 4.298 T/m

Total Force at Abutment Base = 0.5 x 4.298 x 7.88 x 6.85 = 115.999 T

Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 7.88 / 3.0 = 2.627 m

Moment about Base of Abutment Wall = 115.999 x 2.627 = 304.729 T-m

Earth Pressure at base of Pile Cap = 0.303 x 1.8 x 9.68 = 5.279 T/m2

Force on Pile Cap only = 0.50 x ( 4.298 + 5.279 ) x 1.8 x 8.7 = 74.988 T

Lever Arm w.r.t. Pile Cap Base = ( 1.8 / 3 ) x [ ( 2 x 4.298 + 5.279) / ( 4.298 + 5.279 ) ]

= 0.869 m

Total Force at bottom of Pile Cap = 115.999 + 74.988 = 190.987 T

Total Moment at bottom of Pile Cap = 115.999 x ( 2.627 + 1.8 ) + 74.988 x 0.869

= 578.692 T-m

(Note : Please Refer CL. 5.8.2 Of IRS : Substructure & Foundation Code.)

Live Load Surchage = S = 13.7 T/m

Surcharge Width at Formation Level = B = 3.0 m

Length of Abutment = L = 7.85 m

Height of Abutment = h = 7.880 m

Thickness of Pile Cap = D = 1.800 m

Total height with Pile Cap = H = 9.68 m

Length of Pile Cap = Lp = 8.7 m

L-B= 7.85 - 3 = 4.850 m

Therefore, H > (L - B), Case-2 is applicable

calculation required for Case - 2

Case - 2 a b 2.040 c

P1&P1'

Height of abutment = 7.880 m

4.85 m

Bottom of Abutment

1.8 m P2

f e

0.780

= 2.040 T/m2

Pressure at Bottom = [ (S + V ) / L ] Ka = [ ( 13.7 + 6.5 ) / 7.85 ] x 0.303

= 0.780 T/m2

Surcharge Pressure at Bottom of Abutment = 0.780 T/m2

Calculation for Bottom of Pile Cap :

P1 = 4.85 x (2.04+0.78) / 2 = 6.839 T/m

acting at 9.68-((4.85/3)x(2x0.78+2.04)/(0.78+2.04)) = 7.616 m

P2 = 0.78x(3.03+1.8) = 3.767 T/m

acting at (1.8+3.03)/2 = 2.415 m

Calculation for bottom of Abutment :

P1' = 4.85 x (2.04+0.78) / 2 = 6.839 T/m

acting at 7.88-((4.85/3)x(2x0.78+2.04)/(0.78+2.04)) = 5.816 m

P2' = 0.78x3.03 = 2.363 T/m

acting at 3.03/2 = 1.515 m

Horizontal Force at Base of Abutment Wall = (6.839+2.363) x 7.85 = 72.236 T/m

Moment about Base of Abutment Wall = (6.839 x 5.816 + 2.363 x 1.515) x 7.85 = 340.341 T-m

Horizontal force on Pile Cap = (6.839+3.767) x 8.7 = 92.272 T/m

Total Moment about Base of Pile Cap (6.839 x 7.616 + 3.767 x 2.415) x 8.7 = 532.300 T-m

(Please Refer Cl:2.5.3(b) of IRS:Bridge Rule)

W= = 13.261 T/m

V= = 160 KmPh

R= = 875 m

C1= = 3.05 T/m

Degree of curve( º)= 2 º

Span Length= = 13.38 m

Total force act on abutment= = 20.438 T

Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Pier = 1.83+48.271-39.653 = 10.448 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Foundation = 1.83+48.271-37.853 = 12.248 m

[a] When single track, single span loaded (Type A)

Moment about Base of abutment 10.219 x 10.448 = 106.768 T-m

Moment about Bottom of Foundation 10.219 x 12.248 = 125.162 T-m

8.4.2.1 Thermal Expansion/Contraction of Slab

Horizontal load due to thermal expan/contraction of slab (B-10271) = 15.86*4/2 = 31.72 T

Total moment at base of abutment=31.72x(0.6+(45.753-39.653)) = = 212.524 T-m

Total moment at base of pile cap=31.72x(0.6+(45.753-39.653)+1.8) = = 269.62 T-m

8.4.2.2 Thermal Expansion/Contraction of Retainer

Horizontal load due to thermal expan/contraction of slab = 8.78*2/2 = 8.78 T

Total moment at base of abutment=8.78x(0.6+(45.753-39.653)) = = 58.826 T-m

Total moment at base of pile cap=8.78x(0.6+(45.753-39.653)+1.8) = = 74.63 T-m

9.1 VERTICAL LOAD DUE TO BACKFILL ON PILE CAP

Height of back fill behind abutment wall = 7.880 m

Avg. height of back fill beyond Return Wall in Trans. Direction = 7.880 m

Eff. width of outer cantilever Pile Cap loaded with Earthfill = 0.425 m

W = ( 2 x 0.425 + 7.85 - 2 x 0.5 ) x 1.145 x 7.88 x 1.8 = 125.053 T

Eccentricity w.r.t. CG of Pile Group = - [ ( 1.145 + 1.41 ) / 2.0 ] = -3.278 m

Longitudinal Moment about CG of Pile Group = 125.053 x ( -3.2775 ) = -409.861 T-m

(Note : Please refer RDSO guideline on seismic design of railway bridge)

