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CFD ANALYIS OF MICROPUMP FOR

DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

A Thesis Submitted to the


Indian institute of information technology design & manufacturing Jabalpur
Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Bachlor of Technology
in the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

By
PRAKANSHU SINGH
2009081
LAXMI SAGAR MAJHI
2009053
Under the supervision of
Prof. V.K. GUPTA

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DESIGN & MANUFACTURING


JABALPUR M.P. INDIA
Dumna Airport Road P.O. khamariya -482005
Tel:+91-761-2632273 Fax: +91-761-2632524
Url- www.iiitdmj.ac.in

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AKNOWLEADGEMENT
It’s a great pleasure to acknowledge the people who have been helping me during this work. firstI
would like to thank my research advisor Prof. V.K. Gupta, for his constant guidance, advice and help
throughout this project. He helped me develop my thought process and constantly introduced me to
the real life problems in the field of MEMS and Microfluidics. His constant faith in my abilities was a
driving force for my research work. The challenges he put forth for me were helpful to achieve
higher goals. I am very much grateful to Prof. Tanujasheorey for the infinite time they spent over
me. They are a constant source of inspiration for my work.Their patience and guidance helped me to
achieve this goal. I am grateful to the staff at IIITDM Jabalpur, especially Mr.Varun and Mr.Mayur
for providing me constant help in computer and software resources. I want to thank my Parents and
brother for their unconditional love and support and the life principles that they installed in me. I
would also like to thank all my dear friends for their constant support throughout my life.

PRAKANSHU SINGH

LAXMISAGAR MAJHI

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Acknowledgements ....................................................................................................... 02
Contents ........................................................................................................................03
1 Introduction............................................................................................................... 04
2. engineering drawing and CAD modelling of Micropump working principle……………06
3Working with symmetric plane……………………………………………………………….09
4. Piezoelectricity and solution procedure in ANSYS………………………………………..15
5 Development of Numerical Model Using ANSYS APDL Tool-kit…………………………19
Numerical Methodology
Definition of the Problem
Solution Procedure Using ANSYS APDL 12
Specify Geometry
Meshing
boundary condition
model analysis
harmonic analysis
Transient analysis
DAT file creation which will be later used in CFX
Result
5 Development of Numerical Model Using CFX pre Tool-kit ..........................................29
Numerical Methodology
Definition of the Problem.
Solution Procedure Using CFX pre
CFX-Build
Specify Geometry
Meshing
CFX-Pre
Inlet Boundary
Outlet Boundary
Wall Boundary
Symmetry Boundary
6.MFX Solver coupling between CFX and ANSYS…………………..………..42
7.Results and Discussions.............................................................................................45
8. Some common error in mfx solver……………………………………..………………….50
9. Publications by student……………………………………………..……………………..59
10.reference…………………………………………………………………………………….60

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CHAPTER 1

1.1 LITERATURE SURVEY

Microfluidic device, Micropump included, is a multidisciplinary research anddevelopment


field, which covers a broad range of studies including design, modeling,simulation,
characterization, fabrication, microflow pattern and phenomenon, etc. Fluid volumes, on the
order of a milliliter and below, figure prominently in anincreasing number of engineering
systems ranging from Biology and Medicine to spaceexploration and microelectronics
cooling.Most initial research in microfluidics resulted in the development of a gas
chromatograph at Stanford University, and inkjetprinter nozzle at IBM [1]. Since then
research in this area has undergone an enormousgrowth and many different microfluidic
devices has been developed, which includevalves, pumps, flowsensors, and fluidic mixers as
well as chemical and biological sensors [1]. Resent work is mostly focused on integrating
several devices on a singlesubstrate, the eventual aim being development of an on-chip
chemical analysis system.Microfluidic transportation requirements can sometimes be met by
takingadvantage of passive mechanisms, most notably surface tension. For otherapplications,
microscale pumps, pressure/vacuum chambers and valves provideadequate microfluidic
transport capabilities. Thus micropump research is one of biggest fields in microfluidics.

1.2 MICROPUMPS

There is a great and increasing interest in making smaller fluid pumps due to the requirements of
the new applications in different chemical, medical and biomedical fields. Thesemicropumps are
designed to handle small and accurate quantities of fluid. Some of the potential applications are
drug delivery for cancer and diabetic patients, controlled fuel delivery in engine and fuel cell,
localized cooling in electronics. The first micropump design presented by Spencer et al. in 1978
was based on an actuation of both, the pump diaphragm and valves. Smits carried out initial
research and development on micropump using microvalves in 1980s. Based on this idea
micromembrane pumps were developed by many researchers.
Micropumps can be classified in two categories: mechanical pumps with moving parts and non
mechanical pumps without moving parts. The mechanical pump utilizes either of the
reciprocating, rotary or peristaltic motion [2]. The non mechanical pumps utilize various electric-
fluid interaction phenomena to generate forces on fluids. The fluid motion can be induced by the
propagating flexural waves and the liquid moves in the direction of wave propagation with the
speed proportional to the square of the acoustic amplitude. The electro-osmosis,
thermopneumatic, and surface tension are examples of the phenomenon utilized in the design of
non mechanicalpumps .

According to the data from World Health Organization (WHO) for year 2000, numbers of
diabetics in USA were about 15 million and 154 million worldwide. The estimated increase in the
diabetics’ population from 1995 to 2025 is shown in Fig 1.1. Among them about 5-10% are
classified as type I diabetics (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) patients, who need insulin
injection everyday. The other 90-95% of patients are mainly type II (non-insulin dependent
diabetes mellitus). About 40% of type II diabetes patients need insulin injection. The total
number of patients needing injection is estimated to be 6.9 million in USA, 16.3 million in
Europe and 71.0 million in world wide according to the data from WHO . The general price of an
insulin pump system is about $4000, but most of the cost of system and supplies are covered by
many health insurance plans in USA . The lifetime of the drug delivery system is estimated to be

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about 4 years. If 10% of the diabetes patients needing insulin injection use insulin pump as drug
delivery system then the market of the pump is roughly $6.9 million per year in USA alone and
will be much larger if the other countries are considered.

Table 1.1 Estimated numbers of diabetics in the U.S and World according to WHO

[31]Number of 1995 1997 2000 2025


6
cases (10 )
U.S 13.8 14.3 15.0 21.8
Europe 33.0 33.9 35.4 47.7
World 135.2 142.5 154.3 299.9

Fig- 1.1

1.3 Thesis Objective


The objectives of this thesis are as following: (1) develop a PZT based soft piezoelectric ceramic
suitable for actuator application (2) maximise the flow rate The thesis is divided in five chapters.
Chapter 1 introduces the motivation behind this work. Chapter 2 discusses the basic theory of
piezoelectricity. It also describes the mathematical modelling of piezoelectric Chapter 3
illustrates the actuator design, FEM analysis and characterization of actuator (displacement and
vibration velocity as a function of applied voltage). Chapter 4 elaborates the micropump
operation principle, Chapter 5. Describe the CFD analysis of Micropump and discussion of result.

