You are on page 1of 523

CHR I ST I AN FRI EDR I CH DAN I EL SCHUBART • s

IDEEN ZU E I NER XSTHET IK DER TONKUNST :


AN ANNOTATED TRANSLAT ION
Ted A l an D uBoi s

A Di ssertati on Presented to the


FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
UN I VERSI TY OF SOUTHERN CAL IFORNIA
I n P art i a l F u l f i l l ment of the
Requi rements for the Degree
DOCTOR OF PH I LOSOPHY.
( Mus i co l o gy)

August 1 983
'
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

\ .\
THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

UNIVERSITY PARK

I
\) I"'\

f'J\ J
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 90007 J.

This dissertation, written by


��CJ$/J)
�(,;
Ted Alan DuBois
under the direction of h--1.�--- Dissertation Com­
mittee, and appt·oved by all its members, has
been presented to and accepted by The Graduate

o: %�
School, in partial fulfillment of requirements of
the degree of

DOCTOR PHILO

cf!.__
············································
Dtaft
····························

DISSERTATION COMMITTEE

�R�� :
M;�;···

:::::!�:: - - -��:: : : :
·------ ---_
Acknow l ed gments

I wi sh to express my apprec i at i on to Mr. H an s H artkopf of

V i s a l i a , Cal i forn i a , who read the ent i re tran s l at i o n and offered

v a l u ab l e s u ggest i on s ; to Mr . W i l l i am Garrett Wel ch , As s i s t ant P rofessor


of Modern Lan gu ages at West Tex as Stat e Un i vers i ty for as s i st ance i n

i nter pret i ng troub l esome pass ages; to M s . J anetta P aschal , M s . Kri s t i

Kears , an d Ms . J an B l odgett of Cornette L i br ary , W e s t Tex as State

U n i vers i ty , for procuri ng mater i al s thro ugh i nter l i brary l o an ; and to

D r . Bryan S i mms for h i s pat i ence, s uggest i ons , and gu i d ance of th i s

d i s sert at i on .

ii
CONTENTS

INTRODUCT I ON • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1
B ack ground to the I deen zu e i ner �sthet i k der Ton k unst 1
Schub art • s L i fe • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9
Tran s l ator • s Not es • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 30
Abbrev i at i on s • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 32

TH E TRANSLAT I ON

TITLE PAGE 35

FOREWORD 36

CONTENTS 42

[ PART ONE]

[TH E H I STORY OF MUS I C]


Ch apter
I. I NTRODUCT I ON • • • • • • • • 46

II. A SKETCHED H I STORY OF MU S I C • 48

III . J EWS • • • 53

IV. GRE EK MU S I C • 63

V. ROMANS • • • 81

VI . CONCERNING I TALY 1 S GREAT S I NGERS • . . . . . . . . . 102

VII . SCHOOLS OF TH E GERMANS . . . . . . . 114

VI I I . TH E SAXON SCHOOL . . . 147

IX . THE PALAT I NE-BAVAR I AN SCHOOL . . . . 173


..

X. WURTTEMBERG • . . . . . . 1 99

XI. SALZBURG . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

iii
XII . BRUNSWI CK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
XI I I . ANSBACH • • . . . . . . . . 213

XIV. WALL ERST E I N- OETT INGEN • 218


XV . DURLACH • . . . . . . . • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

XVI . HAMBURG • . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

XVI I . MAI NZ , TR I E R , AND COLOGNE • . . . . . . . . . . 236

XVI I I . C OLOGNE • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

XI X . TR I ER • • • • • • • • . . . . • • 239

XX . TAX I S • • . . . . . . . 243

XXI . NASSAU-WE I LBURG • . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

XX I I . CASS EL , DARMSTADT , HANAU . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

XXI I I . DARMSTADT • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

XX I V . HANAU • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1

XXV . AUGSBURG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

XXV I . F RANKFURT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1

XXVI I . ULM . . . . . . . • • • • • • . . . • • • • • 274

XXVI I I . THE C HARACTERS OF FAMOU S MU S I C IANS . . 276

XX I X . SWEDEN AND DENMARK . . • . • . . • • . • . . • . 293

XXX . R US S I A . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • • . • • . . 298

XXX I . POLAND . . . . . . • . 301

XXXI I . SWI TZERLAND . . . . . . • . . . . . 303

XXXI I I . HOL LAND . . . . . • . • • • • . . • . 306

XXX I V . ENGLAND . . . . . . . . 308

XXXV . FRANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

iv
P ART TWO
TH E PR I NC I PLES OF MUS IC

X XV I . C ONCERN I NG MUS I CAL I NSTRUMENTS • 332

Concer n i ng the Organ • • • • • • • • 332


I de a l o f an Org an P l ayer • • • • • • • 335
Concern i ng the H arp s i chord or the C l av i er • 340
XXXV I I . CONCERN I NG F ING ER I NG • • • 346

XXXV I I I . CONCERN I NG SOLO P LAY I NG . . . . . . . 350


Viol i n • • • • 351
The V i o l a • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 354
The V i o l oncel l o • • • • • • 355
The Doub l e Bass • • • • • 356
V i o l a d a g amb a • • • • • • 357
V i o l a d • amour • • • • • • 357
B aryton . . . . . • • • . • . • . . . . . . . 358
The Lyre • • • • • • • • • • 358
H ar p • • • • • . . . 359
The Lute . • • • • • • . . . . • . • • • • • 360
The M ando l i ne and Z i th er , or G u i t ar • • 361
XXX I X . CONCERN I NG W IND INSTRUMENTS 363

