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Love Flourishes..

Date of Issue : 18 January 2018

Dehradun February 2018 Vol XI Issue No 122


Readers are requested to send reports of philatelic activities in their area for publication. Short write ups by the
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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
Love is in the air this month……
Greetings on Valentine’s Day

Dear Reader,

I am pleased to present February 2018 issue of Rainbow Stamp News. In the


month of February Valentine’s Day is celebrated on 14th. Valentine’s Day is very
popular around the world and is celebrated in many places, including India. It
celebrates love between couples and friends. To mark this ‘Love Day’ many

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
postal administrations issue beautiful Love stamps featuring hearts, roses, love
birds and word ‘Love’ in exquisite designs for this special day. Valentine’s Day
stamps have their own attraction for sending greetings and expressing love . For
a thematic collector, it is a beautiful theme. One can make a complete exhibit on
‘Love stamps’ as a large number of stamps have been issued by various countries
on this theme. So in this month have some beautiful stamps issued for Valentine’s
Day and make your collection rich, special and romantic !

This is all for this month ! More in next issue !

Happy Collecting!

Contents

 From the Desk of Naresh Agrawal

 Recent Indian Issues

 In The News

 Doon Philatelic Diary

 Beginners’ Section

 Specialized Section

 New Issues from Other Countries

 Philatelic Clubs and Society

 Blogs & Websites on Philately

 Current Philatelic Magazines – Newsletter

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
From the Desk of Naresh Agrawal

New Classes in Philatelic Exhibitions


A few years back there were talks about Social Philately, Open Class as well as Frugal Philately as
one could see some articles published in various philatelic journals and magazines introducing and
promoting these classes of philately. A genuine ,timely and most desired move in the field of philately
to give new life to the dying phase of philately.

Broadly Social Philately is basically the liberalized form of Thematic with inclusion of Postal History
elements. It may otherwise be defined as postal history exhibit displayed thematically or a thematic
exhibit displayed as postal history exhibit telling the history and development of social system
allowing usage / inclusion of various Ephemera, Cinderella and other postal linked material allowing a
little percentage of even non – philatelic material.

And to help the persons who cannot afford expansive postal / philatelic material for collection Frugal
Philately had been introduced. Frugal philately may be defined as the collection of philatelic material
from rubbish and waste, and is judged not upon its intrinsic value but rather its negligible cost. It may
be called inexpensive philately or economical, philately or cheap philately which has low priced, thrifty,
nominal or bargain basement material.

Well, in India, Social Philately class was first introduced in Stampamania 2009, a National Level
Philatelic Exhibition held in Vadodara. Till then frankly most of the philatelists were not aware of this
class. Even there was no capable jury to understand properly the parameters of judging this class.
Thereafter, though it was there in other shows in India but there was little participation and perhaps
no appreciation as no appreciable award was ever given. Frugal Philately has yet to stamp its
noticeable presence in Indian shows.

These classes have been included in the exhibitions but no higher awards are given to these
classes. Why? Either the exhibits are not of that standard or the jury lacked appropriate knowledge to
judge these exhibits. Whatever may be the reason, it is time to explore these classes. In the present
state of philately when Traditional classes have become expensive, Thematic has broadly established
itself and there is immense competition; it is time to appreciate and explore the new classes. Social
Philately and Frugal Philately are the new wheels to give pace to the stagnating state of philately.
There is a need to let philatelists know what exactly these classes are. More and more exhibits
should be welcomed and given appropriate recognition. One must know that these classes are being
recognized even in FIAP and FIP exhibitions world over.

Well, while talking about these classes ,I will also talk about the First day Cover Class and Special
Cover Class. We all know that most of the new stamp collectors and even veteran philatelists have
huge collection of these covers. These classes not only allow the stamp collectors to participate in the
exhibitions through their covers but also put before the public and philatelists a range of such covers
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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
to know more about these. There is a need to form some specific guidelines to prepare and adjudge
these exhibits.

Through the above discussion, I wish to appeal the whole philatelic fraternity in India to encourage
these classes and motivate stamp collectors to participate in shows with their collections/ exhibits. At
the same time I appeal to the Apex bodies to promote these classes & to train and prepare judges to
properly judge such exhibits.

-Naresh Agrawal Ph. 09425530514 - email : nareshkumar1992@yahoo.co.in

Recent Indian Issue

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
8 January 2018 : Central Plantation Crops Research Institute – Rs 15 , Rs 5 + MS
25 January 2018 : India – Vietnam Joint Issue – Rs25 + Rs 5 + MS
25 January 2018 : ASEAN – India Joint Summit 2018 –RS 5 x 11 + MS
26 January 2018 – Potter’s Wheel – Rs 5 + Rs 15
Recent Special Covers

16 December 2017 : Acharya Pt. Chakradhar Joshi, Dehradun


16 & 17 December 2017 : Uttarakannadapex-2017 , Kumta, Uttara Kannada -5 Special
Covers
23 December 2017 : Vegdevi Vilas Instututions- Varthur
28 December 2017 : Completion of 50 Years on awarding Jnanpith Award to
Rashtrakavi Kuvempu's Sri Ramayana Darshanam
,
View : Special Covers

In The News

2018 Calendar

West Bengal Circle of India Post issued a special 2018 Calendar featuring stories of
famous Stamps of the world , designed by noted artist and philatelist
Shri Dipok Dey.This calendar is available at Kolkata Philatelic Bureaue.
Ramayana Calendar by India Post

Business Development & Marketing Directorate of India Post has brought out a
Calendar for 2018 featuring Ramayana Stamps. The price of this Calendar is Rs 100.

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
New rules by USPS for their products but will discourage
nonprofits from expressing their views in
computer-generated the form of postage.
stamps in US
In a Dec. 19 report, the Alliance said,
“Apparently, its attorneys are worried
that some nonprofit subjects could be
‘threats to the Postal Service brand,’
and it would be ‘impermissible viewpoint
discrimination, which would endanger
the whole program.’”

What types of images are allowed on


the computer-generated postage have
already prompted lawsuits that
challenge the refusal to allow some
images as a violation of free speech
rights granted by the Constitution.

But the Postal Service has held fast to


A mock- up from the zazzle.com its proposed ban on political advertising
personalized postage provider of one of its on postage. The rules ban “any
design offerings showing toasting depiction of political, religious, violent or
champagne flutes. Under new rules, sexual content.”
designs featuring alcohol would not be
allowed except in situations in certain Postal lawyers maintain that any
social contexts, such as weddings. provider of computer-generated postage
must be careful to separate their
products, called customized postage,
After a year of study, the United States from postage stamps.
Postal Service has announced what
“Providers must not promote
images and subject matter it will allow
Customized Postage products as ‘U.S.
on computer-generated postage created
stamps’ or make any representations
by Stamps.com, Zazzle.com and other
tending to imply that Customized
companies.
Postage products are related in any way
to official U.S. postage stamps or to any
Some mailers are not happy with the aspect of the Postal Service philatelic
Postal Service’s final proposal, printed program,” the rules say.
in the Federal Register on Dec. 19.“A
The Postal Service also rejected
lump of coal,” decried the Alliance of
concerns voiced by Stamps.com that it
Nonprofit Mailers.
might be required to change its name or
The organization complained the new trademarks because of the new rules.
rules will allow commercial mailers to
use almost any commercial display of

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
“Neither the proposed nor the final rules “(iii) Any depiction of political, religious,
require alteration of provider violent or sexual content; or
trademarks,” the final rules state.
“(iv) Any depiction of subject matter
“The requirement that providers prohibited for display under U.S. law.”
disassociate Customized Postage
products from U.S. stamps is intended The rules also ban use of logos of beer
to protect official USPS stamps and and alcoholic beverages.
philatelic products and programs from
consumer confusion related to the “Although allowing incidental depictions
status of Customized Postage products, of alcohol in a commercial or social
which are a specialized form of context is acceptable under the final
evidence of prepayment of postage,” the rules, allowing the non-incidental display
revisions state. of logos promoting alcoholic beverage
sales creates more brand risks, and
“The final rules simply require providers arguably opens other commercial
not to ‘promote’ Customized Postage categories that the Postal Service may
products as being official U.S. postage be compelled to accept by First
stamps,” the USPS said. Amendment principles, e.g., logos
promoting tobacco, weapons, or
What troubled the Alliance most was the gambling enterprises.”
deference the Postal Service paid to
commercial organizations, compared to The rules rejected the Alliance’s
nonprofits, which were placed under a complaint of preference to commercial
“social” category. firms, saying that nonprofits would be
allowed the same freedom to purchase
“Commercial” was defined by the USPS computer-generated postage as would
as a “means intended for no purpose any mailer.
other than the sale of goods or services
in commerce.” Both Stamps.com and Zazzle had
voiced concerns about the initial USPS
Social “means promoting or depicting proposal on images. Neither responded
people, animals, items, or events to Linn’s when asked about their views
commonly associated with community on the final regulations.
relations or companionship and likely to
generate invitations, announcements, Source : Linn’s Stamp News
notices, thank-you notes, RSVPs, or
similar correspondence.”

