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Applied Mathematics and Mechanics Published by Tcchmodern Business

(English Edition, Vol. 2 No. 3, Sept. IYSI) Promotion Centre. Hong Kong

A Mathematical Interpretation of
Dirac 6 Function'-
Wang Jin-ru (~s
(South China Institute ol Technology, Guan~zhou)
(Received on April 1, 1980)

Abstract
The two conditions (see[l] p. 58)
d(x) = 0/~ for x:A:O (1.1)
.[+_~O(x)dx= I (1.2)
of the Dirac 0 function are inconsistent in standard analysis,
In this paper, the author began by studying the integral of the func-
tions on the nucleon a(o), and then, making use of the point function in
infinitesimal analysis to define t h e D i r a c d function d(x) so that it satis-
fies the condition (1.2) and
~(x)=O, for x C R and x=/=0
Some various examples of Dirac d functions have been presented and
some properties of the d function have been derived.

I. Introduction
D i r a c ' s d e f i n i t i o n of a 0 f u n c t i o n O(x) i n the real n u m b e r s y s t e m R is t h e
i d e a l i z a t i o n of a f u n c t i o n s a t i s f y i n g the f o l l o w i n g conditionsE'~:

O(x) = 0,. for x=/=O (1.1)

~O(x)dx= l (1.2)

These c o n d i t i o n s in s t a n d a r d a n a l y s i s are i n c o n s i s t e n t , s i n c e the i n t e g r a l o~


a n y f u n c t i o n t h a t is z e r o has a v a l u e of zero e x c e p t t h a t which at one point.
I n t h e p r e s e n t p a p e r , we a t t e m p t to g i v e a r i g o r o u s m a t h e m a t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
to these c o n d i t i o n s , we h a v e to e x t e n d the real number SYstem R to R : , and
make use of the p o i n t f u n c t i o n in i n f i n i t e s i m a l a n a l y s i s to d e f i n e D i r a c O f u n c -
t i o n O(x) on R I so t h a t it s a t i s f i e s the above condition (i.2) and the restric-
t i o n of O(x) to R w i l l s a t i s f y the c o n d i t i o n ( 1 . 1 ) . F i n a l l y , we d e r i v e some im-
p o r t a n t p r o p e r t i e s of r f r o m t h i s defi,nition.

9 Communicated by-Zh6U r~u


II. Dirac 8 Function
DEFINITION 1o Let R be the real number system and K be an i n f i n i t e
natural n u m b e r . The set

a(o)= {xlx=u/Ic , uER} (2ol )

is called the n u c l e o n of the o r i g i n o.


Let ] ( u ) be an i n t e g r a b l e f u n c t i o n on the i n t e r v a l [a, b] of R and let

u=kx (uER) (2,2)


b

It is w e l l - k n o w n t h a t t he i n t e g r a l I = I' S(u)du is " t h e l i m i t of R i e m a n n sum ~


a
b

s a t i s f y i n g the " e - - d " d e f i n i t i o n ; and t h e r e f o r e the i n t e g r a l I = is also

a t h e l i m i t of R i e m a n n sum", but it s a t i s f i e s the "e, d / t " d e f i n i t i o n .


If the l i m i t b

e x i s t s and it is f i n i t e , we w r i t e

I~1(u)du= Io r (kx)dx (2.4)

w h i l e th e f u n c t i o n k](kx) is said to be i n t e g r a b l e on a ( o ) .
Let
Rl={xlx=u+t, uER, tEa(o)} (2.5)

and let [ ( x ) be a c o n t i n u o u s f u n c t i o n on the i n t e r v a l [a,b] i n R. Make a n a t u -


ral e x t e n s i o n of [a,b], the d e f i n i n g i n t e r v a l of f ( x ) , to the i n t e r v a l [a,b]l i n R1,
{xlxER~ and a<~x<~b}, t h a t
w h e r e [a,b] t = is, for each xoE [a,b], w h e n xE [a,b] 1
and x~xo, we have 1(x)=I(xo). I t can be r e a d i l y seen from R i e m a n n ue, 6"
d e f i n i t i o n t h a t a f t e r the natural extension of l ( x ) does not affect the inte-
g r a t e d v alu e 1= I' ](x)dx. The c o n c l u s i o n also holds for i m p r o p e r i n t e g r a l s .
a

DEF I NI TI ON 2. Let d ( x ) be an integrable f u n c t i o n on n u c l e o n a(o). If it


s a t i s f i e s the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s :
(D1) 6 ( x ) = 0, f or xERz and x C a ( o )

(D2) f oCo~d(x)dx= 1
t h e n 6 ( x ) is called a D i r a e 6 f u n c t i o n .
S i n c e t h e r e is o n l y a single p o i n t x = 0 of t h e real n u m b e r s y s t e m R w h i c h
is c o n t a i n e d in the n u c l e o n a ( o ) , and e x c e p t i n g at a ( o ) , all the values of the