Design Horizontal Seismic Coefficient αh = 2.5 x 1.5 x 0.06 = 0.225

Design Vertical Seismic Coefficient αv = 2/3 x αh 2/3 x 0.225 = 0.150

Longitudinal direction

(Note : Seismic Force will act at Top of Bed Block)

Horizontal Seismic Force for 13.4 (c/c Bearing) Span = 0.225 x 81.63 = 18.367 T

Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 + 0 - 39.653 = 6.700 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 46.353 + 0 - 37.853 = 8.500 m

Moment about Base of Abutment = 18.367 x 6.7 = 123.059 T-m

Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 18.367 x 8.5 = 156.120 T-m

Transverse direction

(Note : Seismic Force will act at Top of Bed Block )

Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 + 0 - 39.653 = 6.700 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 46.353 + 0 - 37.853 = 8.500 m

Moment about Base of Abutment = 18.367 x 6.7 = 123.059 T-m

Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 18.367 x 8.5 = 156.120 T-m

Longitudinal direction

(Note : Seismic Force will act at Top of Bed Block)

Horizontal Seismic Force for 13.4 (c/c Bearing) Span = 0.225 x 43.55 = 9.799 T

Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 + 0 - 39.653 = 6.700 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 46.353 + 0 - 37.853 = 8.500 m

Moment about Base of Abutment = 9.799 x 6.7 = 65.653 T-m

Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 9.799 x 8.5 = 83.292 T-m

Transverse direction

(Note : Seismic Force will act at Top of Bed Block )

Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 + 0 - 39.653 = 6.700 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 46.353 + 0 - 37.853 = 8.500 m

Moment about Base of Abutment = 9.799 x 6.7 = 65.653 T-m

Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 9.799 x 8.5 = 83.292 T-m

[a] Dirt Wall

Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 18.526 = 4.168 T

Distance of C.G. of Dirt Wall From B/O of Dirt Wall = 1.18 / 2.0 = 0.590 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 + 0.59 - 39.653 = 7.290 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 46.353 + 0.59 - 37.853 = 9.090 m

Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 16.603 = 3.736 T

Distance of C.G. of Abutment Cap From B/O of Abutment Cap = 0.6 / 2.0 = 0.300 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 45.753 + 0.3 - 39.653 = 6.400 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 45.753 + 0.3 - 37.853 = 8.200 m

= 7.904 T

Moment about Base of Abutment = 4.168 x 7.29 + 3.736 x 6.4

= 54.295 T-m

Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 4.168 x 9.09 + 3.736 x 8.2

= 68.522 T-m

Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 168.794625 = 37.979 T

Level of C. G. of Abutment (RL) = ( 45.753 + 39.653 ) / 2.0 = 42.703 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 42.703 - 39.653 = 3.050 m

Lever Arm w.r.t to Bottom of Pile Cap = 42.703 - 37.853 = 4.850 m

Moment about Base of Abutment = 37.979 x 3.05 = 115.836 T-m

Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 37.979 x 4.85 = 184.198 T-m

Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 22.557 = 5.075 T

Level of C. G. of Square Return (RL) = ( 47.533 + 39.653 ) / 2 = 43.593 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 43.593 - 39.653 = 3.940 m

Lever Arm w.r.t to Bottom of Pile Cap = 43.593 - 37.853 = 5.740 m

Moment about Base of Abutment = 5.075 x 3.94 = 19.996 T-m

Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 5.075 x 5.74 = 29.131 T-m

10.7 ON PILE CAP

Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 301.455 = 67.827 T

Level of C. G. of Pile Cap (RL) = ( 37.853 + 39.653 ) / 2 = 38.753 m

Lever Arm w.r.t to Bottom of Pile Cap = 38.753 - 37.853 = 0.900 m

Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 67.827 x 0.9 = 61.044 T-m

Total Horizontal Seismic Force on Abutment due to Dead Loads

= 18.367 + 9.799 + 7.904 + 37.979+5.075 = 79.124 T

Total Horizontal Seismic Force on Pile Cap due to Dead Loads

= 79.124 + 67.827 = 146.951 T

Total Longitudinal Moment about Base of Abutment due to Dead Loads

= 123.059 + 65.653 + 54.295 + 115.83595+19.9955 = 378.838 T-m

Total Longitudinal Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap due to Dead Loads

= 156.12 + 83.292 + 68.522 + 184.19815 + 29.131 + 0 + 61.044 = 582.307 T-m

Total Transverse Moment about Base of Abutment due to Dead Loads

= 123.059 + 65.6533 + 54.295 + 115.83595+19.9955 = 378.839 T-m

Total Transverse Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap due to Dead Loads

= 156.12 + 83.2915 + 68.522 + 184.19815 + 29.131 + 61.044 = 582.307 T-m

(Note : Refer clause 2.12.6, IRS:Bridge Rules)

Point of application of the force at Top of Bed Block = 46.353 m RL

Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 46.353 - 39.653 = 6.700 m

Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 46.353 - 37.853 = 8.500 m

[a] When single track at edge loaded (Type A)

Horizontal Seismic Force = [ 138.6615 / ( 1 + 0.563 ) ] x 0.50 x 0.225 = 9.980 T

Moment about Base of Abutment = 9.98 x 6.7 = 66.866 T-m

Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 9.98 x 8.5 = 84.830 T-m

10.10 SEISMIC FORCES IN VERTICAL DIRECTION DUE TO DEAD LOADS

Seismic Force on Abutment due to Dead Loads in Vertical Direction

= 79.124 x 0.15 / 0.225 = 52.749 T

Seismic Force on Pile Cap due to Dead Loads in Vertical Direction

= 146.951 x 0.15 / 0.225 = 97.970 T

[a] When single track at edge loaded (Type A)