What is specifically banned?

“(i) Any non-incidental depiction of


alcohol, tobacco, gambling, or firearms
or other weapons;

“(ii) Any depiction of controlled


substances, including but not limited to
marijuana,
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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
The participation fee for Competitive
Classes (except Youth Philately,
Literature and One Frame) will be
USD80 per frame. The fee for
participation in Literature Class is
USD90 per exhibit. The fee for
participation in One Frame Class is
USD100 per exhibit. There is no
participation fee for Youth Philately
Class.

THAILAND 2018 WORLD


STAMP EXHIBITION

THAILAND 2018 is an extraordinary


world stamp exhibition organized by the
Philatelic Association of Thailand under Mr. Madhukar Jhingan is
the Patronage of H.R.H. Princess Maha the National Commissioner for India.
Chakri Sirindhorn from November 28 to
December 3, 2018 at the Royal Paragon The minimum eligibility for participation
Hall, Siam Paragon, Bangkok, Thailand in THAILAND 2018 is winning at least a
on the auspicious occasion of the First vermeil award at the National exhibition.
Anniversary Celebration of H.M. King The Exhibit Application forms and the
Maha Vajiralongkorn’s Royal Coronation detailed rules of exhibition (IREX) are
Ceremony. The 75th Congress of the available for download
International Philatelic Federation (FIP) at http://thailand2018.org/
will also be held at THAILAND 2018.
The duly filled Forms along with a copy
THAILAND 2018 with a capacity of 2500 of the first page of the exhibit should be
display frames is the only General World submitted to the National Commissioner
exhibition in the year 2018 with for India, Madhukar Jhingan,
participation open in all Classes viz FIP mj@stampsofindia.com +919811160965
Championship, Traditional, Postal by March 1, 2018.
History, Postal Stationery, Aerophilately,
Source : Stamps of India
Astrophilately, Thematic, Maximaphily,
Revenues, Youth, Literature, One
Frame, Modern Philately and Open
Philately.

Scholarship for Promotion


of Aptitude & Research
in Stamps as a Hobby

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
given. 500 rupees each month for a
year by Department of Post.
To avail this scholarship, a child must be
a student of a recognized school within
India and the concerned school should
have a Philately Club and the candidate
should be a member of the Club. In
case the school Philately Club hasn’t
been established a student having his
own Philately Deposit Account will also
be considered,” reads the press release.

“Every prospective school, which


participates in the competition, would be
India Post recently launched a national assigned a Philately mentor to be
philatelic scholarship program for chosen from amongst the renowned
students in an attempt to promote the Philatelists. The Philately mentor would
hobby to the country’s youth. help in formation of the School level
According to government press release, Philately Club, providing guidance to
the scholarship program—known young and aspiring Philatelists on how
as Deen Dayal SPARSH to pursue the hobby and also helping
Yojana (Scholarship for Promotion the aspiring Philatelists on their Philately
of Aptitude & Research in Stamps as Projects etc.
a Hobby)—will be available to a total of
920 students. Each student will be

Recent Stamp Exhibitions


Commissioner for
MACAO 2018 Philatelic
Exhibition (FIAP)
Mr. Anil Suri has been appointed as
Indian National Commissioner for the
MACAO 2018, FIAP Specialized Stamp

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
Exhibition to be held in Macao, Macau History, Modern Philately (Trad. & PH),
from 21 to 24 September 2018. One Frame (Trad. & PH), Open
Philately and Philatelic Literature
Exhibition Classes: Traditional, Postal Classes only.
History, Postal Stationery, Thematic,
Youth, One Frame (TR, PH, PS, AE, Eligibility: The minimum eligibility for
AS, TH, MA & RE), Literature and participation in a FIP exhibition for
Modern Philately only. Senior & Youth Class Groups B & C is
Vermeil Medal secured at a National
Eligibility: The minimum eligibility for Exhibition and for Youth Class Group A
participation in a FIAP exhibition for Large Silver Medal.
Senior Class & Youth Class (Groups B
& C) is Vermeil Medal and for Youth Contact information:
Class (Group A) a Large Silver Medal Mr. Rajan Jayakar
secured at a National Exhibition. Flat No. 2, Court View, 126, Maharashi
Karve Road,
Contact information: Churchgate, MUMBAI - 400 020.
Mr. Anil Suri,
Khushal Villa, E-70, Kalkaji, Phone: +91-22-22820570 / +91-22-
NEW DELHI - 110 019. 22820572
(M): +9198210 72417
Phone: (Res.) +91-11-2643 0813 / (Off.) Email: rajanjayakar1948@gmail.com
+91-11-2647 4681
(M): +919811176908
Email: anilksuri@email.com FORTHCOMING INTERNATIONAL
STAMP EXHIBITIONS UNDER
FIP/FIAP

2018 May 27-31: Jerusalem, Israel,


ISRAEL 2018 World Stamp
Championship
Commissioner for
2018 Aug 15-18: Prague, Czech
PRAGA 2018 Philatelic
Republic, PRAGA 2018 World Stamp
Exhibition (FIP) Exhibition
Mr. Rajan Jaykar has been appointed as
Indian National Commissioner for the 2018 Sep 21-24: Macao, MACAO 2018
PRAGA 2018, FIP Specialized World 35th FIAP International Stamp
Stamp Exhibition to be held in Prague, Exhibition
Czech Republic from 15 to 18 August 2018 Dec: THAILAND 2018 World
2018. Stamp Exhibition

Exhibition Classes: Traditional, Postal

PCI Meeting

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
The Bi-annual General Body Meeting and Elections for the New Governing
Council (2018-2020) are scheduled to be held at Chennai on 29th April 2018.

Wedding Bells

Heartiest Congratulations to Shri Naresh Agrawal and Mrs Namita


Agrawal on auspicious occasion of the wedding ceremony of their
dear daughter Nimisha with Prateek on 5th February 2018. With Love
and blessings, we wish a very Happy married life to the lovely couple.

Doon Philatelic Diary

Shri Kedarnath Temple

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
Abhai Mishra

Shri Kedarnath is one of the twelve jyotirlingas and is situated amidst the snow capped
peaks of the Himalayas. It lies in Garhwal Himalayas, Uttarakhand near the Mandakini
river. The temple opens on Akshay Tritiya (somewhere in April) and closes on Kartik
Purnima (in November). Rest for around six months during extreme winters it is closed
and the deities are worshipped at Ukhimath during that period. The area was badly
affected during the 2013 flash floods but the temple structure did not suffer any major
damage. The regular route was washed away in the flash floods and now the pilgrims
have to cover a longer trek route to reach the temple.
It is believed that the temple was built by Pandavas with the present structure
constructed in the eighth century by Adi Sankaracharya. It has a ‘garbgriha’ and a
‘mandapa’ with ‘Nandi’ sitting just opposite to the shrine. According to the legends
pandavas went for pilgrimage after the kurushetra war to absolve them of their sin. They
tried to seek the ‘darshan’ of Lord Shiva for washing away their sins. On seeing them
Lord Shiva hid himself and the place is now known as ‘Gupkashi’. But Pandavas
pursued him and recognized him in the disguised form of Nandi. When Bhima, the
second Pandava brother tried to hold the bull by its tail and hind legs, Nandi vanished
from Guptakashi, into the ground (into a cave for hiding), but reappeared later as Shiva
in five different forms namely, hump at Kedarnath, face at Rudranath, arms at
Tungnath, navel and stomach at Madhyamaheshwar and the locks at Kalpeshwar.

