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DRILLING RIG SELECTION

GUIDELINES
DRILLING RIGS-
RIGS- General

Selection of Land drilling rig should be based on planed depth and


and well construction in the long term drilling activities.
More important is to decide area of activity.

Nort Africa, Middle east and partlly Caspian region:


region: Majority of drilling contracts (activities) are related with
drilling wells depth range 3000 to 4500m (dominantlly deeper then
then 3900m).

Caspian region: Still have great activities at depth range up to 3600m.

This fact determine drilling rig type selection. If rig is planed to work depth range up to 3600m then is prefferable to
select mobile, telescopic drilling rig rated up to 1000 HP.

Drilling rig name is dictated bu name of Drawworks.

Rig depth rating is determined by:


1. Draworks capacity
2. Mast capacity
3. Crown block and travelling block capacity
4. Drilling line size and pulling force

Some drawworks producer with number part of draworks name denotes


denotes year of constructing, other most of them gives
rated capacity of draworks.
DRILLING RIGS-
RIGS- General

If compare stationaru and mobile drilling rig we can notice following


following advantage-
advantage- disadvantages:

STATIONARY DRILLING RIGS MOBILE DRILLING RIGS


Advantage: Advantage:
Stands in the tripple – faster tripping  Smaller investment at start
 Porefull equipment – drawwork over 1000 HP, mud  Faster moving
pumps over 1000 HP Less truck loads
Uses 5” DP – at greater depth less pressure losses. Less area for well site
Havy casing string run deeper –Hook loads over 200 t Smaller waste pit
Diesel electric drive. Less number of drilling crew
Flexible range of RPM and SPM Less sparet parts stock
Substructure higher and drilling floor greater area.
DP length upper limit for range
Better Contractor’s References. Disadvantage:
Disadvantage:  Stands in the double- slow triping
 Greater investmens at start  When drill deeper with 4 ½” DP or less, greater pressure drops.
More days for moving  Restricted running depth of intermediate casing if well
More truck loads construction is complex due overpressure and lost circulation zones.
Longer rigging up  Mostly mechanical rigs – high noise level.

Large surface of well site  Mud pump SPM restricted due drive diesel engine. Required 3
More personnel –more experienced and specialist liner size
Havy drilling and handling equipment Restricted height bellow rotary table for BOP stack

More investment for spare part stock Less surface of drilling floor – safety
DP length restricted on bottom length limit.
DRILLING RIGS-
RIGS- General

DRAWORKS RATED POWER HOOK LOAD CAPACITY (tons)


HP (kW)
CONVENTIONAL RIGS MOBILE RIGS

150 (110) 60

200 (147) 75

250 (184) 80

300 (220) 90-


90-100

500 (368) 125

700 (515) 180 180

1000 (735) 220 220

1500 (1100) 360


2000 (1470) 500

3000 (2200) 750

4000 (2940) 1000

5000 (3728) 1500


MOBILE DRILLING RIG

.
DRAWWORKS
DRAWWORKS

Basic configuration of Drawworks is:


MAIN DRUM:
Main drum of drawworks (Fig. 1) is intended to create enough force force in the single line by wounding or re-
re-wounding
drilling line while RIH , POOH or during drilling to slowlly release
release weight on bit. Single line pull force depends on
drawworks input power and drilling line size. Diameter and lengthlength of drum are in the direct relation with mast height
drilling line size and number of lines (determines hook load capacity). Usually drum is grooved for selected drilling
line size for beter wounding – extending usable life of drilling line. Brake rims are designed for band brake or for
disc brake. Brake rims surface depends of drawworks rated capacity.
capacity. Other components design depends on the type of
rih (conventional or mobile) and drive (diesel mechanic or diesel
diesel electiric).
DRAWWORKS

Cat head:
Cat head is mechanical device for Making-
Making-up or Breaking-
Breaking-out thread connection during connecting or
triping. Pulling force created by cat head in the combination of
of length of roetary tongs lever, should be
enought for creating necessary torque when connecting. Whenactivate
Whenactivate at driler’
driler’s panel cathead
control switch, friction plates at cat head matches and transfer force to pulling line.
Make-
Make-up cat head is located at LH side of drawworks, break-
break-out cat head on RH side.

Most popular are cat heads:


 FOSTER ,
 KelCo Model 12 (for DP 4 ½” shallow wells) and Model 16 for deep drilling.
 American Model 55
DRAWWORKS

Make-
Make-up & Break-
Break-out hydraulic cylinders:
With mobile drilling rig catheads are problem when moving and during
during operating. Mobile rig is too
wide for transport and to avoid disassembling and during rigging up again instaling cat head today in
yse are hydraulic cylinder with pulling force 10t.

They are installed on the mast verticallyat height 3-


3-6m over drill floor, and pulling line is run down at
changing direction of line for 900 and
height appr. 1m over floor, pasing between 2 set of rolles changing
connecting to rotary tongs.

HYDRAULIC BRAKE

Each diesel mechanic drilling and workover rig is equiped with hydrailic
hydrailic brake. Most popular Model are
produced by company PARMAC.

At drilling rigs when triping heavy drilling strings weightening over 20 t it is very dificult that driller
using band brake safely hold that load. Another reason is to avoid
avoid overheating brake pads.

