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Motoman XRC 2001 Controller

Robotic Arc
Welding Manual
for Miller® Auto-Axcess

Part Number: 148985-1


Release Date: February 17, 2004
Document Version: 1
Document Status: Final

Motoman, Incorporated
805 Liberty Lane
West Carrollton, OH 45449
TEL: (937) 847-6200
FAX: (937) 847-6277
24-Hour Service Hotline: (937) 847-3200
The information contained within this document is the proprietary property of Motoman, Inc., and may not be
copied, reproduced or transmitted to other parties without the expressed written authorization of Motoman,
Inc.

©2004 by MOTOMAN
All Rights Reserved

Because we are constantly improving our products, we reserve the right to change specifications without
notice. MOTOMAN is a registered trademark of YASKAWA Electric Manufacturing.
Miller Auto-Axcess
148985-1

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 About This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2.1 Major Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Reference to Other Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4 Customer Service Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Chapter 2
Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Standard Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3 General Safeguarding Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.4 Mechanical Safety Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.5 Installation Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.6 Programming Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.7 Operation Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.8 Maintenance Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Chapter 3
Equipment Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.1 Robot and Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2 Miller Auto-Axcess Digital Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.3 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.4 Miller AA--40G Wire Feeder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Chapter 4
Theory of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.1 Non-Pulsed (MIG) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.2 Pulse Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

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Table of Contents

Chapter 5
Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.1 Set-Up Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.1.1 Welder Condition File Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.1.2 Calibration Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.1.3 Defining Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.2 Robot Job Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.2.1 Schedule Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.3 Weld Parameter Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.4 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

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Miller Auto-Axcess
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Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 About This Document


This manual provides information about a Motoman’s robotic arc welding system using the Miller
Auto-Axcess digital power sources. It is intended for welding personnel who have received operator
training from Motoman, and are familiar with the operation of their Motoman robot model. For more
detailed information, refer to the manuals listed in Section 1.3. This manual contains the following
sections:
SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION
This section provides general information about the Auto-Axcess power source and its components,
technical specifications, a list of reference documents, and customer service information.
SECTION 2 - SAFETY
This section describes the conventions used to identify precautionary text throughout this manual. This
section also contains a list of general cautions and warnings that apply to many of the procedures
described in this manual.
SECTION 3 - INSTALLATION
This section provides instructions for basic setup and integration of a Motoman welding system with an
Auto-Axcess power source. This section also provides procedures for start-up and calibration.
SECTION 4 - THEORY OF OPERATION
This section describes general arc welding principles, how the welding system works, and identifies
specific welding problems and requirements.
SECTION 5 - OPERATION
This section provides instructions for basic operation of the Auto-Axcess arc welding system. This
section also provides procedures for start-up. Sample robot programs are also included here.
SECTION 6 - TROUBLESHOOTING
This section provides help for the user to identify alarms and errors and remedy problems found during
operation and welding. Included are tips and techniques for using the Auto-Axcess power source.

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Robotic Arc Welding Manual
Chapter 1 Introduction

1.2 System Configuration


The Auto-Axcess welding system is an integrated package of tools and components designed for
specific welding requirements. A typical system includes the following components and optional
equipment.

ROBOT DISTRIBUTION BOX GAS REGULATOR


CONTROLLER (CUSTOMER SUPPLIED) AND TANK
(CUSTOMER-SUPPLIED)
POT
SY
CN EG R

MILLER
EM E

E
HCA DOM
ET
YAL
P NO
OV
TR YDA R ES
AT ER
S
DL
OH
M RA
LA

POWER
ETO KCO
MER LT
ID E
)NO
( )FF
O(

WATER 1
SOURCE
CIRCULATOR
NO

(OPTIONAL)
P
IR
T
FFOR/NEP

2
WIREFEEDER
3 4

5
6

WORK PIECE

ROBOT

Cable Chart
1 Power Source Control Cable
2 Feeder Control Cable
3 Weld Positive
4 Voltage Sense Cable
5 Shock Sensor Cable
6 Gas Hose
7 Weld Negative
Figure 1 Typical Auto-Axcess Welding System

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1.2.1 Major Components

A typical system includes the following major components:


