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DESIGN OF ABUTMENT AND FOUNDATION

BRIDGE NO. 414


ABUTMENT NO. A1
SPAN ARRANGEMENT:- 3 x 6.1 m

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The system consists of a solid rectangular abutment with monolithic dirt wall, square return wall and solid
abutment cap. The top dimensions of the abutment cap are fixed so as to fit in the details of PSC Slab
superstucture.

2.0 REFERENCE
For the design of the abutment and its different components generally the provisions of IRS(Indian Railway
Standards) Codes have been followed. Followings are the main references.

i. IRS Bridge Rules v. IS:2911(Part1/Sec2)-2010


ii. IRS Concrete Bridge Codes-1997 vi. IS:14593-1998
iii. IRS Substructure codes. vii. IRC:78
iv.Seismic Guideline of RDSO-(Nov-2015)
3.0 DESIGN PARAMETERS
Proposed Rail Level RL 43.538 m
Proposed Rail Formation Level RL 42.800 m
Structural Depth of PSC Slab at center 0.575 m
Bottom of Girder Level RL 42.165 m
Top of Bed Block Level RL 42.165 m
Top of Abutment Level RL 41.765 m
Ground Level RL 38.029 m
Top of Pile Cap Level RL 39.565 m
Bottom of Pile Cap Level RL 38.065 m
High Flood Level (HFL) RL 40.636 m
Design Discharge 39.0 cumec

Seismic Zone = V
Z = 0.36 Z/2R = 0.06
Importance Factor (I) = 1.5 Sa/g = 2.5
R = 3

4.0 SPAN DETAILS


The Abutment is supporting PSC Slab Super-structure of Effective Span 6.1 m. The Details of Span is gives as under

4.1 Span 1

Effective span between c/c of bearing = 6.697 m


Overall span = 7.145 m
Span between c/c of Expansion Joints = 7.165 m
5.0 SKETCHES

Rail Formation Lvl = 42.8 m

Top of bed block


42.165 m

41.765 m 0.4 m 1.065 m

1.065 m
GL 38.029 m

T.O.Pc 39.565 m

38.065 m 1.5 m

2.0175 m
5.1 m

ELEVATION

C/L of Abutment/Pile Cap


0.0
0.5 m

7.85 m 8.7 m
2.0175 m

1.065 m
PLAN
6.0 DEAD LOAD CALCULATION
Anticlockwise Moments are taken as positive
+ -

6.1 Dead Load from Superstructure PSC Slab (Refer Drawing No. RDSO/B-10274)
Load for DL = 50.57 T
Weight of superstructure (Span) = 50.57 T
Reaction on Abutment = 25.285 T
Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Abutment, e L1 = 0.271 m
Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Pile cap, e L2 = 0.271 m

Longitudinal Moment due to DL about C/L of Abutment = 25.285 x 0.271 = 6.852 T-m
Longitudinal Moment due to DL about C/L of Pile cap = 25.285 x 0.271 = 6.852 T-m

The Superstructure is symmetric about Centre Line of Soffit; therefore there is no Transverse Eccentricty
Transverse Eccentricity of Reaction, eT = 0m
Transverse Moment due to DL = 25.285 x 0 = 0 T-m

6.2 Super Imposed Dead Load (SIDL) from Superstructure


Total Load for SIDL (considering SIDL @ 6.5 T/m) = 46.57 T
SIDL Reaction = 23.29 T
Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Abutment, e L1 = 0.271 m
Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Pile cap, e L2 = 0.271 m

Longitudinal Moment due to SIDL about C/L of Abutment = 23.286 x 0.271 = 6.311 T-m
Longitudinal Moment due to SIDL about C/L of Pile cap = 23.286 x 0.271 = 6.311 T-m

The Superstructure is symmetric about Centre Line of Soffit; therefore there is no Transverse Eccentricty
Transverse Eccentricity of Reaction, eT = 0m
Transverse Moment due to SIDL = 23.286 x 0 = 0 T-m

6.3 Dead Load from Abutment Cap 0.523 m


Length of bed block = 7.850 m
Width of bed block = 1.065 m
Depth of bed block = 0.400 m
0.635 m

1.065 m 0.4 m

C/L of bearing
C/L of abutment
0.271

1.065 m

[a] Dead Load of Dirt Wall


Dead Load = 0.635 x 0.523 x 7.85 x 2.5 = 6.518 T
Eccentricity w.r.t. Abutment CG = - ( 1.065 - 0.523 ) / 2 = -0.271 m
Eccentricity w.r.t. Pile Cap CG = = -0.271 m

[b] Dead Load of Abutment Cap


Dead Load = 1.065 x 0.4 x 7.85 x 2.5 = 8.360 T
Eccentricity w.r.t. Abutment CG = 0m
Eccentricity w.r.t. Pile Cap CG = 0m

[c] Dead Load of Raised Portion of Seismic Restrainer Block


s/w of seismic restrainer block = 2 x 1.310 x 1.525 x 0.523 x 2.5 = = 5.224116 T
0.33 x 0.5875 x 0.523 x 2 x 2.5 = 0.507 T
Total = 5.731 T
Eccentricity w.r.t. Abutment CG 0.271 m
Eccentricity w.r.t. Pile Cap CG 0.271 m

Total Dead Load from Abutment Cap, dirt wall and seismic restrainer blocks
= 6.518 + 8.36 + 5.731 = 20.609 T
Total Longitudinal Moment about CL of Abutment due to above Dead Load
= 6.518 x -0.271 + 8.36 x 0+5.731x0.271 = -0.210 T-m
Total Longitudinal Moment about CL of Pile Cap due to above Dead Load
= 6.518 x -0.271 + 8.36 x 0+5.731x0.271 = -0.210 T-m

6.4 Dead Load of Abutment Shaft


The Abutment has Rectangular Section.

