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CELLULAR CONCEPT & OPERATION

* total area to be served by telephone company is


divided into small zones called cells
* cluster is a group of cells,-clusters repeat
*first communication link between subscriber/mobile
unit MU is given by radio link in cell by cell site /BS
Base station transceiver.
* such cell sites are connected to main switching center
MSC/ MTSO Main telephone switching office by
dedicated wire/ coaxial cable/microwave/fiber optic link.
* MTSO/MSC connected to PSTN/Rest of the world
CELL SPLITTING

INCREASE OF TRAFFIC

FORCES

DIVIDING CELLS TO

SMALLER CELLS AND

ALLOT EQUAL

NUMBER OF CHANNELS.

CELL SECTORING
NEED TO IMPROVE C/I
common channel interference ratio
SUGGESTS SECTORING
AND
USE OF DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAE

*IN CASE OF 120 0 SECTORING


cell is divided into 3 sectors.
CELLS INTERFERING ARE 2,

C/ I = 24.5 dB

*IN CASE OF 60 0 SECTORING


cell is divided into 6 sectors
CELLS INTERFERING IS 1,

C/I =29 dB
FREQUENCY REUSE DISTANCE
* he total frequency channels allotted to service
provider are divided among number of cells K.
It is called cluster.
*the same frequencies can be used again at some
distance D. ie clusters are repeated
*the cells must be arranged
in such a fashion that
all cell members in cluster
using same frequencies are
at same distance D from another cluster.
an example showing 7 cell pattern is presented.
*such a requirement is analyzed to obey a formula

k=i2+i j+j2

i = distance in integral multiples of diameters perpendicular to side


Then turn 60 0 counter clockwise
J= is the distance of common frequency using cell in diameters.
TACS (TOTAL ACCESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM)
• first generation anlog system using FM
• 890-915 MHz (25 MHz) MU Tx and
935-960 MHz BS Tx(25 MHz) frequency band
• divided to 1000 duplex channels 25 KHz bandwidth FM
• duplex channel distance 45 MHz maintained

MOBILE TRANSMIT BAND MOBILE RECEIVE BAND

CH1 CH2 CH3 CH CH1 CH2 CH3 CH


1000 1000

890 915 935 960


MHz duplex spacing 45 MHz
Ch1 means 890.025 MHz used by Mobile unit, 935.025 MHz used by Base Station
Channel pair.

600 ch allotted to 2 operators 300 each,


21 contiguous channels are control channels,
rest are traffic/voice channels, optional paging and access channels.

CHANNEL ALLOCATION IN TACS


FOCC
Voice 21 Voice Voice Voice channels
Chanl contl Or Or
chnls RECC
Cntrl Cntrl
ch ch
MU

Optional Optional
paging channels access channels

CONTROL AND TRAFFIC CHANNELS

FOCC Forward control channel used by cell site : calls MU


RECC Reverse control channel used by MU responds to cell site.
Both FOCC and RECC form one channel pair
Functional control channels are
(1) DCC DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNELS, ( 2 ) PAGING CHANNELS
( 3 ) ACCESS CHANNELS.
actual voice communication IS ON FVC,RVC FORWARD AND REVERSE VOICE
CHANNELS.
Tacs radio parameters
POWER CONTROL
MU are classified to
class 1 (10 w used in vehicle mounted units)
class 1 (4 w used in portable units)
class 1 (1.6 w used in hand held units)
power control led by MAC bits 8 bit wide hence 8 power levels possible at 2 dB
steps.

MODULATION
TACS uses FM ,
BW 25 MHz,
Speech bad limited to 3 Khz,
Side bands allowed are 4.

Attenuation to adjacent channels


 26 dB to next channel
 >45 dB 2 channels away
 >60 dB 3 channels away.
GSM RADIO INTERFACE

TCCH Map
Traffic control channels SCH Sync Phy
FCCH freq Error Lgicl
correction Detectn chls
And
BCCH control
Broadcast control channels

RACH
Random access
CCCH
Common control
Channels PCH
Paging

AGCH Radio
Access grant Subsystem
Link
SDCCH control
Stand alone

DCCH SACCH
Dedicated contr Slow Associated

channels FACCH FACCH


Fast Associated
PHYSICAL LAYER
PHYSICAL LAYER
(1) 124 carriers ( 890-915 Mhz for BS , 935- 960 Mhz MU 200Khz bw per carrier)
(2) Each carrier frequency is divided into 8 TDMA time slots
(3) 270.833 Kb/s per carrier
(4) GMSK modulation
(5) Slow rate Frequency Hopping
(6) Equalization of dispersion
(7) TX and RX in Bursts
(8) Sync compensation up to 233 μs
(9) Speech coding at 13 kb/s
(10) Control of down link power.
GSM RADIO CHANNEL
(1) Bit rate 270.833 kb/s
(2) TDMA frame 4.65 ms duration
(3) 8 time slots in each frame 0.577 ms
(4) in each time slot 156.25 bits housed. Bit duration 3.692 μs

0 1 2

Data Training Data


3 57 1 26 1 57 3

148 bits
156.25 bits
0.577 ms

NORMAL BURST IN GSM

Down link RX
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0

Uplink TX
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 6 7

Down link (adjacent cell-BCC + carrier 1) monitor

Down link (adjacent cell-BCC + carrier 1)

monitor

TIME SLOTS & SHARING STRUCTURE.


MAPPING OF LOGICAL CHANNELS IN GSM
The physical channel in gsm has to be used for following operations

BASE STATION TO MOBILE

Broadcasting of channel and cell information BCCH / PCH,


traffic channels /voice channels FVC for calls in progress ,
transmit frequency correcting and synchronizing signals FCCH / SCCH ,
notifying granted voice channels for call being established AGCH.
Alert signals for called user.

MOBILE TO BASE STATION

Periodic registration of mobile in the cell,


Request for connection/ disconnection
confirmation of having responded to call.
Report of received power levels of 6 nearby cells