• Motoman manipulator and XRC 2001 controller
• Welding equipment, including the following:
• Miller Auto-Axcess digital power source
• Miller AA-40G wire feeder
• Welding torch
• Optional welding equipment including:
• Water circulator
• Program devices - Palm Pilot with an RS232 adaptor.
• Nozzle cleaner
• Bulk wire delivery package

1.3 Reference to Other Documentation


For additional information refer to the following:
• Motoman Manipulator Manual
• Motoman Operator's Manual for Arc Welding (P/N 142098-1)
• Motoman Concurrent I/O Parameter Manual (P/N 142102-1)
• Miller Auto-Axcess Manual
• Vendor manuals for system components not manufactured by Motoman

1.4 Customer Service Information


If you are in need of technical assistance, contact the Motoman service staff at (937) 847-3200. Please
have the following information ready before you call:
• Robot Type (UP6 or UP20)
• Application Type (welding)
• Power Supply Type (Miller Auto-Axcess 300, 450, or 650)
• System Type (ArcWorld III-6200)
• Robot Serial Number (located on back side of robot arm)
• Robot Sales Order Number (located on front door of XRC 2001 controller)

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Chapter 1 Introduction

NOTES

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Chapter 2

Safety

2.1 Introduction

It is the purchaser’s responsibility to ensure that all local, county, state,


and national codes, regulations, rules, or laws relating to safety and safe
operating conditions for each installation are met and followed.

We suggest that you obtain and review a copy of the ANSI/RIA National Safety Standard for Industrial
Robots and Robot Systems. This information can be obtained from the Robotic Industries Association
by requesting ANSI/RIA R15.06. The address is as follows:
Robotic Industries Association
900 Victors Way
P.O. Box 3724
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
TEL: (734) 994-6088
FAX: (734) 994-3338

Ultimately, the best safeguard is trained personnel. The user is responsible for providing personnel who
are adequately trained to operate, program, and maintain the robot cell. The robot must not be
operated by personnel who have not been trained!

We recommend that all personnel who intend to operate, program, repair, or use the robot system be
trained in an approved Motoman training course and become familiar with the proper operation of the
system.

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Robotic Arc Welding Manual
Chapter 2 Safety

This safety section addresses the following:


• Standard Conventions (Section 2.2)
• General Safeguarding Tips (Section 2.3)
• Mechanical Safety Devices (Section 2.4)
• Installation Safety (Section 2.5)
• Programming Safety (Section 2.6)
• Operation Safety (Section 2.7)
• Maintenance Safety (Section 2.8)

2.2 Standard Conventions


This manual includes information essential to the safety of personnel and equipment. As you read
through this manual, be alert to the four signal words:

DANGER!

WARNING!

CAUTION!

NOTE:

Pay particular attention to the information provided under these headings which are defined below (in
descending order of severity).

DANGER!
Information appearing under the DANGER caption concerns the protection of personnel from
the immediate and imminent hazards that, if not avoided, will result in immediate, serious
personal injury or loss of life in addition to equipment damage.

WARNING!
Information appearing under the WARNING caption concerns the protection of personnel and
equipment from potential hazards that can result in personal injury or loss of life in addition to
equipment damage.

CAUTION!
Information appearing under the CAUTION caption concerns the protection of personnel and
equipment, software, and data from hazards that can result in minor personal injury or
equipment damage.

Note: Information appearing in a Note caption provides additional information which is helpful in
understanding the item being explained.

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2.3 General Safeguarding Tips


All operators, programmers, plant and tooling engineers, maintenance personnel, supervisors, and
anyone working near the robot must become familiar with the operation of this equipment. All
personnel involved with the operation of the equipment must understand potential dangers of operation.
General safeguarding tips are as follows:
• Improper operation can result in personal injury and/or damage to the equipment. Only trained
personnel familiar with the operation of this robot, the operator's manuals, the system
equipment, and options and accessories should be permitted to operate this robot system.
• Do not enter the robot cell while it is in automatic operation. Programmers must have the
teach pendant when they enter the robot cell.
• Improper connections can damage the robot. All connections must be made within the
standard voltage and current ratings of the robot I/O (Inputs and Outputs).
• The robot must be placed in Emergency Stop (E-STOP) mode whenever it is not in use.
• In accordance with ANSI/RIA R15.06, section 6.13.4 and 6.13.5, use lockout/tagout
procedures during equipment maintenance. Refer also to Section 1910.147 (29CFR, Part
1910), Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry (OSHA).