The Tr umpet • • • • • . . . 364


Th e Horn • • • • • • • • . . . . . 366
The Trombone • • • • • • • • • • 369
Th e Cornett [ Z i nke] • • • • • 37 1
Oboe • • • • • • • • • • • . . . . 374
[ The ] C l ar i net • • • • • • 375
The E n g l i sh Horn • • • • • . . . . 376
The F l ute • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 377
The F l auto D o l ce [ Recorder ] . . . 377
The L i tt l e F l ageo l et • • • • 378
The T rans verse F l ute • • • • • • • • 378
The F i fe • • • • • • • • • • 381
The S h awm • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 381
Th e B as s oon • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 382
T i mp a n i • • • • • • • • • • • • • 384
The Drum • . • • • • • • • • • • • 385
The Turk i sh Mu s i c • • • • • • • • 386
The Jew ' s H arp • • • • • • • • • • • • • 388

XL . C ONCERN I NG S INGI NG • 390

The H uman Vo i ce • . . . . . . . 390

v
XL I . CONCERN I NG MU S I CAL STYLE • 398
The S acred Styl e 398
The Dramat i c Styl e 403
P ant omi me Styl e • 405
XLI I . C ONCERNING CHAMB ER STYLE • 409
XL I I I . CONCERNING THE TECHNI CAL TERMS OF MUSIC 410
Concerto 410
Chorus 410
F ugue • 411
Al l a breve 411
Ar i a 412
C av at i n a 412
Rec i t at i ve 412
Ar i os o 413
C antab i l e • 413
Maetoso • 413
L amento • 414
Symphony an d Overt ure • 414
Son at a 414
Ad ag i o 415
L argo • 415
Andante • 415
A 11 egro • 415
Presto 415
Prest i s s i mo • 415
Rondo • 416
M arch or W ar Step • 416
Sch i k or G i gue [ Q u i que] 417
Gavotte • 417
Murky [Murk i l ] 417

XL I V . CONCERN I NG MUS I CAL COLOR I NG 418


Forte and Fort i s s i mo 419
P i ano [ and] P i an i s s i mo 419
Crescendo • 419
D ecre scendo • 419
For z ando [ Forcando] 4 20
D i mi nuendo 4 20
Cal ando • 420
Morendo • 4 20
Fermata [ F erma] 4 20
Mordent • 4 20
Tr i l l er , Pral l tr i l l e r , Doppe l tri l l er 420
Cadenza or Sch l u s sfal l 421
Mezzot i nto 421

vi
leg ato [ L i g ato ]
S t ac c ato • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
. . . . . . . . . 421
V i brato • • • • . . . . . . 4 21
P i z z i c ato • • . . . . . . . . . 4 22
Tenuto .. . . . . . . . 422
Ad l i b i tum . . . . . . . . . . . 422
T asto S o l o . . . . . . . . . 422
Do l ce • . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 4 22
F ur i oso • • . . . . 4 23
Amoroso • • • . . . . .
. 4 23

XLV . CONCER N I NG MUS I CAL GEN IUS . . 424

XLV I . CONCER N I N G MU S I CAL EXPR ESS I ON • . . . . . 4 28

C h ar acter i z at i on o f the K eys . . . . . 433

APPEND I X • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
B I BL IOGRAPHY • • . . . . . . . . . . 505

v;;
I NTRODUCT I ON

B ackgrou�d to the ldeen z u ei ner � sthet i k der Ton k u n st

Chr i st i an F r i edr i ch D an i e l Schubart • s ldeen z u e i ner � sthet i k

der Tonk unst ( Ideas Towards an Aesthet i c of Mus i c , 1 784/85 ) i s a pop­

u l ar h i story of mu s i c i n the German l anguage. The i mpet us for such an

undert ak i ng can be traced di rect l y to the scho l ar l y h i stor i e s of mu s i c

by B urney , H awk i n s , Mart i n i , and Fork e l , wh i ch h ad recent l y been pub­

l i s h e d , as we l l as the n umerou s mu s i c a l a l m an acs , per i od i cal s , travel


journ a l s , and oth er such wri t i ngs . H i stor i es of mu s i c were i ndeed

val u ab l e works , but t he i r scho l ar l y appro ach was not d i rected to the

l ayman . On the other h and , mu s i cal a l man acs , wh i l e wri tten for the
genera l p ub l i c , were l i m i ted o n l y to contemporary events . They l ooked

forward and d i d not attempt to comment on the contri but i ons of com­

posers of the recent p ast . Sch ubart , however , sought to s at i sfy the

need for a general h i story of mus i c t hrough h i s � sthet i k der Tonk unst ,

but i n a way wh i ch was not over l y documente d , nor wr i tten i n a com­

p l i cated styl e , and wh i ch ev al u ated the most i mport ant mu s i c i an s from

prev i ou s generat i on s whose i nf l uence was st i l l i n ev i dence dur i ng

Schubart • s l i fet i me . P erhaps more i mport ant was t h e fact t h at th i s

h i story was wr i tten by a German who cou l d express the German v i ewpo i n t . ·
Schubart h as l eft u s very l i tt l e i nformat i on concern i n g the

wr i t i ng of h i s � sthet i k der Ton k unst . We know t h at he beg an d i ct at i n g

1
the manuscr i pt i n 1 784 1 to B aron E u gen von Schee l ers son of the

Asperg command ants2 wh i l e he was a p r i soner at Hohen asperg . H e was

app arent l y st i l l at wor k on the proj ect l at e i n 1785 . I n on l y t hree of

h i s l etters , 24 June 1 785 , 1 5 Ju l y 1 785 , and 1 October 1 785 , i s the


Asthet i k der Tonkunst even ment i oned , and then he does l i t t l e more th an

c i te the shortened t i t l e . Just when the d i ct at i on of t h e manuscr i pt

was comp l eted i s not certai n , but i t extends beyond the end o f 1 785
1
S i nce there are s ever a l references to e v ents wh i ch h appened after t h i s
I

d at e . Desp i te t h e l ac k of author i t at i v e b ackground concern i ng i t s