Seismic Force due to Live Load in Vertical Direction = 9.98 x 0.15 / 0.225 = 6.654 T

(Note : Please Refer Cl. 5.12.6 Of IRS:Substructure & Foundation Code )

αh = 0.225 φ = 30 °

αv = 0.15 δ = 10.00 °

For + ve αv

λ = tan [αh / (1 + αv)]

-1

For - ve αv

λ = tan [αh / (1 - αv)]

-1

Ca =

(((1 + αv) x cos2(φ-α-λ))/(cosλ x cos2α x cos(δ + α + λ))) x [1 / (1 + √((sin(φ + δ) x sin(φ - i - λ)) / (cos(δ + α + λ) x cos(α - i))]2

11.070 0.518 Ca = Max (0.518 , 0.441 )

14.826 0.441 = 0.518

11.1 DYNAMIC INCREMENT DUE TO ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE OF BACKFILL

At Base of Abutment Wall

Increment in Force = [ ( 0.518 - 0.303 ) / 0.303 ] x 115.999 = 82.310 T

Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 7.88 / 2.0 = 3.94 m

Increment in Moment about Abutment Base = 82.31 x 3.94 = 324.30 T-m

Increment in Force = [ ( 0.518 - 0.303 ) / 0.303 ] x 190.987 = 135.519 T

Lever Arm w.r.t. Pile Cap Bottom = 9.68 / 2.0 = 4.84 m

Increment in Moment about Pile Cap Bottom = 135.519 x 4.84 = 655.91 T-m

At Abutment Base

Increment in Force = [ ( 0.518 - 0.303 ) / 0.303 ] x 72.236 = 51.257 T

Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 0.66 x 7.88 = 5.201 m

Increment in Moment about Abutment Base = 51.257 x 5.201 = 266.588 T-m

Increment in Force = [ ( 0.518 - 0.303 ) / 0.303 ] x 92.272 = 65.474 T

Lever Arm w.r.t. Pile Cap Bottom = 0.66 x 9.68 = 6.389 m

Increment in Moment about Pile Cap Bottom = 65.474 x 6.389 = 418.313 T-m

At the bottom of abutment

SL No. LOAD DESCRIPTION V ML MT HL HT

a Dead Load

6.1 From Super-structure 81.630 33.47 0 0 0

6.2 SIDL 43.550 17.856 0 0 0

6.3 From Abt. Cap, railing, pedestal, OHE 45.665 -1.330 0 0 0

6.4 From Abutment wall 168.795 -337.589 0 0 0

6.5 From square return 22.557 -28.820 0 0 0

b Live Load

7.0 When single track loaded 138.662 56.851 13.866 0 0

c Tractive force/Braking force

8.1 When single track loaded 0 211.050 0 31.50 0

d Frictional Resistance

8.2 When single track loaded 0 419.35 0 62.590 0

e Earth Pressure

8.3.1 Due to backfill 0 304.729 0 115.999 0

8.3.2 Due to surcharge effect 0 340.341 0 72.236 0

f Temperature load + Centrifugal load

8.4.1/2 Thermal Expansion of Slab and Retainer+Centrifugal load 0 271.350 106.768 40.500 20.438

g Seismic force

10.10 Dead Load seismic 52.750 378.838 378.839 79.124 79.124

10.11 When single track loaded 6.654 0 66.866 0 9.980

11.10 Dynamic incr. of earth pressure 0 324.301 0 82.310 0

11.20 Dynamic incr. of surcharge earth pressure 0 266.588 0 51.257 0

Normal condition Seismic Condition

Case-1 ULS SLS Case-2 ULS SLS Description ULS SLS

DL 1.25 1 DL 1.25 1 DL 1.25 1

SIDL 2 1.2 SIDL 2 1.2 SIDL 1.5 1.2

TEMP 1.5 1 Frictional 1.5 1 LL 0.5 0.5

EP 1.7 1 EP 1.7 1 EQ 1.2 1

LL 1.4 1 EP 1.7 1

12.0 Combination of Loads and Moments at Base of Abutment

12.1 Servicebility Limit State (SLS)

(Note : Partial Safety Factors are as per Table 12, IRS Concrete Bridge Code)

Case - I ( Vertical Load Case-Considering LL & Temperature Load)

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625 +22.557 +0 ) + 1.20 x ( 43.55) + 1.0 x ( 138.6615 ) = 509.568 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.0 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33 +-28.82+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 17.8555 ) + 1.0 x ( 56.851215) +1.0x(211.05 ) + 1.0 x (304.729 + 340.341+ 1.0 x 271.35 ) = 871.48 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

= 1.0 x ( 13.86615+106.768) ) = 120.634 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

= 1.0 x ( 31.5 ) + 1.0 x ( 40.5 + 1.0 x ( 115.999 + 72.236 ) = 260.235 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625 +22.557 +0 ) + 1.20 x ( 43.55) = 370.907 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.0 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33 +-337.58925 + -28.82+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 17.8555 ) + 1.0 x ( 419.35 ) + 1.0 x (304.729 + 340.341 ) = 751.576 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

= 0.000 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

= 1.1 x ( 62.59 ) + 1.0 x ( 115.999 + 72.236 ) = 250.825 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 43.55) + 0.5 x ( 138.6615 ) - 1 x 52.75)