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CHAPTER -02
2.1 Engineering drawing and CAD modelling of Micropump and working
principle
*All the dimensions are in mm.
Upper part 1

FIG 2.1

Upper part 2

FIG
FIG-2.2

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Lower part

Fig
Fig-2.3

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2.2 CAD MODEL OF MICROPUMP
Lower part of the micropump

Fig- 2.4

Fig. Upper part

Fig-2.5

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Assemble model

Fig- 2.6

Working Principle of micro pump


The development of micropumps started with the reciprocating or “mechanical” concept and
can be traced back to the mid 1970s. These early developments as well as most of the
following share the same diaphragm or “piston type” principle, which is depicted in Fig.
1. A pump chamber is realized, which is closed with a flexible diaphragm on one side (or
more). By means of a suitable actuation principle, upward and downward movement
of the diaphragm is achieved to generate volume changes and, hence, under- under and
overpressure transients Dp in the pump chamber. The working principle can be described
by a cyclic process, which is divided into a supply mode (the pump chamber volume
increases) and a pump mode (the pump chamber volume decreases). During the supply
mode underpressure is generated in the pump pump chamber, which causes blood to be
sucked into the pump chamber through
throug the microneedle, as soon asDpbecomes
becomes higher than
theinlet valves threshold pressureDpcrit.
pressure . During the pump mode overpressure occurs in
the pump chamber, which transfers liquid from the pump chamber into the outlet, as
soon as Dpp becomes higher than the outlet valves threshold pressureDpcrit
pressure pcrit

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Fig.- 2.7

It should be mentioned here, that the micro diaphragm pump concept has proven to
be successful long before any of the technical realizations described here were
initiated. Some predaceous bugs, like “Graphosomalineatum”, use piston micropumps
for the external digestion of their insect prey (Fig. 2.8). One micropump is used to
dispense saliva loaded with digestion enzymes through the bugs picking stylet into the
victim’s body. A secondmicropump sucks the externally digested food back

Fig. 2.8: “Graphosomalineatum” (left) and cross section of the insects saliva dispensing
micropump (right)

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MATERIALS AND FABRICATION TECHNOLOGIES
After the early designs, which were realized by conventional machining.micropump
fabrication became an exclusive domain for silicon micromachining at the beginning of
the 1990s. Until today, the main advantage of this technology is definitely the high
precision and reproducibility achievable with the materials in use, mainly silicon and glass.
Moreover, the results of long-term tests allow the conclusion, that wear and fatigue of
mechanically moving parts do not seem to pose any problem with this technology
[6,7]. Nevertheless, the disadvantages of a rather high fabrication cost and a limited
material choice have enforced a search for alternatives quite soon. Polymer
microfabrication, namely microinjection moulding [8,9,11], polymer hot embossing [12]
and stereolithography[10,13] were demonstrated as suitable technologies for micropump
fabrication since around 1995. The material basis has definitely been broadened by this
approach. However, the goal of a true “low-cost” micropump, although often promised,
is not satisfied up to now with these technologies, which, although being more cost effective,
are still highly complex and therefore comparatively expensive microfabrication processes.
Moreover, other material-related aspects, like limited lifetime can be a critical issue. An
interesting pragmatic alternative can be seen in recent “low tech” micropumps made
by conventional moulding [14,15] or well-established printed circuit board technology
[18]. This concept may not provide a micropump with the ultimate performance of a
silicon micromachined device, but still an acceptable result at moderate fabrication costs. It
therefore seems to be the future choice for all low performance and low cost applications,
provided, that other requirements, like reproducibility and operational stability, can be
satisfied. True high performance applications, e.g. in drug delivery, can still be
regarded as a clear domain of silicon micromachining as demonstrated by recent
industrial efforts in this direction . Moreover, one should not forget, that the cost of a
microcomponent is not exclusively defined by the fabrication technology itself, but
mainly by an “intelligent” and fabrication-oriented design. It can be clearly seen in the large
number of publications cited here, that this aspect has often been left out of
consideration in favour of a scientific result, which is fully justified from the
standpoint of science. However, a more fabrication- and cost-oriented design philosophy is a
premier need for the near future to seed the basis for a broader commercial application.

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CHAPTER 3
WORKING WITH SYMMETRIC PLANE
If the model you create is symmetric, you have the option of subdividing the model and working
with a symmetric section instead of the entire model. By modeling only a portion of the part, you
can greatly reduce the number of elements in your model, thus saving significant analysis time and
system resources. Depending on the model, you can also save yourself the overhead spent defining
repeated versions of a load or constraint or selecting multiple surfaces, edges, or points during load
or constraint definition.
For a model to be symmetric , it must exhibit the following characteristics:
The geometry must be symmetric.
The loads, constraints, and idealizations must be symmetric.
There are two types of symmetry you can model —mirror symmetry and cyclic symmetry. Mirror
symmetry relies on the principle that one segment of a model is the mirror image of other segments.
An example of this type of model would be a rectangular plate with a hole at its center. In native
mode you can use the mirror symmetry constraint to take advantage of your model's symmetry. To
use mirror symmetry in FEM mode you must apply a displacement constraint to fix translation
normal to the plane of symmetry and fix rotations in opposition to the plane of symmetry.

Mirror Symmetry
In this thesis we are going to use mirror symmetry that why I am explaining mirror symmetry
for better understanding of my thesis
Mirror symmetry relies on the principle that you can describe the behavior of an entire model
using one segment, provided that segment is the mirror image of each of the other segments.
Therefore, you can model the segment rather than the whole, and still get an accurate idea of
your model's behavior.

To use mirror symmetry, you must be able to divide your model in such a way that each
segment you remove mirrors the segment that remains. The easiest way to determine whether
a model shows this type of symmetry is to imagine folding the model. If you can fold the
model in such a way that the segments are geometrically identical and have loads and
constraints with identical orientation and placement, your model demonstrates mirror
symmetry. Additionally, all loads on each segment must have the same value.

If you want to take advantage of mirror symmetry in your model, you need to complete two
steps—identifying the axes or planes of symmetry in your model and applying mirror
constraints.

For example, let us say you are working with a rectangular plate that has a hole at its center.
A bolt secures the plate at the hole, locking it in place, and the plate bears an identical force
load acting on either end. The model qualifies for mirror symmetry because the geometry,
loads, and constraints are all symmetrical.

Looking at the model as a whole, you would first decide how to divide the model. The best
choice is as follows:

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Fig 3.1

You can choose to cut the original model at the division lines, or simply apply mirror
symmetry constraints along those lines. Note that, if you use the division plan proposed
above, you will end up working with one quarter of your model. You could also choose to cut
the original model in half instead, but your resulting model would have more elements and be
less efficient for the solver. Thus, you should always strive to find the smallest symmetric
section. The remainder of this discussion assumes that you are working with a cut model.

To apply mirror symmetry constraints you must select enough geometric entities to define a
plane. If you cut the model as in the figure below, you can create mirror symmetry constraints
by selecting the surfaces created by the cuts. If you choose not to cut the model, you would
need to define enough datum points or axes to define the plane.

Fig 3.2

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Here, you add a mirror constraint in the X direction along the vertical cut, where the surface
would normally merge with the rest of the part geometry. Similarly, you add a mirror
constraint in the Y direction along the horizontal cut. In this way, you mimic the way that the
geometry would behave were it part of the full model. Note.you can add constraints simply
by defining a displacement constraint and selecting the surfaces at the horizontal and vertical
cuts as the constraint references.