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
The presiding image of Kedaranth in the form of lingam is or irregular shape with an
pedestal 3.6 m (12 ft) in circumference and 3.6 m (12 ft) in height. The head priest
(Raval) of the Kedarnath temple belongs to the Veerashaiva community from
Karnataka. However, unlike in Badrinath temple, the Raval of Kedarnath temple does
not perform the pujas. The pujas are carried out by Raval's assistants on his
instructions.
There was earlier post office at ‘Gaurikund’ and ‘Kedarnath’ but during the flash flood of
2013 both of them were washed away.
References - Wikipedia

Abhai Mishra - email : abhai_mishra@rediffmail.com

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
Beginners’ Section

Famous stamps of the World : The Bull’s Eye

The Bull's Eye (Portuguese Olho-de-boi) postage stamps were the first stamps issued
by Brazil, on 1 August 1843, having face values of 30, 60, and 90 réis. Brazil was the
second country in the world, after the United Kingdom, to issue postage stamps valid
within the entire country (as opposed to a local issue).[1] Like the United Kingdoms's first
stamps, the design does not include the country name.
The unusual name derives from the ornamental value figures inside the oval settings,
and the arrangement of the stamps in the sheet, which permitted se-tenant pairs that
looked like a pair of bull's eyes. The unusual naming of Brazilian stamps continued with
the later issue of smaller, but rectangular designs, which were nicknamed snake's eyes,
and the issue of similar designs to the Bull's Eyes, but smaller, of which the blue were
called goat's eyes, and the black, cat's eyes.
There were 1,148,994 30 réis stamps printed, 1,502,142 of the 60 réis value, and
349,182 of the 90 réis stamp. The 90 réis issue were reserved for international mail
only.

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
Specialized Section

1928 Discovery of Hawaii Stamps

Col J Dutta & Dr Anjali Dutta

Polynesians were the first people to settle the Hawaiian Islands. They journeyed across
the Pacific, moving from island to island in giant canoes. They probably reached Hawaii
around 2,000 years ago. Another group from Tahiti reached the islands in 1200 A.D.
and conquered the earlier settlers. The name Hawaii is either derived from the name of
a chief, Hawaii-loa, or the legendary name of the Polynesian homeland to the west,
Hawaiki.

Although European or Japanese ships may have reached the Hawaiian Islands during
the 1500s, Great Britain’s Captain James Cook was responsible for making them known
to the rest of the world. Cook landed there on January 18, 1778, and engaged in friendly
trade. It is estimated that about 300,000 people lived in Hawaii at that time. The
Hawaiians believed Cook had divine powers and considered him a great chief. He
named the islands in honor of the first lord of the British admiralty, the Earl of
Sandwich. Cook left the Sandwich Islands after two weeks. He returned in November
1778, and was later killed when a fight broke out between the Hawaiians and his men.
Cook’s voyages brought more explorers and traders to Hawaii. The first trading ship
stopped there in 1786 while transporting a load of furs from Oregon to China. New types
of livestock, manufactured goods, and plants were introduced to the
islands. Unfortunately, new diseases took a devastating toll on the islanders.

Local chiefs had controlled the islands throughout Hawaii’s history. In 1782, Chief
Kamehameha obtained firearms from European traders and began a bloody war to
unite the islands into a kingdom. By 1792, he controlled Hawaii Island. Three years
later, he controlled all the main islands except Kauai and Niihau. Kamehameha
appointed the local chiefs as governors and proclaimed himself King Kamehameha
I. The chiefs of Kauai and Niihau accepted Kamehameha’s rule in 1810.
Hawaii adopted its first constitution in 1840. The United States recognized Hawaii as an
independent government in 1842.
King Kalakaua gave the U.S. the right to use Pearl Harbor as a Naval base in 1887 in
return for trading privileges. In 1891, Kalakaua died and his sister was crowned Queen
Liluokalani. Liluokalani attempted to install a new constitution that would increase her
power. In 1893, a group of nine Americans, two Britons, and two Germans led a
revolution against Liluokalani, removing her from office. U.S. marines and sailors aided
the revolutionaries. In 1894, the Republic of Hawaii was formed. This short-lived nation
had just one president, Sanford B. Dole.

Hawaii then came under the control of U.S. businessmen. These businessmen lobbied
for Hawaii to be annexed by the U.S. – which was financially beneficial to their
interests. On August 12, 1898, the islands were officially annexed and became U.S.
possessions. Hawaii became a U.S. territory on June 14, 1900. Hawaiians became U.S.
citizens. However, their Congressional representative could not vote and the U.S.
Congress could veto any law passed by their legislature.

The first bill attempting to make Hawaii a state was introduced in 1919. In 1950, Hawaii
adopted a constitution in preparation for statehood. Congress approved the appropriate
legislation in 1959 and President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the bill. The matter went
before the Hawaiian people, who voted 17 to 1 in favor of statehood. On August 21,
1959, Hawaii achieved statehood.

In 1928, suggestions were made to issue a stamp commemorating the 150 thanniversary
of the discovery of Hawaii. Although the Post Office Department initially refused, they
eventually agreed to issue a pair of overprinted stamps that would be much less costly
than designing and printing new stamps. These Hawaiian Sesquicentennial stamps
were overprinted versions of the Regular Series of 1922-26 (first day of issue: August
13, 1928, quantity issued: 5,519,897). However, when the stamps were issued, many
post offices around the country were unaware of them and refused to accept them,
claiming they were already canceled and not fit for postage.

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
The use of a somewhat generic overprint was the result of a disagreement between
Wallace Farrington, the Governor of Hawaii and Harry New, the Postmaster General.
New felt that commemorative stamps should be focus on topics that were of interest
nationwide and that the discovery of Hawaii was not of interest to most Americans.
Farrington obviously felt differently. They compromised by issuing the two
unremarkable overprints instead of a new design. These stamps had limited distribution
and were only sold in Honolulu and to stamp collectors from the Philatelic Sales Agency
in Washington D.C.

- Col J Dutta & Dr Anjali Dutta - email : doctorjayanta2009@gmail.com

THE STORY OF PIGEON POST IN INDIA


( Pigeon Mail : The First Air Mail Of The World )

-Naresh Agrawal

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
PIGEON AS A MESSENGER ( The Flying Postman )

Pigeons have an extraordinary homing instinct, natural habit and ability of returning
unerringly to their homes at high speed after a flight of quite longer distances in any
direction. This ability of theirs navigate from anywhere to their lofts at high speed was
recognized and used quite early during ancient times which was utilized in sending and
receiving messages from time to time by individuals, rulers, administrations, traders,
financiers and others. The messages written on thin small paper were tagged to
pigeon’s legs or paws or claws who was then released. The pigeon then flew back to his
loft with the messages where the receiver removed the message.

INDIAN PIGEONS

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
PIGEON POST OR MAIL

Pigeon post is the use of homing pigeons and other birds to carry messages from
one place to the other who are effective as messengers due to their natural homing
abilities. The pigeons were transported to a destination in cages or lofts, where
messages would be attached to their paws or legs and then the pigeon would fly back
to its home naturally where the owner could detach the message and read it.