2.4 Mechanical Safety Devices


The safe operation of the robot, positioner, auxiliary equipment, and system is ultimately the user's
responsibility. The conditions under which the equipment will be operated safely should be reviewed by
the user. The user must be aware of the various national codes, ANSI/RIA R15.06 safety standards, and
other local codes that may pertain to the installation and use of industrial equipment. Additional safety
measures for personnel and equipment may be required depending on system installation, operation,
and/or location. The following safety measures are available:
• Safety fences and barriers
• Light curtains
• Door interlocks
• Safety mats
• Floor markings
• Warning lights

Check all safety equipment frequently for proper operation. Repair or replace any non-functioning
safety equipment immediately.

2.5 Installation Safety


Safe installation is essential for protection of people and equipment. The following suggestions are
intended to supplement, but not replace, existing federal, local, and state laws and regulations.

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Robotic Arc Welding Manual
Chapter 2 Safety

Additional safety measures for personnel and equipment may be required depending on system
installation, operation, and/or location. Installation tips are as follows:
• Be sure that only qualified personnel familiar with national codes, local codes, and ANSI/RIA
R15.06 safety standards are permitted to install the equipment.
• Identify the work envelope of each robot with floor markings, signs, and barriers.
• Position all controllers outside the robot work envelope.
• Whenever possible, install safety fences to protect against unauthorized entry into the work
envelope.
• Eliminate areas where personnel might get trapped between a moving robot and other
equipment (pinch points).
• Provide sufficient room inside the workcell to permit safe teaching and maintenance
procedures.

2.6 Programming Safety


All operators, programmers, plant and tooling engineers, maintenance personnel, supervisors, and
anyone working near the robot must become familiar with the operation of this equipment. All
personnel involved with the operation of the equipment must understand potential dangers of operation.
Programming tips are as follows:

Any modifications to PART 1 of the XRC controller PLC can cause severe personal injury or death, as
well as damage to the robot! Do not make any modifications to PART 1. Making any changes without
the written permission of Motoman will VOID YOUR WARRANTY!

Some operations require standard passwords and some require special passwords. Special passwords
are for Motoman use only. YOUR WARRANTY WILL BE VOID if you use these special passwords.

Back up all programs and jobs onto a floppy disk whenever program changes are made. To avoid loss of
information, programs, or jobs, a backup must always be made before any service procedures are done
and before any changes are made to options, accessories, or equipment.

The concurrent I/O (Input and Output) function allows the customer to modify the internal ladder inputs
and outputs for maximum robot performance. Great care must be taken when making these
modifications. Double-check all modifications under every mode of robot operation to ensure that you
have not created hazards or dangerous situations that may damage the robot or other parts of the system.
• Improper operation can result in personal injury and/or damage to the equipment. Only trained
personnel familiar with the operation, manuals, electrical design, and equipment
interconnections of this robot should be permitted to operate the system.
• Inspect the robot and work envelope to be sure no potentially hazardous conditions exist. Be
sure the area is clean and free of water, oil, debris, etc.
• Be sure that all safeguards are in place.
• Check the E-STOP button on the teach pendant for proper operation before programming.
• Carry the teach pendant with you when you enter the workcell.

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• Be sure that only the person holding the teach pendant enters the workcell.
• Test any new or modified program at low speed for at least one full cycle.