In addition to adding the mirror symmetry constraints at the cuts, you also need to adjust the
load on the symmetric section by dividing the additive load seen by the model by the number
of segments that result from the cut process. This situation occurs whenever you apply your
load using a total load distribution. In this case, the model sees an additive total force load of
200 pounds—100 pounds on one end of the model, and 100 on the other. To develop the
symmetric segment, you cut the model into 4 parts. Dividing 200 by 4 yields a 50 pound load
on the symmetric segment.

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CHAPTER 4

PIEZOELECTRICITY

The piezoelectric effect understood as the linear electromechanical interaction between the
mechanical and the electrical state in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry The
piezoelectric effect is a reversible process in that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric
effect (the internal generation of electrical charge resulting from an applied mechanical force)
also exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of a mechanical strain
resulting from an applied electrical field). For example, lead zirconatetitanate crystals will
generate measurable piezoelectricity when their static structure is deformed by about 0.1% of
the original dimension. Conversely, those same crystals will change about 0.1% of their static
dimension when an external electric field is applied to the material. The inverse piezoelectric
effect is used in production of ultrasonic sound waves.

Piezoelectricity is found in useful applications such as the production and detection of sound,
generation of high voltages, electronic frequency generation, microbalances, and ultrafine
focusing of optical assemblies. It is also the basis of a number of scientific instrumental
techniques with atomic resolution, the scanning probe microscopies such as STM, AFM,
MTA, SNOM, etc., and everyday uses such as acting as the ignition source for cigarette
lighters and push-start propane barbecues.

MATHEMATICAL DISCRIPTION
Piezoelectricity is the combined effect of the electrical behaviour of the material

Where D is the electric charge density displacement (electric displacement), ε is permittivity


and E is electric field strength, and

Hooke's Law: S=sT

whereS is strain, s is compliance and T is stress. These may be combined into so-called
coupled equations, of which the strain-charge form is

{S}=[sE] {T} + [dt] {E}

{D}=[d]{T} + [εT] {E}

Where[d] is the matrix for the direct piezoelectric effect and[dt ]is the matrix for the converse
piezoelectric effect. The superscript E indicates a zero, or constant, electric field; the superscript
T indicates a zero, or constant, stress field; and the superscript t stands for transposition of a
matrix.
The strain-charge for a material of the 4mm (C4v) crystal class (such as a poled piezoelectric
ceramic such as tetragonal PZT or BaTiO3) as well as the 6mm crystal class may also be written
as (ANSI IEEE 176):

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 S1   s11E s12E s13E 0 0 0  T1   0 0 d31 
   E  T  
 S2   s21
E
s22 E
s23 0 0 0  2  0 0 d32 
 E1 
 S3   s31E s32E s33E 0 0 0  T3   0 0 d33   
 =  +  E2
 S4   0 0 0 E
s44 0 0  T4   0 d 24 0  
E 
S   0 0 0 0 s55E 0  T   d 0 0  3
 5    5   15 
 S6   0 0 0 0 0 s66 = 2( s11 − s12 )  T6   0
E E E
0 0

T1 
T 
   ∈11 0
2
 1 
D 0 0 0 0 d 0 0   E1 
D  =  0
15
 T 
0 d 24 0 0    +  0 ∈22 0   E2 
3
 2  0
T
 D3   d 31 d32 d33 0 0 0   4   0 0 ∈33   E3 
T 
 5
T6 
where the first equation represents the relationship for the converse piezoelectric effect and the
latter for thedirect piezoelectric effect.[12]Although the above equations are the most used form in
literature, some comments about the notation arenecessary. Generally D and E are vectors, that is,
Cartesian tensor of rank-1; and permittivity ε is Cartesian tensorof rank 2. Strain and stress are, in
principle, also rank-2 tensors. But conventionally, because strain and stress are
all symmetric tensors, the subscript of strain and stress can be re-labelled in the following
fashion: 11 → 1; 22 → 2;33 → 3; 23 → 4; 13 → 5; 12 → 6. (Different convention may be used
by different authors in literature. Say, someuse 12 → 4; 23 → 5; 31 → 6 instead.) That is why S
and T appear to have the "vector form" of 6 components. Consequently, s appears to be a 6 by 6
matrix instead of rank-4 tensor. Such a re-labelled notation is often calledVoigtnotation.In total,
there are 4 piezoelectric coefficients,

E T
 ∂D   ∂S j 
dij =  i  =  
 ∂T j
   ∂Ei 
E S
 ∂D   ∂T j 
eij =  i  = −  
 ∂S
 j   ∂Ei 
D T
 ∂E   ∂S j 
gij = −  i  =  
 ∂T j
   ∂Di 
D S
 ∂E   ∂T j 
hij = −  i  = −  
 ∂S
 j   ∂Di 

where the first set of 4 terms correspond to the direct piezoelectric effect and the second set
of 4 terms correspondto the converse piezoelectric effect.[13] A formalism has been worked
out for those piezoelectric crystals, forwhich the polarization is of the crystal-field induced
type, that allows for the calculation of piezoelectricalcoefficientsdij from electrostatic lattice
constants or higher-order Madelung constants.

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4.2. Piezoelectric Material Simulation Methods and Tools

ANSYS was used to predict and optimize the performance of the actuator. Initially, the
differences between IEEE and ANSYS standards in the parameters such as piezoelectric
elastic compliance sEand piezoelectric strain coefficient d were addressed. The first step in
using ANSYS for PZT analysis is to define three matrices: permittivity matrix (dielectric
constants), piezoelectric strain (or stress) matrices, and elastic coefficient (or stiffness)
matrices. The piezoelectric matrix can be in [e] form (piezoelectric stress matrix) or in [d]
form (piezoelectric strain matrix). The [e] matrix is typically associated with the input of the
anisotropic elasticity in the form of the stiffness matrix [c], while the [d] matrix is associated
with the compliance matrix [s], where the stiffness matrix [c] is the inverse of the compliance
matrix [s]. For most published piezoelectric materials, the order used for the
piezoelectricmatrix is [x, y, z, yz, xz, xy] based on IEEE standards, while the ANSYS input
order is
[x, y, z, xy, yz, xz]. This means that to transform the matrix to the ANSYS input order row
data switching for the shear terms is needed. Equations 18 and 19 are the transformed
matrices between IEEE and ANSYS. IEEE constants [e61, e62, e63] must be defined as
ANSYS xy row, and IEEEconstants [e41, e42, e43] must be defined as ANSYS yz row, and
IEEE constants [e51, e52,e53] must be defined as ANSYS xz row.

x y z x y z
x  e11 e12 e13  x y x  e11 e12 e13 
e e23  y  e21 e22 e23 
y  21 e22  e11 e12 
z e e32 e33  e e  z e e e33 
[ e] = e31 e42 e43 
 [ e] =  e21 e22  ANSYS [ e] =  31 32 
xy  41 31 32 xy  e61 e62 e63 
 
yz  e51 e52 e53   e41 e42  yz  e41 e42 e43 
   
xz  e61 e62 e63  xz  e51 e52 e53 

(3--D) (2-D)

IEEE terms [c61, c62, c63, c66] must be defined as ANSYS xy row, IEEE terms
[c41, c42, c43, c46, c44] must be defined as ANSYS yz row, and IEEE terms
[c51, c52, c53,c56, c54, c55] must be defined as ANSYS xz row.