The term is used both to refer to physical items of mail, and to the system used to
transport them. While pigeon post is largely obsolete today, it was at one point a very
trendy method of carrying light mail. Although the use of pigeons for carrying mail was
never widespread, people would sometimes send mail by pigeon, as would people in
the financial industry who wanted to transmit news

INTERNATIONAL REPLY COUPAN OF BRITISH INDIA PERIOD

This practice of use of carrier pigeons is ancient. The Greeks and Romans both used
pigeon post to convey information, and many pigeons worked in military service too
for carrying messages with troop orders and other military material from place to
place. In addition to pigeons, birds of prey were sometimes used for messages.

In a way, the pigeon post could be considered the first form of airmail. Pigeons are still
used to carry messages in some remote regions of the world where other postal
options are not available, and pigeon enthusiasts also keep birds for the purpose of
sending messages to other enthusiasts, keeping this ancient tradition alive.

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
EARLY HISTORY : B.C. and around 3000 BC., incoming
ships released pigeons as an
Pigeon post references can be found announcement of important visitors
very ancient in India. Various Indian More and more military, political, and
epics have reflections of the usage of economic importance was attributed to
flying birds to carry messages. In this fast method of delivering messages
Mahabharata , King Dhrupad and the earliest large-scale
dispatched the message instructing communication network using pigeons
King Dhritirashtra to give away half the as messengers was established in Syria
kingdom, through the Royal Priest. and Persia around the 5th century BC.
Between about 770 BC and 390 AD, the
Centuries down, the practice of using Greeks used pigeons to carry the results
Brahmin priests for carrying letters in a of the Olympic Games.
private postal system called the
Brahmini Dak , reflects the importance King Chandragupta Maurya,(340-293
accorded to such trusted human BCE) and his grandson Emperor
carriers. Mahabharata too has a Ashoka (304–232 BC) the great used
romantic legend mentioning how a swan pigeons as message carriers during
was used to convey the message of their reign for the needs of intelligence
prince Nal to princess Damayanti. gathering and collection of revenue data
between the capital and the outlying
provinces of the vast kingdom , whence
regular messengers, doots and pigeons
were used for conveying the royal
communiqué.

MEGHDOOT,THE CLOUD –
MESSENGER

Like in ancient India pigeons were also Chandragupta Maurya


worshipped. The earliest known records
of homing pigeon use for message During the Dark Ages the Arabs
delivery in ancient Egypt are from 5600 established regular airmail pigeon
courier services. According to one tale,
a caliph in North Africa satisfied his
taste for Lebanese cherries by having
pigeons fly them in. Each carried one
cherry inside a silk bag. It was the first
parcel post. Reportedly, a prize pair of
carrier pigeons in the Arab empire could
fetch one thousand gold pieces.
In the middle ages, in the 4th century
of the common era, the Romans
developed a pigeon post to carry
important messages throughout the
Roman Empire. The news of capture
Damietta by St. Louis was announced Genghis Khan
by sultan by this means.
DURING AND AFTER 15th
PIGEON POST DURING AND AFTER CENTENARY :
11th CENTENARY :
There were pigeon posts in existence
Domesticated pigeons are first developed during the Dutch war in the 16Th century.
in ancient Egypt, and the pigeon loft or Besieged Haarlem used pigeons to
dovecote subsequently becomes a living convey messages in 1573 A.D., and
larder for many communities - such as Leyden in 1574 A.D.
medieval monasteries. In India also
domestication of pigeons were practiced In India ,the Mughal emperor Babar
but not in a developed manner. inherited this mail carrying method from
his forefathers and the pigeon post was
In Baghdad, in the 11th century, the idea in use throughout the Mughal period. He
first occurred of making use of the wrote in his biography about the sport of
tendency of certain pigeons to fly straight pigeon keeping. During his reign, a rapid
home from wherever they might be. The one-way postal service (always back to
city of Baghdad and all the main towns base) became possible. The art of
and cities in Syria and Egypt were linked breeding pigeons was also developed
by messages carried by pigeons. Later, by selective breeding of suitable homing
the most wide-ranging conqueror of pigeons during this period..
medieval history, Genghis Khan, operated
such a system during his conquests. He
created a pigeon network that spanned
one-sixth of the world and established
pigeon relay posts across and Asia and
much of Eastern Europe. Wars and
emergencies popularized the pigeon post
in China, Persia and India.

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missives over short distances,
exclusively for royal purpose. The
practice continued to be favoured by
Jahangir who extended its use to
special occasions.

During reign of Akbar i.e 1556 to 1605,


Pigeon post was in random use, as also
camels in desert areas. The pigeon
carriers were housed in the royal AKBAR
palace, where they were trained to carry
news over the far-flung territories.
In eighteenth century, Tipu Sultan, an
References to the use of royal pigeons Indian ruler (1782 – 1799 ) used carrier
and camels have also been found. pigeons. Pigeons used to return to the
Though camels and camel caravans Jamia Masjid mosque in
were used primarily in desert areas, Srirangapattnam which was his
camels were also used in non-desert headquarters. The pigeon holes may be
zones, specifically for carrying royal or seen in the mosque's minarets to this
State Mail. day.

The introduction of pigeon post is


attributed to Akbar, and not Jahangir, as
mentioned in several accounts as Akbar
was crazy about pigeon keeping.
Whenever he went on a trip his men
carried pigeons with him. Normally more
than two thousands birds went with him
kept in special carriers.
Pigeons were trained and housed in the
royal palace, in the Kabutar-Khaana,
found even today in the relics of Mughal
palaces. They were used to carry urgent TIPU SULTAN

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The practice of using homing pigeons Orissa State Police is one such
as message carriers also prevailed department which used pigeons as mail
from the earliest times. Amazingly, they carriers till 2004 in India.
were being officially used by
government departments as pigeon
posts in remote areas even now a days.

Almost in all the palaces in Rajasthan and other states of India , carrier pigeons
had been deployed for mail service, which was pretty reliable . The photo shows
the pigeon cages used to house the carrier pigeons inside the Udaipur City
Palace. It is now just a reminder of old times, since the carrier pigeon service was
discontinued many decades back.

PIGEON POST IN ORISSA :

The Orrissa Police is the only state force in India which adopted and maintained this
method of communication since 1946. They procured 40 pigeons from the departing
colonial government at the close of the WWII. The force had a strength of 1926 Homing
Pigeons spread over 17 police districts of the state in 2004.The pigeons were trained on
three courses-static, mobile and boomerang.

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The static category formed a batch in which pigeons were moved with the forces leaving
headquarters for remote areas and were released in the sky whenever the need arose
for communication with Hqtrs. In the mobile category, the police took the trailer along
with pigeons to the place of operation. In the third-boomerang-category, the pigeons
were trained to deliver and return with the message within their flying area, usually
restricted to 50 miles both ways.

Orissa police carrier pigeons: facing the sack.


India's Police Pigeon Service - which for more than half a century has provided a lifeline
during frequent floods and cyclones in eastern Orissa state - is to be scrapped,
according to a government proposal

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Unfortunately this, the world’s last pigeon courier service - had been stopped on the
ground of its high cost of procurement and maintenance in comparison to the latest
developments in the telecommunication and satellite services encouraging the usage
of internet and mobile phones etc.. And hence, in 2004 all the birds were retired from
their services and were freed from their lofts. Orissa police pigeon fleet has served
the state during various calamities and situation of urgency.