1.065 m
TRAFFIC DIRECTION

7.85 m

Total height of abutment = 41.765 - 39.565 = 2.200 m


Sectional area of Abutment Shaft = 7.85 x 1.065 = 8.360 m2
Volume of Abutment Shaft = 2.2 x 8.36025 = 18.393 m3
Dead Load of Abutment Shaft = 18.39255 x 2.5 = 45.981 T
Longitudinal Eccentricity w.r.t. C/L of Pile Cap, e L = 0m
Longitudinal Moment about C/L of Pile Cap = 45.981375 x 0 = 0 T-m

6.5 Dead Load of Square Return


Length of Square Return = 2.018 m
Average width of Square Return = 0.5 m
Height of Square Return = 42.8 - 39.565 = 3.235 m
Weight of Two Square Returns = 2 x 2.0175 x 0.5 x 3.235 x 2.5 = 16.32 T
Longitudinal Eccentricity w.r.t. C/L of Abutment/Pile Cap
= - [ ( 2.0175 + 1.065 ) / 2.0 ] = -1.541 m
Longitudinal Moment about C/L of Pile Cap = 16.317 x ( -1.54125 ) = -25.150 T-m
6.7 Dead Load of Pile Cap
Length of Pile Cap (perpendicular to track) = 8.700 m
Width of Pile Cap (parallel to track) = 5.100 m
Depth of Pile Cap = 1.5 m
5.1 m

GOALPARA TOWN STATION KRISHNAI STATION

8.7 m

Traffic Direction

PLAN OF PILE CAP

Weight of Pile Cap = 8.7 x 5.1 x 1.5 x 2.50 = 166.3875 T

7.0 VERTICAL LIVE LOAD CALCULATION


Standard of Loading 25t Loading-2008
(Note : Please Refer Appendix XXIII of IRS:Bridge Rules)
Loaded Length (Overall length) = 7.145 m
Total EUDL Load (Shear) for 7.145 m span ( for single track loaded) = 105.000 T
Here total 1 Nos. tracks are placed on single sub-structure
Total EUDL Load (Shear) for 7.145 m span ( when 1 track loaded, concentrically ) = 105.000 T

Longitudinal Eccentricity w.r.t C/L of Abutment, e L1 = 0.271 m


Longitudinal Eccentricity of Reaction w.r.t. C/L of Pile Cap, e L2 = 0.271 m

Calculation of transverse eccentricity


[a] When single track at edge loaded
Transverse Eccentricity w.r.t. C/L of Abutment, e T = 0.100 m
(Note : Please Refer Cl: 2.5.1 of IRS:Bridge Rule for Transverse Eccentricity )

Computation of Moment Due to LL


(Note : Please refer clause 2.4.1.1 (a) of IRS:Bridge Rule)
CDA = 0.15 + [ 8 / (6 + L)] Subject to Maximum of 1.0
Therefore, CDA = 0.15 + [ 8 / ( 6 + 7.145 ) ] = 0.759
Augmented load calculation
[a] When single track at edge loaded
Total Live Load (Shear) = 105 x (1 + 0.759 ) = 184.695 T
Live Load Reaction on Abutment = 184.695 / 2.0 = 92.348 T
Longitudinal Moment due to LL on Abutment, ML = 92.3475 x 0.271 = 25.026 T-m
Transverse Moment due to LL on Abutment, MT = 92.3475 x 0.1 = 9.235 T-m

For Design of Deep Foundation (Pile Foundation)


Therefore, CDA for Foundation = 0.759
Augmented load calculation
[a] When single track at edge loaded
Total Live Load (Shear) excluding CDA = 105 x (1 + 0.759 ) = 184.695 T
Live Load Reaction on Abutment = 184.695 / 2.0 = 92.348 T
Longitudinal Moment due to LL on Pile Cap, ML = 92.3475 x 0.271 = 25.026 T-m
Transverse Moment due to LL on Pile Cap, MT = 92.3475 x 0.1 = 9.235 T-m

8.0 HORIZONTAL LOAD CALCULATION


8.1 TRACTIVE EFFORT / BRAKING FORCE
(Please Refer Appendix XXIV of IRS Bridge Rules )
Loaded Length (Edge to Edge of Superstructure) = 7.145 m
Tractive Force for 7.145 m Loaded Span = 33.320 T
Braking Force for 7.145 m Loaded Span = 22.506 T
Governing Longitudinal Force = max ( 33.32 , 22.506 ) = 33.320 T
Dispersion of Longitudinal Force = 0.00 %
(Note : Refer Clause 2.8.3.4, IRS : Bridge Rules)
Net Longitudinal Force = 33.32 x ( 1.0 - 0 / 100 ) = 33.32 T
Type of bearing = Bitumen layer
Percent Force Transferred to Abutment = 50.00 %

Therefore, Net Longitudinal Force Transferred to Abutment = 16.66 T


Tractive force for Type A Live Load = 16.66 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 42.165 - 39.565 = 2.600 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Pile Cap = 42.165 - 38.065 = 4.100 m

Moment Calculation
[a] When single track at edge loaded (Type A)
Moment about Base of Abutment = 16.66 x 2.6 = 43.316 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 16.66 x 4.1 = 68.306 T-m
8.2 FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE DUE TO BEARING
(Please Refer Cl:5.6.2 of IRS:Bridge & Substructure Code & Cl:2.7 of IRS:Bridge Rule)

Co-efficient of Friction = 0.500


For Type A loading
Total Frictional Force = 0.5 x ( 25.285 + 23.286 ) = 24.286 T
Frictional Force = 24.286 T

Moment about Base of Abutment = 24.2855 x 2.6 = 63.14 T-m


Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 24.2855 x 4.1 = 99.57 T-m

8.3 EARTH PRESSURE


8.3.1 ACTIVE EARTH PRTESSURE DUE TO BACKFILL
(Note : Please Refer CL. 5.7.1 Of IRS : Substructure & Foundation Code.)

φ = 30 ° = 0.524 radians
i = 0 ° = 0.000 radians
δ = 10.00 ° = 0.175 radians
α = 0 ° = 0.000 radians
γ = 1.8 T per cum

Co-efficient of active earth pressure

Ka = Cos2(φ-α)/[Cos2αCos(α+δ)[1+√((Sin(φ+δ)Sin(φ-i))/(Cos(α+δ)Cos(α-i)))]2]
Ka = 0.308

FORMATION LEVEL 42.8 m

3.235 m
4.735

39.565 m 1.793 T/m2


TOP OF PILE CAP
1.5 38.065 m 2.625 T/m2
BOTTOM OF PILE CAP

At base of Abutment Wall


Earth Pressure at Abutment Base = KaγH
= 0.308 x 1.8 x 3.235 = 1.793 T/m2
Total Force at Abutment Base = 0.5 x 1.793 x 3.235 x 6.85 = 19.866 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 3.235 / 3.0 = 1.078 m
Moment about Base of Abutment Wall = 19.866 x 1.078 = 21.416 T-m

At base of Pile Cap


Earth Pressure at base of Pile Cap = 0.308 x 1.8 x 4.735 = 2.625 T/m2
Force on Pile Cap only = 0.50 x ( 1.793 + 2.625 ) x 1.5 x 8.7 = 28.827 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Pile Cap Base = ( 1.5 / 3 ) x [ ( 2 x 1.793 + 2.625) / ( 1.793 + 2.625 ) ]
= 0.703 m
Total Force at bottom of Pile Cap = 19.866 + 28.827 = 48.693 T
Total Moment at bottom of Pile Cap = 19.866 x ( 1.078 + 1.5 ) + 28.827 x 0.703
= 71.48 T-m
8.3.2 ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE DUE TO SURCHARGE EFFECT
(Note : Please Refer CL. 5.8.2 Of IRS : Substructure & Foundation Code.)