They are producting in the sizes to meet every need for drilling to depths well up to 10000m and for
allsize of workover rigs. In the next table is given range of sizes
sizes and maximum recommended
operating speeds.
DRAWWORKS

Size Max.press. Max.speed Capacity Breaking .


psi RPM HP torque

111-
111-300 25 2300 300
112-
112-500 25 2300 500
15DR 25 2300 1600
121 25 2300 800
122 25 2300 1600
201 25 1550 1500
22SR 25 1550 2500
202 25 1550 3000
22DR 25 1550 4000
V-80 15 1550 5000
SSR28 15 900 5500
262 15 850 6000
341 15 600 6000
341A 15 600 6000
342 15 600 7500
342A 15 600 7500
46SR 15 500 7000
60SR 15 375 8000
451 15 500 8500

481 15 450 9000


V200 15 480 10000
V295 15 350 12000
DRAWWORKS

Bigger mobile drilling rigs and most convential drilling rigs produced
produced today ate Diesel electric rig.
Drawworks for this rigs have electric drive ba AC or DC motore,
motore, usualy two. And instead hydraulic
brake have Electromagnetic brake (Eddy current brake).

ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKE Model 7838

Max Breaking Torque: 117.000 lb- lb-ft Volrage: 250V DC


Nominal drilling depth: 10000 ft Input power: 23 kW
No. Og magnet 2 Cooling water: 150 Gall/min.
No. Of coil: 4
DRAWWORKS

Crownblock protecting device


Is air operating device which have to prevent collision of the traveling
traveling block with the crown block.
When traveling block is within a preset distance from zthe crown block, it disengaged the clutch
and simultaneously applies the brakes to the drawworks.
SAND DRUM

Sand drum on the drilling rigs is not obligatoru part od equipment.


equipment.
Sand drum at drilling rig is in the use when aftter finish drilling
drilling there is necessary to complete well for
production ( perforate casing, swabbing, runn tubing, etc.).

Wire line is ussually 3/8”


3/8” anr xdrum capacity is greater than deilling line capacita at main
main drum.
MOBILE DRILLING RIG

Mobile rigs
 Smaler drum size and older construction have brake
flanges designed to accomodate band brake. High
capacity mobile righ today are designed and to
accomodate disc brake.
 Mobile drilling rigs, due small dimension, usually are
diesel mechanic. Only higher rated capacity rigs can
be diesel electric.
 Racking board to have three position.
 Raising mast upper section can be by wire rope
(simple maintenance and low cost) or by hydraulic
cylinder.
 Upper section locking device by “dogs”
dogs” (4 pcs) or by
two pins.
 Usually have one stand pipe.
 Substructure to be telescopic.
 To have provision for rat and mouse hole.
 Racking boadr equiped with air operated winch 1 ton
to assist derricman.
 Casing stabing board with air winch
DRILLING RIG – MAST TELESCOPIC

- Telescopic mast installed on the mobile rigs are critical with mast height.
- Declared mast height assume height from ground lavel to water tabletable
(Bottom of crown block).
- Usable height is total mast height minus substructure height.
- Example:
Example:

Standard Mobile rig

Mast height, m 144ft (43,89m) 118 ft (35.96m)

Substructure height, m 20 ft (6m) 20 ft (6m)

Usable mast height, m 124ft (37,89m)


(37,89m) 98ft (29,87m)

Length required for CBS reaction 2m 2m

Hook block length 13 ft (3,90m) 10,5ft (3,27m)

Swivel length with X-


X-over and kelly spinner 12 1/2ft (3,81m) 12 1/2ft (3,81m)
Upper kelly cock length 2,6ft (0,8m) 2,6ft (0,8m)

Kelly length 41ft (12,5m) 9,5m


Kelly saver sub 4ft (1.20m) 2,6ft (0,8m)

Drill pipe length 31,5ft (9,6m) 28,2ft (8,6m)


Length of DP over rotary table when connecting 3 ft (0,9m) 3 ft (0,9m)

113.8ft (34,71m) 93 ft (28,38m)


DRILLING RIG – MAST

For rig capacity up to 200 ton crown block and traveling block have have 5 sheaves each so operates with
10 lines. If drilling shallow wells, for fater tripping it is posible
posible to operate using 4 or 3 sheaves in the
system. In the such case running drilling line over sheaves must be performed according API RP 9B
Application, care and use of wire rope for Oilfield Service.
DRILLING RIG – MAST – Crown block
DRILLING RIG – MAST – Traveling block

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DRILLING RIG SELECTION – ROTARY TABLE

Rotary table should be at same lavel as drillig floor , both covered


covered with anti sliding material.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – ROTARY TABLE

Rotary table opening depens on casing design.


Example:
Example: If drilling rig 200 tons hook capacity should drill up to 3900m
3900m that assume that it will need to drill 26”
26” and
to run casing 20”
20” at depth 30 or 100m. To perform that task it is neccesary to have
have rotary table opening 27 ½”.
½”.

For running casing 20”


20” with elevator and casing slips it is good to have and Casing bowl
bowl inserts 20”
20”.

Rotary torque usually not specified, but it is allways greater than


than critical torque gor drill pipes. DRILL PIPE TORQUE
STRENGTH IS WEEAKEST POINT IN THE SYSTEM.