PIGEONGRAM :
Though there is no recorded history of issuance of modern pigeongrams in India but it
was in 1931 when first official pigeon post was organized with messages carried by
pigeons from Asansol to Kolkatta. There after there has been regular commemoration
of this service during different events, exhibitions etc. in different parts of the India.
Though Calcutta Homing Pigeon Club has played a great role in keeping this service
alive by providing pigeons during such shows. The pigeon mail in India now is very
seldom used but officially it was closed in 2004 when Orissa police retired their fleet of
about 800 pigeons .
The pigeon mail covers and the messages carried by them are known as pigeongram or
pigeon o gram. Given hereunder is study of various pigeiongrams issued in India during
different events starting from 1931 till 2009

1931

The first recorded modern pigeon mail service was organized by Calcutta Homing
Pigeon Club, Calcutta from Asansol to Calcutta on 18 th Feb 1931 when pigeon grams
i.e. cover with messages were sent through various pigeons to commemorate the 20 th
anniversary of the world’s first official airmail service which was organized from
Allahabad to Naini on 18.Feb. 1911. The covers were stamped in red “FIRST INDIAN
PIGEONGRAM”

18th Feb.1931 tiny cover with 1an Inauguration value cancelled at PARK ST. P.O.,
CALCUTTA cachets front FIRST INDIAN PIGEONGRAM carried by pigeon
LONESOME, from Asansol to Calcutta

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India, Pigeon Post Collection, 1931-41. Thirteen items incl. first modern pigeongram
dispatched in India with cover which carried it to its final destination, 1933 Indian Airmail
Society commemorative pigeongram and cover which carried it to its final destination,
1941 pigeongram to raise funds for the British Navy (250 flown) with cover that carried it
to its final destination, and five 1940 Indian Airmail Society covers (two different styles)
that forwarded a pigeon flown flimsy incl. two with original flimsies, on exhibit pages.

Pigeongram Cover dated 18th Feb.1931 delivered by a carrier pigeon named


ECLIPSE who flew it from Asansol to Calcutta,

Pigeongrams, group of ten slips


comprised of Asanol to Calcutta (2) and
Hazaribagh to Calcutta (8), all signed on
reverse by Stephen Smith, plus two
covers containing pigeongrams franked
with George V 1a3p tied by magenta
"Kalyan/First Pigeon Missive/6 Apr
1941" datestamps,

Another pigeonmail service was


organized in December 1931 when
missives from His Excellency The
Viceroy were carried from Hazaribagh to
Calcutta. The service was organized
Pigeongram Message dated 18th through Calcutta Homing Pigeon
Club,Calcutta. The covers were affixed
Feb.1931 delivered by a carrier pigeon
named RUBYS LOVE who flew it from with King George Stamps and cancelled
PARK STREET , CALCUTTA dated 31.Dec.
Asansol to Calcutta
1931.

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31st Dec. 1931, Pigeongram envelope franked with 3p stamp tied by Calcutta cds
in red with missive from His Excellency The Viceroy carried by
homing pigeon 'MOLLY' from Hazaribagh to Calcutta

31st Dec. 1931, Pigeongram envelope franked with 2 nos. 3pstamps tied by Calcutta
cds in red with enclosed missive from His Excellency The Viceroy carried by
homing pigeon 'Little Titch' from Hazaribagh to Calcutta
1933
Indian Air Mail Society organized another pigeon mail service on 19 th Jan. 1933 when
missives from His Excellency The Viceroy during his camps in India. The messages
were carried from Chandranagore ( French Settlement ) to Calcutta by Homing Pigeons.
The pigeongrams had a white and blue vignette affixed on them with a homing pigeon
and flag on it. The covers were signed by Mr. Stephen Smith on the reverse.

19th Jan.1933 letter cover ( pigeongram) with vignette and ½ an. postal stamp carried a
message from His Excellency The Viceroy by Homing Pigeon SANS AME from
Chandernagore to Park Street Post Office,Calcutta

19th Jan.1933 letter cover with vignette and ½ A. postal stamp carried a message
from His Excellency The Viceroy by Homing Pigeon LITTLE TITCH
from Chandernagore to Park Street Post Office,Calcutta

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
1940
Again in 1940, The Indian Air Mail Society organized another pigeon mail service on
18th Oct. 1940 when messages were carried from Chandranagore ( French Settlement )
to Calcutta by Homing Pigeons. The pigeongrams addressed to the secretary, Indian
Airmail Society had a Red Cross mark and the missive at front affixed with King
George Stamp. The covers were signed by Mr. Stephen Smith on the reverse.

THE MESSAGE

I hear the roar of Guns


I hear the shriek, the whine of shells
I see the dying, I see the slain
I hear the cries of anguish and of pain
Oh God, Have mercy, Have Pity
Help me to relieve their pain

18th Oct. 1940 letter cover (Pigeongram) with a red cross and ½ A. postal stamp at
front carried a message by Homing Pigeon ROBY from Chandernagore to Park
Street Post Office, Calcutta signed by Stephhen Smith on its reverse

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
18th Oct. 1940 letter cover (Pigeongram) with a red cross and ½ A. postal stamp at
front carried a message by Homing Pigeon QUEENIE from Chandernagore to Park
Street Post Office, Calcutta signed by Stephhen Smith on its reverse

To be contd…

Ahmedabad

India’s Ist UNESCO World Heritage City (Part 1)

-ILYAS PATEL

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
July 8, 2017.

The citizens of Ahmedabad were in hilarious mood as UNESCO declared the Historic
City of Ahmadabad or Old Ahmadabad as India’s first World Heritage City. With this tag,
Ahmedabad joined Paris, Vienna, Cairo, Brussels, Rome and Edinburgh as World
Heritage cities. With its wooden pol (street) houses symbolizing community living, the
wonderfully carved Hindu and Jain temples and one of the finest Indo-Islamic
architecture, Ahmedabad stands tall with its rich, textured heritage. DebasishNaik of
Ahmedabad University says, “It’s the most spectacular achievement for Ahmedabad in
2017 as it has put Ahmedabad on the global map”.

Ahmedabad is the largest city and former capital of Gujarat. With a population of more
than 6.3 million and an extended population of 7.8 million, it is the sixth largest
city and seventh largest metropolitan area of India. It is located on the banks of
the Sabarmati River, 30 km from the state capital Gandhinagar, which is its twin city.

Ahmedabad has emerged as an important economic and industrial hub in India. It is the
second largest producer of cotton in India, and its stock exchange is the country's
second oldest. In 2010, it was ranked third in Forbes's list of fastest growing cities of the
decade. In 2012, The Times of India chose Ahmedabad as India's best city to live
in. Ahmedabad has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed
as a smart city under Government of India's flagship Smart Cities Mission.

History

The area around Ahmedabad has been inhabited since the 11th century, when it was
known as Ashaval (or Ashapalli). At that time, Karna, the Chaulukya ruler of Anhilwara
(modern Patan), waged a successful war against the Bhil king of Ashaval, and
established a city called Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati. Solanki rule lasted

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until the 13th century, when Gujarat came under the control of the Vaghela
dynasty of Dholka. Gujarat subsequently came under the control of the Delhi
Sultanate in the 14th century. However, by the earlier 15th century, the local governor
Zafar Khan Muzaffar established his independence from the Delhi Sultanate and
crowned himself Sultan of Gujarat as Muzaffar Shah I, thereby founding the Muzaffarid
dynasty. This area finally came under the control of his grandson Sultan Ahmed Shah in
1411 A.D. who while at the banks of Sabarmati liked the forested area for a new capital
city and laid the foundation of a new walled city and named it Ahmedabad after the four
saints in the area by the name Ahmed. Ahmed Shah I laid the foundation of the city on
26 February 1411 (at 1.20 pm, Thursday, the second day of Dhu al-Qi'dah, Hijri
year 813) at ManekBurj. He chose it as the new capital on 4 March 1411.

In 1487, Mahmud Begada, the grandson of Ahmed Shah, fortified the city with an outer
wall 10 km in circumference and consisting of twelve gates, 189 bastions and over
6,000 battlements. In 1535 Humayun briefly occupied Ahmedabad after
capturing Champaner when the ruler of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, fled to Diu. Ahmedabad
was then reoccupied by the Muzaffarid dynasty until 1573 when Gujarat was conquered
by the Mughal emperor Akbar. During the Mughal reign, Ahmedabad became one of the
Empire's thriving centres of trade, mainly in textiles, which were exported as far
as Europe. The Mughal ruler Shahjahan spent the prime of his life in the city,
sponsoring the construction of the MotiShahiMahal in Shahibaug. Ahmedabad remained
the provincial headquarters of the Mughals until 1758, when they surrendered the city to
the Marathas.