Dead Load Surcharge = V = 6.5 T/m


Live Load Surchage = S = 13.7 T/m
Surcharge Width at Formation Level = B = 3.0 m
Length of Abutment = L = 7.85 m
Height of Abutment = h = 3.235 m
Thickness of Pile Cap = D = 1.5 m
Total height with Pile Cap = H = 4.735 m
Length of Pile Cap = Lp = 8.7 m
L-B= 7.85 - 3 = 4.850 m
Therefore, H < (L - B), Case-1 is applicable
calculation required for Case - 1
Case - 1
2.074
Formation Level a b
c bc = 1.270

P2
4.735 3.235 P1

Bottom of Abutment 0.998


1.5
Bottom of Pile Cap
e d
0.804

Pressure at Top = [ (S + V ) / B ] Ka = [ ( 13.7 + 6.5 ) / 3 ] x 0.308


= 2.074 T/m2
Pressure at Bottom = [ (S + V ) / (B + H ) ] Ka = [ ( 13.7 + 6.5 ) / ( 3 + 4.735 ) ] x 0.308
= 0.804 T/m2
Surcharge Pressure at Bottom of Abutment = 0.998 T/m2
Calculation for Bottom of Pile Cap :
P1 = (0.804 ) x 4.735 = 3.807 T/m
acting at = 4.735/ 2 = 2.368 m
P2 = (0.804 x 4.735 x 4.735 ) / ( 2x 3) = 3.004 T/m
acting at = 2 x 4.735 / 3 = 3.157 m
Calculation for bottom of Abutment :
P1 = (0.998 ) x 3.235 = 3.229 T/m
acting at = 3.235/ 2 1.618 m
P2 = (0.998 x 3.235 x 3.235 ) / ( 2x 3) = 1.741 T/m
acting at = 2 x 3.235 / 3 2.157 m
At Base of Abutment Wall
Horizontal Force at Base of Abutment Wall = (3.229+1.741) x 7.85 = 39.015 T
Moment about Base of Abutment Wall = (3.229 x 1.6175 + 1.741 x 2.157) x 6.85 = 70.479 T-m

At Base of Pile Cap


Horizontal force on Pile Cap = (3.807+3.00431)x7.85 = 53.469 T
Total Moment about Base of Pile Cap (3.807 x 2.3675 + 3.00431 x 3.157) x 7.85 = 145.207 T-m
Final Result:

at pile cap
P1 = 3.807 T/m
acting at = 2.3675 m
P2 = 3.004 T/m
acting at = 3.157 m

At Base of Abutment Wall


Total Horizontal Force at Base of Abutment Wall = = 39.015 T
Moment about Base of Abutment Wall = = 70.479 T-m

At Base of Pile Cap


Horizontal force on Pile Cap only = = 53.469 T
Total Moment about Base of Pile Cap = = 145.207 T-m

9.0 VERTICAL LOAD DUE TO EARTH


9.1 VERTICAL LOAD DUE TO BACKFILL ON PILE CAP
Height of back fill behind abutment wall = 3.235 m
Avg. height of back fill beyond Return Wall in Trans. Direction = 3.235 m
Eff. width of outer cantilever Pile Cap loaded with Earthfill = 0.425 m
W = ( 2 x 0.425 + 7.85 - 2 x 0.5 ) x 2.0175 x 3.235 x 1.8 = 90.459 T
Eccentricity w.r.t. CG of Pile Group = - [ ( 2.0175 + 1.065 ) / 2.0 ] = -1.541 m
Longitudinal Moment about CG of Pile Group = 90.459 x ( -1.541 ) = -139.397 T-m

10.0 SEISMIC FORCE


(Note : Please refer RDSO guideline on sismic design of railway bridge)
Design Horizontal Seismic Coefficient αh = 2.5 x 1.5 x 0.06 = 0.225
Design Vertical Seismic Coefficient αv = 2/3 x αh 2/3 x 0.225 = 0.150

10.1 ON SUPER STRUCTURE DEAD LOAD


Longitudinal direction
(Note : Seismic Force will act at Top of Bed Block)
Horizontal Seismic Force for 7.165 (c/c Bearing) Span = 0.225 x 25.285 = 5.689 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 42.165 + 0 - 39.565 = 2.600 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 42.165 + 0 - 38.065 = 4.100 m
Moment about Base of Abutment = 5.689 x 2.6 = 14.791 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 5.689 x 4.1 = 23.325 T-m
Transverse direction
(Note : Seismic Force will act at Top of Bed Block )
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 42.165 + 0 - 39.565 = 2.600 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 42.165 + 0 - 38.065 = 4.100 m
Moment about Base of Abutment = 5.689 x 2.6 = 14.791 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 5.689 x 4.1 = 23.325 T-m

10.2 ON SUPER IMPOSED DEAD LOAD (SIDL)


Longitudinal direction
(Note : Seismic Force will act at Top of Bed Block)
Horizontal Seismic Force for 7.165 (c/c Bearing) Span = 0.225 x 23.286 = 5.239 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 42.165 + 0 - 39.565 = 2.600 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 42.165 + 0 - 38.065 = 4.100 m
Moment about Base of Abutment = 5.239 x 2.6 = 13.621 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 5.239 x 4.1 = 21.480 T-m

Transverse direction
(Note : Seismic Force will act at Top of Bed Block )
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 42.165 + 0 - 39.565 = 2.600 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 42.165 + 0 - 38.065 = 4.100 m
Moment about Base of Abutment = 5.239 x 2.6 = 13.621 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 5.239 x 4.1 = 21.480 T-m

10.3 ON ABUTMENT CAP


[a] Dirt Wall
Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 6.518 = 1.467 T
Distance of C.G. of Dirt Wall From B/O of Dirt Wall = 0.635 / 2.0 = 0.318 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 42.165 + 0.3175 - 39.565 = 2.917 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 42.165 + 0.3175 - 38.065 = 4.417 m