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x y z xy yz xz x y z xy
x  c11 
y  c21 c22  x c
  11 
z c c c33  y  c21 c22 
[ c ] =  c31 c32   
xy  41 42 c43 c44  z  c31 c32 c33 
yz  c51 c52 c53 c54 c55  xy  c41 c42 c43

c44 
 
xz  c61 c62 c63 c64 c65 c66 

(3-D) (2-D)

x y z xy yz xz
x  c11 
y  c21 c22 

z c c c33 
ANSYS [ c ] =  31 32
E

xy  c61 c62 c63 c66 
yz  c41 c42 c43 c46 c44 
 
xz  c51 c52 c53 c56 c54 c55 

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CAPTER-05

Development of Numerical Model Using ANSYS APDL Tool-kit


Material property of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3

Elastic compliance matrix[sE] (10-12m2/N) and piezoelectric strain matrix[d](10-12 C/N)

 15.8 −5.7 −7.0 0 0 0


 −5.7 15.8 −7.0 0 0 0 

 −7.0 −7.0 18.1 0 0 0
 sij  =  0
E

 0 0 40.6 0 0
 0 0 0 0 40.6 0
 
 0 0 0 0 0 43.0 

 0 0 0 0 550 0
 d ij  =  0 0 0 550 0 0
 
 207 207 410 0 0 0 

The material properties for PZT were taken with relative dielectric constants of
K11=K22=1930 and K33=2100, and
Density ρPZT=7800 (kg/m3).

5.1MODEL OF ACTUATOR
STACTURAL DOMAIN

For the structural simulation, the half-model of the LIPCA was considered with 3930
hexahedral elements as shown infigure5. The boundary of the circular LIPCA could be
considered to fix supported at the peripheral and symmetric boundary condition at the front
edge as shown in figure. Basically, a LIPCA uses the reverse piezoelectric effect, which
means that the piezoelectric crystals can change theirshape when subjected to an applied
voltage. In
The present analysis, we used a fully coupled analysis of thestrain and charge of the material.
When an input voltageis applied to the LIPCA, the LIPCA acts as an actuating diaphragm; it
then supplies water to the pump chamber andpump the water out of the pump chamber. We
assumed that the applied voltage had the following form of a sine function.

V=20*sin(2*pi*25000*{time})

Where Vis the applied voltage and 25000 is the first natural frequency of the voltage.

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In the structural domain, the PZT was modelled as SOLID226 which has a three-dimensional
magnetic, thermal, electric, piezoelectric and structural field capability.
In this simulation, the piezoelectric and structural coupling field was used.

5.2Model, meshing and boundary condition of actuator


Modelling
we can easily visualize that whole the model is symmetric
inXZ plane that’s why only half of the model is created. Actuator is made by two bimorph
piezoelectric which is glued together
5.2.1 What are Bimorph Actuators
A bimorph actuator is composed of two thin panels of ceramic elements bonded together with
a flexible metallic panel as it's central electrode. By wiring these two elements in such a way
as to make one elongate and the other contract by applying voltage, inflection deviation
occurs conforming to the waveform of the applied voltage.
Bimorphs are operated in d31 mode.
5.2.2 What are Piezoelectric Bimorph Actuators
It can be described as a sandwich-type actuator in which two layers of a piezoelectric
material are laminated onto one surface of a supporting beam or plate. The two piezoelectric
layers are generally poled in the same direction, typically in the direction normal to the
supporting beam/plate. When opposing electric fields are applied to the two piezoelectric
layers, their corresponding dimensional changes are of the opposite character, which gives
rise to bending of the beam.

Fig 5.1
5.3.3PZT Bimorph Actuator Configuration
Two Electrode Bimorph (Serial Bimorph): Here one of the two ceramic plates is
always operated opposite to the direction of polarization. To avoid depolarization, the
maximum electric field is limited to few hundred volts per millimeter. These type of
actuator is widely used in accelerometers and force sensors.
Three Electrode Bimorph (Parallel Bimorph):
Here the two piezoelectric plates are of the same polarization directions and the actuator is
driven by applying electrical field between surface electrodes and the bonding layer

Page 20 of 60
Fig 5.2
Basic Working Principle
Two PZT thin films are stacked co-axially on both sides of a thin elastic bronze piece, and an
outer ring and an inner ring are separately installed and are firmly fixed on outer and inner
diameter of the elastic piece by two ring covers.

Fig 5.3
When a proper excitation voltage is applied on it, the upper PZT thin film expands vertically
and contracts horizontally, the lower PZT contracts vertically and expands horizontally. This
establishes the bimorph bending, the effect of which produces the deformation

Page 21 of 60
Fig-5.4

Figure :- 5.5 model of piezoelectric actuator

MESHING
Model is meshed using SOLID 226 element
SOLID226 Element Description
SOLID226 has the following capabilities:
Structural-Thermal
Piezoresistive
Electroelastic
Piezoelectric
Thermal-Electric
Structural-Thermoelectric
Thermal-Piezoelectric
The element has twenty nodes with up to five degrees of freedom per node.
Structural capabilities are elastic only and include large deflection, stress stiffening
effects, and prestress effects. Thermoelectric capabilities include Seebeck, Peltier,
and Thomson effects, as well as Joule heating. In addition to thermal expansion,

Page 22 of 60
structural-thermal
thermal capabilities include the piezocaloric effect in dynamic analyses.
The Corioliseffect is available for analyses with structural degrees of freedom.
Table 5.1 SOLID226 Coupled-Field
Coupled Analyses
Coupled- KEYOPT DOF Force Reaction Analysis
Field (1) Label Label Solution Type
Analysis
Piezoelectric 1001 [3] UX, UY, FX, FY, Force, Static
UZ, FZ, Electric Modal
VOLT CHRG Charge Full
(negative) Harmonic
Full
Transient

Solid 226 geometry

Fig- 5.6

Fig:- 5.7 meshing of piezoelectric actuator

Page 23 of 60
fig:- 5.8 full expansion model

BOUNDARY CONDITION

Fig:- 5.9 boundary condition of actuator

Page 24 of 60
APDL programming of the actuator

CYLIND,5E-3,0,1.5e-3,2.0e-3,0,180
CYLIND,5e-3,0,2.0e-3,2.5e-3,0,180
VGLUE,ALL
/com- meshing
allsel !Fluid domain meshing
type,1
mat,1
esize,2e-4
vsweep,all
allsel
/com boundary condition
/com
/com -- Boundary conditions for silicon
/com
esel,s,type,,1
allsel,below,elem
nsel,r,loc,y,0
d,all,ux,0 !Symmetry boundaries (at y=0)
d,all,uy,0
allsel,below,elem
csys,1
nsel,r,loc,x,5e-3 ! alldof=0 at outer surface
csys,0
d,all,ux,0
d,all,uy,0
d,all,uz,0
allsel
esel,s,type,,2
allsel,below,elem
nsel,r,loc,y,0
d,all,ux,0 !Symmetry boundaries (at y=0)
d,all,uy,0
allsel,below,elem
csys,1
nsel,r,loc,x,5e-3 ! alldof=0 at outer surface
csys,0
d,all,ux,0
d,all,uy,0
d,all,uz,0
allsel

nsel,s,loc,z,1.5e-3 !Set FSI interface


sf,all,fsin,1
allsel
save

5.4 Model analysis


The goal of modal analysis in structural mechanics is to determine the natural mode shapes and
frequencies of an object or structure during free vibration. It is common to use the finite element
method (FEM) to perform this analysis because, like other calculations using the FEM, the object
being analyzed can have arbitrary shape and the results of the calculations are acceptable. The types
of equations which arise from modal analysis are those seen in Eigen systems. The physical
interpretation of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors which come from solving the system are that they
represent the frequencies and corresponding mode shapes. Sometimes, the only desired modes are the

Page 25 of 60
lowest frequencies because they can be the most prominent modes at which the object will vibrate,
dominating all
ll the higher frequency modes.