= 387.487 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.0 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33+-337.58925+-28.82+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 17.8555 ) +0.5 x ( 56.851215+ 211.05 ) + 1.0 x (304.729

= +1435.904

340.341 )T-m

+ 1.0 x ( 378.83845 +324.301 +266.588 )

Transverse Moment (MT) =

0.5 x ( 13.86615+106.768 ) = 60.317 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

0.5 x 31.5+ 1.0 x (115.999+72.236) + 1.0 x ( 79.124 +82.31 + 51.257 ) = 416.676 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 43.55) + 0.5 x ( 138.6615 )

- 1.0 x (52.75 ) = 387.487 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.0 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33+-28.82+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 17.8555 ) + 0.5 x ( 56.851215+211.05)

+ 1.0 x (304.729 + 340.341 ) = 466.176 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

= 0.5 x ( 13.86615+106.768 ) + 1.0 x (378.839 +66.866 = 506.022 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

0.5 x 31.5+ 1.0 x (115.999+72.236) = 203.985 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) =

1.0 x (79.124+9.98) = 89.104 T

12.2 Ultimate Limit State (ULS)

(Note : Partial Safety Factors are as per Table 12, IRS Concrete Bridge Code)

Case - I ( Vertical Load Case-Considering LL & Temperature Load)

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625 +22.557 +0 ) + 2.0 x ( 43.55) + 1.4 x ( 138.6615 )

= 679.534 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.25 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33 +-337.58925+-28.82+0 ) + 2.0 x ( 17.8555 ) + 1.4 x ( 56.851215+211.05 ) + 1.7 x (304.729 + 340.341 ) + 1.5 x 271.35)

= 1496.578 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

= 1.4x ( 13.86615+106.768 ) = 168.888 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

= 1.4 x ( 31.5) + 1.7 x ( 115.999 + 72.236 ) + 1.5 x40.5) = 424.850 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625 +22.557 +0 ) + 2.0 x ( 43.55 ) = 485.408 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.25 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33 +-337.58925+-28.82+0 ) + 2.0 x ( 17.8555 ) + 1.5 x ( 419.35 ) + 1.7 x (304.729 + 340.341 ) = 1343.516 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

= 0.000 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

= 1.5x ( 62.59 ) + 1.7 x ( 115.999 + 72.236 ) = 413.885 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0 ) + 1.5 x ( 43.55) + 0.5 x ( 138.6615 ) - 1.2 x 52.75

= 469.664 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.25 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33+-28.82+0 ) + 1.5 x ( 17.8555 ) + 0.5 x(56.851215+211.05 ) + 1.7 x (304.729 + 340.341

= ) 2425.17 T-m

+ 1.2 x ( 378.83845 +324.301 +266.588 )

Transverse Moment (MT) =

0.5 x ( 13.86615+106.768) = 60.317 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

0.5x 31.5+ 1.7 x (115.999+72.236) + 1.2 x ( 79.124 +82.31 + 51.257 ) = 590.979 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0 ) + 2.0 x ( 43.55) + 1.4 x ( 138.6615 ) = 469.664 T

- 1.2 x (52.75 )

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.25 x ( 33.4683 + -1.33+-28.82+0 ) + 1.5 x ( 17.8555 ) + 0.5 x (56.851215 + 211.05)

+ 1.7 x (304.729 + 340.341 ) = 1261.501 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

= 0.5 x ( 13.86615 ) + 1.20 x (378.839 +66.866) = 541.779 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

0.5 x 31.5+ 1.7 x (115.999+72.236) ) = 335.750 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) =

1.2 x (79.124+9.98) = 106.925 T

At the Bottom of Pile Cap

SL No. LOAD DESCRIPTION V ML MT HL HT

a Dead Load

6.1 From Super-structure 81.630 -129.792 0 0 0

6.2 SIDL 43.550 -69.245 0 0 0

6.3 From Abt. Cap, railing, pedestal, OHE 45.665 -1.330 0 0 0

6.4 From Abt. Shaft 168.795 -337.589 0 0 0

6.7 From pile cap 301.455 0.000 0 0 0

6.5 From square return 22.557 -73.931 0 0 0

9.1 Weight of backfill 125.053 -409.861 0 0 0

9.2 Due to Dead Load and LL Surcharge 0.000 0.000 0 0 0

b Live Load

7.0 When single track loaded 138.662 -220.472 13.866 0 0

c Tractive force/Braking force

8.1 When single track loaded 0 267.750 0 31.500 0

d Frictional Resistance for bearing

8.2 When single track loaded 0 532.015 0 62.590 0

e Earth Pressure

8.3.1 Due to backfill 0 578.692 0 190.987 0

8.3.2 Due to surcharge effect 0 532.300 0 92.272 0

f Temperature load + Centrifugal load

8.4.1/2 Thermal Expansion of Slab and Retainer + Centrifugal load 0 344.250 125.162 40.500 20.438

g Seismic force

10.10 Dead Load seismic 97.970 582.307 582.307 146.951 146.951

10.11 When single track loaded 6.654 0.000 84.830 0 9.980

11.10 Dynamic incr. of earth pressure 0 655.912 0 135.519 0

11.20 Dynamic incr. of surcharge earth pressure 0 418.313 0 65.474 0

13.1 Servicibility Limit State

Case - I (Vertical Load-Considering Live Load & Temperature)