[b] Abutment Cap


Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 8.36 = 1.881 T
Distance of C.G. of Abutment Cap From B/O of Abutment Cap = 0.4 / 2.0 = 0.200 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 41.765 + 0.2 - 39.565 = 2.400 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 41.765 + 0.2 - 38.065 = 3.900 m

Total Horizontal Load Due to Abutment Cap Components = 1.467 + 1.881


= 3.348 T
Moment about Base of Abutment = 1.467 x 2.917 + 1.881 x 2.4
= 8.794 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 1.467 x 4.417 + 1.881 x 3.9
= 13.816 T-m

10.4 ON ABUTMENT WALL


Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 45.981375 = 10.346 T
Level of C. G. of Abutment (RL) = ( 41.765 + 39.565 ) / 2.0 = 40.665 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 40.665 - 39.565 = 1.100 m
Lever Arm w.r.t to Bottom of Pile Cap = 40.665 - 38.065 = 2.600 m
Moment about Base of Abutment = 10.346 x 1.1 = 11.381 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 10.346 x 2.6 = 26.900 T-m
10.5 ON SQUARE RETURN
Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 16.317 = 3.671 T
Level of C. G. of Square Return (RL) = ( 42.8 + 39.565 ) / 2 = 41.183 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 41.1825 - 39.565 = 1.618 m
Lever Arm w.r.t to Bottom of Pile Cap = 41.1825 - 38.065 = 3.118 m
Moment about Base of Abutment = 3.671 x 1.618 = 5.940 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 3.671 x 3.118 = 11.446 T-m

10.7 ON PILE CAP


Horizontal Seismic Force = 0.225 x 166.3875 = 37.437 T
Level of C. G. of Pile Cap (RL) = ( 38.065 + 39.565 ) / 2 = 38.815 m
Lever Arm w.r.t to Bottom of Pile Cap = 38.815 - 38.065 = 0.750 m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 37.437 x 0.75 = 28.078 T-m

10.8 SUMMARY OF SEISMIC FORCES DUE TO DEAD LOADS


Total Horizontal Seismic Force on Abutment due to Dead Loads
= 5.689 + 5.239 + 3.348 + 10.346+3.671 = 28.293 T
Total Horizontal Seismic Force on Pile Cap due to Dead Loads
= 28.293 + 37.437 = 65.730 T
Total Longitudinal Moment about Base of Abutment due to Dead Loads
= 14.791 + 13.621 + 8.794 + 11.3806+5.939678 = 54.526 T-m
Total Longitudinal Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap due to Dead Loads
= 23.325 + 21.48 + 13.816 + 26.8996 + 11.446 + 0 + 28.078 = 125.045 T-m
Total Transverse Moment about Base of Abutment due to Dead Loads
= 14.791 + 13.6214 + 8.794 + 11.3806+5.939678 = 54.527 T-m
Total Transverse Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap due to Dead Loads
= 23.325 + 21.4799 + 13.816 + 26.8996 + 11.446 + 28.078 = 125.045 T-m

10.9 ON 50% LIVE LOAD IN TRANSVERSE DIRECTION


(Note : Refer clause 2.12.6, IRS:Bridge Rules)
Point of application of the force at Top of Bed Block = 42.165 m RL
Lever Arm w.r.t. Base of Abutment = 42.165 - 39.565 = 2.600 m
Lever Arm w.r.t. Bottom of Pile Cap = 42.165 - 38.065 = 4.100 m
[a] When single track at edge loaded (Type A)
Horizontal Seismic Force = [ 92.3475 / ( 1 + 0.759 ) ] x 0.50 x 0.225 = 5.906 T
Moment about Base of Abutment = 5.906 x 2.6 = 15.356 T-m
Moment about Bottom of Pile Cap = 5.906 x 4.1 = 24.215 T-m
10.10 SEISMIC FORCES IN VERTICAL DIRECTION DUE TO DEAD LOADS
Seismic Force on Abutment due to Dead Loads in Vertical Direction
= 28.293 x 0.15 / 0.225 = 18.862 T
Seismic Force on Pile Cap due to Dead Loads in Vertical Direction
= 65.73 x 0.15 / 0.225 = 43.820 T
10.11 SEISMIC FORCES IN VERTICAL DIRECTION DUE TO LIVE LOADS
[a] When single track at edge loaded (Type A)
Seismic Force due to Live Load in Vertical Direction = 5.906 x 0.15 / 0.225 = 3.938 T

11.0 DYNAMIC INCREMENT OF EARTH PRESSURE


(Note : Please Refer Cl. 5.12.6 Of IRS:Substructure & Foundation Code )
αh = 0.225 φ = 30 °
αv = 0.15 δ = 10.00 °
For + ve αv
λ = tan-1[αh / (1 + αv)]
= 0.1932 radians = 11.070 °
For - ve αv
-1
λ = tan [αh / (1 - αv)]
= 0.2588 radians = 14.826 °

Active Earth Pressure Coefficient


Ca =
(((1 + αv) x cos2(φ-α-λ))/(cosλ x cos2α x cos(δ + α + λ))) x [1 / (1 + √((sin(φ + δ) x sin(φ - i - λ)) / (cos(δ + α + λ) x cos(α - i))]2

λ Ca Co-efficient of dynamic increment


11.070 0.518 Ca = Max (0.518 , 0.441 )
14.826 0.441 = 0.518

11.1 DYNAMIC INCREMENT DUE TO ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE OF BACKFILL


At Base of Abutment Wall
Increment in Force = [ ( 0.518 - 0.308 ) / 0.308 ] x 19.866 = 13.545 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 3.235 / 2.0 = 1.6175 m
Increment in Moment about Abutment Base = 13.545 x 1.6175 = 21.91 T-m

At Base of Pile Cap


Increment in Force = [ ( 0.518 - 0.308 ) / 0.308 ] x 48.693 = 33.2 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Pile Cap Bottom = 4.735 / 2.0 = 2.3675 m
Increment in Moment about Pile Cap Bottom = 33.2 x 2.3675 = 78.60 T-m

11.2 DYNAMIC INCREMENT DUE TO ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE OF SURCHARGE


Equating Moments about Bottom of Pile Cap, the Equivalent Uniform Surcharge Intensity is given by,
qe = (S+V)/B = (6.5 + 13.7)/3 = 6.734 T/m2
At Abutment Base
Increment in Force = [ ( 0.518 - 0.308 ) / 0.308 ] x 39.015 = 26.601 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Abutment Base = 0.66 x 3.235 = 2.135 m
Increment in Moment about Abutment Base = 26.601 x 2.135 = 56.793 T-m