Model analysis of this actuator is done using block langrange method 3 mode is extracted between 0
to 100000 frequency and result of model analysis is shown in fig

Fig. 5.10model
model analysis of actuator

1st natural frequency 24100 hz


2nd natural frequency 45877 hz
3rd natural frequency 47869 hz

Harmonic analysis

20 volt is applied to upper part of the piezoelectric and lower part is grounded then harmonic
analysis is done between frequency range 0 to 100000 and 100 steps are subtracted result of
harmonic analysis is shown below

Fig 5.11 harmonic analysis of actuator

Page 26 of 60
Fig- 5.12 deflection of actuator at different frequency

Transient analysis
There are two way to define any sinusoidal function in ANSYS either directly define the
sinusoidal function from parameter > function > define and this file can be used as input or
circuit can be applied in this project circuit is applied using the APDL programming circuit
94 is used for the same. APDL programming for the circuit is given by
V= applied voltage
freq= natural frequency
In this project V=20 Volt and freq= 24100 hz but it can be taken as 25000 hz
! Electrical BC
nsel,r,loc,z,1.5e-3
cp,1,volt,all
ng=ndnext(0) ! ground node
nsel,all

nsel,s,loc,z,2.5e-3
cp,2,volt,all
nl=ndnext(0) ! load node
nsel,all
/PREP7
et,2,CIRCU94,4,1,,,,1 ! voltage source, positive electric charge option
r,2,,V,freq
type,2
real,2
*get,nod226,node,,count ! number of nodes
n,nod226+1
e,nl,ng,nod226+1

Page 27 of 60
ddele,nl,volt
fini

/SOLU
antype,trans
time,40/freq
deltime,1/freq/20
outres,all,all
solve
finish

solution is done for the 800 time step and final graph of the transient analysis is shown like
this

Fig- 5.13

After this analysis file is ready to create .dat file which will be latter used in CFX pre during
the interfacing and the dat file can be created using GUI window
Choose menu path Main Menu> Multi-field Set Up> MFX-ANSYS/CFX>
ANSYS/CFX> Load Transfer.
Enter Interface1 for the CFX Region Name.
For Load Type, accept the default of Mechanical.
Click OK.
Choose menu path Main Menu> Multi-field
Multi Set Up> MFX-ANSYS/CFX>
ANSYS/CFX> Time Ctrl.
Set MFX End Time to ………….
Set Initial Time Step to ……………
Set Minimum Time Step to ……
Set Maximum Time Step to ……..
Accept the remaining defaults and click OK.

Page 28 of 60
CHAPTER- 6

Modelling of pump chamber in ANSYS

Fluid region as well as solid region (steel body) is created and meshed in ANSYS APDL.
Fluid 142 element is used for meshing fluid region and solid 45 is used for meshing solid
region as we are not interested in deformation in solid region that’s why coarse mesh is done
for solid region and very fine mesh is done for fluid region further all the fluid region is
meshed by mesh200 element and name is given at the place where boundary condition
suppose to be applied in CFX pre APDL programming for meshing of fluid region would be
look like thismesh=1

*if,mesh,eq,1,then

seltol,1.0e-6 !Selection tolerance

/prep7

/com
/com -- Element types
/com
et,3,fluid142,,,,1 !3D Fluid element with diplacement DOF option
et,4,mesh200,6 !Mesh only element (3D quad 4 nodes) to mesh surfaces used in CFXpre

/com
/com -- Fluid domain geometry
/com
block,,2.5e-3,,0.2e-3,,0.1e-3
k,9,2.8e-3
k,10,2.8e-3,0.02e-3
k,11,2.8e-3,,0.1e-3
k,12,2.8e-3,0.02e-3,0.1e-3
v,6,11,9,4,7,12,10,3
block,2.8e-3,2.9e-3,,0.02e-3,,0.1e-3
vglue,1,2,3

/com
/com -- Meshing
/com
allsel !Fluid domain meshing
type,3
mat,3
esize,4e-5
mshape,1,3d !Volume mesh using Tet.
mshkey,0 !Free meshing
vmesh,all
allsel

asel,s,,,4 !FSI interface surface mesh


type,4 !with mesh only elements
amesh,all
allsel,below,area
cm,fsi,elem !Create component named fsi
allsel

Page 29 of 60
asel,s,,,5 !Opening surface mesh
type,4 !with mesh only elements
amesh,all
allsel,below,area
cm,pipe,elem !Create component named pipe
allsel

asel,s,,,1 !Side1 and side2 surface mesh


asel,a,,,10 !with mesh only elements
asel,a,,,21
type,4
amesh,all
allsel,below,area
cm,side1,elem !Create component named side1
allsel
asel,s,,,2
asel,a,,,8
asel,a,,,19
type,4
amesh,all
allsel,below,area
cm,side2,elem !Create component named side2
allsel

asel,s,,,11 !Top surface mesh


asel,a,,,20 !with mesh only elements
type,4
amesh,all
allsel,below,area
cm,top,elem !Create component named top
allsel

asel,s,,,3 !Bottom surface mesh


asel,a,,,7 !with mesh only elements
asel,a,,,18
type,4
amesh,all
allsel,below,area
cm,bottom,elem !Create component named bottom
allsel

asel,s,,,17 !Opening surface mesh


type,4 !with mesh only elements
amesh,all
allsel,below,area
cm,opening,elem !Create component named opening
allsel
save
this model should be saved as .cdb file form

pre-processor> archive mode > write which can be directly open in cfx pre for further analysis

FULL MODEL OF PUMPING CHAMBER

Page 30 of 60
Fig- 6.1 full meshed model of micropump

Fig-6.2
6.2 isometric view of micropump

Only half of the model is created due to symmetry reason and condition for symmetry has been
explained in chapter 2

Page 31 of 60
Fig- 6.3 half model of micropump

MESHING of the pumping chamber

There are two region in pumping chamber fluid region and solid region (outer part steel
body) solid body is meshed using solid 45 and very coarse mesh is done because we are not
interested is solid part i.e we don’t want to see that what is the effect on solid part because of
fluid I am assuming that there are no effect on solid part or it has very minor effect which can
be negligible.