2.7 Operation Safety


All operators, programmers, plant and tooling engineers, maintenance personnel, supervisors, and
anyone working near the robot must become familiar with the operation of this equipment. All
personnel involved with the operation of the equipment must understand potential dangers of operation.
Operation tips are as follows:
• Be sure that only trained personnel familiar with the operation of this robot, the operator's
manuals, the system equipment, and options and accessories are permitted to operate this
robot system.
• Check all safety equipment for proper operation. Repair or replace any non-functioning safety
equipment immediately.
• Inspect the robot and work envelope to ensure no potentially hazardous conditions exist. Be
sure the area is clean and free of water, oil, debris, etc.
• Ensure that all safeguards are in place.
• Improper operation can result in personal injury and/or damage to the equipment. Only trained
personnel familiar with the operation, manuals, electrical design, and equipment
interconnections of this robot should be permitted to operate the system.
• Do not enter the robot cell while it is in automatic operation. Programmers must have the
teach pendant when they enter the cell.
• The robot must be placed in Emergency Stop (E-STOP) mode whenever it is not in use.
• This equipment has multiple sources of electrical supply. Electrical interconnections are made
between the controller, external servo box, and other equipment. Disconnect and
lockout/tagout all electrical circuits before making any modifications or connections.
• All modifications made to the controller will change the way the robot operates and can cause
severe personal injury or death, as well as damage the robot. This includes controller
parameters, ladder parts 1 and 2, and I/O (Input and Output) modifications. Check and test all
changes at slow speed.

2.8 Maintenance Safety


All operators, programmers, plant and tooling engineers, maintenance personnel, supervisors, and
anyone working near the robot must become familiar with the operation of this equipment. All
personnel involved with the operation of the equipment must understand potential dangers of operation.
Maintenance tips are as follows:
• Do not perform any maintenance procedures before reading and understanding the proper
procedures in the appropriate manual.

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Chapter 2 Safety

• Check all safety equipment for proper operation. Repair or replace any non-functioning safety
equipment immediately.
• Improper operation can result in personal injury and/or damage to the equipment. Only trained
personnel familiar with the operation, manuals, electrical design, and equipment
interconnections of this robot should be permitted to operate the system.
• Back up all your programs and jobs onto a floppy disk whenever program changes are made.
A backup must always be made before any servicing or changes are made to options,
accessories, or equipment to avoid loss of information, programs, or jobs.
• Do not enter the robot cell while it is in automatic operation. Programmers must have the
teach pendant when they enter the cell.
• The robot must be placed in Emergency Stop (E-STOP) mode whenever it is not in use.
• Be sure all safeguards are in place.
• Use proper replacement parts.
• This equipment has multiple sources of electrical supply. Electrical interconnections are made
between the controller, external servo box, and other equipment. Disconnect and
lockout/tagout all electrical circuits before making any modifications or connections.
• All modifications made to the controller will change the way the robot operates and can cause
severe personal injury or death, as well as damage the robot. This includes controller
parameters, ladder parts 1 and 2, and I/O (Input and Output) modifications. Check and test all
changes at slow speed.
• Improper connections can damage the robot. All connections must be made within the
standard voltage and current ratings of the robot I/O (Inputs and Outputs).

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Chapter 3

Equipment Description

This section contains brief descriptions of Miller Auto-Axcess welding system components.

3.1 Robot and Controller


The robot controller coordinates the operation of the various welding system components. The
controller executes instruction sequences provided in a robot job file. As the controller steps through
the series of instructions, it directs the movement of the torch, and operates the welding power supply.
The robot moves the welding torch and supply lines through a series of programmed steps. The
controller controls the speed, direction, and position of the robot as it moves from point to point. The
controller communicates weld signals through an interface board mounted in the controller cabinet. The
controller sends analog voltages for wire feed speed and voltage/voltage trim, along with a signal to
energize the contactor to weld. The Auto-Axcess power source communicates to the controller when
the arc is established, when there is a fault condition, or when the wire is stuck to the puddle. The robot
also selects one of eight schedules by setting three outputs.

3.2 Miller Auto-Axcess Digital Power Supply


The Auto-Axcess digital power source is a three-phase, high-frequency, multi-process inverter welder. It
operates on 190 to 630 volts, 50 or 60-hertz power, AC or DC. Auto-Axcess 300 is rated 8.3 kvA and
produces 300 amps at 60 percent duty cycle and 225 amps at 100 percent duty cycle. Auto-Axcess 450 is
rated 23.8 kvA and produces 580 amps at 60 percent duty cycle and 450 amps at 100 percent duty cycle.

Auto-Line™ automatically adjusts to line voltage, so no external adjustments are necessary. The power
source has multi-process MIG capability consisting of standard MIG (GMAW), standard pulse MIG
(GMAW-P), Accu-Pulse (GMAW-P), as well as an optional RMD (GMAW-SC) mode.