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f u n c t i o n O(x) are O. Hence the i n t e r v a l of i n t e g r a t i o n of (DD can be e~tte~ded to
any interval, including a(o), w i t h o u t affecting the i n t e g r a t e d value. Thus we get
I~d(x)dx =1 1 (2.6)
/
d(x) =0, for x E R and x=~0 )
Formula (2.6) conforms w i t h that which is o b t a i n e d from physical i n t u i t i o n m.
Form d e f i n i t i o n 2 and foxmula (2.4) the following theorem c a n be easily
deduced:
THEOREM 1. If f ( u ) is an integrable f u n c t i o n on R, and

~::f(tt)du = 1

K being an i n f i n i t e n a t u r a l number, then


xER~ and xqia(o)
{ 0,
d ( x ) = kf(kx),
for
for xEa(o)
is a Dirac d f u n c t i o n .
From Theorem 1, it is k n o w n that Dirac 0 f u n c t i o n s are a class o f func-
tions. We now present several d i f f e r e n t examples of Dirae 0 f u n c t i o n s . In these
examples we assume t h a t t h e i r d e f i n i n g domain is Rt, and K is an i n f i n i t e n a t u -
ral number.
0~ for x ~ a(o)
Examplel. all(x)= k
~(1 +k2x2) ' for x E a ( o )
0, for xC~a(o)
Example 2. 0~ (x) = k -k2x ~
for xEa(o)
O, for x~a(o)
Example 3. d~ (x) = sin~x
for xEa(o)

, for x s[ 2k '
Example 4. d4 (x) = [
k, for x E [ 1
2k '
1]
2/c
i t can be e a s i l y v e r i f i e d t h a t these examples all s a t i s f y the c o n d i t i o n s of d e f i n i -
t i o n 2, hence t h e y are all Dirac O f u n c t i o n s .

III. P r o p e r t i e s of D i r a c b F u n c t i o n
THEOREM 2. Let I(x) be a n y c o n t i n u o u s f u n c t i o n from R--*R, and let / ( x )
be n a t u r a l l y extended from R to RI, and d(x) is taken as a c e r t a i n Dirac d f u n c t i o n ,
then we will have the following s i f t i n g p r o p e r t y

I~](x)O(x)dx= , ( 0 ) (3. I)

; 363*
Proof: Let
H(x)=~**d(x)dx, (XERt7 (3.2)

This i n f e g r a l is not m e r e l y a symbolie sign but it has a d e f i n i t e significance.,


Obviously we have
H(x)=f0, for x < 0 and x~a(o).
1t , for x > 0 and x~.a(o)
as for the value of the f u n c t i o n H(x) on .nue~leon a(o), it is d e t e r m i n e d by t h e
d(x7 chosen. Let a, h E R and a,<O<b, then

_~](x)d(x)dx= ](x)d(x)dx= o](X)dH(x) (3.3)`

Let the i n t e r v a l of the i n t e g r a l on the right hand member of ( 3 . 3 7 be r e s t r i c t -


ed on the real number s y s t e m R, and u s i n g the method of i n t e g r a t i o n by parts.
of Stieltjes i n t e g r a l for real f u n c t i o n , we o b t a i n
"

w i t h r e f e r e n c e to (3.3) we have (3.1). This completes the p r o o f . A n o t h e r f o r m


of the sif.ting p r o p e r t y can be r e a d i l y o b t a i n e d from formula (3.1):

~2~, (x)d(x - a)dx = , (a7 (3.47

where a is an a r b i t r a r y real number, f.(x) is the c o n t i n u o u s f u n c t i o n on a n y R;


H a v i n g proved the s i f t i n g p r o p e r t y , each of the formulas on [1] p. 60 can
t h e n be easily j u s t i f i e d . Take formula (3.1) for i n s t a n c e , we have

~ i~, (x)d (x2 - a')dX -- l ~ , (x)d(x2 " aZT dx + ~_2, (x)d(xz - aZ)dx

- 2al / ( a ) + % f ( - a ) = -~/(x) d(x-aT+d(x+a) dx

Hence
d(x~_a,.) ~w)
1 {d(x-aT+d(x+a)} (a~0) (3.5)
2a
In the t h e o r y of generalized f u n c t i o n s , the representatior~ of the product of two
or more d f u n c t i o n s is c o m p a r a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t , but i n the present paper, the
product of two or more d f u n c t i o n s is the product of o r d i n a r y p o i n t f u n c t i o n s .
T h e author is much i n d e b t e d to Prof. Guan Zhao--zhi and o t h e r colleages
for t h e i r h e l p f u l comments.

ReferenGes
1. Dirac, P.A.M., The Principles o] Quantum Mechanics, Oxford Clarendon Press, 3rd ed.,
(1947).
2. Van Osdol and Donovan, H., Amer. Math..Mon~l(|y 79 (1972), 355--363.
3. Robinson, A., Nonstandard Analysis, North-Holland Amsterdam (1974).
4. Lightstone, A. H. and Wong, Kam, Ganad. Math. Bull. 8f, 5"(19~5), 759--762.

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