At Base of Pile Cap


Increment in Force = [ ( 0.518 - 0.308 ) / 0.308 ] x 53.4687835 = 36.456 T
Lever Arm w.r.t. Pile Cap Bottom = 0.66 x 4.735 = 3.125 m
Increment in Moment about Pile Cap Bottom = 36.456 x 3.125 = 113.925 T-m
SUMMARY OF LOADS IN TABULAR FORM
At the bottom of abutment
SL No. LOAD DESCRIPTION V ML MT HL HT
a Dead Load
6.1 From Super-structure 25.285 6.85 0 0 0
6.2 SIDL 23.286 6.311 0 0 0
6.3 From Abt. Cap, railing, pedestal, OHE 20.609 -0.210 0 0 0
6.4 From Abutment wall 45.981 0.000 0 0 0
6.5 From square return 16.317 -25.150 0 0 0
b Live Load
7.0 When single track loaded 92.348 25.026 9.235 0 0
c Tractive force/Braking force
8.1 When single track loaded 0 43.316 0 16.66 0
d Frictional Resistance for bearing
8.2 When single track loaded 0 63.14 0 24.286 0
e Earth Pressure
8.3.1 Due to backfill 0 21.416 0 19.866 0
8.3.2 Due to surcharge effect 0 70.479 0 39.015 0
f Temperature load
8.40 Thermal Expansion of Slab and Retainer 0 0.000 0 0.000 0
g Seismic force
10.10 Dead Load seismic 18.862 54.526 54.527 28.293 28.293
10.11 When single track loaded 3.938 0 15.356 0 5.906
11.10 Dynamic incr. of earth pressure 0 21.909 0 13.545 0
11.20 Dynamic incr. of surcharge earth pressure 0 56.793 0 26.601 0

IRS CBC TABLE-12 Cl-6.7 RDSO Seismic Guideline


Normal condition Seismic Condition
Case-1 ULS SLS Case-2 ULS SLS Description ULS SLS
DL 1.25 1 DL 1.25 1 DL 1.25 1
SIDL 2 1.2 SIDL 2 1.2 SIDL 1.5 1.2
TEMP 1.5 1 Frictional 1.5 1 LL 0.5 0.5
EP 1.7 1 EP 1.7 1 EQ 1.2 1
LL 1.4 1 EP 1.7 1

12.0 Combination of Loads and Moments at Base of Abutment


12.1 Servicebility Limit State (SLS)
(Note : Partial Safety Factors are as per Table 12, IRS Concrete Bridge Code)
Case - I ( Vertical Load Case-Considering LL & Temperature Load)
Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375 +16.317 +0 ) + 1.20 x ( 23.286) + 1.0 x ( 92.3475 ) = 228.483 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21 +-25.15+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 6.310506 ) + 1.0 x ( 25.0261725) +1.0x(43.316 ) + 1.0 x (21.416 + 70.479+ 1.0 x 0 ) = 149.30 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 1.0 x ( 9.23475 ) = 9.235 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
= 1.0 x ( 16.66 ) + 1.0 x ( 0 + 1.0 x ( 19.866 + 39.015 ) = 75.541 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T
Case - II (Vertical Load Case-Considering Frictional Load Case)
Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375 +16.317 +0 ) + 1.20 x ( 23.286) + 1.0 x92.3475 = 228.483 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21 +0 + -25.15+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 6.310506 ) + 1.0 x ( 63.14 ) + 1.0 x (21.416 + 70.479 ) = 144.100 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 1.0 x ( 0 ) = 0.000 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
= 1.1 x ( 24.2855 ) + 1.0 x ( 19.866 + 39.015 ) = 83.167 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - III (Normal Load +Longitudinal Seismic+Vertical Seismic UP)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+16.317+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 23.286) + 0.5 x ( 92.3475 ) - 1 x 18.862)
= 163.447 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21+0+-25.15+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 6.310506 ) +0.5 x ( 25.0261725+ 43.316 ) + 1.0 x (21.416
= + 70.479248.359
) T-m
+ 1.0 x ( 54.526278 +21.909 +56.793 )
Transverse Moment (MT) =
0.5 x ( 9.23475 ) + 1.0 x (15.356) = 19.973 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 16.66+ 1.0 x (19.866+39.015) + 1.0 x ( 28.293 +13.545 + 26.601 ) = 135.650 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0.000 T

Case - IV (Normal Load + Transverse Seismic + Vertical Seismic UP)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+16.317+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 23.286) + 0.5 x ( 92.3475 )
- 1.0 x (18.862 ) = 163.447 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21+-25.15+0 ) + 1.20 x ( 6.310506 ) + 0.5 x ( 25.0261725+43.316)
+ 1.0 x (21.416 + 70.479 ) = 115.131 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 0.5 x ( 9.23475 ) + 1.0 x (54.527 +15.356 = 74.500 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 16.66+ 1.0 x (19.866+39.015) + 1.0 x ( 13.545 + 26.601 ) = 67.211 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) =
1.0 x (28.293+5.906) = 34.199 T
12.0 Combination of Loads and Moments at Base of Abutment
12.2 Ultimate Limit State (ULS)
(Note : Partial Safety Factors are as per Table 12, IRS Concrete Bridge Code)
Case - I ( Vertical Load Case-Considering LL & Temperature Load)
Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375 +16.317 +0 ) + 2.0 x ( 23.286) + 1.4 x ( 92.3475 )
= 311.099 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21 +0+-25.15+0 ) + 2.0 x ( 6.310506 ) + 1.4 x ( 25.0261725+43.316 ) + 1.7 x (21.416 + 70.479 ) =
= 241.387 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 1.4x ( 9.23475 ) = 12.929 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
= 1.4 x ( 16.66) + 1.7 x ( 19.866 + 39.015 ) = 123.422 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0 T

Case - II (Vertical Load Case-Considering Frictional Load )