Accu-Pulse reduces burn through problems, increases welding travel speeds, and is superior to pulse
mode when welding with short arc lengths. The optional RMD (Regulated Metal Deposition) process is a
short circuit transfer process in which the power source alters the welding current output to improve the
droplet transfer while minimizing spatter levels. It is limited to use at wire speeds below 250 ipm
(depending on electrode diameter) on thin gauge steel applications.

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Chapter 3 Equipment Description

Auto-Axcess uses an analog-type of robot interface and is compatible with the XRC controller.
Auto-Cal® allows automatic compensation for inaccurate welder condition files, providing digital
accuracy/repeatability in addition to the low-cost analog interface.
Features:
• Broad range of input power (190 volts through 630 volts AC, single or 3-phase),
automatically selected by Auto-Line
• Sharp Start™ feature provides consistent arc starts by electrically assuring a ball is not left on
the wire when welding stops
• Two forms of serial diagnostic ports: palm and RS232
• Quick disconnect 72-pin Harting connector for robot I/O, with automatic configuration for
Motoman robots
• Analog robot interface, with digital precision provided by AutoCal
• Eight remote selectable programs from robot
• Integrated touch sense (80 volts) and seam tracking circuitry
• 115 VAC, 10 Amp auxiliary duplex power receptacle
• Four modes of MIG operation
• World-class product support from Miller Electric
• Quick-change feed rolls

3.3 Software
Multi-MIG software includes common carbon steel, aluminum, and stainless welding programs,
including Accu-Pulse, standard or adaptive pulse, conventioal MIG, and optional RMD. The
Miller-developed optional Palm Axcess file management system provides an array of functionality. The
software allows the user to customize arc starting/arc ending timing, customize pulse shape and
adaptive voltage, and customize synergic lines. Palm connectivity also allows the user to beam or email
schedule and system data.

Most applications do not require customized factory settings. However, if customization is necessary,
the following software programs are available from Miller:
• Download Utility - used to update board level software in rare circumstances. Available at
www.millerwelds.com.
• File Manager - allows pulse programs to be uploaded/downloaded to welder, but does not
allow modifications to programs. This software allows the user to set edit locks, start/end
conditions, etc. The software is supplied on card for the SD expansion slot. The card must be
installed to tranfer program to the welder.
• WaveWriter™ - allows the user to set pulse conditions, including peak time, background
voltage, and other variables. Allows user to change parameters for RMD mode. Software is
supplied on card for the SD expansion slot. The card must be installed to tranfer program to
the welder

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3.4 Miller AA--40G Wire Feeder


The AA-40G Wire Feeder is an open frame-type wire feeder equipped with four (4) geared (.045”) feed
rolls as standard. The feeder is rated at 650 amps at a 100 percent duty cycle. The feeder weighs 7.5 kg
and comes with gas valve and a 15-meter motor control cable The feeder wire feed speed range is 50 -
1400 ipm, with a default maximum of 999 ipm.If a wire feed speed of greater than 1000 ipm is
necessary, the data is the welder condition file must be reset.

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Chapter 3 Equipment Description

NOTES

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Chapter 4

Theory of Operation

The Miller Auto-Axcess is a Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) power supply capable of non-pulsed, or
MIG, and pulsed (GMAW-P) modes of operation.

4.1 Non-Pulsed (MIG) Mode


With non-pulsed (MIG) mode, a consumable electrode (e.g. steel, aluminium, copper, etc.) is fed from
a spool or drum through a contact tube (or contact "tip") by a wire feed system. At the contact tip,
welding voltage (typically between 12 and 80 volts) is transferred to the electrode. The contact tip is
typically placed between 12mm (1/2 in.) and 25mm from the base metal, or workpiece. As the wire is
fed, the electrode contacts the workpiece allowing for current to flow. This supplied current is
proportional to the wire feed rate (or wire feed speed / WFS) but also based on the resistance between the
contact tip and the workpiece. As the WFS is increased, the current is automatically increased as well.