For well dipeer than 3000m (or drill string havier than 115 ton),
ton), it should be allweys used Pin drive kelly bushing, pin
drive master bushing and SDU rotary slips.

PIN DRIVE BOWL INSERTS

API Insert bowl


No. 1 2 3/8”-8 5/8”
No.2 9 5/8”-10 ¾”
No.3 11 ¾”-13 3/8”
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – ROTARY TABLE

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DRILLING RIG SELECTION – POWER EQUIPMENT

 Each rig must be equiped with 2 generator set appropirately rated


rated so that one work 12 hours and
second to be in the standba.
 Basicaly rig rated 200 tons have following power consumption:

- 60-
60-110 Pcs. AC motors rated from 0,25 to 15 Kw that simultaniously works at average 90 kW
- 4 Pcs AC motors rated 75 Kw each (2 Mud hopper, one desilter and one desander 150 kW
- 4 Pcs AC motors rated 35 kW each (two mud pumps, 2 compressor)
35 kW
- Heating / Cooling 7 Pcs air conditioner at 3 kW each 21 kW
- Rig lightening 10 kW

TOTAL: 306 kW

 That means that best selection is 2 generators rated 320 kW Each as minimum and one auhiliary generator for
moving rated 120 kW.
 Switch gear box (MCC) to be equiped with air conditioner. Plug in in connection out door one to one.
 Mud agitators and shale shaker start-
start-stop switch close to consumer.
 All electrical instalation EXd protected.

COMPRESSOR
- One active and one standby compresor electricaly driven by 35kW motor AC.
- One air drayer
- One air reservoir 6m3
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – MUD PUMPS

MUD PUMP
 Two mud pumps 1000 HP 6 ¾” x 10” 10”each independently driven with torque converter C300-
C300-65
 Two pre-
pre-charging centrifugal pumps 5x6 driven with AC motor 35-
35-45 kW
 Pulsation dampener PD-PD-55 5000 psi WP
 Suction dampener horizontal
 Pressure relief valve 1500-
1500-5000 psi , reset, flanged
 Vibration discharge hose 3 ½” 5000 psi
 Discharge manifold 4”4” 5000 psi welded connections
 Liner selection 2, max 3 sizes
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – BOP’
BOP’s

BOP’
BOP’s for drilling rig 200 ton should be 13 5/8”
5/8” 10000 psi rated as follows:
 Annular blowout preventer 13 5/8” 5/8” 5000 psi bottom flanged
 Double ram blowout preventer 13 5/8” 5/8” 10000 psi WP, flanged, with two side outlets 4”4”
10000psi flanged. Top cavity equiped with 4 ½” DP rams, bottom cavity CSO- CSO- blind rams.
 Auxilliary rams 9 5 /8”
/8” one pair and 6 5/8”
5/8” or 7”
7” casing rams.
 Drilling spool 13 5/8”5/8” 10000 psi with two side outlets 4”
4” 10000psi flanged.
 Addapter spool 13 5/8” 5/8” 5000 psi x 13 5/8”
5/8” 10000 psi, studded.
 Addapter spool 13 5/8” 5/8” 3000 psi x 13 5/8”
5/8” 10000 psi, studded.
 Addapter spool 11” 11” 5000 psi x 13 5/8”
5/8” 10000 psi, studded.
 Choke line 4 1/16”
1/16” 10K welded connection with one HRC 4 1/18” 1/18” 10K and one gate valve 4
1/16”
1/16” 10K flanged. Instead steel pipe 4 1/16”
1/16”10K it can be flexibile hose 4 1/16”
1/16”10K.
 Kill line 2 1/16”
1/16” 10K welded connection with two gate valve 2 1/16”
1/16”10K flanged and one check
valve 2 1/16”
1/16” 10K.
 Kill manifold (for Caspian region) with 3 gate valve 2 1/16”
1/16” 10K flanged.
 Accumulator unit 160 gal minimum with appropirate triplex plunger pump driven by AC motor
15 kW, two air operated pumps , manifold with valves for closing anular, pipe rams, CSO rams,
HRC valve; three pressure transducer for Annu8lar pressure, low oil level and manifold pressure,
remote control panel with grafical illustration gauges for annular
annular pressure, and air system
pressure, air control hose, hypraulic pipe racks 1”1” connecting accumulator unit with BOP’
BOP’s.
 Cup tester for casing 9 5/8”5/8” 36-
36-42# and 43,5-
43,5-53,5#; 7”
7” 29-
29-38#, 13 3/8”
3/8” 72#.
 BOP testing unit air operated 15000 psi with recorder
 BOP Test stand
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – Cup tester

CUP TESTER TYPE “F”


Connection Load capacity, lb Casing Cup area
Sq.inch
Size Weight, lb/ft

2 3/8”
3/8”IF 270.000 4 ½” All 9.5

5” All 12.4
5 ½” All 16.0

3 ½”IF
½”IF 500.000 6 5/8”
5/8” All 14,8
7” 17-
17-26 23,5

7” 29-
29-38 20,4

4 ½”IF
½”IF 800.000 9 5/8”
5/8” 32,2-
32,2-40 44,1

9 5/8”
5/8” 43,5-
43,5-53,5 42,4

13 3/9”
3/9” 48-
48-61 109,5

13 3/8”
3/8” 61-
61-72 103,3

20”
20” 78,5-
78,5-122,3 300,0
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – BOP accessories

