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Bionomic of Mosquitoes

Isna Indrawati
Department of Parasitology

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MOSQUITOES
• 2500 different species of mosquitoes
throughout the world
• All mosquitoes must have water in which
to complete their life cycle.
• Each species has unique environmental
requirements for the maintenance of its
life cycle.

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Mosquitoes

• Belongs to Family Culicidae


• divided into 2 subfamily (Anophelinae
& Culicinae)
• There are 3 tribes :
– Anophelini
– Culicini : Culex, Aedes, Mansonia
– Toxorhynchitini
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Morphology

haltere

Source: www.cdc.gov

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Morphology

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Life Cycle :

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Breeding places
• The type of water in which the larvae is found
can be an aid to the identification of
mosquito’s species
• show a very distinct preference for the types
of sources in which to lay their eggs, such as
tree holes, rain water ponds, polluted water

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Genus eggs egg deposit

Anopheles Laid singly, on the water


with air sac surface

Culex Accumulated on the water


in floating raft surface
Aedes Laid singly Slightly
above the
water line
Mansonia Accumulated Under the
in rosette leaves

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Larva
• Consist of head, thorax and abdomen

spiracle

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Feeding habits of mosquitoes
• The male mosquitoes feed only on plant juices
• Only adult females that bite man and animals,
so she can develop eggs.
• Some female mosquitoes prefer to feed on
only one type of animal or they can feed on a
variety of animals.

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Patterns of Feeding and Resting
• Host specificity
–Antropophilic
–zoophilic
Feeding habits:
–Night biters
–Day biters

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• Feeding place
–Exophagic
–Endophagic

• Resting place:
–Exophilic
–endophilic
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The length of life
• The length of life of the adult mosquito
usually depends on :
– temperature,
– humidity,
– sex of the mosquito
• males live about a week; and females live
about a month depending on the above
factors.

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The flight habits of mosquitoes

• Depend on the genus and species


• Most domestic species remain fairly
close to their point of origin. Most
mosquitoes stay within a mile or two
of their source.
• The flight range for females is usually
longer than that of males.
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The flight habits
• Wind is a factor which influence in the
dispersal or migration of mosquitoes.

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Malaria
Anophelini Anopheles
Filariasis bancrofti rural type

Filariasis malayi

Filariasis timori
Dengue Haemorrhagic fever
Aedes
Chikungunya

Yellow fever

Filariasis bancrofti rural type(Ae. Kochi)


Culicini
Jap B encephalitis
Culex
Filariasis bancrofti
Mansonia Filariasis malayi tipe zoofilik

Coquilettidia Filariasis malayi tipe zoofilik


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Anopheles ( Vector of Malaria )

• There are 25 species of Anopheles have


been found positive Plasmodium
• Factors that influence Vectorial capacity :
– feeding habits (anthrophilic vs zoophilic)
– life expectancy of the mosquito
– Vector density
– Number of bites per person per day

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• Climates is a key determinant in the
geographic distribution and the seasonality of
malaria :
temperature, rainfall and relative humidity
• Rainfall can create collections of water
("breeding sites")

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Breeding site
• coastal lagoon : An. sundaicus
• Inland / the rice cultivation areas,
irrigation :
– An. barbirostris, An. aconitus
• in altitude area, plantation:
– An.balabacensis

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Main vectors of Malaria in
Indonesia
• Jawa –Bali : An. sundaicus
An. aconitus

• Sumatra : An. sundaicus


An. maculatus
An. nigerrimus

• Sulawesi : An.sundaicus
An.subpictus
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An.barbirostris
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VEKTOR MALARIA

• Kalimantan : - An. balabacensis


- An. letifer
• Irian Jaya : - An.farauti
- An.punctulatus
- An.bancrofti

• NTT : - An. sundaicus


- An. subpictus
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- An. barbirostris
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Morphology:

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Indoor residual spraying

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Insecticide Impregnated bed net

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Vector of Dengue Hemarrhagic
Fever

Aedes aegypti
Aedes albopictus

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Aedes ( Vector of DHF )
• Belongs to Culicine
• is the most important transmitter or vector of
dengue viruses
• the virus will require 8-12 days incubation
before it can then be transmitted to another
human

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Ae.aegypti Ae.albopictus

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Geographic Distribution of Aedes
aegypti

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Ae.aegypti Ae.albopictus

• Lyre- shaped dorsal pattern • single longitudinal silvery


• Occupies urban areas with dorsal stripe
or without vegetation • Associated with arboreal
• Main dengue vector vegetation
worldwide • mostly a secondary vector
• Bites, rests, and lays eggs • Mostly an outdoor (garden)
both indoors and outdoors mosquito
• Breeding places: Most
containers with water • Utilizes water-filled
within or in close proximity containers around or
to households further away from
households

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Monitoring the density of Aedes
• House index (HI) : percentage of houses
positive for larvae

• Breteau index (BI): number of positive


containers per 100 houses) ; have become the
most widely used indice

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Monitoring the density of Aedes
• Container index : percentage of water-holding
containers infested with larvae or pupae

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