\o r i g i n , Schubart con s i dered t h e X sthet i k h i s best l i terary wor k . 3


I
! O n 28 Apr i l 1787 , about three weeks before h i s r e l ease from
I

l p r i son ,
I
Schubart wrote a l etter to C . F . H i mburg , a book se l l er i n

ls er l i n . I n t h at l etter he stated t h at h i s w i fe wou l d b e t r av e l i ng to


1
Ber l i n and th at she wou l d be bri ng i ng a l ong the manuscr i pt of h i s auto- j
!b i ography, the Xsthet i k der Tonkunst , and some poems , al l of wh i ch she

!w as
!

to g i ve to t h e i r s on Ludw i g , who at t h at t i me was a l so res i d i ng i n


i B er l i n . 4 Apparent l y Ludw i g was t h en t o read t hese manuscri pt s

1 rhere are several pass age s i n t h e X sth et i k where t he author


s pec i f i ca l l y c i tes the year 1784 i n the text .

Ku l t urb i l d ( U l m : H . Kerl er , 1908), p . 397.


2K ar l M ar i a K l ob , Schub art : e i n deut sches D i c hter- und

3 D av i d Strau s s , ed . , Schubart • s L eben i n s e i nen B r i efen , 2d


ed . , 2 v o l s . (Bon n : Emi l Strauss , 1878) , 2:141.
4strau s s , Br i ef e , 2 : 206 .
and make suggestions for their improvement.S Schubart must have

thought that these manuscripts were in a publishable form, as he wrote

in a letter dated 26 August 1787 indicating to his son that he wanted

to have the first volume of his autobiography published because he

needed money.6 But Ludwig, in the foreword to the Asthetik der

Tonk�nst, gives us quite a different perspective. According to him,


I
:the Asthetik was not ready for publication. In fact, Ludwig claims

that its preparation required much work. Not trusting his own

judgment, he even went so far as to have excerpts of the Xsthetik

!published in various periodicals (from 1793 through 180 6) in order to


:

determine whether or not the public would welcome such a work. The

response, he tells us, was favorable, and the manuscript was finally

published by J. V. Degen in 1806 in Vienna, fifteen years after the

:author's death. There have been five other editions since the

ifirst. 7 Marschner & Jasper also published an edition of the Asthetik


i

in Vienna in 1806, but no copy of this edition is known to exist.B

iA certain Scheible edited Schubart's collected writings, which con­


i

\ tained a new printing of the Asthetik, and published them in Stuttgart

5The reason for Schubart writing to Himburg was to let


�imburg know that he had some manuscripts which might be available
�or publication within a short period of time.
6strauss, Briefe, 2:241.

7see the Bibliography for complete publishing information of


these various editions.

Searl Friedrich Whistling, ed., Handbuch der musikalischen


Literatur, 2d ed. (Leipzig: C . F. Whistling, 1828; microfiche
repr1n , ew York: University Music Editions, 1975), p. 1146.
in 1839. In 1924 Paul Alfred Merbach prepared an abridged edition of
the Asthetik. A facsimile of the 1806 Degan edition with additional

corrections was prepared by Fritz and Margrit Kaiser in 1968 and pub­

lished in 1969. It is this edition upon which the following trans­

lation is based. Jurgen Mainka edited the Asthetik for a paperback

edition published in 1977.

The �sthetik der Tonkunst is a "popular" history of music.

The information contained within is, at best, very sketchy, particu-

larly in comparison to monumental works such as the histories of Burney

and Hawkins. Although Schubart may not have had reference materials

while he was dictating his treatise {according to his son's testi­

mony), 9 this fact may have had little bearing on the final product.

Schubart was accustomed to describe only those things which came from

his personal experience; he was not interested in exhaustive research.

He was a practical musician and poet, not a scientist, a methodical

person, nor a theorist.10 His observations of music and musicians,

9As to the availability of source material at hand, Schubart


must have had access to at least a few books. There are certain
instances in the �sthetik der Tonkunst where Schubart's statements are
very close to statements found in other sources. On the other hand,
there are several instances where Schubart mistakingly attributes a
passage to the wrong person or in some way makes a statement which
contains factual inaccuracies, leading one to believe that indeed he
was without reference materials. The problem here is that many of
these false statements are perpetuated in later writings, such as
l
Robert Eitner's Bio raphisch-bibliograehisches Quellen-Lexikon der
Musiker und Musik e ehrten der christllchen Ze1trechnun b1s zur Mitte
rte , ; repr1nt

10Reinhold Hammerstein, "Christian Friedrich Daniel

{Ph.D. dissertation, University of Freiburg, 1940 � p. 122.


Schubart: ein schwabisch-alemannischer Dichter-Musiker der Goethezeit"
consequently, are to some extent superficial. His comments about !
theoretical matters in no way elaborate or even clarify the original
I
theory. These passages are usually vague and backed only by very

general statements. Regardless of what Schubart's intentions were for

publishing the Asthetik or preparing it for publication, it does not

seem likely that he would have invested the time or energy necessary

to bring it in line with the scholarly works of the music historians

of his time. He was probably satisfied with the manuscript as it

stood, just as he was with the articles he dictated for his Chronik.11

Both of these works were dictated throughout by Schubart, and

there is no evidence that passages were reworked or facts verified.12

Thus, we can probably assume that the work we now possess is similar

in content a"d style to Schubart's original manuscript, with altera­

tions only in its organization.