DRILLING SPOOL Adapter spool- studded

BOP TEST UNIT KILL LINE MANIFOLD


DRILLING RIG SELECTION – MUD SYSTEM

MUD SYSTEM
For 200 ton rig, based on well construction 13 3/8”
3/8”-200m; 9 5/8”
5/8”-1500m and 8 ½” 3900m
appropirate mud system total volume is 150m3 consisting of:
- Mud tank suction 40m3 equiped with 2 mud agitators 15HP each, mud guns
- Mud mixing tank 40m3 equiped with 2 mud agitators 15 HP each, mud guns
- Mud tank –reserve mud 40m3 equiped with with 2 mud agitators 15 HP each, mud guns
- Mud threatment tank 40m3 with two chembers-
chembers- suction and discharge compartment, 2 mud
agitators 15 HP each, mud guns. On top of tank installed desander,
desander, degaser and mud cleaner
(optionaly – centrifuge for unweighted mud for use in Caspian region).
- Shaker tank 20 + 12m3 with sand trap and two linear motion shakers.
- Separator mud/gas for 20 Bar WP 600 dm3.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – MUD SYSTEM

ELLIPTICAL MOTION SHAKER SWACO DE-SANDER – 2 cone

MUD CLEANER HORIZONTAL VACUUM DR-GASR


DRILLING RIG SELECTION – MUD SYSTEM

CENTRIFUGE

MUD HOPPER CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

SEPARATOR
MUD-GAS
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

ROTARY TONGS
Reliable rotary tongs produce BJ, Folley, Blohm & Vos, Web Wilson
Wilson and all parts are interchangable.

For drilling rigs there is thre basic models: SXD-


SXD-200; SDD, DB and B.

TONGS TYPE Torque ft-


ft- lb Size range

SDX-
SDX-200 200.000 8” - 16”
16”
SDD 60.000 16”
16” - 17”
17”
75.000 12”
12” – 15”
15”

100.000 4” – 12”
12”
DB 40.000 11 ¾” – 17”
17”
65.000 3 ½” – 11 ¼”
B 30.000 13 3/8”
3/8”
40.000 9” – 11 ¼”
55.000 3 ½” – 9”

Rotary tongs Type B (HT-55)


DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

ELEVATOR LINKS
Nominal size of liks is measured on the body. They should be weldless.
weldless. Usualy rig is equiped with
two pairs of links. One pair is shorter and is intendent for normal drilling operations. Another pair
is is longer (and can be and larher size) for use in the special
special situations (when cementing casing
string it is neccesary more space between hook and elevator to accomodate cementing head or
during DST to accomodate testing head).

Rated 250 tons Rated 350 tons Rated 500 tons


2 ¼” x 60”
60” 2 ¼” x 72”
72” 3 ½” x 132”
132”
2 ¼” x 72”
72” 2 ¼” x 84”
84” 3 ½” x 144”
144”
2 ¼” x 84”
84” 2 ¼” x 96”
96”
2 ¼” x 108”
108” 2 ¼” x 108”
108”
2 ¼” x 132”
132”
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

ELEVATORS (Drill pipe, Drill collar and casing)


Drill pipe elevator are side door elevators designed for shouler 900 or 180.
 Type G elevator center latch with taper 180 uses for Drill pipe ranging from 100 – 500 ton
capacity and sizes 2 3/8”
3/8” to 6 5/8”
5/8”OD.
 Type X collar type side door elevators for handling Drill collar,
collar, Casing and Tubing ranging from 65
to 500 ton capacity and size range 1,66”
1,66” to 30”
30”OD.
 Type A collar type side door elevators for handling Drill collar,
collar, Casing and Tubing in two basic
design:
 TA ranging from 35-35-150 ton capacity covering sizes 1,05”
1,05” to 11 ¼”
 RA ranging from 125-
125- 175 ton capacity covering sizes 2 3/8”
3/8” to 7”
7”.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

As stated previously for drill string loads up to 115 tons can bebe used drill pipe slips Type DU having
length of gripping with insets of 12”
12”. For heavier strings it must be used SDU (or RD) type slips
gripping 16”
16” length in the combination with pin drive system only.

ROTARY SLIPS SDU


DRILL COLLAR SLIPS
Can be with standard inserts or with circular buttons. Bircular button inserts have better gripping with
less possibility of slipping DC.

DRILL COLLAR SLIPS


WITH CIRCULAR BUTTONS
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

Casing multysegment slips with circular buttons


Covers casing sizes from 6 5/8”
5/8” to 30”
30” by changing numper of casing segments and
button size according manufacturers table.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

DEN-CON
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

DRILL PIPE AND DRILL COLLAR POWER TONGS


Hydraulically powered tongs (TW-
(TW-60 Varco)male up and break out drill pipe tool joints
and drill collars from 4”
4” to 8”
8” OD. Torque can be pre-
pre-set to the required value.

Required hydraulic fluid flow 114-


114-133 lpm at 135 Bar.
Size range 4 – 8” (102-
(102-203mm)
Make up torque 63.000 ft-
ft-lbs (85.000 N-
N-m)
Break out torque 75.000 ft-
ft-lbs (101.000 N-
N-m)
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

Hydraulic spinning wrebch

Spinn drill pipe and drill collars from 2 7/8”


7/8” to 9 ½” OD with no adjustments necessary.