During the period of Maratha Empire governance, the city became the centre of a
conflict between two Maratha clans; the Peshwa of Poona and
the Gaekwad of Baroda. In 1780, during the First Anglo-Maratha War, a British force
under James Hartley stormed and captured Ahmedabad, but it was handed back to the
Marathas at the end of the war. The British East India Company took over the city in
1818 during the Third Anglo-Maratha War. A military cantonment was established in
1824 and a municipal government in 1858. Incorporated into the Bombay
Presidency during British rule, Ahmedabad became one of the most important cities in
the Gujarat region. In 1864, a railway link between Ahmedabad and Mumbai (then
Bombay) was established by the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway (BB&CI),
enabling traffic and trade between northern and southern India via the city. Over time,
the city established itself as the home of a developing textile industry, which earned it
the nickname "Manchester of the East".

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1953 meter of Calico Mill

Pioneers of Ahmedabad Textile Business and famous Calico Museum

(Courtesy: Mainak Kathiara)for Textile Exhibition

The Indian independence movement developed roots in the city when Mahatma
Gandhi established two ashrams – the Kochrab Ashram near Paldi in 1915 and the
Satyagraha Ashram (now Sabarmati Ashram) on the banks of the Sabarmati in 1917 –
which would become centers of nationalist activities.During the mass protests against
the Rowlatt Act in 1919, textile workers burned down 51 government buildings across
the city in protest at a British attempt to extend wartime regulations after the First World
War. In the 1920s, textile workers and teachers went on strike, demanding civil rights
and better pay and working conditions. In 1930, Gandhi initiated the Salt

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Satyagraha from Ahmedabad by embarking from his ashram on the Dandi Salt March.
The city's administration and economic institutions were rendered inoperative in the
early 1930s by the large numbers of people who took to the streets in peaceful protests,
and again in 1942 during the Quit India Movement.

By 1960, Ahmedabad had become a metropolis with a population of slightly under half a
million people, with classical and colonial European-style buildings lining the city's
thoroughfares. It was chosen as the capital of Gujarat state after the partition of
the State of Bombay on 1 May 1960. During this period, a large number of educational
and research institutions were founded in the city, making it a centre for higher
education, science and technology. Ahmedabad's economic base became more diverse
with the establishment of heavy and chemical industry during the same period.

Geography

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The City of Ahmedabad is divided by the river Sabarmati into two physically distinct
eastern and western regions. The eastern bank of the river houses the old city, which
includes the central town of Bhadra. This part of Ahmedabad is characterized by
packed bazaars, the pol system of closely clustered buildings, and numerous places of
worship. A Pol (pronounced as pole) is a housing cluster which comprises many
families of a particular group, linked by caste, profession, or religion. This is a list of
Pols in the old walled city of Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India. Heritage of these Pols has
helped Ahmedabad gain a place in UNESCO's Tentative Lists, in selection criteria II, III
and IV. The secretary-general of EuroIndia Centre quoted that if 12000 homes of
Ahmedabad are restored they could be very helpful in promoting heritage tourism and
its allied businesses. The first pol in Ahmedabad was named Mahurat Pol. Old city also
houses the main railway station, the main post office, and some buildings of the
Muzaffarid and British eras. The colonial period saw the expansion of the city to the
western side of Sabarmati, facilitated by the construction of Ellis Bridge in 1875 rebuilt
in 1892 and later the relatively modern Nehru Bridge and Sardar Bridge. The western
part of the city houses educational institutions, modern buildings, residential areas,
shopping malls, multiplexes and new business districts centredaround roads such
as Ashram Road, C. G. Road and Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway.

Sabarmati Riverfront is a waterfront being developed along the banks of Sabarmati


River in Ahmedabad, the construction of which began in 2005

Cityscape

Early in Ahmedabad's history, under Ahmed Shah, builders fused Hindu craftsmanship
with Persian architecture, giving rise to the Indo-Saracenic style. Many mosques in the
city were built in this fashion. SidiSaiyyed Mosque was built in the last year of the
Sultanate of Gujarat. It is entirely arched and has ten stone latticework windows
or jali on the side and rear arches. Private mansions or haveli from this era have
carvings. A Pol is a typical housing cluster of Old Ahmedabad.

After independence, modern buildings appeared in Ahmedabad. Architects given


commissions in the city included Louis Kahn, who designed the IIM-A; Le Corbusier,
who designed the Shodhan and Sarabhai Villas, the Sanskar Kendra and the Mill

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Owner's Association Building, and Frank Lloyd Wright, who designed the administrative
building of Calico Mills and the Calico Dome. B. V. Doshi came to the city from Paris to
supervise Le Corbusier's works and later set up the School of Architecture. His local
works include Sangath, AmdavadniGufa and the School of Architecture. Charles
Correa, who became a partner of Doshi's, designed the Gandhi
Ashram and AchyutKanvinde, and the Indian Textile Industries Research
Association. Christopher Charles Benninger's first work, the Alliance Française, is
located in the Ellis Bridge area.AnantRaje designed major additions to Louis Kahn's IIM-
A campus, namely the Ravi Mathai Auditorium and KLMD.

Islamic Architecture
Bhadra Fort

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Sultan Ahmed Shah started the work of foundation of the city with the construction of
Royal Palace. People call it- Bhadra Fort. When the Sultan established Ahmedabad, he
had in his mind AnhilpurPatan. He took it as a model for the capital. The fort of Patan
was called Bhadra. Therefore Ahmed Shah also called his new fort Bhadra.

According to Mirat-e-Ahmedi this fort is called Arak Fort. The total area of the fort was
43 acres and there were 14 circular structures. The structure that we can watch now is
the incomplete ManekBurj. As Ellisbridge was extended, some of its portion was
removed so a new form came into existence. The portion on the North East side wall
was removed and SidiSaiyed’s Mosque was constructed. Ajam khan’s Palace in the
east was also constructed during Mughal period after removing some portion of the fort.
The original Bhadra Fort had six big and two small gates. The main gate in the east is
mentioned as PiranPir’sDarwaja. We know it as BhadraDarwaja. Another main gate was
in the north of Bhadra Fort. It was called LalDarwaja. At present, only wall of LalDarwaja
is in existence, which is seen opposite to road on the north of SidiSaiyed's Mosque. The
area opposite to Electricity House is known as LalDarwaja. The third gate was in the
south west. It was known as Ganesh Bari. The southern gate led to Ahmed Shah's
Mosque. There were two gates of normal size at the spot where telegraph office exists
today. There were two gates in the west, namely Baradari and Ram Darwaja. There
was a well near BaradariDarwaja, which was used to provide irrigation to the garden.
There was a royal garden within the fort known as 'Naginabaug'.

The royal Palace of Bhadra got damaged before Jahangir came to throne. A traveller,
Mendelslow describe this fort as the biggest fort among the big states.

Ahmed Shah's Mosque

Ahmed Shah’s Mosque is in the south of Bhadra Fort and just opposite to Gujarat Club.
Ahmed Shah started construction of this mosque in 1411, the year in which he laid the
foundation stone of the city. The construction work was over by December 1414. The

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stone inscription in Persian language tells that it was built by Ahmed Shah placed in the
mosque. This mosque is renovated recently.

Rani Sipri Mosque

This mosque is situated near Astodia Darwaja built by Sipri, begum of Muhammad
Begada in 1514. The begum’s name is mentioned as Asani in the references about
construction of the mosque. Its balconies are grand, its carving is subtle like that of a
haveli. Its slender minarets are solid and purely ornamental. It is one of the finest
mosques in Ahmedabad.