Like the Chronik, the topics covered in the Xsthetik are

treated in a very informal way. Schubart may have been influenced by

the many travel journals of this time. Most of these musical trave­

logl.les contained personal reflections and comments requiring little or

no research on musical activity in a particular city. They were often

rambling narratives on extramusical topics or discussions of musical

11schubart wrote a semiweekly publication from 1774 to


1777 and again from 1787 to 1791 which appeared under various titles
( Deutsche Chronik, Teutsche Chronik, Vaterlandische Chronik, Vater­
landschronik, and Chronik). The term Chronik is used here in a
general sense.
12schubart preferred to work in the local tavern, with a
mug of beer in one hand and his pipe in the other. These were the
elements he considered conducive to creative writing.

5
taste where opi n i on cou l d be expressed, and they were typi cal l y
org ani zed i n t h e manner o f a d i ary : by d ate r ather t h an by top i c .
The Astheti k d e r Ton k unst i s organ i zed i n much t h e s ame way. Schubart
sel ect s a c i ty for d i scus s i o n , he bri ef l y out l i nes the h i story of musi c
i n that part i c u l ar c i ty , and then he eval u ates i ts mus i ci ans , many of
whom were personal acquai ntances . He never trav e l ed out s i de of what i s
now southern Germany . 13 And al though the p l aces d i scussed i n the
Asthet i k are not l im i ted to c i t i es or courts that Schub art h ad v i s i ted
[ personal l y , the sect i on on German mu s i c emphas i zes act i vi t i es i n south
1 Germany. 14 H i s extensi ve read i ng and h i s b ackground i n mu s i c
j enab l ed h i m t o comment o n mus i c mak i ng throughout Germany w i thout
I

'act u al ly h av i ng f i rst-h and know l edge.


The Asthet i k der Ton k unst i s an i mport ant account of the h i s-
tory of mus i c i n the l ate e i ghteenth century. Al though Schub art was
not i n the mai n stream of mu s i c a l act i v i ty, he was a pract i c i ng mus i ­
ci an , a near v i rt uoso who was respected for h i s abi l i t i es on keybo ard
i nstrument s . H e was person al l y acquai nted wi th many o f E urope ' s
greatest mus i c i ans , and h i s i mpressi on s of these fi gures g i ve yet
another v antage po i nt from whi ch we c an ev al u ate other contempor ary

l3fi gure 1 i dent i f i es the c i t i es or co urts t h at Schubart i s


known to h ave v i s i ted.
14F i gure 2 shows the "German schoo l s" d i scussed i n the
Xsthet i k der Tonku n st . The "c i t i es" l i sted are the governmental seats
of the v ar 1 ous German court s . Three of these are i dent i f i ed by schoo l
r ather than by c i ty : the P a l at i ne-B avar i an schoo l , the Saxon schoo l ,
and the Wurttemberg schoo l . B ut w i t h i n these th ree schoo l s , i mport ant
c i t i es are i dent i f i ed . The c i t i e s under l i ned are p l aces that Sch ubart
v i s i ted .
·-�-l

Bayreuth •
Darmstadt. •Wiirzburg
E
Mannheim • rlangen
• .Heidelberg eNuremberg

• Heilbronn

Obersontheim • • Wallerstein
L wigsburg Aalen • • N1if.d1 ingen
E ss 1,.

Stuttgart --Kon1gsbronn

• 1ngen
eGeislingen

Ulm
• Augsburg

.Munich
•Memmingen

Figure 1. Schubart's Travels in Southern Germany

---� -----�-----------'
7
• Hamburg

•Brunswick
.. ... ----- ""' ...
.. .. .. -
-
;"
..
,filii"
SAXONY
Leipzig
Cassel • Dresden
I
• Cologne ' Weimar
I
'
'
•Nassau '
• Ko blenz ,_ .. ,.,- ..... -
• Frankfurt
Mainz

,(L ; ;A

• • Han au
Darmstadt

U
,
P T N tf
t Mannhei!ll


, , PPER

fQ'fiRTTEMBER� t
,. - , ' .,. , ""' •Ansbach, PALATINATE
h . "
#'# ''\
,
• Wall rstein
,
1 Stuttgart, 1 ,'

, Ludwigsb]!lrg , ('
" , .mm ,,
"" - .- ""
Augsourg •1 BAVARIA
:
I
Munich
I

Figure "German Schools11 in Schubart•s


Xsthetik der Tonkunst
2.

8
asses sments (for ex amp l e , Burney ' s } of the s ame mu s i c i ans . A l though

! Schubart was prejud i ced i n h i s v i ew of the super i or i ty of the German


mu s i c and i ts potent i al , we can beg i n to apprec i ate mu s i c al t aste and
thought of th i s tran si t i onal per i od i n the h i story of mus i c , an d we
u n derst and h i s concept of n at i onal i denti ty. We al so l e arn about
mu s i ci ans who h ave been passed over by h i story.

Schubart ' s L i fe

Chr i st i an F r i edrich D an i e l Schubart was born on 24 March 1 7 3 91 5


a t Obersont hei m i n t h e ear l dom o f L i mp ur g . H i s father , Joh ann J acob
Schubart , 16 was a c antor, preceptor , and p ar i sh v i c ar i n Oberson-
the i m at the t i me of Chri sti an ' s b i rt h . I n 1 740 t h e fami l y moved to
Aal en , where J oh ann assumed the dut i es of preceptor and mu s i c d i rector .
I n 1 744 he was appo i nted deacon.
Schubart ch aract er i zed h i mse l f i n h i s autob i ography1 7
d ur i ng h i s ear l y youth o f bei n g d i rty, unt i dy , and l azy; even at the

