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ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 4, April - 2013

R. Jayaratchagan, B. Shriram,

Electrical and Electronics engineering, Electrical and Electronics engineering, VIT

university, Vellore, VIT university, Vellore, Tamilnadu.

J. Guruprasath, Prof. R .Sudha, Electrical and Electronics

engineering, Electrical and Electronics engineering,

VIT university, VIT university,Vellore, India.Vellore, India.

Tamilnadu

ABSTRACT α = 𝐶𝑔/𝐶𝑠............................(2)

Things that are going to be discussed in this paper

Cs is the series capacitance.

include- the distribution of impulse voltage in

transformer windings, various methods of α is the voltage distribution constant- which

increasing the process of impulse voltage represents the amount of stress on the windings

distribution and comparison of impulse especially on the upper layers of the winding.

distribution in various types of transformer

windings like inter shield, interleaved and There are numerous ways of increasing the series

continuous windings.Here we are also going to capacitance in order to decreaseα, as mentioned

add certain ideas on improving the performance earlier. One way is designing of the transformer

RRTT

of these windings. Impulse voltages are those windings. There are a few types of windings

which happen in the windings of transformer designed for this purpose, they are

during certain abnormal transient conditions

1. layer winding

IIJJEE

improving the series capacitance of the windings 2. continuous winding

will increase the voltage distribution by reducing 3. interleaved winding

the impulse voltage distribution constant α. So let 4. intershield winding

us also talk something about the controlling Let us briefly discuss on the above mentioned

techniques of α. designs and comparison of those windings.

Keywords:series capacitance, intershield

winding, impedance mismatching, mutual

LAYER WINDING:

inductance, impulse voltage distribution,

lightning.

INTRODUCTION:

Whenever there is a sudden lightning stroke strikes

the transformer there will be a flow of enormous

amount of voltage called impulse voltage in the

windings of the transformer. If the voltage

distribution is not equal then it will cause a huge

damage to the transformer and the load connected Figure.1

to it. So it is necessary to make the voltage as

distributed equally over the windings. This is called In layer type of winding, each conductor is placed

impulse voltage distribution. In the analysis of successively to one another with a capacitance in

impulse voltage distribution, an important factor to between them(series capacitance Cs) and in each

notify is the impulse distribution factor α. It is turn(turn to turn capacitance Ct) as shown in

given by the expression figure1. Here the series capacitance can be

determined through the equation

E=A1e α+A2e α ............................ (1)

Cs= Ct/ (n-1) ………………………… (3)

Where,

www.ijert.org 1203

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 4, April - 2013

parallel capacitance can be found by

Cp=nClg …………………………… (4)

Where, Clgis the capacitance between each layer

and ground.

Here one thing should be considered that as the

number of series conductors decreases, the series

capacitance increases.

This type of winding shown in figure 2 has

conductors placed successively without leaving any In this type of winding, the conductors are placed

space. So the capacitance of this winding can be one after the other with a conductor of next slot in

calculate as.. between as shown in figure 3. In this type, the

series capacitance can be found from the relation,

EC t

Cs = (n-1) ……………… (9)

4

interleaving the winding. There are a few types of

interleaved winding such as helical, interleaved

with two parallel conductors etc…

The major advantage of this type of winding is that

the series capacitance increases leading to

linearization of the voltage distribution curve. But

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increase in the potential difference between the

turns during steady state distribution confirms the

Figure.2

necessity that insulation should be capable of

equivalent capacitance between the turns is withstanding such difference. Also the complexity

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Ct

Ctr= (2n-1) ………………. (5) to leaving certain portions of them as continuous

2𝑛 2

disks. This causes impedance mismatching leading

Similarly equivalent capacitance between two disks to formation of amplitude transient voltages and

is consequently insulation deterioration. This reduces

the usage of these windings.

Cdr=n Cd/6 ……………… (6)

Therefore the series capacitance is

INTERSHIELD DISK WINDING:

Cs=Ctr+Cdr ……………… (7)

Hence

Ct

Cs=n Cd/6 + (2n-1) ……………… (8)

2𝑛 2

series capacitance.

Figure 4

Here the windings are arranged in successive

positions with a space between them filled by

www.ijert.org 1204

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 4, April - 2013

aluminium.