Rani Rupmati Mosque

This mosque is situated in Mirzapur. It is opposite to St.Xaviers High School. As the


name suggests, it is one of the most beautiful mosques of Ahmedabad. Its minarets
were damaged in the earthquake of 1819. Rani Rupmati was begum of Qutbuddin. After
the death of Qutbuddin, his step brother Muhammad Begada married Rani Rupmati. In
the construction of the mosque we find blend of Hindu style and Islamic style in pillars
and arches.
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SidiSaiyed Mosque

Sidi Saiyed-ni-Jali is a unique feature of Ahmedabad. It is found in SidiSaiyed Mosque,


opposite Electricity House, near LalDarwaja. This elegant mosque was built by
SidiSaiyed in 1573. The Jalis are in rear wall of the mosque. The Jalis have fine carving
design in geometrical and intertwined tree and foliage, palm and parasite motif.
Such Jalis are found nowhere in the entire world. Numerous visitors have admired the
carving of the Jali is generously. A silver replica of this Jali is available in the market. It
is used as a gift to the guests and visitors as memory of their visit.

The Shaking Minarets - Sidi Bashir's Mosque

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The Shaking Minarets, the wonders of the city, are situated near water tank of
SarangpurDarwaja on the eastern side of new reservation office of Ahmedabad Railway
station. The peculiarity of these minarets is that if you shake one minaret, the other one
will also begin to shake automatically. The reaction of the movement of one minaret is
received by the other one. These minarets are parts of the mosque, which was built by
Sidi Bashir in 1452.

The mosque was badly damaged during the battle between Marathas and
JavanmardhkhanBabi, but the minarets were saved. At present, the entry to minarets is
forbidden on precautionary notes.

Other two minarets at the Railway Station are in better conditions and they are perhaps
the tallest in Ahmedabad.

Jami Masjid (Mosque)

Jami Mosque is situated in the middle of the city close to the east of Teen Darwaja
popularly known as Jama Masjid. Sultan Ahmed Shah started its construction in 1412

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and finished it in 1424. It can be compared with the Jama Mosque of Delhi. It has 707
pillars including inside pillars and those in the veranda. On both sides of the wall of
minaret, there are beautiful recesses with attractive carvings. The atmosphere of the
mosque is conducive for worship of the Allah (Lord).

Part 2 in next issue ....

: Ilyas Patel - email : iap.patel@gmail.com

India’s Postal History from the Feudal Era to Independence,


1947
Part 2(East India Company-1600-1774)

Postal System between 1600 – 1765

The East India Company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth on December
31, 1600. The company entered India from Surat in 1608, and set up a factory(storage
place for trading) with an agreement from Moghul Court in 1612. With the arrival of the
East India Company, the modern postal system started to develop, but solely to
expedite trade mainly textiles. India was the leader in manufacture and export of
Textiles in the world.

As the company expanded its trading practices to Madras in 1639, Bombay in 1687,
and Calcutta in 1688, the company used the existing postal runners already in position
and fostered under the Mogul rulers to communicate between its headquarters, cotton
factories, and store houses. There were several early challenges to
communication by mail. The runners have to face enormous difficulties and challenges
in conveying mails as the routes were infested by bandits, wild animals, bad weather
and boats getting sunk while crossing rivers; all which affected the speed of delivery.
Rudyard Kippling’spoem titled “Foot-Service To The Hills” make special references to
the dangers of the OVERLAND MAILS in India. With passing of times and evolution of
administration, dawk runners passed through trackless jungles in the night with escorts
of mashalchey(torch bearer), drummer and a pear-head fitted with jingling bells on his
shoulders.

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For secrecy in particular, East India Company employed their own dawk/mail runners
which guarantees their own needs were looked after. The job of mail runners were
spying too, which kept the East India Company abreast with current developments of
the various provinces in India. Company’s employees were permitted to use its mail
runners to carry their private mails. Persons not connected with the company could not
use this facility and secondly, mails runners of the company moved between its specific
factories. Early mail runners were called ‘DakHakaras’ in Northern India, ‘Pattamars’ in
South India, and ‘Cossids’ in Bengal.

The Portuguese in the Deccan called their postal runners “pattamr”. The word is
perhaps the ‘Konkani-Path-mar’, a courier

“Harkara” are originally men employed to provide information of various types for
merchants, kings intelligence agencies etc. Later they were employed for as postal
runners.

The first official reference to a post office in India, during the time of the East India
Company, was a letter dated August 27, 1688. The ‘Court of Directors’ asked the
Council of Bombay to erect a ‘post office’ to convey mail to Surat, and other places.

Mail runner from India

First Communication route

Since the Calcutta and Madras were now established trading centres of East India
Company and communication between the two cities was necessary. In 1712,
arrangements were made to carry letters from St. George, Madras to Ganjam. At
Ganjam, mail runners from Calcutta met with their counterparts from Madras,
exchanged mail, and returned home, and vice versa.

East India Company- Trading to Politics in India

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The year 1757 marked the year for the battle of Plassey against Siraj-Ud-Daullah, the
Nawab of Bengal. It was followed by the battle of Buxar, on October 22, 1764, against
Mir Kasim, who had taken over as the Nawab. The skirmishes paved the way for the
East India Company to rule over India. The Treaty of Allahabad was signed on August
16, 1765. The Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II, son of the late Emperor, Alamgir II; and
major general Robert Clive, a British Lord, who served with the East India Company,
were signatories.

Based on the terms of the agreement, Shah Alam II granted the East India Company
Diwani rights, or the right to collect taxes on behalf of the emperor from the eastern
province of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. The treaty marks the beginning of the British rule
in India with the establishment of Bengal Presidency as the capital, both politically and
constitutionally. It also the end of the ‘feudal era’ of kings and kingdoms in India. The
kingdoms slowly became to be known as Princely states who managed their state
affairs with the dominance of Imperial government.

This event of East India Company entering into politics in India coincided with Britain’s
Industrial revolution starting from 1760. India provided Capital, Raw Material; and
Market to the Britain’s Industrial revolution. India helped the Britain’s Industrial
revolution, the Modern Age of Britain.

Postal system between 1766-1774(Clive Post)

With the growing political interest of East India Company in India, the need for better
communication was a must. The existing postal system was working in a disorderly
manner without any supervision and control, which was inadequate for good
government and defence of the company. Robert Clive, as commander in chief of the
company, reorganized the postal system by March 24, 1766. The new system became
known as ‘Clive Post’ to carry the company’s dawk and private letters of servants. This
was the first step for a regular postal system was first introduced in India.

“All letters will be sent to Government House at Fort William where it will be sorted,
made up into separate bundles, separate destinations, with the company's seal in the
presence of the postmaster, then termed postal writer, or his assistant. The postmaster,
or his assistant, must be at Government House every night to attend the receipt,
scrutiny, and dispatch of dak.”

Clive ordered that the postmaster for Calcutta be appointed from the subordinate rank
of the company’s servants to look after the postal business of the government from the
Calcutta headquarters of the company. Government House became the main hub,
instead of the post office, on the ‘old post office street’ in the white town of Calcutta.
Clive Post was for official correspondence only. Zamindars/landlords who were very
resourceful were made responsible for supply of runners to carry mails.

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Calcutta was connected by six mail routes, Dacca, Ganjam, Malda,
Lakhimpur(Chittagong), Murshidabad and Patna, later extended upto Allahabad. This
plan suffered heavily when the position of postmaster was abolished and replaced with
an assistant or sub-secretary. Also there was no proper management of these postal
services.

To be Contd… Part 3 in the next issue

: Swamynathan R - email : swamyxyz@yahoo.com

In Memory of Dr Satyendra Agrawal….

Rose Philately

Roses from Denmark

Date of Issue : 2 January 2018

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
Roses and Messages

One of the things letters and roses have in common is that they are both used to convey
messages. For centuries, the subtlety of the rose has been deeply symbolic, so there is
always an underlying message in which bouquet you give to whom. The red rose is
strongly associated with love and desire, while the white rose represents innocence and
purity. And death. A purple rose is often linked with enchantment, and finally, a yellow
rose is viewed as an expression of falsehood.

New issues from other Countries

Australia

18 January 2018 : Australian Legends 2018 of TV entertainment

The Australia Post Australian Legends Award recognises individuals who have shaped
Australian society and identity in a variety of positive ways. In 2018, Australia Post
honours five much-loved television entertainers. These consummate performers have
entertained, informed and delighted generations of Australians, transfixing television
audiences across the country. Together they encompass a range of remarkable talents,
from serious journalism to variety hosting, interviewing, singing, acting and comedy.