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375 +16.317 +0 ) + 2.0 x ( 23.286 )+ 1.75 x ( 92.3475) = 343.421 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21 +0+-25.15+0 ) + 2.0 x ( 6.310506 ) + 1.7 x ( 63.14 ) + 1.7 x (21.416 + 70.479 ) = 240.418 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 1.75 x ( 9.23475 ) = 0.000 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
= 1.75x ( 24.2855 ) + 1.7 x ( 19.866 + 39.015 ) = 142.597 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - III (Normal Load +Longitudinal Seismic+Vertical Seismic UP)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+16.317+0 ) + 1.5 x ( 23.286) + 0.5 x ( 92.3475 ) - 1.2 x 18.862 - 1.2 x 3.938)
= 188.983 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21+-25.15+0 ) + 1.5 x ( 6.310506 ) + 0.5 x(25.0261725+43.316 ) + 1.7 x (21.416 + =70.479 ) 336.60 T-m
+ 1.2 x ( 54.526278 +21.909 +56.793 )
Transverse Moment (MT) =
0.5 x ( 9.23475 ) + 1.2 x (54.527+ 15.356) = 23.045 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5x 16.66+ 1.7 x (19.866+39.015) + 1.2 x ( 28.293 +13.545 + 26.601 ) = 190.555 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - IV (Normal Load + Transverse Seismic + Vertical Seismic UP)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+16.317+0 ) + 2.0 x ( 23.286) + 1.4 x ( 92.3475 ) = 188.983 T
- 1.2 x (18.862 +3.938 )
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21+-25.15+0 ) + 1.5 x ( 6.310506 ) + 0.5 x (25.0261725 + 43.316)
+ 1.7 x (21.416 + 70.479 ) + 1.2 x (54.526278 ) = 176.724 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 0.5 x ( 9.23475 ) + 1.20 x (54.527 +15.356) = 88.477 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 16.66+ 1.7 x (19.866+39.015) ) = 108.428 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) =
1.2 x (28.293+5.906)+ 1.7x(13.545+26.601) = 109.287 T
At the bottom of pile cap
SL No. LOAD DESCRIPTION V ML MT HL HT
a Dead Load
6.1 From Super-structure 25.285 6.852 0 0 0
6.2 SIDL 23.286 6.311 0 0 0
6.3 From Abt. Cap, railing, pedestal, OHE 20.609 -0.210 0 0 0
6.4 From Abt. Shaft 45.981 0.000 0 0 0
6.7 From pile cap 166.388 0.000 0 0 0
6.5 From square return 16.317 -25.150 0 0 0
9.1 Weight of backfill 90.459 -139.397 0 0 0
9.2 Due to Dead Load and LL Surcharge 0.000 0.000 0 0 0
b Live Load
7.0 When single track loaded 92.348 25.026 9.235 0 0
c Tractive force/Braking force
8.1 When single track loaded 0 68.306 0 16.660 0
d Frictional Resistance for bearing
8.2 When single track loaded 0 99.571 0 24.286 0
e Earth Pressure
8.3.1 Due to backfill 0 71.480 0 48.693 0
8.3.2 Due to surcharge effect 0 145.207 0 53.469 0
f Temperature load
8.4 Thermal Expansion of Slab and Retainer 0 0.000 0 0.000 0
g Seismic force
10.10 Dead Load seismic 43.820 125.045 125.045 65.730 65.730
10.11 When single track loaded 3.938 0.000 24.215 0 5.906
11.10 Dynamic incr. of earth pressure 0 78.601 0 33.200 0
11.20 Dynamic incr. of surcharge earth pressure 0 113.925 0 36.456 0
13.0 Combination of Loads and Moments at Base of Pile Cap
13.1 Servicibility Limit State
Case - I (Vertical Load-Considering Live Load)
Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+166.3875+16.317+0 ) + 1.2 x ( 23.286) + 1.0 x ( 92.3475 )
+ 1.0 x ( 90.459 + 0 + 0) = 485.330 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21 + 0 + 0 + -25.15 + 0 ) + 1.2 x ( 6.310506 ) + 1.0 x ( 25.0261725+68.306)
+ 1.0 x ( 71.48 + 145.207 ) + 1.0 x (-139.397 + 0+0 )+ 1 x0 = 159.687 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 1.0 x ( 9.23475 ) = 9.2 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
1.0 x 16.66+ 1 x 0+ 1.0 x (48.693+53.4687835) = 118.822 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - II ( vertical load case-Cosidering Frictional Load Case)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+166.3875+16.317+0 ) + 1.2 x ( 23.286)
+ 1.0 x ( 90.459 + 0 + 0) = 485.330 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21 + 0 + 0 + -25.15 + 0 ) + 1.2x ( 6.310506 )
+ 1 x 99.57055 1.0 x ( 71.48 + 145.207 ) + 1.0 x (-139.397 + 0+0 ) = 165.925 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 1.1 x ( 0 ) = 0.0 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
1.0 x 24.2855+ 1.0 x (48.693+53.4687835)+1 x0 = 126.447 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - III (Normal Load +Longitudinal Seismic+Vertical Seismic )


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+16.317+0+166.3875 ) + 1.2 x ( 23.286)
+ 1.0 x 92.3475+ 1.0 x ( 90.459 + 0 + 0) - 1.0 x (43.82 + 0) = 391.398 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21 + 0 + 0 + -25.15 + 0 ) + 1.2 x ( 6.310506 )+ 1.0 x ( 71.48 + 145.207 )
+ 1.0 x (-139.397 + 0+0 ) + 1.0 x (125.045 + 78.601+113.925 ) = 430.592 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =


= 1.0 x ( 24.215 ) = 24.215 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 16.66+ 1.0 x (48.693+53.4687835) + 1.0 x (65.73) = 245.878 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - III A (Normal Load +Longitudinal Seismic+Vertical Seismic )


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+16.317+0+166.3875 ) + 1.2 x ( 23.286)
+ 1.0 x 92.3475+ 1.0 x ( 90.459 + 0 + 0) + 1.0 x (43.82 + 0) = 486.914 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21 + 0 + 0 + -25.15 + 0 ) + 1.2 x ( 6.310506 )+ 1.0 x ( 71.48 + 145.207 )
+ 1.0 x (-139.397 + 0+0 ) + 1.0 x (125.045 + 78.601+113.925 ) = 430.592 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =


= 1.0 x ( 24.215 ) = 24.215 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 16.66+ 1.0 x (48.693+53.4687835) + 1.0 x (65.73) = 245.878 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T
Case - IV (Normal Load + Transverse Seismic + Vertical Seismic )
Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+16.317+0+166.3875 ) + 1.2 x ( 23.286)
+ 1.0 x 92.3475+ 1.0 x ( 90.459 + 0 + 0) - 1.0 x (43.82+0) = 391.398 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 6.852235 + 0 + 0 + -0.21 + -25.15 + 0 ) + 1.2 x ( 6.310506 )
+ 1.0 x ( 71.48 + 145.207 ) + 1.0 x (-139.397 + 0+0 ) = 91.381 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =


