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Introduction

Basics of Transformer Design

December 27, 2017

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Introduction

Symbols

Φm main flux, Wb
Bm maximum flux density, Wb/m2
δ current density, A/m2
Agi net core area, m2
Ai net core area, m2
= stacking factor × gross core area
Ac area of copper in window, m2
Aw window area, m2
D distance between core centers, m
d diameter of circumscribing circle, m
Kw window space factor
f frequency
Et emf per turn, V

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Introduction

Symbols

Tp , Ts number of turns in primary and secondary


Ip , Is current in primary and secondary, A
Vp , V s terminal voltage of primary and secondary, V
a p , as conductor area of primary and secondary, m2
`i mean length of flux path in iron, m
Lmt length of mean turn of transformer windings, m
Gi weight of active iron, kg
Gc weight of copper, kg
gi weight iron per m3 , kg
gc weight of copper per m3 , kg
pi loss in iron per kg, W
pc loss in copper per kg, W

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Introduction

Single Phase Transformer

Voltage per turn

E P S
Et = = 4.44f Φm
T
The window of single phase trans-
former contains one primary and
one secondary winding. Then, to-
tal copper of area in window is
given by:

A c = T p a p + Ts as P S P

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Introduction

Single Phase Transformer


Taking the current density δ to be the same in both primary and sec-
ondary windings.
Ip
ap =
δ
Is
as =
δ
Total conductor area in window is:
Ip Is
Ac = Tp + Ts
δ δ
Tp I p + T s I s
Ac =
δ
Ac = 2AT /δ

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Introduction

Single Phase Transformer

The window space factor Kw is defined as the ratio of copper area in


window to area of window.
Ac
Kw =
Aw

Ac = Kw Aw

Ac = 2AT /δ = Kw Aw
Kw Aw δ
AT =
2

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Introduction

Single Phase Transformer

Rating of single phase transformer in kV A

Q = Vp Ip × 10−3 = Ep Ip × 10−3
Q = Et Tp Ip × 10−3 = Et AT × 10−3
K w Aw δ
Q = 4.44f Φm × 10−3
2

The output equation of single phase transformer

Q = 2.22fBm δAw Ai × 10−3

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Introduction

Single Phase Transformer

Rating of single phase transformer in kV A

Q = Vp Ip × 10−3 = Ep Ip × 10−3
Q = Et Tp Ip × 10−3 = Et AT × 10−3
K w Aw δ
Q = 4.44f Φm × 10−3
2

The output equation of single phase transformer

Q = 2.22fBm δAw Ai × 10−3

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Introduction

Three Phase Transformer

The window of
three phase trans-
former contains two
primary and two
secondary winding.
Then, total copper P S P P S P P S P
of area in window is
given by:

Ac = 2(Tp ap +Ts as )

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Introduction

Three Phase Transformer

Total conductor area in window is:


Ip Is
Ac = 2Tp + 2Ts
δ δ

Ac = 4AT /δ

Ac = K w A w

Ac = 4AT /δ = Kw Aw
Kw Aw δ
AT =
4

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Introduction

Three Phase Transformer

Rating of three phase transformer in kV A

Q = 3Vp Ip × 10−3 = 3Ep Ip × 10−3


Q = 3Et Tp Ip × 10−3 = 3Et AT × 10−3
Kw Aw δ
Q = 3 × 4.44f Φm × 10−3
4

The output equation of three phase transformer

Q = 3.33fBm Kw δAw Ai × 10−3

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Introduction

Output Equation - Volt per turn

Considering the output of one phase kV A:

Q = Vp Ip × 10−3 = 4.44f Φm Tp Ip × 10−3

Q = 4.44f Φm AT × 10−3
The ratio of r = Φm /AT is constant for a transformer of a given type,
service and method of construction.

Φm
Q = 4.44Φm f × 10−3
r
Q = 4.44Φ2m f /r × 10−3
r
r .103 √
Φm = Q
4.44f

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Introduction

Output Equation - Volt per turn

Volt per turn: r


r .103 √
Et = 4.44f Φm = 4.44f Q
4.44f
p √
Et = 4.44fr .103 Q

Et = K Q

K is constant for a transformer of a given type, service and method of


construction.

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Introduction

Values of Constant K

single phase shell type 1.0 to 1.2


single phase core type 0.75 to 0.85
three phase shell type 1.3
three phase core type (distribution) 0.45
three phase core type (power) 0.6 to 0.7

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Introduction

Ratio of copper loss to iron loss

Copper loss per m3 is given by:

` 1
pc = RI 2 /V = ρ ∙ (Aδ)2 ∙
A A`

pc = ρδ 2

Pi pG
= i i
Pc pc G c
When the densities of the iron and copper are determined, the loss per
kg for iron and copper are determined. The ratio of weight of iron to
weight of copper can be easily found.