1 5 schubart st ates that he was born on 26 March , but t h i s i s


actu a l ly h i s b apt i smal d ate. Ern st Ho l ze r , Schubart al s Mus i ker ,
D arstel l ungen au s der Wurttemberg i schen Gesch i chte, vo l . 2 ( Stuttg art :
W . Koh l h amme r , 1905 } , p . 1 5 n .
16 I nformat i on about Chri sti an ' s foref athers c an be found i n
K l o b , Sch ubart , p p . 14-15 .
1 7 Great care must be t ak en when eval u at i ng Sch ubart ' s
statements i n th i s autob i ography, s i nce i t was wri tten u nder some
unusual c i rcumstances . Schubart was i mpri soned at Hohenasperg at the
t ime, and he d i ct ated h i s autobi ography to a fel l ow p r i soner , edi t i ng
i t o n l y upon h i s sub sequent re l ease . Sch ubart was i n the h ab i t of
d i ctat i ng h i s thoughts , for he al so d i ctated h i s I deen zu e i ner
�sthet i k der Tonk unst and h i s journ a l s . Much of h 1 s work , conse­
quen y, 1 s ram 1 ng and often wi thout substant i ve
9
age of seven, he could neither read nor write.18 But by his eighth

year he "surpassed his father in clavier, sang with feeling, played the

violin, and instructed his brother in music."19 Throughout his

autobiography, Leben und Gesinnungen, we see abrupt behavioral changes

and vacillation in interest between literature, religion, and music.

Such changes became obsessions and everything else was put aside while

Schubart pursued his latest quest. There does not seem to be any

gradual transition from one passion to the other. His self-confidence

is apparent throughout the autobiography, as in his estimation of his

references. Obviously, if the manuscript was written while in prison,


incriminating statements or strong viewpoints could not be included for
fear that these pages might fall into the hands of the authorities.
There is a strong feeling of remorse and piety when he
describes his early years at Hohenasperg. His attitude may partially
be explained by the fact that conditions during his first year were
extremely depressing, but there is also a possibility that this con­
fession of past sins and a renewed commitment to pursue a virtuous life
style might have been contrived to gain for hirr1 a commuted sentence.
In spite of questionable, self-serving passages, the autobiog­
raphy is valuable for Schubart•s insights of music and the importance
he places on it.
18c. F. D . Schubart•s des Patrioten, esammelte
Schriften und Schicksale, 8 vols (Stuttgart: J. Scheible's Buch­
handlung, 1839-40), 1:17-18. Schubart•s autobiography, titled
Leben und Gesinnungen, occupies the first two volumes of this
eight-volume collection. The autobiography is further divided into
three parts ( 1791, 1793, and 1798). The third part bears the title
fi
Schubart•s Karacter von seinem Sohne Ludwi Schubart, or Third and
Last Part of the Leben und Gesinnun9en. T roughout this dissertation
the abbrev1at1ons GS, 1 and GS, 2 w1 I I be used to indicate the first
and second volumes-;-respectfVely, of the collected writings of
Schubart, and L & G, 1, L & G, 2 , and L & G, 3 will be used to
indicate the var1ous parts of the autobiography.
19Gs, 1:18 (L & G, 1).
ability as a clavierist quoted above. This statement was challenged

by Klob.2 0

Schubart's father was the dominating force in Christian's

childhood. Most of the comparisons that Schubart makes, whether they

be direct or indirect, are in relationship to his father. His mother,

Helene Juliane Horner, although quite probably a good woman and capable

mother, does not receive nearly the attention that the father receives.

There may also be a parallel in the roles played by each parent that

! manifested
r
itself later in Schubart's marital life, as he tried to

pattern his relationship after their model. And the problems which

arose are of Christian's own making. Schubart by and large did what he

wanted to do without much consideration for his wife or family; at the

same time, he described his wife as a dutiful and faithful housewife

who took on the responsibility of raising the children. Christian's

own son, Ludwig, in writing the concluding part of Schubart•s Leben

und Gesinnungen, also had a worshipping attitude when it came to his

father, though, as we shall discover, this attitude was not totally

deserved.

All three of Schubart•s later passions were nurtured in the

home. One of them, music, became an important part of the daily

activities:

My father remained an admirer and patron of music until the


end of his life, and his house was--particularly in his younger
years--a virtual concert hall wherein chorales, motets, clavier
sonatas, and folk songs resounded.21

2 0Klob, Schubart, pp. 22-23. 21ss, 1 : 1 4 (L & G, 1).


Sch u b art ' s f ather h ad an unusual l y f i ne bass vo i ce and h e a l so p l � �
t h e c l av i er q u i te we l l . 22 Thus Schubart ' s ear l y enthu s i asm for
i
1

mus i c u ndoubted l y came from h i s f ath e r , who m ay h ave a l s o g i ve n h i m

i n struct i on i n mu s i c . And , i n add i t i on , h i s trai n i ng mu st h av e a l so

i nc l uded i nstruct i on i n mus i c t heory for Sch ubart c l a i ms t o h av e com­

posed s ome g al ant and s acred p i eces at ag es n i ne and ten . 23

Johann mus t a l s o h av e been i nf l uent i al i n d i rect i ng h i s son ' s

other i nterests . Schubart notes t h at h i s f at h er l oved t e ach i ng , t h at

h e k n ew Lat i n , and th at h e h ad a gre at abi l i ty for speak i n g . And i t

s eems t h at when Schu b art app l i ed h i ms e l f to h i s s t ud i es , h e was q u i te

: s uccessfu l . W i t h R i eder , preceptor i n Aal e n , he beg an stud i es i n L at i n

and G ree k , i n add i t i on to the other b as i c courses . H e a l so recei ved


rel i g i ou s i nstruct i on from h i s f ather and from Koch , a l oc a l m i n i s ter

: [ St adtpfarrer] . 24

Schu bart ' s ent h u s i asm for mu s i c cont i n ued to grow dur i ng th i s

!per i o d , but h i s i nterest i n l i teratur e , p art i cu l ar l y i n the o l d German


: romances and the stor i es of c h i v al ry , was a l so grow i ng. In 1 7 5 1 a
i

:cert ai n Herr von Mal i tz , a Pru s s i an off i cer and a fr i end o f Sch ubart ' s
f at her , vi s i ted the Sc hubart h ome, and h e brought w i t h h i m t h e f i rs t

i f i ve c antos of K l opstock • s Mes s i as , 25 wh i c h h e read t o t h e f am i l y .