Shielding gas, typically argon with additions of oxygen or carbon dioxide, is fed through a gas nozzle
and around the contact tip and to the workpiece as well. As current is supplied through the electrode,
melting of the electrode takes place between the contact tip and the workpiece. The electrode quickly
melts, ideally at the electrode/workpiece interface, transferring liquid metal either to the workpiece
and/or to the air (causing spatter), and produces a gap, or arc, between the unmelted electrode and the
workpiece. As this occurs, the voltage between the electrode and the grounded (0 volts) workpiece
causes the shielding gas to become ionized. When the gas becomes ionized, the ability of the gas to
conduct electricity improves, and current flow is maintained.

Another effect of current flow is melting of the workpiece. The liquid metal at the end of the electrode
combines with the liquid metal of the workpiece to form the weld pool. At low wire feed speeds the
welding current is low enough such that the size of the arc, or arc length, is not maintained. The arc
length decreases until a short occurs again. When the electrode again contacts the workpiece, the
electrical resistance decreases, allowing the current to increase enough to again break the short. And so
the process, defined as short circuit transfer, repeats.

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Robotic Arc Welding Manual
Chapter 4 Theory of Operation

Higher wire feed speed levels provide enough current to continuously maintain an arc. At current
levels (typically a range of 50-75 Amperes) just above those for short circuit transfer, forces involved
around the arc / electrode promote large metal droplets to form before being transferred in free flight
across the arc gap to the weld pool. This process is termed globular transfer.

At higher current levels, arc forces promote smaller, but more frequent droplets to form at the electrode
tip. These droplets (less than 1.5 times the diameter of the electrode) stream across the arc, providing
the low-spatter production spray transfer. Spray transfer mode typically extends for hundreds of
amperes until the electrode reaches current carrying capacity.

Of these three modes of metal transfer - short circuit transfer, globular transfer and spray transfer - only
globular transfer is seldom used due to excessive spatter production and poor arc stability.

4.2 Pulse Mode


Pulse Mode behaves identically to non-pulsed (MIG) mode defined above except that spray current,
(low/no-spatter) can be achieved for virtually the entire range of wire feed speeds. Spray transfer is
accomplished by elevating the current above that required for globular transfer, holding the current
while a droplet(s) is formed and detached from the electrode, and then dropping the current to a low
background level. The amount of time at this background level is often based (inversely proportional)
on the wire feed speed - higher wire feed speeds require more droplets per second and so shorter
background times (higher frequencies) are often used. Pulse mode is recommended for welding
conditions (wire feed speeds) wherein globular transfer would be achieved in non-pulsed mode. Pulse
mode is typically used for all wire feeds speeds for aluminium GMA welding.

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Chapter 5

Operation

Robot-to-Power
Supply Calibration

Verify Define Schedule in


Acceptable
Calibration Power Supply

Execute Program Robot


Unacceptable
Auto-Cal Job

5.1 Set-Up Overview


• Define calibration tables (verify welder condition file)
• Execute AutoCal, if necessary
• Confirm calibration
• Define schedule(s)
• Program robot job
• Set schedule select output
• Insert ARCON and set weld parameters
• Insert motion steps
• Insert ARCOF and set weld parameters

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Robotic Arc Welding Manual
Chapter 5 Operation

5.1.1 Welder Condition File Verification

1. On the programming pendant, select TOP MENU, ARC WELDING, WELDER


CONDITION.Verify that the welder condition file contains data similar to the following:

Note: The calibration data does not need to be exact- see section 6-14, Miller Auto-Axcess Manual.

Ref. (V) Measured (A)


0.14 10
7.00 500
14.00 999

Ref. (V) Measured (V)


0.14 0.5
7.00 25
14.00 50

This data calibrates analog channel 0 (VWELD) to voltage/pulse trim and calibrates
analog channel 1 (AWELD) to wire feed speed.
2. Verify that POWER SUPPLY is set to A/V, not A/% in the Welder Condition File.

Note: Athough the robot teach pendant displays "A", "AC" or "amps" in Arc Start Files, ARCON
commands, etc., when using the above calibration data, the values used are in units of INCHES/MIN.,
NOT AMPERAGE, and correspond to the actual WIRE FEED SPEED of the wire feeder.