Canada
15 January 2018 : From Far and Wide

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
“This definitive series offers a traveller’s view of many must-see places throughout
Canada,” reads the souvenir sheet.

The five non-denominated Permanent stamps in the top row feature St. John’s, N.L.;
Hopewell Rocks, N.B.; MacMillan Provincial Park, B.C.; Prince Edward Island National
Park; Québec’s Parc national de l’Île-Bonaventure-et-du-Rocher-Percé.

The remaining four stamps are denominated $1, $1.20, $1.80 and $2.50, respectively,
and depict Pisew Falls Provincial Park, Man.; Point Pelee National Park, Ont.;
Naats’ihch’oh National Park Reserve, N.W.T.; and Arctic Bay, Nunavut.
Because definitive stamps are typically smaller than commemoratives, they can pose a
challenge for designers with their 24 mm by 20 mm canvas.

5 January 2018 : Lunar Year of Dog

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
The Miniature Sheet illustration shows two puppies playing with their mother, designed
to resemble a typical house dog in China. On the border of the Miniature Sheet, a
narrative in Chinese characters explains some of the background of the Chinese zodiac
followed by information regarding the Year of the Dog and the Chinese seal which
appears on the left side of the illustration denotes Wuxu.

26 January 2018 : 1960’s Popular Culture

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Jersey looks back at the popular culture of the 1960s on seven stamps to be issued on Jan. 26.
Jersey Post describes the designs as exploring “the language, music, fashion, events, food and
leisure pursuits typified by that era.”

Jersey is a picturesque island situated just off the coast of France and as such has long been a
haven for tourists. Known in the 1960s as the 'Honeymoon Island', local politician Cyril Le
Marquand described Jersey's tourism industry as “the firmest pillar in our economy today”,
which contrasts with nowadays where finance is the dominant industry. The 1960s was a
prominent period of large scale socio-political change and counter culture during which people
felt increasingly at-ease to express themselves through music, fashion and leisure pursuits. This
is no different in Jersey, where the sport of surfing boomed and brought with it a new and
exciting culture which has endured to this day.

Denmark

2 January 2018 : Dream – Smile Minisheet

This Mini sheet has been designed by noted artist, singer, song writer and Peace Activist Yoko
Ono. She is also known for her work in performance art and film making. The sheet features
two stamps with symbolic messages on a moon and Sun. The Moon says 'Dream' and the Sun
says 'Smile'. In the background the phrases "I Love You "n We"ll meet again appears. This is a
global message for one and all.

Yoko Ono

Yoko Ono has devoted her life to battling for a world of peace and understanding, and to making
people more aware of their surroundings. From October 2017 through February 2018, the
Kunsthal Charlottenborg art gallery in Copenhagen is hosting a special exhibition entitled YOKO
ONO: TRANSMISSION. It is an exhibition that explores the famous artist’s unique methods of
transmitting her insightful messages about artistic philosophy and peace in diverse ways to
people all over the world. The minisheet of two stamps has been created specifically for this
exhibition.

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
Iceland
15 February 2018 : Europa 2018 Bridges

The first stamp features footbridge over the Ellioaa estuary. The second stamps depicts
a suspension bridge over Jokulsa river on Breiomerkursandur- one of the shortest
glacial rivers in the country.

Malaysia

15 January 2018 : Working Dogs

Pos Malaysia Berhad (Pos Malaysia) issued the first stamp series of 2018 themed
"Animals with Various Special Roles - Working Dogs " featuring three types of well-
known working dogs, namely detector dogs, protection dogs and guide dogs.

"This collection highlights the importance of working dogs trained to perform specific
tasks to assist humans, for example in crime prevention, detection of concealed
substances or objects and to assist visually impaired individuals.

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
stamp collection displays a sketch of a firefighter and a Border Collie, a policeman and
a Belgian Shepherd and a blind man with a Golden Retriever, while the miniature sheet
features an illustration of a policeman with a German Shepherd and Labrador.

Acknowledgement Rainbow Stamp News

- Ananthapuri Stamp Bulletin December Se-tenant Stamps of India


2017 edited by Mohanchandran Nair
Flags & Stamps
- Deccan Philatelist edited by Col
Jayanta Dutta Europa stamps
- Judaica Thematic Society (UK)
December 2017 Newsletter edited by Phila Mirror
Gary Goodman
International Stamp News

Welcome to Indian Philately


Blogs & Websites
Philatelic Congress of India
Philatelic Clubs & Societies
Ananthapuri Philatelic Association,
Indian Philately Digest Thiruvanthapuram

Stamps of India Baroda Philatelic Society -


http://www.vadophil.org/

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
Chandigarh Philatelic Club Philatelic Congress of India -
http://www.philateliccongressofindia.com/
Deccan Philatelic Society – Pune,
Maharashtra Philatelic Society of Rajasthan, Jaipur

Eastern India Philatelists’ Association - Philatelic Society of India , Mumbai :


http://www.filacapsule.blogspot.com/ http://www.psi1897.com/

India Study Circle - Rainbow Stamp Club -


http://www.indiastudycircle.org/ http://rainbowstampclub.blogspot.com/

Indian Stamp Ghar - Rajkot Philatelic Society – Rajkot,


http://www.indianstampghar.com/ Gujarat

Indian Thematic Society, Ludhiana - Gujarat Philatelic Association -


http://indianthematicstamps.webs.com/ Ahmedabad

Ludhiana Philatelic Club South India Philatelists Association -


http://www.sipa.org.in/
Numismatic & Philatelic Association of
Vellore Fort Stamps of India -
http://www.stampsofindia.com/
http://numismaticphilavellore.site40.net/inde
x.htm The Army Philatelic Society, Pune

RAINBOW STAMP CLUB Contribution by members are published


every day on this blog. Readers may also
express their views on any philatelic matter
This is a blog of e-stamp Club which will be published under Club News at
www.rainbowstampclub.blogspot.com . The Rainbow Stamp Cub Blog. Philatelic Clubs
idea of this blog is to extend philatelic and Societies may also send brief write ups.
fraternity in all corners of the world. Readers Readers may send reports on new issues,
may write about themselves with their special covers, cancellations & philatelic
collecting interests and share new ideas activities of their area for inclusion in this
with other philatelists. New Post on recent Blog. - Editor
issues, news on stamp activities and

Current Philatelic Magazines – Newsletters


VADOPHIL, Editor - Prashant Pandya & Timir Shah and published by Baroda Philatelic
Society, Vadodara. Website -http://www.vadophil.org/

ITS Stamp News - Quarterly - Editor: Suraj Jaitly Publisher: Indian Thematic Society website -
http://itsstampnews.blogspot.com/

Ananthpuri Stamp Bulletin - Monthly e -stamp bulletin of Anathapuri Philatelic Association,


Thiruvanthapuram

Journal of the Army Philatelic Society : Editor – Col Jayanta Dutta

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
India Post – Quarterly Journal of the India Study Circle publishes original articles submitted by
members of ISC.

Deccan Philatelist from Deccan Philatelic Socity, Pune. edited by Col Jayanta Dutta

Courtesy - News and Image Resource to this issue : Indian Philately


Digest , Stamps of India ; WOPA , Suresh R.- Bangalore, Dipok Dey- Kolkata
Canadian Stamp News, Linn’s Stamp News

To view online version of this magazine Please Visit :


http://rainbowstampnews.blogspot.in/

Address for communication :


Jeevan Jyoti, c / o Mr. Ajay Srivastav Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun –
248002. India

E-mail – j.jyoti9@gmail.com

Last date for receiving write ups – 25th of every month. Kindly send images in jpg
compressed format & text in MS Word only.

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…..Happy Collecting…………………………………………………………………………………

Rainbow Stamp News is edited and published monthly by Jeevan Jyoti from Dehradun, (
Uttarakhand ) India for free circulation among philatelists.

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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018
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Rainbow Stamp News February 2018