22GS , 1 : 1 3- 14 ( L & G , 1 ) . 23 � , 1 : 1 8 ( L & G , 1 ) .

24GS , 1 : 1 8- 19 ( L & G , 1 ) .

25 c antos 1 - 3 were p ub l i s hed i n 1 748 ; 1 -5 , 1 7 5 1 ; 1 -1 0 ,


1755 ; 1 1 - 1 5 , 1 768 ; and 16-20 , 1 7 7 3 . Accor d i ng t o Sch u b art , t h i s i s
perh aps t h e most i mportant work i n contemporary l i terat ure.
! These stor i es great l y affected Schu b art and h ad a l ast i ng i mp ress i on !
I on h i m. 26 I
l

I1
I

(
I n 1 7 53 Schu b art entered the Lyceum at Nord l i ngen , and t here

e beg an h i s form a l stud i es i n theo l o gy . He bec ame the student of

! A l brecht Fr i edr i ch T h i l o ( 17 25-7 2 } , a teacher at the Lyceum s i nce 1 750 . 1


I Th i l o ,
! pher , and aesthet i c i an , was an av i d admi rer of the anc i ents ( e . g . ,
whom Sch u b art ch aracter i zed as a l i n gu i st , theo l og i a n , phi l oso-
l
I

! Homer ,
I
I

P l ato , Horace , and C i cero ) . 27 Much of the i nstruct i on t i me


I
I
!was devoted to these sources , and c l asses were even t aught i n L at i n .

Thi l o a l so i ntroduced Schu bart to the German poets , such as K l opstock ,


!Bodmer , H al l er , and W i e l and . 28 These stu d i es were prob ab l y t o

Schub art ' s l i k i n g , a n d he c l a i ms to h ave been one o f Thi l o ' s best

student s , p art i c u l ar l y i n L at i n and German , poetry and prose. 29 In

· add i t i on to the s t u dy of the anc i ent authors , p h i l os ophy , h i story , and

rel i g i on were a l so t au ght , but rel i g i on was ap pro ached r ather co l d l y ,

an d, for t h at reaso n , Schubart d i d not pursue th i s s ubj ect wi th the

, s ame k i nd of zeal t h at h i s p arents h ad i ntended . 30

Meanwh i l e , h i s sk i l l s i n mu s i c i mprove d . It was du ri ng th i s

per i od t h at•he composed s ome c l av i er sonat as and a f ew fugal chor a l es ,

and he wrote a pro s a i c -poet i c e l egy about the L i sbon e arthquake of

1 November 1755 , wh i ch he ment i on s i n the A sthet i k . Schubart was a l so

26 GS , 1 : 21 ( L & G , 1 ) • 27 GS , 1 : 24 ( L & G , 1 ) .

28 GS , 1 : 24 ( L & G , 1 ) •
29 K l ob , Schubart , p . 28 .

30Gs , 1 : 24- 26 ( L & G , 1 ) .



I
i nterested i n fo l k mu s i c , and h e wrote some fo l k- l i k e s o n g s wh i ch

c l ai med were s t i l l ( c a . 1 790} bei n g s u ng . 3 1

I n 1756 , h e was sent by h i s f at her t o Nuremberg, where he


enro l l ed i n the Sch u l e zum h e i l i gen Gei st . I t seems t h at even l e s s I
I
t i me was devoted to rel i g i ous stud i es t h an before a n d more t i me was

g i ven to org an p l ayi n g and enjoyment o f the c u l tural c l i mate t h at

N uremberg afforded . 3 2 He became acq u a i nted w i t h the wor k s of the

" i mmort a l " J. S . B ac h ; 33 he p l ayed the organ at e ar l y Mas s ; he g ave

p ub l i c and pr i vat e concert s ; h e pro v i ded mus i c for the d evot i onal s at

the homes where he bo arded ; and he g ave l essons on t h e c l av i er . Georg

W i l he l m Gruber ( 1 7 29-95 ; at t h at t i me St adt k ape l l me i st e r , but l ater

s u cceed i ng Agre l l as K ape l l mei ster i n 1 765 } i nstructed Schubart i n

f i gured bass and compo s i t i on . 34 Schubart a l so compos ed some s ongs ,

wh i ch he s ai d were q u i t e we l l known and wh i ch were pub l i shed i n

Schwabach , but wh i ch d i d not bear h i s n ame. 35 I t was i n N uremberg

t h at Sch ubart • s i nterest i n the femal e s ex was arous e d , and the f l ames

of l ove were f an ned by the poetry of l o ve. 36 Att ract i on to women

proved i n l ater l i fe to be a s er i o u s f l aw i n h i s charact er.

Schu bart ret urned h ome abo ut 1 758 , but was i mmed i at e l y s ent to

theo l og i c al schoo l i n L auterburg. H i s comment s on th i s per i od center

I
3 1 GS , 1 : 28 ( L & G, 1 } .

very poor . �' 1 : 3 2 ( L & G , 1 ) .


3 2sch u b art comp l ai ns t h at i nstruct i on i n the schoo l was
I
I
I
3 3Gs , 1 : 3 1 ( L & G , 1 } . 34Gs , 2 : 168 ( L & G , 3 } .

I
35 GS , 1 : 3 3 ( L & G , 1 } . 36� , 1 : 34-36 ( L & G , 1 } .

� ------------------ -------------------------------------- �
on wor l d l y w i sdom and on the pri est , F ather SchU l en . 3 7 But more

! i mport ant to h i m was h i s pr i v at e i n st ruct i on i n Greek w i t h one

[ s chwebe 38 1.