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Introduction

Core Design

Rectangular Core For core type distribution transformers and small


power transformers for moderate and low voltage. The
ratio of width to depth varies between 1.4 to 2.
Rectangular shaped coils are used for rectangular core.

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Introduction

Core Design

Square Core When circular coils are required.

d a

 2
2 d
Agi = a = √ = 0.5d 2
2
Gross core area 0.5d 2
= = 0.64
Area of circle πd 2 /4
Net core area 0.9 ∗ 0.5d 2
= = 0.58
Area of circle πd 2 /4

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Introduction

Core Design

2 Stepped core As shown in figure

53 85 100

53
85
100

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Introduction

Core Design

2 Stepped core As shown in figure

42 70 90

70
90
100

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Introduction

Effective Area

% of circumscribing Square 2 Step 3 step 4 step


Gross core area Agi 64 79 84 87
Net core area Ai 58 71 75 78
Net core area kd 2 0.45 0.56 0.6 0.62

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Introduction

Example

The ratio of flux to full load mmf in a 400kV A, 50Hz, single phase
core type power transformer is 2.4 × 10−6 . Calculate the net iron
area and the window area of the transformer. Maximum flux den-
sity in the core is 1.3Wb/m2 , current density is 2.7 A/mm2 and win-
dow space factor is 0.26. Also, calculate the full load mmf.
Answer

Q = 400 kV A
f = 50 Hz
Φm /AT = 2.4 × 10−6
Bm = 1.3 Wb/m2
δ = 2.7 /m2
Kw =0.26 m2

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Introduction

Answer


Et = K Q
p √
Et = 4.44fr .10−3 Q
r
Φm √
Et = 4.44f .10−3 Q
AT
p √
Et = 4.44 × 50 × 2.4 × 10−6 × 103 400
Et = 0.73 ∗ 20 = 14.64V

Et 14.64
Φm = = = 0.066Wb
4.44f 4.44 × 50
Φm 0.066
Ai = = = 0.0507m2
Bm 1.3

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Introduction

Answer

Ai = 0.0507m2

Note:
if the area is square the side length is 22.5cm
Q
Aw =
2.22fBm Kw δAi × 10−3
400
Aw =
2.22 × 50 × 1.3 × 0.26 × 2.7 × 106 × 0.0507 × 10−3

Aw = 0.088m2

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Introduction

Design Problem

Design a 25kV A, 1100/433V, 3 phase, delta/star, core type, oil im-


mersed natural cooled distribution transformer. The transformer
is provided with tapings ±2 12 , 5% on the h.v. winding. Maximum
temperature rise not to exceed 45◦C with mean temperature rise of
oil is 35◦C.

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Introduction

Answer - Core Design


The value of K from the table for a distribution transformer, core type.

K = 0.45

Volt per turn √ √


Et = K Q = 0.45 25 = 2.25V
Core flux
Et 2.25
Φm = = = 0.010135Wb
4.44f 4.44 × 50
Assume Bm = 1T :

Ai = Φm /Bm = 0.010135m2
using 2 stepped core
Ai = 0.56d 2
d = 0.1345m = 134.5mm
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Introduction

Answer -Core Design

d = 134.5mm
a = 0.85 ∗ 134.5 = 114mm
b = 0.53 ∗ 134.5 = 73mm

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Window Dimensions

The window space factor can be found for small transformer


assume Kw = 0.18
assume current density δ = 2.3 A/m2

Q = 3.33fBm Kw δAw Ai × 10−3


25 = 3.33 × 50 × 1.0 × 0.18 × (2.3 × 106 ) × Aw × 0.010135 × 10−3
Aw = 0.0358m2 = 35.8 × 103 mm2

Taking the ratio of height to width as 2.5

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Introduction

Window Dimensions

Hw × Ww = 35.8 × 103
2.5Ww = 35.8 × 103
Width of window:
Ww = 120mm2
Height of window:
Hw = 300mm2

Note:
Area of window provided Aw = 300 × 120 = 36 × 103 mm2

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Window Dimensions

Distance between adjacent core centers:

D = Ww + d = 120 + 135 = 225mm

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Introduction

Yoke Design

The area of yoke is taken as 1.2 times that of the limb.


Flux density in yoke = 1/1.2 = 0.833 Wb/m2
Net area of yoke = 1.2 × 10.135 × 103 = 12.16 × 103 mm2
Gross area of yoke = 12.16 × 103 /0.9 = 13.5 × 103 mm2
Taking the section of the yoke as rectangular:

Depth of yokeDy = a = 114mm

Height of yokeHy = a = 13.5/114mm

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Introduction

Overall Dimensions of Frame

Height of frame:

H = Hw + 2Hy = 300 + 2 × 114 = 528mm

Width of frame:

W = 2D + a = 2 ∗ 255 + 114 = 624mm

Depth of frame:
Dy = 114mm

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