as very fine mesh is done for fluid region there are two region for this
Whereas

1. Our main area of interest is fluid region


2. It is necessary for stability during solving in CFX solver this type of error will be
discussed in chapter

Fluid region is meshed using FLUID


FLUID 142 element detail about this element is given below

FLUID142 Element Description

Fluid 142 structure

Page 32 of 60
We are using FLUID142 to model transient or steady state fluid/thermal systems that involve
fluid and/or non-fluid regions. The conservation equations for viscous fluid flow and energy
are solved in the fluid region, while only the energy equation is solved in the non-fluid
region.Use this FLOTRAN CFD element to solve for flow and temperature distributions
within aregion, as opposed to elements that model a network of one-dimensional regions
hookedtogether (such as FLUID116).we can also use FLUID142 in a fluid-solid interaction
analysis..
For the FLOTRAN CFD elements, the velocities are obtained from the conservation of
momentum principle, and the pressure is obtained from the conservation of mass principle.
(The temperature, if required, is obtained from the law of conservation of energy.) A
segregated sequential solver algorithm is used; that is, the matrix system derived from the
finite element discretization of the governing equation for each degree of freedom is solved
separately. The flow problem is nonlinear and the governing equations are coupled together.
The sequential solution of all the governing equations, combined with the update of any
temperature- or pressure-dependent properties, constitutes a global iteration. The number of
global iterations required to achieve a converged solution may vary considerably, depending
on the size and stability of the problem. Transport equations are solved for the mass fractions
of up to six species.
You can solve the system of equations in a constant angular velocity rotating coordinate
system. The degrees of freedom are velocities, pressure, and temperature. Two turbulence
quantities, the turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, are
calculated if you invoke an optional turbulence model.

Development of Numerical Model Using CFX 12.0 Tool-kit


CFX is divided in to 3 part CFX pre, CFX post and CFX result , CFX pre is used for basic
setting initial condition boundary condition etc CFX post is used for solution numerical
scheme conservation point residual value number of iteration are supposed to be define in
CFX post finally CFX result is used for result viewer no setting is required I am going to
explain all the setting used by me .

CFX PRE in the case of transient analysis


Page 33 of 60
If a transient simulation is started from an approximate initial guess the initial transient will not be
accurate
The first few timesteps may not converge
A smaller time step may be needed initially to maintain solver stability
For cyclic behavior the first few cycles can be ignored until a repeatable pattern is obtained.
obtained

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Water is taken as

Boundary condition in cfx pre

Page 34 of 60
Symmetric boundary condition is imposed on the front face red colour is the symbol of
symmetric boundary condition

No slip wall condition area of the wall is shown in above figure it is mainly outer part of the
fluid domain

Fluid solid interfacing in define on the highlighted part at this part mesh deformation is
allowed and data is taken from the ANSYS dat file which has been createn in ANSYS APDL

Page 35 of 60
FULL MODEL with different boundary
boun condition in cfx
Red colour is the symbol of symmetric boundary condition blue colour is the symbol of
opening type boundary condition and black arrow is the symbol of outlet boundary
condition.

Comparison between inlet outlet and opening type boundary condition


Available Boundary Condition Types

Inlet
– Velocity Components -Static Temperature (Heat Transfer)
– Normal Speed -Total Temperature (Heat Transfer)
– Mass Flow Rate -Total
Total Enthalpy (Heat Transfer)
– Total Pressure (stable) -Relative Static Pressure
ressure (Supersonic)
– Static Pressure -Inlet Turbulent conditions
Outlet
– Average Static Pressure -Normal Speed
– Velocity Components -Mass Flow Rate
– Static Pressure
Opening
– Opening Pressure and Dirn -Opening
Opening Temperature (Heat Transfer)
– Entrainment -Opening Static Temperature (Heat Transfer)
– Static Pressure and Direction -Inflow Turbulent conditions
– Velocity Components
Wall
– No Slip / Free Slip -Adiabatic (Heat Transfer)
– Roughness Parameters -Fixed
Fixed Temperature (Heat Transfer)
– Heat Flux (Heat Transfer) -Heat Transfer
ransfer Coefficient (Heat Transfer)
– Wall Velocity (for
for tangential motion only)
only

Page 36 of 60
Symmetry
– No details (only specify region which corresponds to the symmetry plane

Inlets and Outlets


• Inlets are used predominantly for regions where inflow is expected; however, inlets
also support outflow as a result of velocity specified boundary conditions
• Velocity specified inlets are intended for incompressible flows
– Using velocity inlets in compressible flows can lead to non-
non physical results
• Pressure and mass flow inlets areare suitable for compressible and incompressible flows
• The same concept applies to outlets

Opening type boundary condition

In this analysis opening type of boundary condition is imposed on the inlet because there is
a no valve and inlet as well outlet both are expected whereas outlet boundary condition
with pressure boundary condition is applied which insure that it is acting as one way valve
and no inlet is allowed form the outlet

Node, element and boundary condition information

Page 37 of 60
CELL( CFX Expression Language) PROGRAMMING IN CFX Pre

&replace FLOW: Flow Analysis 1


ANALYSIS TYPE:
Option = Transient
EXTERNAL SOLVER COUPLING:
ANSYS Input File = C:\Users\ccadmin\Desktop\openong.dat
Option = ANSYS MultiField via Prep7
END
INITIAL TIME:
Option = Coupling Initial Time
END
TIME DURATION:
Option = Coupling Time Duration
END
TIME STEPS:
Option = Coupling Timesteps
END
END
DOMAIN: Default Domain
Coord Frame = Coord 0
Domain Type = Fluid
Location = Primitive 3D A
BOUNDARY: inlet
Boundary Type = OPENING
Interface Boundary = Off
Location = INLET
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:
FLOW REGIME:
Option = Subsonic
END
MASS AND MOMENTUM:
Option = Entrainment
Relative Pressure = 10 [kPa]
END
MESH MOTION:
Option = Stationary
END
END
END
BOUNDARY: interface1
Boundary Type = WALL

Page 38 of 60
Create Other Side = Off
Interface Boundary = Off
Location = FSI
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:
MASS AND MOMENTUM:
Option = No Slip Wall
END
MESH MOTION:
Option = ANSYS MultiField
Receive from ANSYS = Total Mesh Displacement
END
END
END
BOUNDARY: outlet
Boundary Type = OUTLET
Interface Boundary = Off
Location = OUTLET
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:
FLOW REGIME:
Option = Subsonic
END
MASS AND MOMENTUM:
Option = Static Pressure
Relative Pressure = 0 [Pa]
END
MESH MOTION:
Option = Stationary
END
END
END
BOUNDARY: symm
Boundary Type = SYMMETRY
Interface Boundary = Off
Location = SYMMETRY
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:
MESH MOTION:
Option = Unspecified
END
END
END
BOUNDARY: wall
Boundary Type = WALL
Create Other Side = Off
Interface Boundary = Off
Location = WALL
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:
MASS AND MOMENTUM:
Option = No Slip Wall
END
MESH MOTION:
Option = Stationary
END
END
END
DOMAIN MODELS:
BUOYANCY MODEL:
Option = Non Buoyant

