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7th BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

DOI: 10.7251/BMC170701313K

STABILITY MONITORING OF THE EXISTING COLLECTOR UNDER


THE FLOTATION TAILINGS DUMP VELIKI KRIVELJ (SERBIA)

Slađana KRSTIĆ1, Milenko LJUBOJEV1, Dušan TAŠIĆ1, Ivana JOVANOVIĆ1, Jasmina


NEŠKOVIĆ2, Sanja PETROVIĆ1
1
Mining and Metallurgy. Institute Bor, Serbia; sladjana.krstic@irmbor.co.r, milenko.ljubojev@irmbor.co.rs,.
dusan.tasic@irmbor.co.rs, ivajo7@gmail.com, sanja.petrovic@irmbor.co.rs
2
Mining Institute,Zemun, Belgrade, Serbia;jasmina.neskovic@ribeograd.ac.rs

ABSTRACT

Flotation tailings dumps, in terms of environmental protection, represent a real risk on humans and the
environment, regardless of whether they are in operating mode, or the process of disposal has been
completed. In eastern Serbia, on the territory of Bor Municipality, there are two active flotation
tailings dumps: Flotation tailings dump RTH and Flotation tailings dump Veliki Krivelj. Risk of
environmental hazard can be high in one or more projected structures within the tailings dumps.
The aim of this paper is to answer the question whether the collector of the flotation tailings dump
Velki Krivelj resistant to accident situations. Potential accidental situation can lead to extreme
pollution of Borska reka, subsequently Timok and Kriveljska reka, and finaly Danube. Visual
observation of entrance and exit portal of collector, show that the concrete structure is stable and safe
in terms of functionality. Noticeably higher damages exist on spherical sections of metal coatings, and
breakthrough of contaminated drainage water is present at 70th and 80th meter of the collector
(chainage 0 + 200 m). The level of water is significantly increased at the exit portal of collector as well
as blurring of Kriveljska Reka is observed.

Key words: monitoring of stability, existing collector under flotation tailings dump Veliki Krivelj,
water of Borska Reka, Danube

1. INTRODUCTION

Copper-sulphuric-pyrite ores are formed in veins, smaller ore bodies of irregular shape with
stockwork-impregnation type of mineralization. The area around the massive-sulphide
mineralization is filled with the stockwork-impregnation and wire type of mineralization [4].
The common minerals found are quartz, pyrite, chalcopyrite, galenite, enargite, and gold.
These ores also contain a number of minor elements such as rhenium, cadmium, bismuth,
gallium, thallium, germanium, indium, selenium, tellurium, gold, silver, ytterbium, and

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yttrium. Considering the chemical compositions of flotation tailings, continual monitoring of


dump structures is necessery.
High risk of environmental hazard is noticed for one or more projected structures of flotation
tailings dump Veliki Krivelj. Oxidation of sulfate minerals leads to release of many toxic
metals from the flotation tailings into solution (Fe, Cu, Cd, As, Mo, and others). The resulting
solutions (acid mine drainage - AMD) is characterized by low pH (typically less than 5) and a
high concentration of sulfate ions and metals [2]. Potential Health/Environmental Effects
from base metals found in mine tailings and flotation tailings Veliki Krivelj are: (1) Copper
(Cu) - Small amounts are considered non-toxic and necessary for human metabolism.
However, large doses may induce vomiting or liver damage. Toxic to fish and aquatic life at
low levels; (2) Cadmium (Cd) - Cadmium is concentrated in tissue and humans can be
poisoned by contaminated food, especially fish. Cd may be linked to renal arterial
hypertension and can cause violent nausea. Cd accumulates in liver and kidney tissue. It
depresses growth of some crops and is accumulated in plant tissue; (3) Arsenic (As) - Highly
poisonous and possibly carcinogenic in humans. Arsenic poisoning can range from chronic to
severe and may be cumulative and lethal; (4) Chromium (Cr) - Cr6+ is toxic to humans and
can induce skin sensitisations. Human tolerance of Cr3+ has not been determined; (5) Mercury
(Hg) - Hg and its compounds are highly toxic, especially to the developing nervous system.
The toxicity to humans and other organisms depends on the chemical form, the amount, the
pathways of exposure and the vulnerability of the persons exposed; (6) Iron (Fe) - Essentially
non-toxic but causes taste problems in water and (7) Zinc (Zn) - May affect water taste at high
levels. Toxic to some plants and fish.
Both surface water and groundwater have the potential to be impacted by tailings disposal
sites, either through surface water runoff to watercourses or leaching to groundwater. The
nature and significance of such impacts will depend upon the characteristics of the waste
material and the environmental setting. During the operational life of the dam the discharge of
the effluent containing tailings will have been a key source of water based contamination.