= 0.5 x ( 9.23475 ) + 1.0 x (125.045 +24.215) + 1x (78.601+113.925) = 346.403 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 16.66+ 1.0 x (48.693+53.4687835) + 1.0 x (33.2+36.456) = 180.148 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) =
= 1.0 x ( 65.73+5.906 )+ 1x(33.2+36.456) = 71.636 T

Case - IV (Normal Load + Transverse Seismic + Vertical Seismic )


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.0 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+16.317+0+166.3875 ) + 1.2 x ( 23.286)
+ 1.0 x 92.3475+ 1.0 x ( 90.459 + 0 + 0) + 1.0 x (43.82+0) = 486.914 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.0 x ( 6.852235 + 0 + 0 + -0.21 + -25.15 + 0 ) + 1.2 x ( 6.310506 )
+ 1.0 x ( 71.48 + 145.207 ) + 1.0 x (-139.397 + 0+0 ) = 91.381 T-m

Transverse Moment (MT) =


= 0.5 x ( 9.23475 ) + 1.0 x (125.045 +24.215) + 1x (78.601+113.925) = 346.403 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 16.66+ 1.0 x (48.693+53.4687835) + 1.0 x (33.2+36.456) = 180.148 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) =
= 1.0 x ( 65.73+5.906 )+ 1x(33.2+36.456) = 71.636 T
13.2 Load Combination for Ultimate Limit State
Case - I (Vertical Load-Considering Live Load & Temperatur)
Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+16.317+0+166.3875 ) + 2.0 x ( 23.286) + 1.4 x ( 92.3475 )
+ 1.7x ( 90.459 + 0 + 0) = 672.864 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( 6.852235 + 0 + -0.21 + 0 + -25.15 + 0 ) + 2.0 x ( 6.310506 ) + 1.4x ( 25.0261725+68.306)+1.5x(0)
+ 1.7 x ( 71.48 + 145.207 ) + 1.7 x (-139.397 + 0+0 ) = 251.544 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 1.4 x ( 9.23475 ) = 12.9 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
1.4 x 16.66+ 1.7 x (48.693+53.4687835) + 1.5 x 0 = 207.675 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - II ( vertical load case-Cosidering Frictional Load Case)


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+16.317+0+166.3875 ) + 2.0 x ( 23.286)
+ 1.7 x ( 90.459 + 0 + 0) = 543.577 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( 6.852235 + 0 + -0.21 + 0 + -25.15 + 0 ) + 2.0 x ( 6.310506 ) )+1.5x(99.57055)
+ 1.7 x ( 71.48 + 145.207 ) + 1.7 x (-139.397 + 0+0 ) = 270.235 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 1.4 x ( 0 +) = 0.0 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
1.5x 0+ 1.7 x (48.693+53.4687835) = 210.103 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - III (Normal Load +Longitudinal Seismic+Vertical Seismic )


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+166.3875+16.317+0 ) + 1.5 x ( 23.286) +0.5X(92.3475)
+ 1.7 x ( 90.459 + 0 + 0) - 1.2 x (43.82 + 3.938 ) = 580.625 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( 6.852235 + 6.310506 + -0.21 + 0 + -25.15 + 0 ) + 2.0 x ( 25.0261725 )
+ 1.7 x ( 71.48 + 145.207 ) + 1.7 x (-139.397 + 0+0 ) + 1.25 x (125.045 + 78.601+113.925 )
= 545.475 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
=0.5 x9.23475)+1.2x24.215 = 34.886 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
+ 1.7 x (48.693+53.4687835) + 1.2 x (65.73+33.2+36.456) = 336.138 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 0T

Case - IV (Normal Load + Transverse Seismic - Vertical Seismic )


Vertical Load (V) =
= 1.25 x ( 25.285 + 20.609 + 45.981375+166.3875+16.317+0 ) + 1.5 x ( 23.286)
+ 0.5 x 92.3475+ 1.7 x ( 90.459 + 0 + 0) - 1.2 x (43.82+3.938) = 520.798 T
Longitudinal Moment (ML) =
= 1.25 x ( 6.852235 + -0.21 + 0 + 0 + -25.15 + 0 ) + 1.5 x ( 6.310506 )
+ 1.7 x ( 71.48 + 145.207 ) + 1.7 x (-139.397 + 0+0 )
= 117.724 T-m
Transverse Moment (MT) =
= 0.5 x ( 9.23475 ) + 1.2 x (125.045 +24.215) = 183.729 T-m
Horizontal Load in Longitudinal Direction (HL) =
0.5 x 16.66+ 1.7 x (48.693+53.4687835) = 182.005 T
Horizontal Load in Transverse Direction (HT) = = 1.2 x ( 65.73+5.906 )+1.7x(33.2+36.456) = 85.9632 T
14 Summary of Forces
14.1 at Base of Abutment
Serviceability Limit State (SLS) Ultimate Limit State (ULS)
all Loads are in ton all Loads are in ton
Case - I Case - II Case - III Case - IV Case - I Case - II Case - III Case - IV
V 228.48 228.483 163.45 163.45 V 311.10 343.421 188.98 188.98
ML 149.30 144.09984 248.36 115.13 ML 241.39 240.418 336.60 176.72
MT 9.23 0.000 19.97 74.50 MT 12.93 0.000 23.04 88.48
HL 75.54 144.100 135.65 67.21 HL 123.42 142.597 190.55 108.43
HT 0.00 0 0.00 34.20 HT 0.00 0 0.00 109.29

14.2 at Base of Pile cap


Servicibility Limit State (SLS)
all Loads are in ton
Case - I Case - II Case - III Case - IV
V (T) 485.33 485.330 391.40 391.40
ML (T-m) 159.69 165.925 430.59 91.38
MT (T-m) 9.23 0.0 24.22 346.40
HL (T) 118.82 126.447 245.88 180.15
HT (T) 0.00 0 0.00 71.64

Ultimate Limit State (ULS)


all Loads are in ton
Case - I Case - II Case - III Case - IV
V (T) 672.86 543.577 580.63 520.80
ML (T-m) 251.54 270.235 545.48 117.72
MT (T-m) 12.93 0.0 34.89 183.73
HL (T) 207.67 210.103 336.14 182.01
HT (T) 0.00 0 0.00 85.96
15 Design of Abutment Shaft
the Abutment section is checked for Ultimate Limit State

Charateristics compressive stress for concrete (fck) = 35 mPa


Charateristics Tensile stress for concrete (fy) = 500 Mpa

1.065 m

7.850 m

Section area of Abutment = Ac = (1.065 x7.85) = 8.36025 m2


Therefore, allowable axial compressive load = ( 0.1 x35 x8.36025 ) x 100 = 2926.0875 T
Maximum axial compressive load (Pmax) = 343 T
Hence OK

Abutment wall can be treated as cantilever slab where the ultimate Axial load is less than 0.1 fck Ac. And shall be designed
in accordance with cl: 15.4.2.1.2 of IRS:Concrete Bridge Code.