Page 39 of 60
END
DOMAIN MOTION:
Option = Stationary
END
MESH DEFORMATION:
Option = Regions of Motion Specified
MESH MOTION MODEL:
Option = Displacement Diffusion
MESH STIFFNESS:
Option = Increase near Small Volumes
Stiffness Model Exponent = 10
END
END
END
REFERENCE PRESSURE:
Reference Pressure = 1 [atm]
END
END
FLUID DEFINITION: Fluid 1
Material = Water
Option = Material Library
MORPHOLOGY:
Option = Continuous Fluid
END
END
FLUID MODELS:
COMBUSTION MODEL:
Option = None
END
HEAT TRANSFER MODEL:
Fluid Temperature = 25 [C]
Option = Isothermal
END
THERMAL RADIATION MODEL:
Option = None
END
TURBULENCE MODEL:
Option = Laminar
END
END
INITIALISATION:
Option = Automatic
INITIAL CONDITIONS:
Velocity Type = Cartesian
CARTESIAN VELOCITY COMPONENTS:
Option = Automatic with Value
U = 0.001 [m s^-1]
V = 0.001 [m s^-1]
W = 0.001 [m s^-1]
END
STATIC PRESSURE:
Option = Automatic with Value
Relative Pressure = 1000 [Pa]
END
END
END
END

Page 40 of 60
DOMAIN: solid
Coord Frame = Coord 0
Domain Type = Solid
Location = Primitive 3D B
BOUNDARY: solid Default
Boundary Type = WALL
Create Other Side = Off
Interface Boundary = Off
Location = Primitive 2D
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:
HEAT TRANSFER:
Option = Adiabatic
END
END
END
DOMAIN MODELS:
DOMAIN MOTION:
Option = Stationary
END
MESH DEFORMATION:
Option = None
END
END
INITIALISATION:
Option = Automatic
INITIAL CONDITIONS:
TEMPERATURE:
Option = Automatic with Value
Temperature = 298 [K]
END
END
END
SOLID DEFINITION: Solid 1
Material = Aluminium
Option = Material Library
MORPHOLOGY:
Option = Continuous Solid
END
END
SOLID MODELS:
HEAT TRANSFER MODEL:
Option = Thermal Energy
END
THERMAL RADIATION MODEL:
Option = None
END
END
END
OUTPUT CONTROL:
MONITOR OBJECTS:
MONITOR BALANCES:
Option = Full
END
MONITOR FORCES:
Option = Full
END
MONITOR PARTICLES:

Page 41 of 60
Option = Full
END
MONITOR POINT: Monitor Point 1
Expression Value = areaAve(Velocity)@outlet
Option = Expression
END
MONITOR RESIDUALS:
Option = Full
END
MONITOR TOTALS:
Option = Full
END
END
RESULTS:
File Compression Level = Default
Option = Standard
END
TRANSIENT RESULTS: Transient Results 1
File Compression Level = Default
Option = Standard
OUTPUT FREQUENCY:
Option = Time Interval
Time Interval = 1.25e-5 [s]
END
END
END
SOLUTION UNITS:
Angle Units = [rad]
Length Units = [m]
Mass Units = [kg]
Solid Angle Units = [sr]
Temperature Units = [K]
Time Units = [s]
END
SOLVER CONTROL:
ADVECTION SCHEME:
Option = High Resolution
END
CONVERGENCE CONTROL:
Maximum Number of Coefficient Loops = 3
Minimum Number of Coefficient Loops = 1
Timescale Control = Coefficient Loops
END
CONVERGENCE CRITERIA:
Residual Target = 1.E-4
Residual Type = RMS
END
TRANSIENT SCHEME:
Option = Second Order Backward Euler
TIMESTEP INITIALISATION:
Option = Automatic
END
END
END
END

Page 42 of 60
CHAPTER 7

COUPLING BETWEEN ANSYS- APDL AND CFX SOLVER

How MFX Works

The ANSYS code functions as the master: it reads all Multi-field commands, collects the
interface meshes from the CFX code, does the mapping, and communicates time and stagger
loop controls to the CFX code. The mapping generated by ANSYS is used to interpolate
loads between dissimilar meshes on either side of the coupling interface. Each field solver
advances through a sequence of multi-field time steps and stagger (coupling) iterations within
each time step. During every stagger iteration, each field solver collects the loads that it
requires from the other field solvers and then solves its physics fields. You can run the CFX
field solver using CFX's parallel processing capabilities to run large-scale parallel CFD jobs
on either the same or a different platform as ANSYS.
Synchronization Points and Load Transfer
Using MFX, data are transferred throughout the fluid-solid interaction analysis. The points at
which data are transferred are called synchronization points. Data can be sent or received
only at a synchronization point, as shown in Figure 6.1: MFX Method Data Communication

Fig- 7.1 MFX Method Data Communication

Solution Process

The solution process for MFX is shown in the figure below. The ANSYS code acts as the
master and reads all MFX commands, does the mapping, and serves the time step and stagger
loop controls to the CFX slave. The MFANALYSIS command activates a master multi-field
solution. The solution loop consists of two loops: the multi-field time loop and the multi-field
stagger loop.
The ANSYS field solver supports transient and static analyses. CFX supports only a transient
analysis. If you want a static solution, running a static analysis on ANSYS will help CFX to
reach a solution more quickly.

Page 43 of 60
Figure 7.2: ANSYS Multi-field
Multi solver Process

The time loop corresponds to the time step loop of the multi-field
multi field analysis, set with the
MFTIME command. Use the MFDTIME command to specify time step size.
Within each time step is the stagger loop. The stagger loop allows
allows for implicit coupling of the
fields in the MFX solution. The number of stagger iterations applies to each time step in the th
MFX analysis. Within each ch step in the time step loop, the field solutions are repeated in the
stagger loop until convergence. The number of iterations executed
executed within the stagger loop is
determined by the convergence of the loads transfer between fields or the maximum number
of stagger iterations specified by the MFITER command. For a transient analysis performed
in CFX, the stagger iteration contains many CFX coefficient
coefficient iterations, which loop until
convergence or until the maximum number of coefficient iterations is reached. Load Lo transfers
between fields occur at each stagger loop. Global convergence
convergence is checked after the load
transfer. If global convergence of the load transfer is not achieved, another stagger loop
loo is
performed.
Use the MFLCOMM command to specify surface load transfer ansfer between field solvers. The
meshes used in the individual field solvers can be dissimilar
dissimilar across the interface. Before
solving a given field, all necessary loads are collected from the other field solver. Loads are
transferred either before or after solution of the field solver, depending on whether the field
solver groups are set to solve sequentially or simultaneously

ANSYS
APDL

CFX PRE

CFX SOLVER

Page 44 of 60
CHAPTER 8

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Initially wall boundary condition is placed at inlet and outlet both and micrpoump is
completely filled by water and the main aim of this analyasis to show that what are the
maximum and minimum pressure is generated because of actuation of piezoelectric it can be
seen in chapter 4 that micropump
pump is made is xy plane and microneedle is located toward z
axis

Analysis is done only for 50 time steps 10 time step = 1complete cycle

1/25000= 4e-5[s]