After o n l y a few short month s ( i n the autumn o f 1 758 ) , he


I
i

l
1 ag a i n returned h ome and ag ai n was i mmedi ate l y sent away to study t he-
1
o l ogy, t h i s t i me i n Erl angen , but not b efore h e h ad v i s i ted h i s fri ends

! i n N uremberg . 39 And ag ai n , wor l d l y w i sdom occ u p i ed more of h i s

l t i me
!

th an rel i g i ou s s t ud i e s . 40 H e a l s o c l ai med t o h ave been the


i

[ b est c l av i er i st and poet i n Er l ange n , wh i ch e arned for h i m approva l

and money: cons eq uent l y , h e s pent four week s i n t h e s t u dent pr i son

for neg l ect i ng h i s stud i e s . But al l was not l ost , for he h ad acces s

t o a c l av i er . 4 1 Wh i l e i n pri son h e h ad a s er i ous i l l ness and was

eventu a l l y c a l l ed home by h i s p arent s . 42


,
The t i me s pent at Er l angen was p art i cu l ar l y rewardi ng for

,Schubart , and he spoke i n s ome det ai l about h i s exper i ences t h er e :

There were exce l l ent mus i c i an s among the students--of whom I


need o n l y men t i on the chamber v i rtuoso Ste i nh ardt , present l y i n
Wei mar - -under whose d i rect i on many concerts were g i ve n . I
pract i ced ( at h ome and i n mu s i c al g at h er i ngs } o n the h arps i chord
[ F lugel ] , v i o l i n , and i n song ; I trave l ed once t o B ayreuth t o a
f r i end of my f at h er • s , T homas , and h e ard t h ere , for t h e f i rst

37 GS , 1 : 37-38 (L & G, 1 ) . 38� , 1 : 3 9 (L & G , 1 ) .


39 Gs , 1 : 40 (L & G, 1 } . To th i s poi nt Schub art h ad a great
,deal of traf n i ng i n L ati n and Greek , yet i t i s i mportant to note t h at
i n h i s A�thet i k he l i mi ted the use of these l an gu ages to s hort , com­
mon l y use d p as s ages i n an effort to make the treat i s e access i b l e t o
the gener al p ub l i c . H i s mai n g o al w a s to pass a l on g i nformat i on i n a
s i mp l e manner , w i thout be i ng over l y d i d act i c .
40 Gs , 1 : 4 1 (L & G , 1 ) . 4 1 � , 1 : 44 (L & G , 1 ) .

4 2Gs , 1 : 46 (L & G , 1 ) .

15
time i n my l i fe , a very good orchestra and some I tal i an s i n gers ,
who carri ed me heavenward . Hasse and Graun were the cornerstones
of the Bayreu th cou r t , whi c h , as i s wel l known , knew how to
combi ne G erman profundi ty wi th I tal i an song. 43
On hi s return home to Aa l en , Schu bart expres sed hi s l ack of
feel i ng for rel i g i on , and , as a probat i oner , he a l so stated that h i s
own sermons were empty. 44 He was more comfortab l e wi th mus i c . He
organ i zed the Stadtmus i k i n Aal en and composed sacred work s , sympho­
n i es , sonatas , ari as , and ot her sma l l works. 45 H i s p l ayi n g
abi l i ti es al so improved :
I pl ayed the mo st di ff i cu l t works of the Hamburg [ C . P . E. ]
Bach and those of hi s father wi th fl uen cy, and thereby made my
hands strong and practi ced [rund ] , unti l I weakened them somewhat
by the destruct i ve A l berti taste wi th [i ts] broken chord s and by
the ru i nou s toccatas wh i ch come to the pi an o from Jommel l i 1 s
operas , i n whi c h they do not real l y bel ong . 46
Mu s i c , for Sc hu bart, became a maj or preoccupati on. He set
forth requ i rements for a good cl av i eri st:
I p l ayed , about thi s t i me , wi th ad ro i t q u i cknes s [mi t
gef l ugel ter Geschwi ndi gkei t] ; s i g htread very di ffi cu l t works
composed for the cl avier or another i n strument, wi th and wi thout
[ fi g ured ] bass; pl ayed i n al l keys wi th eq ual dexteri ty, i mpro­
vi sed w i t h ferv i d i ngen u i ty, and d i spl ayed the comp l ete abi l i ty of
a great organi s t. I cou l d pl ay wi th su ch fi re--the pri n c i pal
characteri st i c of geni us--that everythi ng ar ou nd me vani shed and I
onl y l i ved i n the sounds wh i c h my imag i nati on created . I ndeed , I
had comp l ete control of al l techn i cal passages--a q u al i ty wh i ch i s
l acki ng i n so many p l ayers . They are content i f they su cceed wi th
a death ly l eap [Tod ten sprun � ] and care not whether the l i stener
al so understands what they ave to say. Every p i ece mu st form a
who l e , must h ave i t s own character , must not be bl emi shed by
capri ci ou snes s , and must be performed p l ai n l y and i n te l l i gen tl y.
Thus the l ate S chu bart 47 ( not Schubert , Schobert , or Schober ,

43 Gs, 1 : 46 ( L & G , 1 ) •
44Gs 1 : 48 ( L & G, 1 ) •
_,

45 Gs 1 : 49 ( L & G , 1 ) . 46 Gs , 1 : 49 ( L & G , 1 ) .
_,

47 see Johann Schobert i n the Append i x .

