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In this paper, the author began by studying the integral of the functions on the nucleon a(o), and then, making use of the point function in infinitesimal analysis to define t h e D i r a c d function d(x) so that it satisfies the condition (1.2) and

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(English Edition, Vol. 2 No. 3, Sept. IYSI) Promotion Centre. Hong Kong

A Mathematical Interpretation of

Dirac 6 Function'-

Wang Jin-ru (~s

(South China Institute ol Technology, Guan~zhou)

(Received on April 1, 1980)

Abstract

The two conditions (see[l] p. 58)

d(x) = 0/~ for x:A:O (1.1)

.[+_~O(x)dx= I (1.2)

of the Dirac 0 function are inconsistent in standard analysis,

In this paper, the author began by studying the integral of the func-

tions on the nucleon a(o), and then, making use of the point function in

infinitesimal analysis to define t h e D i r a c d function d(x) so that it satis-

fies the condition (1.2) and

~(x)=O, for x C R and x=/=0

Some various examples of Dirac d functions have been presented and

some properties of the d function have been derived.

I. Introduction

D i r a c ' s d e f i n i t i o n of a 0 f u n c t i o n O(x) i n the real n u m b e r s y s t e m R is t h e

i d e a l i z a t i o n of a f u n c t i o n s a t i s f y i n g the f o l l o w i n g conditionsE'~:

~O(x)dx= l (1.2)

a n y f u n c t i o n t h a t is z e r o has a v a l u e of zero e x c e p t t h a t which at one point.

I n t h e p r e s e n t p a p e r , we a t t e m p t to g i v e a r i g o r o u s m a t h e m a t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n

to these c o n d i t i o n s , we h a v e to e x t e n d the real number SYstem R to R : , and

make use of the p o i n t f u n c t i o n in i n f i n i t e s i m a l a n a l y s i s to d e f i n e D i r a c O f u n c -

t i o n O(x) on R I so t h a t it s a t i s f i e s the above condition (i.2) and the restric-

t i o n of O(x) to R w i l l s a t i s f y the c o n d i t i o n ( 1 . 1 ) . F i n a l l y , we d e r i v e some im-

p o r t a n t p r o p e r t i e s of r f r o m t h i s defi,nition.

II. Dirac 8 Function

DEFINITION 1o Let R be the real number system and K be an i n f i n i t e

natural n u m b e r . The set

Let ] ( u ) be an i n t e g r a b l e f u n c t i o n on the i n t e r v a l [a, b] of R and let

b

a

b

If the l i m i t b

e x i s t s and it is f i n i t e , we w r i t e

w h i l e th e f u n c t i o n k](kx) is said to be i n t e g r a b l e on a ( o ) .

Let

Rl={xlx=u+t, uER, tEa(o)} (2.5)

ral e x t e n s i o n of [a,b], the d e f i n i n g i n t e r v a l of f ( x ) , to the i n t e r v a l [a,b]l i n R1,

{xlxER~ and a<~x<~b}, t h a t

w h e r e [a,b] t = is, for each xoE [a,b], w h e n xE [a,b] 1

and x~xo, we have 1(x)=I(xo). I t can be r e a d i l y seen from R i e m a n n ue, 6"

d e f i n i t i o n t h a t a f t e r the natural extension of l ( x ) does not affect the inte-

g r a t e d v alu e 1= I' ](x)dx. The c o n c l u s i o n also holds for i m p r o p e r i n t e g r a l s .

a

s a t i s f i e s the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s :

(D1) 6 ( x ) = 0, f or xERz and x C a ( o )

(D2) f oCo~d(x)dx= 1

t h e n 6 ( x ) is called a D i r a e 6 f u n c t i o n .

S i n c e t h e r e is o n l y a single p o i n t x = 0 of t h e real n u m b e r s y s t e m R w h i c h

is c o n t a i n e d in the n u c l e o n a ( o ) , and e x c e p t i n g at a ( o ) , all the values of the

9 362-

f u n c t i o n O(x) are O. Hence the i n t e r v a l of i n t e g r a t i o n of (DD can be e~tte~ded to

any interval, including a(o), w i t h o u t affecting the i n t e g r a t e d value. Thus we get

I~d(x)dx =1 1 (2.6)

/

d(x) =0, for x E R and x=~0 )

Formula (2.6) conforms w i t h that which is o b t a i n e d from physical i n t u i t i o n m.