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+301.455+22.557+0 ) + 1.2 x ( 43.55) + 1.0 x ( 138.6615 )

+ 1.0 x ( 125.053 + 0 + 0) = 936.076 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.0 x ( -129.7917 + -1.33 + -337.58925 + 0 + -73.9305675 + 0 ) + 1.2 x ( -69.2445 ) + 1.0 x ( -220.471785+267.75)

+ 1.0 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 ) + 1.0 x (-409.861 + 0+0 )+ 1 x344.25 = 466.924 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

= 1.0 x ( 13.86615+125.162 ) = 139.0 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

1.0 x 31.5+ 1 x 40.5+ 1.0 x (190.987+92.272) = 355.259 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+301.455+22.557+0 ) + 1.2 x ( 43.55)

+ 1.0 x ( 125.053 + 0 + 0) = 797.415 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.0 x ( -129.7917 + -1.33 + -337.58925 + 0 + -73.9305675 + 0 ) + 1.2x ( -69.2445 )

+ 1 x 532.015 1.0 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 ) + 1.0 x (-409.861 + 0+0 ) = 607.411 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

= 0.0 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

1.0 x 62.59+ 1.0 x (190.987+92.272)+1 x40.5 = 345.849 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - III (Normal Load +Longitudinal Seismic+Vertical Seismic Up )

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0+301.455 ) + 1.2 x ( 43.55)

+ 1.0 x 138.6615+ 1.0 x ( 125.053 + 0 + 0) - 1.0 x (97.97) = 768.775 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.0 x ( -129.7917 + -1.33 + -337.58925 + 0 + -73.9305675 + 0 ) + 1.2 x ( -69.2445 )+ 1.0 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 )

+ 1.0 x (-409.861 + 0+0 ) + 1.0 x (582.307 + 655.912+418.313 )

= 1755.567 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

=0.5 x ( 13.86615+125.162 ) = 69.514 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

0.5 x 31.5+ 1.0 x (190.987+92.272) + 1.0 x (146.951) = 646.953 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.0 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0+301.455 ) + 1.2 x ( 43.55)

+ 1.0 x 138.6615+ 1.0 x ( 125.053 + 0 + 0) - 1.0 x (97.97) = 768.775 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.0 x ( -129.7917 + -337.58925 + 0 + -1.33 + -73.9305675 + 0 ) + 1.2 x ( -69.2445 )

+ 1.0 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 ) + 1.0 x (-409.861 + 0+0 )+0.5 x (-220.471785 + 267.75) ) = 99.035 T-m

= 0.5 x ( 13.86615+125.162 ) + 1.0 x (582.307 +84.83) ) = 736.651 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

0.5 x 31.5+ 1.0 x (190.987+92.272) = 299.009 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 1.0 x ( 146.951+9.98 ) = 156.931 T

Case - I (Vertical Load-Considering Live Load & Temperature)

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.25x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0+301.455+125.053 ) + 2.0 x ( 43.55) + 1.4 x ( 138.6615 )

= 1212.669 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.25 x ( -129.7917 + -337.58925 + -1.33 + 0 + -73.9305675 + 0+-409.861 ) + 2.0 x ( -69.2445 ) + 1.4x ( -220.471785+267.75)

+1.5x(344.25)+ 1.7 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 ) = 1142.134 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

= 1.4 x ( 13.86615+125.162 ) = 48.0 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

1.4 x 31.5+ 1.7 x (190.987+92.272) + 1.5 x 40.5 = 586.390 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 20.438 T

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+22.557+0+301.455 +125.053) + 2.0 x ( 43.55)

= 1018.543 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.25 x ( -129.7917 + -337.58925 + -1.33 + 0 + -73.9305675 + 0 ) + 2.0 x ( -69.2445 ) )+1.5x(532.015)

+ 1.7 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 ) = 1357.592 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

= 0.0 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

1.5x 0+ 1.7 x (190.987+92.272) = 575.425 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+301.455+22.557+0+125.053 ) + 1.5 x ( 43.55) +0.5X(138.6615)

- 1.2 x (97.97 ) = 948.535 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.25 x ( -129.7917 + -1.33 + -337.58925 + 0 + -73.9305675 + -409.861 ) + 2.0 x ( -69.2445 )

+ 1.7 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 ) + 1.2 x (582.307 + 655.912+418.313 ) = 2605.669 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

=0.5 x(13.86615+125.162) = 69.514 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

0.5 x 31.5+ 1.7 x (190.987+92.272) + 1.2 x (146.951+135.519+65.474) = 914.823 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Vertical Load (V) =

= 1.25 x ( 81.63 + 45.665 + 168.794625+301.455+22.557+0+125.053 ) + 1.5 x ( 43.55)

+ 0.5 x 138.6615 - 1.2 x (97.97) = 948.535 T

Longitudinal Moment (ML) =

= 1.25 x ( -129.7917 + -1.33 + -337.58925 + 0 + -73.9305675 + 0+-409.861 ) + 1.5 x ( -69.2445 )

0.5 x ( -220.471785+267.75) + 1.7 x ( 578.692 + 532.3 )

= 617.831 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =

= 0.5 x ( 13.86615+125.162 ) + 1.2 x (582.307 +84.83) = 870.078 T-m

Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =

0.5 x 31.5+ 1.7 x (190.987+92.272) = 497.290 T

Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 1.2 x ( 146.951+9.98 ) = 188.317 T