Size range 2 7/8”


7/8” to 9 ½” OD
Required hydraulic fluid flow 110-
110-170 lpm at 135 Bar
Speed (5”
(5” DP) 100 rpm
Torque (5”
(5”DP) 900-
900-1000 ft-
ft-lbs ( 1215-
1215-1350 N m)
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

KELLY SPINNER

Model 6600 (air operated ) and Model 6800 (hydraulically operated)


operated) can be used for
rotating drill pipe slowly for limited rat hole and mousehole drilling
drilling and for fast making
kelly connection. Unit can spin in and spin out.
 Difference between air and hydraulically operater kelly spiner is is in the drive motor
and auxxiliary equipment (valves, hose, manifold and discharge lines) lines)
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

RIG INSTRUMENTATION
Rig instrumentation can operate peumatically-
peumatically-hydraulically or electrically.
Pneumatic-
Pneumatic- hydrasulic systems are cheap, long life, simple for installing, adjusting,
maintenance and needs small amount of spares.
Electrical systems are expensive, installing, adjusting and maintenace must be performed
performed
by specialist, needs large quantities of expesive spares.

Basic instrumentation systems conssit of:


 Weight indicator with weight sensor
 Pump pressure, two or three
 SPM, Pump stroke per minute
 RPM, rotary table rotational spped
 Rotary torque
 Tongs pull line force or torque
 Pit level indikator
 Flow meter
 T-Km, Drilling line work
 Recorder, drilling parameters
Instrument console

Instrument BOX
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION-
INSTRUMENTATION-WEIGHT INDICATOR

WEIGHT INDICATOR

Most popular weight indicator systems is Martin Decker-


Decker- Totco. Atlas instrument is copy of Martin
Decker. Composition of one weight indicator system depends on:
 dead line anchor type,
 drilling line size,
 sensor type,
 indicator type

Some Weight indicator systema are as follows:


System AW6:
AW6:

SYSTEM AWE6:
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

SYSTEM AWE6; AWE9 &AWE11

Martin Decker produces following Types of weight indicator:


 Weight indicator Type Slim hole
 Weight indicator Type Toolpusher
 Weight indicator Type Clipper
 Weight indicator Type Sealtite
 Weight indicator type “FS”
FS” – uses with anchor type F
 Weight indicator Type “D”
 Weight indicator Type “E”
 Weight indicator Type “EB”
EB”

Mobile drilling rigs , small and medium deepth rating, ussualy uses weight indicator Type D (for
drilling line size 1”
1”; 1 1/8”
1/8” and 1 ¼”).
¼”).

Each weight indicator is equiped with appropirate dials – from one side 6 lines , reverse side 8 lines
and bellow another dial with 8 lines and reverse side 12 lines, or bigger rigs have 8 and 10 lines –
another dial for 12 and 14 lines.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

Next figure shows one weight indicator Type “D” adjusted for 8 lines and second figure shows
changing dials.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

Dead line anchor can be installed on the mast leg, drilling floor (drawworks level)
level) or bellow drilling
floor on the substructure. Basic types are:
National anchor: Type D, E and EB
Hercules anchor: 119; 120, 121; 129; 130T; 150T

At mobile drilling rigs anchor is allways positioned in the front


front of drawworks.
For safer and easy slipping drilling line optionaly is available and drilling line tensioner at top of
Anchor.

By design anchor can be constructed for:


 Tension load cell (sensor E80)-
E80)- drilling line in and out from sensor side, left figure
 Compression load cell (E-
(E-543, E551 or 3 ) drilling linein from side oposite to cell and out from
sensor side, middle figure,
 Diaphragm load cell (sensor E21) located on the drilling line1 to
to 3m over drilling floor, right figure
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

ANCHOR TYPE “D”


Anchor Type “D” is structurally rated for 60000 lb single line pull to accomodate
accomodate drilling line 1 1/8”
1/8”
and 1 ¼” buc can accomodate and 1” 1” line. Line clamp is bronze inserts different for each line size
using 6 bolts 1 ½” SAE 1020 steel for fastening. Drumm diameter is 24” 24”.
 Anchor should be mounted so that dead line has a clear, unobstructed
unobstructed path to the crown block
 Senzor Type E80 is installed on the in- in-out line side of anchor. Senzor has an F-
F-53 check valve
for loading the system with W-W-15 fluid.
Factor affecting accuracy
Accuracy of anchor Type D is ±0,5%, but this can be affected by:
 Type D is calibrated with 1 1/8”
1/8” line
 With 1”
1” line will read 0,5% low
 With 1 ¼” line will read 0,5% high.
Accuracy of anchor type E is calibrated with line 1 ½”. ½”.
 With 1 ¼” line will read 1% low.
Often it is necessary to mount the anchor several feet below the gauhe. In this case all readings
will be slightly low. One feet difference between the gauge and the senzor will cause the following
weight indicator error:
No. Of lines 6 8 10 12
Type “D” 120 160 200 240
Type “E” 180 240 300 360

EXAMPLE: A Type “D” weight indicator with 8 lines, with senzor and anchor 10 ft below
below the gauge,
the indicator will read 1600 lb low at all readings.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

Greatest error may occur as a result of the friction of the tackle


tackle system and friction of the hole.