Every uppershield is connected to every lower

shield as in figure 4. Thus as regular the

capacitance of the winding can be calculated from

𝑛 𝑛 2 −𝑛−2

Cs= Cd+ Ct ……………………. (9)

6 𝑛2

the series capacitance of interleaved winding is

greater than that of the intershield with only one

shield. So several numbers of shields are used in

the intershield windings to increase the capacitance

and the total capacitance

𝑛 2(𝑛−𝑠−1) 𝑠 𝑉−𝑉𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑉−𝑉𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 IVD in interleaved winding

Cs= C+ Ct+ Ct [ +( -

6 d 4𝑛 2 4𝑛 2 ∆𝑉 ∆𝑉

𝑉−𝑉𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑉−𝑉𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠

1)2+( -2n)2+ ( -2n+1)2]

∆𝑉 ∆𝑉

............(10)Where, s is the number of shields in the

same disk.

The series capacitance gains the highest value via

shielding till the last turn of the disk. Also s is

directly proportional to Cs.Thus owing to

simplicity in the construction and increment in the

series capacitance intershield winding gains a

major place in the impulse voltage distribution.

RRTT

Here are the graphs comparing IVD in various type

of windings below with n=8:

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CONSIDERATION:

There are certain other factors apart from this series

capacitance to improve the voltage distribution.

They are:

1. mutual inductance between sections

www.ijert.org 1205

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 4, April - 2013

sections

SECTIONS:

Figure a

Figure e

Figure a. Calculateddistribution of voltage to earth

throughout winding (mutual inductances

neglected).

Figure b. Calculateddistribution of voltage to earth

throughout winding(mutual inductances included).

Figure c. Calculated voltage across first three

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winding sections(mutual inductances neglected).

Figure d. Calculated voltage across first three

winding sections (mutualinductances included).

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Figure b winding sections.

By analysing these four graphs it has been found

that inclusion of mutual inductance has a

significant effect on travelling wave’s form as well

as its velocity.In comparing Figure c&

Figuredwith Figure e., it should be notedthat,

whereas the calculated results assume a unit-

functionapplied wave, the nearest approximation to

this which could beobtained on the recurrent-surge

oscillograph was a 0.1/150wave. But it has a little

effect on the windings when compared to the

capacitance.

The effect of electrostatic phenomenon on

windings will be discussed later.

Figure c

MODERN TECHNIQUES OF

ANALYSIS:

As there has been a remarkable improvement in the

field of electronics ,the impulse voltage

distribution can be analysed through computer with

the help of EMTDC/PSCAD simulation by

applying Fast Fourier Transform, RungeKutta

method etc…. There are still more techniques

needing some improvements are there. No special

explanation is made on the recent techniques as

www.ijert.org 1206

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)

ISSN: 2278-0181

Vol. 2 Issue 4, April - 2013

practical.

IMPROVING IVD:

In my analysis, it may be better to design

intershield windings with

1.Increased space between the two successive

conductors’

2.More compact shields

Since, series capacitance increases with these two

phenomena.

CONCLUSION:

Hence it is concluded that the analysis of impulse

voltage distribution and various techniques for

improving IVD note the fact that these abnormal

voltages can be made less harmful and equally

distributed over windings by improving the series

capacitance of the windings. It should be taken into

account that, decreasing capacitance makes a

complex construction and on the same hand,

insulation should also be looked after.

RRTT

REFERENCES:

IIJJEE

R.Heidarzadeh, M.SalayNaderi“Impulse Voltage

Distribution in Intershield Disk Winding vs Interleaved

and Continuous Disk Winding in a Power Transformer”,

IEEE PEC on December 2008, Malaysia.

[2] K. Okuyama, "Effect of Series Capacitance

on Impulse Voltage Distribution in Transformer

Windings", Elect. Eng. Japan, vol. 87, No. 12,1967,pp.

27-34.

[3] M.F. Beavers, J.E. Holcomb, L.C. Leoni,

"Magnetisation of Transformer Cores during Impulse

Testing", AIEE Trans., vol. 74, pt. III, 1955, pp. 118-124.

[4] G.M. Stein, "A Study of Initial Surge

Distribution in Concentric Transformer Windings", IEEE

Trans., vol. PAS-83, 1964, pp. 877-893.

[5] B. M. Dent, E. R. Hartill, J. E. Miles, “A

method of Analysis of Transformer Impulse Voltage

Distribution Using a Digital Computer,” Proc. IEE, Vol.

105, Pt. A., October 1958, pp. 445-459.

[6] W. J. McNutt, T. J. Blalock, R. A. H,Fton,

“Response of Transformer Windings to System Voltages,

Trans”. IEEE PAS, Vol. 93, March/April 1974, pp.

457467.

[7] Rodrigo H., and H.Q.S. Dang, “Behaviour

of Transformer Winding Under Surge Voltages”,

Departement of Electrical Engineering, Royal Melbourne

Institute of Technology, Australia,1999.

www.ijert.org 1207

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