Maximum Ultimate longitudinal Moment = ML = 336.598 T-m


Maximum Ultimate Transverse Moment = MT = 88.5 T-m
Resultant Moment = MR = sqrt (336.598^2 +88.477^2 ) = 348.032 T-m

Design Moment per unit width = 348.032 /7.85 = 44.34 T-m/m

Overall depth = 1065 mm


Clear cover = 75 mm
Dia. of main Bar (vertical) = 25
Dia. of Distribution Bar (horizontal) = 16
Effective cover 75+16+25 / 2 = = 103.5 mm
Effective depth = 961.5 mm
Spacing of main bar = 100 mm
2
Area of tensile steel provided on each face (per m width) Ast = 4909 mm

here, fy = 500 mPa


fck = 35 mPa

z = ( 1 - 1.1 x500 x 4908.739 / (35 x 1000 x961.5 ) d


0.92 d< 0.95 d (As per Cl No.15.4.2.2.1)
= 884.58 mm
From IRS ,CBC 15.4.2.2.1
Mu = 0.15 fck b d2
So,
Mu
dreqd = Sqrt =290.60mm
0.15 x fck x b

dprovided = 961.5 mm Hence ok

Check for reinforcement

Mu = 0.87 fy As z (Z= 884.580 mm)


So,
Mu (As per Cl No.15.4.2.2.1 of IRS CBC)
Astrequired = = 1152.19 Sqmm
0.87xfyx Z

Ast provided = 4909 Sqmm Hence ok


Ref. cl: 15.9.4.2 of IRS Concrete Bridge Code.

minimum reinforcement % in a wall section = Ast min = 0.2% of bd = 1923 mm2/m

Provide 25 mm dia @ 100 mm spacing c/c in Layer I . Total area = 4909 mm2
Provide 0 mm dia @ 100 mm spacing c/c in Layer II Total area = 0 mm2

Total area of Longitudinal steel provided = 4909 mm2


Hence OK

Secondary Reinforcement:

Minimum secondary reinforcement = 0.12 % of bd = 1153.8 mm2

Provide 16 mm dia @ 125 mm spacing c/c as transverse reinf. Total area= 1608 mm2

Side face reinforcement Hence OK


Min side face reinforcement required = 0.05 % bt d = 3773.8875 Sqmm (Each face)
Provide 25 mm dia bar 9 Nos bar on each face. (As per Cl No.15.9.4.2 of
So, (Ast)Provided = 4417.86467 Sqmm > (Ast)Required IRS CBC)
Hence Ok
16 CHECK FOR SHEAR

Maximum ultimate longitudinal force = HL = 190.555 T


Corresponding ultimate transverse force = HT = 0T
Resultant force = 190.55 T

So, ultimate shear force per unit width, vu = 24.27 T/m


as per cl: 15.4.3 of IRS concrete bridge code,
Direct shear stress (v) = 0.252 N/mm2

maximum shear stress = ζmax = 4.437 N/mm2

Hence OK

As per table: 15 of IRS concrete bridge code,

100 As/bd = 0.511 %

Ultimate shear stress in concrete (ζc) = 0.56 N/mm2


As per table 16 of IRS concrete bridge code,
Depth factor (s) = 0.849
as per cl no: 15.5.4.1.1, S x ζc = 0.479 N/mm2

As per table: 14 of IRS: Concerte Bridge Design


Aera of Lateral Shear Reinforcement to be provided is as follows:

For, v< = S x ζc, Asv>= 0.4 x b x sv /0.87 fyv here, fyv should not be more than
For, v > S x ζc, Asv>= b x sv x ( v + 0.4 - S x ζc)/0.87 x fyv 500 N/mm2

so, here, v < S x ζc

No. of Legs of Shear Reinforcement in per m width of Abutment = = 4


Dia. Of shear Reinforcement = 12 mm
Spacing of Shear reinforcement in vertical direction = s v = 200 mm

Asv_provided = = 452.4 mm2


Asv_required = = 79.3 mm2
Hence Ok
Stress Level Check (Longitudinal Direction)_Non Sismic
e1

961.5mm 808.978 0.4 Fck


dc
Abutment Shaft Strain Stress

M= 19.019 t-m/m
So,
0.4x Fck x dc x b =0.87 xFy x Ast provided

dc = 152.522 mm

M= σ x Ast x (d-0.5xdc)
σsteel = 43.769 Mpa < allowable stress = (375 Mpa)
Hence ok
Total force = 214.85 kN/m

Stress in concrete = 1.409 Mpa < allowable stress = (14 Mpa)


Hence oK

Stress Level Check (Longitudinal Direction)_ Sismic

M= 31.638 t-m/m
So, 0.4x Fck x dc x b =0.87 xFy x Ast provided

dc = 152.522 mm

M= σ x Ast x (d-0.5xdc)
σsteel = 72.808 Mpa < allowable stress = (562.5 Mpa)
Hence ok
Total force = 357.40 kN/m

Stress in concrete = 2.343 Mpa < allowable stress = (21 Mpa)


Hence oK
Crack Width Check

According to 15.9.8.2.1 -IRS-CBC


Mg 31.95 t-m
Strain at reinforcement level = εs = 0.000219 Mq 0.000 t-m
Where
So, ε1 = 0.00025 εs = Starin in tension reinforcement
ε1 = Strain at level of cracking
3.8*bt*h(a'-dc) Moment at section due to
εm = ε1 - 1-Mq/Mg *10^-9 Mg =
εsAs(h-dc) Permanent Loads
Mq = Moment at section due to LL
= -0.00352 But not greater than ε1

Design crack width = 3acrεm


= -0.906mm
1+2(acr-cnom)/(h-dc)

Hence The section is uncracked


allowable crack width = 0.1 mm(Table 10 ,CBC)

hence ok