Hydraulic system is calibrated if gap between plates on the E80 or compession cells is 0,62”
0,62” (16mm).
When, with hanged traveling block and kelly gap meassurement is 13mm it must be re- re-charged.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

CHARGING SYSTEM WITH FLUID PROCEDURE:


To check peoblems with accuracy, shake hose violently or work anchor
anchor with pinch bar between stops.
- If pointers are sluggish (lazy) problem is in the indicator and may be solved by A through D
below.
- If pointers react normally, the problem is in the anchor, senzor ot dead line and may be
solved by E through J below.
A) Damper should be open to allow fluid pasage.
B) Pointers could possibly be touching each other, dial or glass.
C) Remove glass and dials, clean the movement with kerosene or equivalent.
equivalent.
D) Purge system of air by pumping W- W-15 fluid through check valve F- F-53 on the senzor. Bleed air
and excess fluid at the fitting at the base of the bourdon tube. Reassemble dials, glass and
case ring.
E) The dead line must have a clear unobstructed path to the crown and and must not bind on the
anchor flange. Any obstruction will createcpoor response in the indicator.
F) The dead sheave in the crown block must be lubricated frequently as in normal drilling this
sheave must move freely to providesensitive readings.
G) The anchor is, in effect, a lever that must be allowed to move freely
freely on its bearing. Therefore,
it should be lubricated frequently and kept free of dirt and ice.
ice.
H) The sensor must also be free of dirt and ice so that its movement
movement is not restricted. The pins
connecting the sensor to the anchor must occasionally be removed and cleaned of dirt and
corrosion as they too must have some slight movement in order to have a sensitive
instrument.
I) The kelly, kelly bushing, misalignment of the rotary table and other
other mechanical conditions of
the rig equipment may cause poor accuracy in the weight indicating
indicating system.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

CHARGING SYSTEM WITH INSTRUMENT FLUID

- Check fluid load frequently and always before taking a heavy pull.pull. The gap “A” in the
sensor should be 5/8”
5/8” ( 16mm) with block empty.
- If gap is greater then this, it is possible that the system is overloaded
overloaded to an extent
that the pointer will reading a preload figure. As soon as you apply
apply enought weight to
overcome this preload the instrument will then read accuratelly.
- When gap ”A” is LESS than 5/8”
5/8” (16mm) as it is possible to apply enought weight to the hook
that stroke of the sensor is used up and it bottoms out, metal toto metal. In this case the
instrument will read correctly until it bottoms out and the pointer
pointer can then go no further.
- Besides having the proper gap “A”, the system should be free of air, as air will compress under
load causing the gap to reduce prematurely and the possibility of of bottoming out may occur.
- calibration is 816 psi for 3600 – FOR
The gauge calibration should be checked periodically. This calibration
INSTRUMENTS “D “ and “E”.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

SPM & RPM ELECTRIC TACHOMETER

Rotary table electric and pump SPM tachometer consists of generator


generator producing DC current 4- 4-20 mA.
- Generator is mounted close torotating part of unit and trough V-
V-Belt, depending on rotating speed
produce DC current from 4 to maximum 20 mA.
- Calibration can be performed by plastic screw positioned on the right bottom side of dial.
- Device is nor expensive, duranle and low cost of maintenance.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION
PUMP STROKE INDICATOR-
INDICATOR- ELECTRONIC
- Pump stroke indicator gives SPM 1 , SPM 2 or for both pump together.
together. Also it gives and cumulative SPM from
begining of pumping.
- Sensor (contact closure) works so that when actuing rod deflect after each passing of piston rod intersect
magnetic flux thet send weak electricity singnals ranging 4-
4-20 mA to totalizer.
- For adjustment there are available folloving controls: Test button,
button, Reset button, Pump select, Alarm set and Main
power switch. Input is AC Power 230V 50Hz 20W and at sensor inputinput id +15 VDC
- Display 0 to 200 SPM
- Total strokes o- Opšerating temperature -20 to +500C
o-9999 Opš
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

PUMP STROKE INDICATOR-


INDICATOR-NON CONTACTING PROXIMITY SENSOR
This SPM or RPM system consists of following components:
 Interface box
- Purged, non-
non-purged or explosion proof.
- Two or three sensor capability
- Analog voltage output (o to 10VDC)
- Analog current output (0-
(0-16 mA, 4-4-20 mA, 0-
0-4 mA or 1-
1-5 mA) field programmable.
- Digital or”
or” cotact closure”
closure” output.
 Sensor
- There are thre types of proximity sensor
- First and third sensor at left figure require Barrier amplifier.
amplifier.
 Barrier box – purged enclosure with barrier amplifiers.
 Puls signal conditioner board-
board- proces output signals from sensor
 Discriminator board develops an analog voltage received from
pulse signal conditioner and send this voltage to an analog
display and E/P board.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