Form d e f i n i t i o n 2 and foxmula (2.4) the following theorem c a n be easily

deduced:

THEOREM 1. If f ( u ) is an integrable f u n c t i o n on R, and

~::f(tt)du = 1

xER~ and xqia(o)

{ 0,

d ( x ) = kf(kx),

for

for xEa(o)

is a Dirac d f u n c t i o n .

From Theorem 1, it is k n o w n that Dirac 0 f u n c t i o n s are a class o f func-

tions. We now present several d i f f e r e n t examples of Dirae 0 f u n c t i o n s . In these

examples we assume t h a t t h e i r d e f i n i n g domain is Rt, and K is an i n f i n i t e n a t u -

ral number.

0~ for x ~ a(o)

Examplel. all(x)= k

~(1 +k2x2) ' for x E a ( o )

0, for xC~a(o)

Example 2. 0~ (x) = k -k2x ~

for xEa(o)

O, for x~a(o)

Example 3. d~ (x) = sin~x

for xEa(o)

, for x s[ 2k '

Example 4. d4 (x) = [

k, for x E [ 1

2k '

1]

2/c

i t can be e a s i l y v e r i f i e d t h a t these examples all s a t i s f y the c o n d i t i o n s of d e f i n i -

t i o n 2, hence t h e y are all Dirac O f u n c t i o n s .

III. P r o p e r t i e s of D i r a c b F u n c t i o n

THEOREM 2. Let I(x) be a n y c o n t i n u o u s f u n c t i o n from R--*R, and let / ( x )

be n a t u r a l l y extended from R to RI, and d(x) is taken as a c e r t a i n Dirac d f u n c t i o n ,

then we will have the following s i f t i n g p r o p e r t y

I~](x)O(x)dx= , ( 0 ) (3. I)

; 363*

Proof: Let

H(x)=~**d(x)dx, (XERt7 (3.2)

Obviously we have

H(x)=f0, for x < 0 and x~a(o).

1t , for x > 0 and x~.a(o)

as for the value of the f u n c t i o n H(x) on .nue~leon a(o), it is d e t e r m i n e d by t h e

d(x7 chosen. Let a, h E R and a,<O<b, then

ed on the real number s y s t e m R, and u s i n g the method of i n t e g r a t i o n by parts.

of Stieltjes i n t e g r a l for real f u n c t i o n , we o b t a i n

"

of the sif.ting p r o p e r t y can be r e a d i l y o b t a i n e d from formula (3.1):

H a v i n g proved the s i f t i n g p r o p e r t y , each of the formulas on [1] p. 60 can

t h e n be easily j u s t i f i e d . Take formula (3.1) for i n s t a n c e , we have

~ i~, (x)d (x2 - a')dX -- l ~ , (x)d(x2 " aZT dx + ~_2, (x)d(xz - aZ)dx

Hence

d(x~_a,.) ~w)

1 {d(x-aT+d(x+a)} (a~0) (3.5)

2a

In the t h e o r y of generalized f u n c t i o n s , the representatior~ of the product of two

or more d f u n c t i o n s is c o m p a r a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t , but i n the present paper, the

product of two or more d f u n c t i o n s is the product of o r d i n a r y p o i n t f u n c t i o n s .

T h e author is much i n d e b t e d to Prof. Guan Zhao--zhi and o t h e r colleages

for t h e i r h e l p f u l comments.

ReferenGes

1. Dirac, P.A.M., The Principles o] Quantum Mechanics, Oxford Clarendon Press, 3rd ed.,

(1947).

2. Van Osdol and Donovan, H., Amer. Math..Mon~l(|y 79 (1972), 355--363.

3. Robinson, A., Nonstandard Analysis, North-Holland Amsterdam (1974).

4. Lightstone, A. H. and Wong, Kam, Ganad. Math. Bull. 8f, 5"(19~5), 759--762.

364 9

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