14 Summary of Forces

14.1 at Base of Abutment

Serviceability Limit State (SLS) Ultimate Limit State (ULS)

all Loads are in ton all Loads are in ton

Case - I Case - II Case - III Case - IV Case - I Case - II Case - III Case - IV

V 509.57 370.907 387.49 387.49 V 679.53 485.408 469.66 469.66

ML 871.48 751.57565 1435.90 466.18 ML 1496.58 1343.516 2425.17 1261.50

MT 120.63 0.000 60.32 506.02 MT 168.89 0.000 60.32 541.78

HL 260.24 250.825 416.68 203.99 HL 424.85 413.885 590.98 335.75

HT 20.44 0 20.44 89.10 HT 20.44 0 20.44 106.92

Servicibility Limit State (SLS)

all Loads are in ton

Case - I Case - II Case - III Case - IV

V (T) 936.08 797.415 768.78 768.78

ML (T-m) 466.92 607.411 1755.57 99.04

MT (T-m) 139.03 0.0 69.51 736.65

HL (T) 355.26 345.849 646.95 299.01

HT (T) 20.44 0 20.44 156.93

all Loads are in ton

Case - I Case - II Case - III Case - IV

V (T) 1212.67 1018.543 948.54 948.54

ML (T-m) 1142.13 1357.592 2605.67 617.83

MT (T-m) 48.03 0.0 69.51 870.08

HL (T) 586.39 575.425 914.82 497.29

HT (T) 20.44 0 0.00 188.32

the Abutment section is checked for Ultimate Limit State

Charateristics Tensile stress for concrete (fy) = 500 Mpa

1.410 m

7.850 m

Section area of Abutment = Ac = (1.41 x7.85) = 11.069 m2

Therefore, allowable axial compressive load = ( 0.1 x35 x11.0685 ) x 100 = 3873.975 T

Maximum axial compressive load (Pmax) = 680 T

Hence OK

Abutment wall can be treated as cantilever slab where the ultimate Axial load is less than 0.1 fck Ac. And shall be designed

in accordance with cl: 15.4.2.1.2 of IRS:Concrete Bridge Code.

Maximum Ultimate Transverse Moment = MT = 541.8 T-m

Resultant Moment = MR = sqrt (2425.174^2 +541.779^2 ) = 2484.953 T-m

Clear cover = 75 mm

Dia. of main Bar (vertical) = 25

Dia. of Distribution Bar (horizontal) = 16

Effective cover 75+16+25 / 2 = = 116 mm

Effective depth = 1294 mm

Spacing of main bar = 125 mm

2

Area of tensile steel provided on each face (per m width) Ast = 7854 mm

fck = 35 mPa

0.9 d< 0.95 d (As per Cl No.15.4.2.2.1)

= 1164.60 mm

From IRS ,CBC 15.4.2.2.1

Mu = 0.15 fck b d2

So,

Mu

dreqd = Sqrt =776.51mm

0.15 x fck x b

So,

Mu (As per Cl No.15.4.2.2.1 of IRS CBC)

Astrequired = = 6248.60 Sqmm

0.87xfyx Z

Provide 25 mm dia @ 125 mm spacing c/c in Layer I . Total area = 3927 mm2

Provide 25 mm dia @ 125 mm spacing c/c in Layer II Total area = 3927 mm2

Hence OK

Secondary Reinforcement:

Provide 16 mm dia @ 125 mm spacing c/c as transverse reinf. Total area= 1608 mm2

Min side face reinforcement required = 0.05 % bt d = 5078.95 Sqmm (Each face)

Provide 25 mm dia bar 11 Nos bar on each face. (As per Cl No.15.9.4.2 of

So, (Ast)Provided = 5399.61237 Sqmm > (Ast)Required IRS CBC)

Hence Ok

16 CHECK FOR SHEAR

Corresponding ultimate transverse force = HT = 20.437632 T

Resultant force = 591.33 T

as per cl: 15.4.3 of IRS concrete bridge code,

Direct shear stress (v) = 0.582 N/mm2

Hence OK

As per table 16 of IRS concrete bridge code,

Depth factor (s) = 0.788

as per cl no: 15.5.4.1.1, S x ζc = 0.471 N/mm2

Aera of Lateral Shear Reinforcement to be provided is as follows:

For, v< = S x ζc, Asv>= 0.4 x b x sv /0.87 fyv here, fyv should not be more than

For, v > S x ζc, Asv>= b x sv x ( v + 0.4 - S x ζc)/0.87 x fyv 500 N/mm2

Dia. Of shear Reinforcement = 12 mm

Spacing of Shear reinforcement in vertical direction = sv = 200 mm

Asv_required = = 234.8 mm2

Hence Ok

Stress Level Check (Longitudinal Direction)_Non Sismic

e1

dc

Abutment Shaft Strain Stress

M= 111.016 t-m/m

So,

0.4x Fck x dc x b =0.87 xFy x Ast provided

dc = 244.034 mm

M= σ x Ast x (d-0.5xdc)

σsteel = 120.608 Mpa < allowable stress = (375 Mpa)

Hence ok

Total force = 947.25 kN/m

Hence oK

M= 182.918 t-m/m

So, 0.4x Fck x dc x b =0.87 xFy x Ast provided

dc = 244.034 mm

M= σ x Ast x (d-0.5xdc)

σsteel = 198.721 Mpa < allowable stress = (562.5 Mpa)