HYDRAULICALLY OPERATED ROTARY TORQUE METER “HYDRO-


HYDRO-MECH”
MECH” Model FA-
FA-9

 Simple hydraulically operated rotary torque meter-


meter- dimensionlles readout. Mounting close , as
possible, to the rotary table to avoid aditional torque in the transmition.
transmition.
 Main parts are Frame, measuring wheel (Idler), hydraulic cylinder
cylinder Hydraulic hose and Dial.
 External surfaces od rubber Idler should have appropirate profil
profil to accomodate size of chain,
single or double.
 Calibration of meter, with idler suporting low side of chain in the middle, is correct when while
loading system with instrument fluid W-W-15 give read our of 350-
350-400.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION
ELECTRIC TORQUE SYSTEM
This system measures voltage drop across a 50 micro ohms shunt placedplaced in the series eith motor.
Motor torque is proportional with motor current so voltage can bebe related to torque.
Electric torque system consists of:
- Isolation amplifier instaled close to shuntin the rotary power lineShunt
lineShunt normally have a rating of
50 mV; 1000 A.
- Recorder can be separate or standard Recor-
Recor-O-Graph 7 pen if use E/P transducer between
Amplifier and recorder.

Shunt

Power
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION
TRU-
TRU-TORQUE ROTARY RORQUE SYSTEM Model FA- FA-18
Is another hydraulicaly operated system for measuring rotary table
table torque. Consists of two
compression sensors instaled diagonally on the two rotary sides,
sides, hydraulic hose Dial indicator gauge
and hoses to recorder.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION
EXAMPLE of calculations when selecting size of senzor.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION
MUD PUMP PRESSURE GAGE Model GM6A
 System operates in the temperature range of -45 to + 650C.
 Accuracy of the system is ± 1,0%.
 System consists of Diaphragm gage protector, hydraulic hose , dampener
dampener and Gage (dial).
 Diaphragm gage protector shoul always be installed vertivally (Left
(Left Figure) to anable purging
rubber cup when pumping stops.
Hudraulic system loading with hydraulic fluid W-
W-15
 Disassembly Diaphragm gage protector and place bottom up.
 Connect hand operated hydraulic pump. Do nor tight connecting nut.
nut.
 Fill-
Fill-up pump reservoir with instrument fluid W-
W-15. During pumping minimum level should be
half of reservoir height.
 Slowly operate pump while on the connecting thread leagks clear fluid (without air bubbles).
 Tight connection and start pumping while monitor runner cup. When
When inside sides of cup
taches stop pumping. System is loaded with fluid under proper pressure.
pressure.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION
TONG LINE PULL & TORQUE INDICATOR SYSTEM H6B
System uses when making-
making-up Drill pipe, drill collar casing and tubing joints giving “line pull”
pull” readings
in pound, kilograms or decanewtons that can be easy converted to ft- ft-lb or kg-
kg-m by multiplying the
line pull reading by the effective tong handle length.

 When ussing model H29A for making-


making-up casing it provides direct torque reading in ft-
ft-lb or kg-
kg-m.
 All line pull indicators consists of: Dial indicator and hydraulic
hydraulic cylindervwith connectinh high
pressure hose.
 Dial is equipped with a target pointer which can be set to a predetermined
predetermined indication.
 Hydraulic cylinder can be installed on the jarkline or back-
back-up line.
 For accurate indication the line must be 900 to the tong armat point of taking the reading and
parallel to rig floor.
 The indicator do not need field or operational calibration.
 If the measured dimension “A” is equal to, or larher then the recharge dimension shown in the
figure recharge system as follows:
follows:
 Remove all weight from the cylinder and ensure the hose is free of kinks and sharp bends.
 Remove the cap from the check valve on the indicator dampener on the gage, close the dampener.
 Attach hand pump YA2 with swivel to the check valve, and fill reservoir
reservoir with W15 (red) instrument fluid.
 Loosen the pipe plug or blead screw on the cylinder body, pump fluid
fluid and blead at plug/screw until air
bubbles stop escaping.
 Tighten the plug or screw and pump fluid in the system to slightly
slightly overcharge and permit that piston be
fully drawn into the cylinder. Disengage hand pump from check valve.
valve.
 Replace and tighten the check valve cap, adjust dampener if necessary.
necessary.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

MUD FLOW SYSTEM


Mud flow sensor monitor the mud flow level on the return line. Signal is transered to mud flow indicator
and/or mud low recorder. Senzor is mounted ond the floe pipe
- Primary power supply 220V 50 Hz 35W
- Operating ambient temperature: -200C to +550C
- Sensor excition + 10,5 V DC
- Return flow sensing 0 to 100%
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

TRIP TANK AND MUD PIT VOLUME TOTALIZER


It is warning device for total mud volume in the mud tanks and tripping
tripping monitor.

Both systems uses Probe (explosion proof transducer) for measuring


measuring mud level in the each tank,
indicator, remote warning system (lamp and/or horn) and optionally
optionally recorder.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

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DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

RATE OF PENETRATION METER


Rate of penetration meter measures bit penetratin speed. Two basic
basic systems exist:
- Pneumatic ROP meter activated as the Record-
Record-O-Graph clucth is engaged by the driller. Sensitivity (recordoable
ROP) is 0,3m. At traveling block is attached wire which , with lowering
lowering block, releases from reel located below
recorder trasfering feed signal to the pneumatic logic system wich
wich in the turns drive pen mechanism to record
primary (o.3m) and secondary (one meter marks) on the chart.
- Pneumatic wireless system, device which sense the drawworks drum shaft motion by chain or flexibile shaft, and
sends pneumatic signals directly to the recorder.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION
AUTOMATIC DRILLER
Satellite Automatic Drilling Control System uses for maintaining the optimum weight on the bit.
Operation is based on the relation between the WOB and the dead line tension. As dead line tension
increases from the value preset in the controller, the Satellite pays out the drilling line by raising the
brake lever to release the drum, and then stops drum rotation by lowering the brake lever when the
preset WOB is reached. At Figure below is shown coplete system that that cosisting of:
- Deadline tension sensor
- Controller assembly
- Air motor
- Differential gear assembly
- Drum rotation sensor
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