Note: In pulse mode, double the voltage value entered to get the trim value. For example, 24.0 volts
equals a trim value of 4.8. Every wire feed speed provides nominal arc length, with a trim value of 50
(arc voltage = 25.0).

5.1.2 Calibration Verification


To verify power supply calibration:
1. Insert an ARCSET command into a job.
2. Select the ARCSET command from the instruction side of the job line.
3. Press [SELECT]. The ARCSET command appears on the input buffer line.
4. Press [SELECT]. The Detail Edit screen appears.
5. Cursor to CURRENT and press [SELECT] or [AC=]. Refering to the calibration test
examples, enter sample data using the number keypad (examples: AC=100; AC=300). Press
[SELECT].
6. Cursor to VOLTAGE and press [SELECT] or [AV=]. Refering to the calibration test
examples, enter sample data using the number keypad (examples: AV=15; AV=25). Press
[ENTER] twice.

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Miller Auto-Axcess
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7. Execute the command by holding down the INT LOCK key and pressing FWD. Each time a
value is executed, look at the display on the power supply and verify the requested value
matches the set value. Press the WFS/A button on the Auto-Axcess until the Wire Feed Speed
LED lights.

Calibration Test Examples:


MIG Mode Required Setting AC=WFS Required Setting AV=Voltage
100 ipm 100 20 volts 20
350 ipm 350 25 volts 25
700 ipm 700 35 35
PULSE/ACCU-PULSE Required Setting AC=WFS Required Setting AV=Trim
100 ipm 100 40% 20
350 ipm 350 50% 25
700 ipm 700 70% 35

Note: To determine the value for Trim in Pulse/Accupulse mode, the power supply doubles the
requested voltage value and converts it to a percentage value.
8. If the requested value does not match the set value, run the robot auto-calibration sequence.
Refer to the Miller Auto-Axcess Manual, section 6-14. This step is only necessary if proper
calibration cannot be verified.

5.1.3 Defining Schedules

Eight separate schedules can be defined for the Miller Auto-Axcess. Each schedule can be set up for
output mode (MIG, Pulse, AccuPulse, RMD), wire type (Steel, Aluminium, etc.), wire type and
diameter, and shield gas type. Use the robot outputs shown in 5.2.1 to select the schedule number from
the welder. See the Miller Auto-Axcess Manual for details.

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Robotic Arc Welding Manual
Chapter 5 Operation

5.2 Robot Job Programming

5.2.1 Schedule Selection

The robot selects one of the eight schedules by setting three outputs. Typically a binary value (0-7),
referenced by a DOUT instruction, is programmed into the robot job. This binary value of 0-7
corresponds to schedules 1-8 in the Auto-Axcess.

In this example, the schedule select bits have been connected to Universal Outputs 9, 10, and 11. These
three bits comprise the first three bits of Output Group Half (OGH) #3.
Sample Robot Job:

0000 NOP
0001 MOVJ VJ=33.0 (Welding start position)
0002 DOUT OGH#(3)5(Selection of Schedule #6)
0003 ARCON AC=285 AV=22.0 (ArcOn request)
0004 MOVL
0005 ARCOF
0006 MOVJ VJ=33.0

The above job selects schedule #6 with the DOUT instruction. It also sets wire feed speed to 285
in/min and sets either voltage to 22.0V (MIG mode) or trim to 44% (Pulse or AccuPulse) depending on
the mode selected in Schedule #6.

5.3 Weld Parameter Verification


When the welder is powered on, “MOTO” will appear on the welder display. During day-to-day
operation, the welder display provides the following functions:
• Power Supply Idle (not welding): Displays the set Wire Feed Speed and Voltage or Voltage
Trim values.
• Power Supply Welding: Displays the actual average Amperage (or the wire feed speed) and
actual average Voltage.
• Immediately after Welding: Displays the actual average Amperage and actual average
Voltage.

5.4 Troubleshooting
The robot generates an Arc Shortage alarm if the power supply detects a fault during welding. If the
welder is not turned on, this alarm will occur. To prevent the alarm, operate the robot with the welder
turned on or disconnect the large plug from the rear of the welder. For other service related problems,
call Motoman Customer Service (937) 847-3200.

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