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Introduction to Transformer Design

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Introduction

Symbols

Φm main flux, Wb

Bm maximum flux density, Wb/m2

δ current density, A/m2

Agi net core area, m2

Ai net core area, m2

= stacking factor × gross core area

Ac area of copper in window, m2

Aw window area, m2

D distance between core centers, m

d diameter of circumscribing circle, m

Kw window space factor

f frequency

Et emf per turn, V

Introduction

Symbols

Ip , Is current in primary and secondary, A

Vp , V s terminal voltage of primary and secondary, V

a p , as conductor area of primary and secondary, m2

`i mean length of flux path in iron, m

Lmt length of mean turn of transformer windings, m

Gi weight of active iron, kg

Gc weight of copper, kg

gi weight iron per m3 , kg

gc weight of copper per m3 , kg

pi loss in iron per kg, W

pc loss in copper per kg, W

Introduction

E P S

Et = = 4.44f Φm

T

The window of single phase trans-

former contains one primary and

one secondary winding. Then, to-

tal copper of area in window is

given by:

A c = T p a p + Ts as P S P

Introduction

Taking the current density δ to be the same in both primary and sec-

ondary windings.

Ip

ap =

δ

Is

as =

δ

Total conductor area in window is:

Ip Is

Ac = Tp + Ts

δ δ

Tp I p + T s I s

Ac =

δ

Ac = 2AT /δ

Introduction

window to area of window.

Ac

Kw =

Aw

Ac = Kw Aw

Ac = 2AT /δ = Kw Aw

Kw Aw δ

AT =

2

Introduction

Q = Vp Ip × 10−3 = Ep Ip × 10−3

Q = Et Tp Ip × 10−3 = Et AT × 10−3

K w Aw δ

Q = 4.44f Φm × 10−3

2

Introduction

Q = Vp Ip × 10−3 = Ep Ip × 10−3

Q = Et Tp Ip × 10−3 = Et AT × 10−3

K w Aw δ

Q = 4.44f Φm × 10−3

2

Introduction

The window of

three phase trans-

former contains two

primary and two

secondary winding.

Then, total copper P S P P S P P S P

of area in window is

given by:

Ac = 2(Tp ap +Ts as )

Introduction

Ip Is

Ac = 2Tp + 2Ts

δ δ

Ac = 4AT /δ

Ac = K w A w

Ac = 4AT /δ = Kw Aw

Kw Aw δ

AT =

4

Introduction

Q = 3Et Tp Ip × 10−3 = 3Et AT × 10−3

Kw Aw δ

Q = 3 × 4.44f Φm × 10−3

4

Introduction

Q = 4.44f Φm AT × 10−3

The ratio of r = Φm /AT is constant for a transformer of a given type,

service and method of construction.

Φm

Q = 4.44Φm f × 10−3

r

Q = 4.44Φ2m f /r × 10−3

r

r .103 √

Φm = Q

4.44f

Introduction

r .103 √

Et = 4.44f Φm = 4.44f Q

4.44f

p √

Et = 4.44fr .103 Q

√

Et = K Q

construction.

Introduction

Values of Constant K

single phase core type 0.75 to 0.85

three phase shell type 1.3

three phase core type (distribution) 0.45

three phase core type (power) 0.6 to 0.7

Introduction

` 1

pc = RI 2 /V = ρ ∙ (Aδ)2 ∙

A A`

pc = ρδ 2

Pi pG

= i i

Pc pc G c

When the densities of the iron and copper are determined, the loss per

kg for iron and copper are determined. The ratio of weight of iron to

weight of copper can be easily found.

Introduction

Core Design

power transformers for moderate and low voltage. The

ratio of width to depth varies between 1.4 to 2.

Rectangular shaped coils are used for rectangular core.

Introduction

Core Design

d a

2

2 d

Agi = a = √ = 0.5d 2

2

Gross core area 0.5d 2

= = 0.64

Area of circle πd 2 /4

Net core area 0.9 ∗ 0.5d 2

= = 0.58

Area of circle πd 2 /4

Introduction

Core Design

53 85 100

53

85

100

Introduction

Core Design

42 70 90

70

90

100

Introduction

Effective Area

Gross core area Agi 64 79 84 87

Net core area Ai 58 71 75 78

Net core area kd 2 0.45 0.56 0.6 0.62

Introduction

Example

The ratio of flux to full load mmf in a 400kV A, 50Hz, single phase

core type power transformer is 2.4 × 10−6 . Calculate the net iron

area and the window area of the transformer. Maximum flux den-

sity in the core is 1.3Wb/m2 , current density is 2.7 A/mm2 and win-

dow space factor is 0.26. Also, calculate the full load mmf.

Answer

Q = 400 kV A

f = 50 Hz

Φm /AT = 2.4 × 10−6

Bm = 1.3 Wb/m2

δ = 2.7 /m2

Kw =0.26 m2

Introduction

Answer

√

Et = K Q

p √

Et = 4.44fr .10−3 Q

r

Φm √

Et = 4.44f .10−3 Q

AT

p √

Et = 4.44 × 50 × 2.4 × 10−6 × 103 400

Et = 0.73 ∗ 20 = 14.64V

Et 14.64

Φm = = = 0.066Wb

4.44f 4.44 × 50

Φm 0.066

Ai = = = 0.0507m2

Bm 1.3

Introduction

Answer

Ai = 0.0507m2

Note:

if the area is square the side length is 22.5cm

Q

Aw =

2.22fBm Kw δAi × 10−3

400

Aw =

2.22 × 50 × 1.3 × 0.26 × 2.7 × 106 × 0.0507 × 10−3

Aw = 0.088m2

Introduction

Design Problem

mersed natural cooled distribution transformer. The transformer

is provided with tapings ±2 12 , 5% on the h.v. winding. Maximum

temperature rise not to exceed 45◦C with mean temperature rise of

oil is 35◦C.

Introduction

The value of K from the table for a distribution transformer, core type.

K = 0.45

Et = K Q = 0.45 25 = 2.25V

Core flux

Et 2.25

Φm = = = 0.010135Wb

4.44f 4.44 × 50

Assume Bm = 1T :

Ai = Φm /Bm = 0.010135m2

using 2 stepped core

Ai = 0.56d 2

d = 0.1345m = 134.5mm

Basics of Transformer Design December 27, 2017 24 / 30

Introduction

d = 134.5mm

a = 0.85 ∗ 134.5 = 114mm

b = 0.53 ∗ 134.5 = 73mm

Introduction

Window Dimensions

assume Kw = 0.18

assume current density δ = 2.3 A/m2

25 = 3.33 × 50 × 1.0 × 0.18 × (2.3 × 106 ) × Aw × 0.010135 × 10−3

Aw = 0.0358m2 = 35.8 × 103 mm2

Introduction

Window Dimensions

Hw × Ww = 35.8 × 103

2.5Ww = 35.8 × 103

Width of window:

Ww = 120mm2

Height of window:

Hw = 300mm2

Note:

Area of window provided Aw = 300 × 120 = 36 × 103 mm2

Introduction

Window Dimensions

Introduction

Yoke Design

Flux density in yoke = 1/1.2 = 0.833 Wb/m2

Net area of yoke = 1.2 × 10.135 × 103 = 12.16 × 103 mm2

Gross area of yoke = 12.16 × 103 /0.9 = 13.5 × 103 mm2

Taking the section of the yoke as rectangular:

Introduction

Height of frame:

Width of frame:

Depth of frame:

Dy = 114mm

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