RIG FLOOR RECORDER


Drilling Rig Floor Recorder systems have in the three basic design.
design.
 Hydryulic recorder with circular chart 2 or 3 pen. Available OB-
OB-19 and OB-
OB-24 recorders. Installed
usually on the back side of weight indicator. Chart is for 24 hours
hours recordin Hook Weight, pump
pressure and optionaly rotary torque.
 Sevn pen recorder RECORD-
RECORD-O-GRAPG RG- RG-7. Records 8, 12 or 24 hours drilling parameters : Hook
weight, ROP, RPM, Rotary torque, Pump pressure, SPM 1 , SPM 2. Hydraulically,
Hydraulically, mechanicaly and
pneumatic operated. Simple for use and low maintenance costs.
 Rig floor recorder RF8 with air package. Consists of three major components: Air package, ROP
sensor and Recorder assembly. Maintenance and repair should be done done by trained personnel.
Uses “flat view”
view” chart 12 or 24 hours. Pen drive is hydraulic (Weight, Pump pressure
pressure and Hydro
Mech rotary torque or tong torque), pneumatic (ROP,RPM, SPM1,SPM2
SPM1,SPM2
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – INSTRUMENTATION

TON MILE (T-(T-Km) INDICATOR


Ton Kilometer counting system consists of Integrator unit receiving
receiving a distance (Km) input signal ftom
the transmitter, and tension input signal ( in tons) from the existing
existing Sensor Load cell in the wire line
anchor.
CALCULATING VALUE OF ONE LINE ON THE WEIGHT INDICATOR

A. Rig data:
- Weight of traveling block: 4600 Kg
- Weight of links 2 ¼” x 108”
108” 276 Kg
- Weight of DP elevator GG 4 ½” 350t 324 Kg
- Weight of kelly 4 ¼” x 10,5m 788 Kg
- Weight of swivel 2100 Kg
TOTAL WEIGHT OVER ROTARY RABLE, air 8088 Kg
Drill pipes 4 ½” x 16,6lb/ft E75 NC50 180 long 2000m
Drill collar 6 ½ x 2 ½” x 143,2 Kg/m 200m length
Mud Density 1,32 Kg/dm3

B. System accuracy-
accuracy- Weight indicator “D” and deadline anchor Type Hercules 129T with 10 lines, located
18 feet below weight indicator. By using data from Catalog Martinn
Martinn Decker TW570 Page 7 Tables 4-4-1 and
4-2,

Wire size Calibration Reading Error


Lines strung 6 8 10 12
1” (25mm) 0,8% Low
1 1/8”
1/8” (29mm) 0,3% Low Error per foot 61 Kg 81 Kg 101 Kg 121 Kg
1 ¼” (32mm) 0,2% High

Weight indicator will read 101 kg x 10 lines = 1010 Kg low at all


all readings. To compensate for this low
readings, the total load pointer may be reset by the mechanic during
during initial rig up.
CALCULATING VALUE OF ONE LINE ON THE WEIGHT INDICATOR

Factors for Mud Buoyancy Corrections:

Lb/gal. 8,34 9,0 10.0 11,0 12,0 13,0 14,0 15,0 16,0 17,0 18,0 19,0 20,0

Lb/Cu.Ft. 62,4 67,3 74,8 82,3 89,8 97,2 104,7 112,2 119,7 127,2 134,6 142,1 149,6

Specif. gravity 1,00 1,08 1,20 1,32 1,44 1,56 1,68 1,80 1,92 2,04 2,16 2,28 2,40

FACTOR 0,873 0,863 0,847 0,832 0,817 0,802 0,786 0,771 0,755 0,741 0,724 0,710 0,694

CALCULATION:
Drill pipe weight in the air 2000m x 26,78 kg/m = 53560 Kg

Drill collars weight in air 200 m x 143,2 Kg/m = 28640 Kg


= 82200 Kg
Bouoyancy correction factor for mud density 1,32 Kg/dm3 x 0,832
Bouoyant weight of string = 68390 Kg
PLUS – Weight of block, swivel, elevator and kelly = 8088 Kg
COMPUTED TOTAL HOOK LOAD OF STRING IN MUD = 76478 Kg

If read out on the weight indicator is 76 lines then value of one


one line is 1000 Kg, but if read out on the
weight indicator is 65 lines then one line value is:

76000 : 65 lines = 1170 Kg


DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

APPENDIX: CASING JACKING SYSTEM

When drilling dipper and intermediate casing have b to be run too


too deep only solution to do this with
existing, not enought rig is to use casing jacking system. At market
market have available with capaity 350,
500, 750 and 1000 ton.
DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

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DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

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DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

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DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT
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DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

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DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT

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DRILLING RIG SELECTION – HANDLING EQUIPMENT