Hence ok

Total force = 1560.75 kN/m

Hence oK

Crack Width Check

Mg 407.66 t-m

Strain at reinforcement level = εs = 0.000603 Mq 267.901 t-m

Where

So, ε1 = 0.00067 εs = Starin in tension reinforcement

ε1 = Strain at level of cracking

3.8*bt*h(a'-dc) Moment at section due to

εm = ε1 - 1-Mq/Mg *10^-9 Mg =

εsAs(h-dc) Permanent Loads

Mq = Moment at section due to LL

= 0.00028 But not greater than ε1

= 0.078mm

1+2(acr-cnom)/(h-dc)

allowable crack width = 0.1 mm(Table 10 ,CBC)

hence ok

Design of Pile Foundation

Diameter of Pile (D) = 1.200 m

Grade of Concrete (fck) = 35 Mpa

Grade of Steel ( fy ) = 500 Mpa

= 29580.399 Mpa

= 29580399 2

kN / m

Moment of Inertia of Pile Section ( I ) π /64 x 1.2^4 4

= m

= 0.101788 m4

= 10178800 cm4

PILE REACTION FOR A RECTANGULAR PILE CAP AND CHECK FOR PILE CAPACITY

b) Length of Pile Cap along Transverse Direction = 8.70 m

c) Thickness of Pile Cap = 1.800 m

d) Diameter of Pile = 1.200 m

e) Total No. of Piles in the Pile Cap = 9 nos

a) Top of Pile Cap = 39.653 m

c) Bottom of Pile Cap = 37.853 m

a) Total Length of Pile (from below Pile Cap) = 29.00 m

b) RL at Depth of Fixity Level = 29.563 m

c) Unit weight of Concrete = 2.5 T/m3

7 4 1

2

[D] Co-ordinate of Piles

Longitudinal Transverse C

Pile No Co-Ordinate o-Ordinate n xi2 yi2

xi (m) yi (m)

P1 3.100 3.600 1 9.610 12.960

P2 3.100 0.0 1 9.610 0.000

P3 3.100 -3.600 1 9.610 12.960

P4 0.000 3.600 1 0.000 12.960

P5 0.000 0.0 1 0.000 0.000

P6 0.000 -3.600 1 0.000 12.960

P7 -3.100 3.600 1 9.610 12.960

P8 -3.100 0.000 1 9.610 0.000

P9 -3.100 -3.600 1 9.610 12.960

Total ∑ 9 57.66 77.76

Y

7 4 1

3.600

2

8 5 2

8.700 6

11

X

3.600 3.100

7

9 6 3

7.70

PLAN OF PILE CAP

[E] Summary of Loads and Moments at Center Line of Pile Cap Base

WORKING LOAD CONDITION

Case - I (Vertical Load-Considering Live Load & Temperature)

Load/Case Case I Case II Case III Case IV

V (T) 927.37 788.70 1031.99 1031.99

ML (T - m) 480.77 958.85 1659.18 340.24

MT (T - m) 13.87 0.00 13.87 681.00

HL (T) 355.26 345.85 646.95 299.01

HT (T) 0.00 0.00 0.00 156.93

V (T) 1212.67 1018.543 948.54 948.54

ML (T - m) 1142.13 1357.592 2605.67 617.83

MT (T - m) 48.03 0.000 69.51 870.08

HL (T) 586.39 575.425 914.82 497.29

HT (T) 20.44 0.000 0.00 188.32

ZL = 18.60 m3

ZT = 21.60 m3

For P1 = P/N+ML/ZL+MT/ZT

P2 = P/N+ML/ZL

P3 = P/N+ML/ZL-MT/ZT

P4 = P/N+MT/ZT

P5 = P/N

P6 = P/N-MT/ZT

P7 = P/N-ML/ZL+MT/ZT

P8 = P/N-ML/ZL

P9 = P/N-ML/ZL-MT/ZT

WORKING LOAD CONDITION

Pile Load Case

Reaction Case I Case II Case III Case IV

P1 129.53 139.19 204.51 164.49

P2 128.89 139.19 203.87 132.96

P3 128.25 139.19 203.23 101.43

P4 103.68 87.63 115.31 146.19

P5 103.04 87.63 114.67 114.67

P6 102.40 87.63 114.02 83.14

P7 77.84 36.08 26.10 127.90

P8 77.19 36.08 25.46 96.37

P9 76.55 36.08 24.82 64.85

Max Value 178.73 188.38 202.97 170.95 Adding Self Weight of Pile

Min Value 125.75 85.28 74.02 114.04

HR (T) 39.47 38.43 57.51 30.02

Maximum horizontal pile capacity = 39.47 T

Recommended Horizontal Pile Capacity = 40 T

Depth of Fixity 8.290 m

RL at Depth of Fixity 29.563 m

Pile Reaction Load Cases

(T)

Case I Case II Case III Case IV

P2 196.15 186.16 245.48 138.61

P3 193.92 186.16 242.26 98.33

P4 136.96 113.17 108.61 145.67

P5 134.74 113.17 105.39 105.39

P6 132.52 113.17 102.18 65.11

P7 75.559 40.183 -31.479 112.457

P8 73.336 40.183 -34.697 72.176

P9 71.113 40.183 -37.915 112.457

Max Value 247.57 235.36 297.90 228.09 Adding self weight of Pile

Min Value 120.31 89.38 11.28 114.31

HR (T) 65.194 63.936 101.647 59.084

Pmax = 297.90 T

Corresponding Horizontal load = = 101.647 T

Pmin = 11.28 T

Corresponding Horizontal load = = 101.647 T

The Pile is designed as per the "Charts for the Design of Circular columns" to SP:16.