Time step 4e-6

Data received from ANSYS- APDL

Fig- 8.1 data received from


fr ANSYS APDL

Page 45 of 60
FIG-8.2
8.2 pressure at top of needle

Fig- 8.3 velocity at top of needle

Fig-8.4
8.4 velocity near outlet

Page 46 of 60
Fig 8.5 pressure at outlet

Fig 8.6 velocity at top of needle

Page 47 of 60
Fig 8.7 velocity at outlet

Velocity vector at time 0.00

Fig 8.8 velocity vector at time 0.00 second

Page 48 of 60
Velocity vector plot

Fig 8.9 velocity vector at a plane at z= 0.7e-3


0.7e meter

Fig 8.10 isometric view of velocity vector at z= 1e-3


1e meter

Page 49 of 60
Velocity vector at time 0.8e-55 s

Fig 8.11 Velocity


ocity vector at time 0.8e-5
0.8e s

Velocity vector at time 4e-55 second

Fig 8.12 Velocity vector at time 4e-5


4e second

Page 50 of 60
Discussion on this analysis

If we closely visualize all the graphs (fig 8.1, to fig-


fig 8.12)) we can see that during the positive
displacement of the actuator pressure is decreases because of this suction is created and
+velocity w is generated at the top of micro needle and –ve ve velocity in x direction is
generated it means that fluid particle try
tr to come toward the centre of the micro pump.
pump

Same type of the design of micropump has been made and tested by kazuyoshi Tsuchiya, Naoyuki
nakanishi and Eiji nakamachi in their reseach paper” Development of blood extraction system for
health monitering system”[3],
], and they measured maximum pressure 13 kpa, in my anlysis I am
getting maximum pressure 14 kpa which is very close to experomental measure value.

Analysis n0.2
Now boundary condition is changed opening boundary condition
condition is placed at the inlet and wall is
placed at the outlet
The main purpose of this analysis to allow the flow from inlet but not from outlet also it is
assuming that blood pressure is 10kpa gauge

Page 51 of 60
Velocity vectors

Page 52 of 60
Discussion on analysis 2

Very high pressure is generated when we change the boundary condition maximum pressure is
shown near about 70 Mpa which is very high pressure at cant be generated from piezoelectric
main reason for this answer can be

1.Poor boundary condition

2.Bad convergense of solution

3.But I am getting this range pressure for all the analysis except boundary condition wall (i.e.
micropump is completely closed and filled by water analysis no. 1) that’s why is is also possible
that some coefficient factor may exist for this type analysis

ANALYSIS NUMBER -03

BOUNDARY CONDITION

Opening at inlet with gauge pressure 10 kpa and outlet at outlet with gauge pressure 0
atmosphere

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Analysis -04

In this anlysis 20*sin(25000*{time}) is applied on piezoelectric actuator and boundary condition


opening at inlet with gauge pressure 10kpa and outlet with gauge pressure o pa at outlet are
taken

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CHAPTER 09

SOME COMMON ERROR IN MULTIFIELD ANALYSIS


Error msg- load in not transferred
SOLUTION- Never apply area load LOAD must be appliedonly on node in ANSYS ,use
APDL programming instead of GUI window
Area load ????
Node load ????
Why APDL is better than GUI window ????
AREA LOAD area load is applied on the area it can be applied before or after the meshing,
meshing does not alter this type of load meshing can be changed number of time load will not
be affected this type of load can be easily applied using GUI window
NODE LOAD node load is applied on node and cant be applied before meshing, this type of
load always applied after meshing and once load has been applied mesh cant be alter , during
the communication between CFX and APDL all the information is transferred between nodes
therefore it is good practice to apply node load only.
Why APDL is better than GUI window ????
It is good practice to use APDL command for node load because node can be easily selected
using APDL command for exp I have to select node betwwn
-1.5 <x<1.5
-2.5<y<2.5
-3.5<z<3.5
Then it is very hard to use GUI window but APDL command can easily select these nodes
Nsel,r,loc,x,-1,5,1.5
Nsel,s,loc,y,-2.5,2.5
Nsel,s,loc,z,-3.5,3.5
Plot>nodes

Error msg- negative volume detected

Most common problem in moving mesh problem new user will face 9 time out of10 time
this error msg
Don’t use smart meshing, meshing quality must be good enough
Element size should be small
Time step should be small
Errormsg- overflow
It means that your boundary conditions are wrong change it
Ex-in the case of one inlet and one outlet static pressure cant be applied on outlet and total
stable pressure cant be applied on inlet boundary condition.
If you are working with multiphase problem (where more than two liquid are involve) it is
good practice to use 0.000001 instead of 0
Error msg- no surface is compatible to ANSYS
Make sure the name of the interfacing surface define in ANSYS is same as the name define in
Cfx- pre
i.e if interface1 is written in ANSYS then it cant be written Interface1 or interface 1 or
INTERFACE1 in CFX
Error msg – your system don’t have memory sparse matrix are very large

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This is the ANSYS problem make sure that model created in ANSYS should not have very
dense mesh
Error msg – disc is full ,solution cant be updated
Check your c drive make sure that it have enough space 1 analysis 100 time step may take up
to 3 GB space if your meshing is very dense and you are solving for 1000 sub steps then total
size must be more than 20 GB
Error msg-Avoiding
Avoiding Mesh Alignment Errors
Error

One of the most common mistakes in setting up an ANSYS Multi-field


Multi field simulation is to get
the Mechanical application mesh and the CFX mesh misaligned, so that they do not meet at a
common interface. The meshes do not need to match each other node by node nod on the
interface, but if the geometry is offset too much then the interpolation algorithm will have
difficulty in deciding where the interfaces touch and the quantities transferred between the
Mechanical application and CFX may not be as desired.

It is easy
asy to spot this problem after the simulation has completed by loading both the
Mechanical application and CFX results into CFD-Post:
CFD Post: if there are significant gaps or offsets
in the two meshes then this will be readily visible.Change
visible.Change your whole model and meshm it
properly

Checking Convergence

If the ANSYS Multi-field


field run has converged, then it must be the case that the Mechanical application,
CFX and the data exchanged across the interface has all converged to the limits specified. For a full
transient simulation,
ulation, convergence should take place for every timestep for the results to be
accurate.
If these warnings are present, then the run did not converge. You may be able to increase the
number of stagger iterations if the timestep was converging but did not meet the criteria before the
maximum number of stagger iterations was reached. This can be done in CFX-Pre
CFX Pre by increasing the
Max. Iterations parameter on the External Coupling tab of the Solver Control panel.

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If the run was not converging, then you will have to view the residual plots to determine which
component (the Mechanical application, CFX or the data exchanged) was not converged and take
appropriate action to improve the convergence.

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PUBLICATIONS BY THE CANDIDATE

INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS

1.Kumargaurav, Alok R. dixit, TVK Gupta, Prakanshusingh


Entitle- Comparison of Contact Stresses in Wheel-Rail interface for the different Wheel
Diameters from Analytical Methods and Simulation Results from Ansys 11.0 research paper
submitted in American society of mechanical engineers (ASME) journal
Status- under review

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
Kumar gaurav, alok R. dixit,Prakanshusingh
2.Finite element analysis supporting the lowering of floor height of Indian railway accepted in indem
international conference organised by Indian institute of information technology design &
manufacturing jabalpur

Under progress
3.Prakanshusingh, laxmisagarmajhi, V.K. Gupta
Finite element and computational fluid dynamics analysis micropump for drug delivery system
This paper is based on my PBI report final paper will be submitted with in 1 month

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REFERENCE

1. Koch, M., Evans, A., Brunnschweiler, A., “Microfluidic Technology andVApplications”,


Research Studies Press Ltd., Baldock, Hertfirdshire, England, 2000.
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