2. EXPERIMENTAL

Monitoring the state of stability of collector under the Flotation tailings dump in second half
of the 2014, was carried out on the route of 0-200 metres. The picture shows the end chainage
0 + 200 m and the start of the repaired collector (Figure 1) work, that is narrowed in diameter
of 1m. When you go inside that part of the collector, further continual monitoring, visit and
review of panels is disabled due to the high pressure of water.

a) b)
Figure 1. a) The start of the repaired collector; b) Exit portal of collector.

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Visual observation of concrete exit portal of collector (Figure 2 a, b), indicates that the
concrete structure is stable and safe in terms of functionality [3]. Noticeably higher damages
exist on spherical sections of metal coatings (Figure 3a, b), and breakthrough of contaminated
drainage water is present at 70th and 80th meter of the collector (chainage 0 + 200 m) (Figure
4 a, b). The level of water is significantly increased at the exit portal of collector (Figure 5 a,
b) as well as blurring of Kriveljska Reka is observed.

a) b)
Figure 2. Visual observation of collectors.

a) b)
Figure 3. Collectors from 4th to 6th meter.

a) b)
Figure 4. Collectors from 70th to 80th meter.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The negative impact [1] on the environment caused by AMD is reflected in the long-term
contamination of soils which come into contact with mine waters and accumulation of heavy
metal ions in it; in mixing AMD with surface water; AMD mixing with the underground
waters and their pollution, and so on. AMD represent one of the most serious threats to the
aquatic world and the environment. Water from the dam "3A" of flotation tailings dump

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Veliki Krivelj contents pollutant Cu2+ ions 53 (mg/dm3) and flows to the Kriveljska reka
(Figure 5a, b). The water quality [4] of the Kriveljska reka is given for the period 2006-2017:
 Cu min. 0.376 (mg/dm3) in 2006. max. 168.140 (mg/dm3) in 2010;
 Fe min. 0.200 (mg/dm3) in 2007. max. 455.40 (mg/dm3) in 2010;
 Cd min. 0.000 (mg/dm3) in 2006, 2007 and 2008. max. 0.035 (mg/dm3) in 2011;
 Zn min. 0.170 (mg /dm3) in 2007. max. 13.040 (mg /dm3) in 2010;
 Ni min. 0.000 (mg /dm3) in 2006 and 2008. max. 0.250 (mg /dm3) in 2010;
 pH min. 5.62 in 2009. max. 7.22 in 2012;
 Suspended solids in 1050 C min. 172.40 (mg /dm3) in 2009. max. 460.90 (mg /dm3) in
2012.

a) b)
Figure 5. Exit portal of collector (high level of water, as well as blurring of Kriveljska reka).

4. CONCLUSION

The high degree of water pollution of Kriveljska reka at the exit portal of collector is
established by visual observation. Breakthrough of contaminated drainage water (AMD) is
noticed at 70th and 80th meter (chainage 0 +200 m). Is permanent monitoring of the collector
of Kriveljska reka necessary in order to prevent environmental disasters? The answer is YES.
Visual observation of concrete exit portal of collector show that the concrete structure is
stable and safe in terms of functionality. Increasing number of damages on the cladding sheets
of collector's calotte requires permanent monitoring of the collector of Kriveljska reka.

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This investigation was conducted under Project TR 330021 “Research and Monitoring the Changes of the Stress
Strain State in the Rock Mass "In-Situ" around the Underground Rooms with Development of Models with
Special Reference to the Tunnel of the Krivelj River and Pit Bor", funded by the Ministry of Education, Science
and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.

REFERENCES

[1] Krstic S., Ljubojev M., Mikic M., Ljubojev V., (2011). Methods of geotechnical investigations for
rehabilitation and remediation the flotation tailing dump Veliki Krivelj (Serbia), XIV Balkan mineral
processing congress, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Vol. II, pp. 851-853.
[2] Krstic S., Ljubojev M., Lekovski R., Ljubojev V., (2013). Geotechnical аctivites for Remediation and
Reclamation the Flotation DAM1 and Flotation DAM2 Veliki Krivelj (Serbia), 13th SGEM
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[3] Krstic S., Ljubojev M., Ljubojev V., Jovanovic I., (2013). Geotechnical investigations in the DAM 2
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[4] Krstic S., Ljubojev M., Ljubojev V., (2015). Tunel and kolektor Krivelj River and the state of the
environment, Book of Apstract EnviroChem 2015, Serbia, pp. 283.

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