(A) Material Property

Grade of Concrete ( fck ) = 35 mPa

Grade of Reinforcement ( fy ) = 500 mPa

(B)Section Property

Diameter of Pile Section (D) = 1200 mm

Clear cover = 75 mm

Diameter of Outer Links = 12 mm

Diameter of main vertical R/F outer layer = 25 mm

After multiplication of reduction factor with fixed head pile and free head pile , semi fix head

pile capacity moment is calculated

Moment per tonne Horizontal load = 3.36 t-m/m

Effective Cover (d') = (75 + 12 + 25 / 2) = 99.5 mm

d'/D = 99.5 / 1200 = 0.083 mm

Axial Load Pu(minimum load) = 11.28 T

Moment Mu = 101.647 x 3.36 = 341.53 T-m

Pu /fck D2 = 0.002

Mu / fck D3 = 0.06

p/fck = 0.04

p = 1.4 %

Therefore; Asc = ( π / 4 x 1200^2x1.4%) = 15833.627 mm2

(D) Critical Load Case 2 (Maximum load case)

Axial Load Pu = 297.90 T

Moment Mu = 101.647 x 3.36 = 341.53 T-m

Pu /fck D2 = 0.06

Mu / fck D3 = 0.06

p/fck = 0.03

p = 1.05 %

Therefore; Asc = ( π / 4 x 1200^2x1.05%) = 11875.220 mm2

(E) Reinforcement Computation

[Refer Cl: 5.11.1 of IS: 2911 Part 1 Sec 2 ]

Minimum % of Reinforcement in a Circular Section = 0.40 %

( π / 4 x 1200^2x0.4%) = 4523.9 mm2

Design Reinforcement = 15833.6 mm2

Let us provide

In Layer - I 18 nos. 25 mm diameter bars as main R/F in outer layer

In Layer - II 18 nos. 25 mm diameter bars as main R/F in outer layer

Provide T- 12 @ 150 mm c/c as Lateral Ties

Gross Concrete Area Ac = 1.131 m2

Total Reinforcement Area As = 0.018 m2

(%) (%)

1.40 1.59 OK

Serviceabilty Check of Abutment

M 132.63 Ton-m Grade of Concrete M35

P 125.75 Ton Grade of Steel Fe500

m 8.00

D 120 cm

Case: Seismic

Main bar dia= 25 mm

Distributor bar dia= 12 mm

Clea Cover= 75 mm

Allowable Stresses:

Charecteristic Compressive strength,f ck= 35 Mpa

Direct Compressive Stress ,σco= 10.5 Mpa (Table-23 IRS CBC:1997)

Flexural compressive Stress 14 Mpa (Table-23 IRS CBC:1997)

Modulus of Elasticity of concrete,e= 29580 Mpa

Deff 100.1 cm

Perimeter 314.473 cm

Provide 25 mm @ 174.707 mm c/c.

No.= 18 in layers 2

Ast= 176.625 sq.cm 1.56 % OK

Assume NA at a depth of 43.3 cm from extreme compression fibre.

x/D= 0.3605

A= 0.57

B= 0.26

C= 0.04

Distance of CG of effective segment from the centre of circle = 34.17 cm

Effective area of segment = 3751.2 sq.cm

Effective moment of inertia of segment about its own centroid = 455220 cm4

Transfomed are due to area of steel = 1236.38 sq.cm

Effective total area = 4987.58 sq.cm

Distance of CGeff of effective segment from the physical centroid of whole section is =

e' = 25.700 cm

e-e' = 79.773 cm

Ieff = 3167826 cm4

Distance of NA below Cgeff = 7.962 cm

compared to 8.960 cm Hence OK

= 133.828 Kg/sqcm 13.38 Mpa <17.5 Hence Ok

Tensile stress in steel= 1285.33 Kg/sqcm 128.53 Mpa

<375 Hence Ok

Design of Ductile Detailing

Appendix-'C Ductile Detailing Specifications

Clause-15.0

This is greater than M25

Cl-2.1 Seismic Code Nov-2015

Hence Ok

Steel used in Abutment Fe 500 D with 14.5% elongation is required.

Cl-2.1 Seismic Code Nov-2015

Hence Ok

Cl-6.3 Special Confining Reinforcement Shall extend a length of l0

Confining R/F shall extend a length of Lo

a) 1.5 times the column diameter i.e. 1.5 x d = 1.5 x 1.2 = 1.8 m

Max of ( Total length of confinement reinforcement = 1.5 x d

b) 600 mm

1.8 m

Hence , l0 = 1.8 m

Spacing of the bar =

a) 1/5 x 1200 = 240 mm

Min of( b)

c)

6 x bar dia 192

150

mm

mm

Provided, Sv = 100 mm

1.22 x 35

Asv = 0.09 x 100 x ( 1200-75 x 2 ) ( -1)

(1200-75-75)2 500

= 202.5 mm 2

Hence Ok

The Spacing of hoops used as special confining reinforcement shall not exceed.

(i) 1/5 times the least lateral dimensions of the cross section of column = 240 mm

Min of (ii) 6 times the diameter of the longitudinal bar = 192 mm

(iii) 150mm

Now provided 2L 12 mm dia 150 mm c/c spacing

Hence Ok

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