16
as the F rench man g l e h i s n ame ) , Vog l er , Eck ard , B eec k e , p art i
u l ar l y Mozart , remai n or i g i na l for a l ong t i me , by wh i ch the
budd i ng v i rtuoso c an measure h i msel f . S peed general l y i mp a i r s
gracefu l ness , yet I sought , through true i m i t at i on o f our
heartst i rr i ng n at i onal song , to adopt the l atter u nt i l the I ta l i an
song enc i rc l ed me i n sensual s ounds and g ave my s tyl e of pl ayi ng
more of the sweetness of fash i on ab l e t aste, but at t h e s ame t i me
weakened my h and s , and duri ng t h at t i me I p l ayed orn ate l y and
mi xed many a styl e [ E i { entuml i ch k e i t] . A c l av i er i st does wrong i f
h e sel ect s s omet h i ng o her than the German mode l , for wh at are
fore i gners , even M arch and , Scarl att i , and Jozz i , ag ai nst o ur B ac h ,
Hande l , W agen sei l , Schubart , Beeck e , Eck ar d , Vog l er , F l e i scher ,
Muthe l , Koze l uch , Moz art . Our v i rtuosos [ Menat seac h s ] c an h ard l y
b e counted ! 48

I t i s apparent t h at Schubart con s i dered h i ms e l f to be a more-th an­

adequ ate c l av i er i s t , but al so one who fel l prey t o contemporary t aste. i

Agai n , i t mu st be remembered t h at Schubart d i ct ated h i s autobi ogr aphy

around 1 778-7 9 , d ur i ng wh i ch t i me he was ab l e to 11i mprove 11 u pon h i s

aesthet i cal j u dgment s of h i s you nger years . Schubart al so regretted


the f act that he m i s used h i s t a l ent i n t h at he d i d not study mus i c more

d i l i gent ly. 4 9

The s cene c h an ged , and Schu b art became a p r i v ate teacher for
the c h i l dren of the B l ez i nger fami l y i n K5n i g sbronn . 50 H i s enthu­

s i asm for rel i g i on was rek i nd l ed , 5 1 and he event ual l y rel i nq u i shed

h i s pos i t i on to one of h i s brothers so t h at h e mi ght ret urn to Aal en

48 GS , 1 : 50-51 ( L & G, 1 ) . 4 9 GS , 1 : 51 ( L & G, 1 ) .


50 .§1 , 1 : 5 2 ( L & G, 1 ) •
51 .§1 , 1 : 54-55 ( L & G, 1)

17

' --�---
and beg i n to preach i n the border i ng t owns . 5 2 F rom t h i s po i nt ,
speaks noth i n g o f mu s i c , o n l y of preach i ng . 53

I n 1763 Sch ubart accepted a teach i ng pos i t i on (th at of pre­


ceptor } i n G e i s l i ngen, where he g ave i nstruct i on n i ne hours a d ay and

pr act i ced h i s pre ach i ng i n the near by v i l l ages . He was al so respon­

s i bl e for d i rect i ng t h e cho i r , 54 for wh i ch h e c l a i med t o h av e

wri tten some symphon i es (or, more l i ke ly , overtures } a n d g ave

i nstruct i on i n v i o l i n and sh ared the respons i b i l i ty of p l ayi ng the

1 org an . 55

The cu l tural c l i mate i n Gei s l i ngen was such t h at Schubart

renewed h i s i nt erest i n l i terat ur e , wh i ch h ad come t o mean th at h i s

c urrent i nterest i n r e l i g i o n wou l d beg i n to d i mi n i sh and then be


tot a l l y supp l ant e d . Love a l s o rep l aced rel i g i on . Short l y after h i s

arr i v al i n Ge i s l i n gen h e met H e l ene Bu h l er , a d au gh ter of a c u stoms

off i c i a l , whom he marr i ed i n 1 764 . F i ve ch i l dren- -t hree sons and two

d au ghters--were born to th i s coupl e , but o n l y one son , Ludw i g , and one

d au ghter , Ju l i an e , s ur v i ved i nf an cy .

I t w a s not l on g before Sch u b art fel t t h e need to l eave


Gei s l i ngen i n search of a pl ace t h at h ad 11more c u l t ur e , more freedom ,

more wor l d l i ne s s . " 56 F or Schubart • s free and creat i ve s p i r i t ,

5 2.§i , 1 : 5 7 ( L & G , 1 ) •

. 53 on a v i s i t i n E ss l i ngen to C hr i st i an Gottfr i ed B6ck h , h i s


!brother-
' i n - l aw , Sch ubart commented o n a c l av i er i st by the n ame of

54 §S , 1 : 69 (�.....&....fa, 1 ) .
Engel h ard who i mpre s s ed h i m great ly .§i , 1 : 6 1 ( L & G, 1 ) .

5 5K l ob , Sch u b art , p . 1 1 3 .

56� , 1 : 83 ( L & G , 1 ) .
Gei s l i ngen may h av e i ndeed been too restr i ct i ve. B u t t here may a l so
h ave been another reason for h i s want i ng to l eav e: the i n- l aws . There
were severa l i nstances to come when Schubart and h i s w i fe were s epa-
rated, i n wh i ch c ase we wi l l f i n d Hel ene and the ch i l dren b ack i n
Gei s l 1 ngen and S hu bart on h i s own . Another reason for separati on may
h ave been Schub art quest i on i ng h i s own rel i g i ou s f a i t h and the doc­
tri nes of h i s church. 57
In 1 769 Schubart and h i s wi fe v i s i ted Bockh i n E s s l i ngen .
Schub art and Bockh t hen travel ed to Ludw i g sb urg to attend a performance:
of Jommel l i ' s Fetonte ( 11 Febru ary) . Schubart was great ly affected by
the mus i c he hear d .
T h e spi r i t o f mus i c was great and i t ascended heavenward and
was pl ayed as if each mus i c i an were a nerve of Jomme l l i . Dance,
scenery , f l yi ng scenery [ F l u gwerk] , everyth i ng was i n the bo l dest ,
newest , and best styl e. And n ow , " Good N i gh t , Gei s l i ngen , •• with
your s i mp l i c i ty, your mountai n s , your poverty, your t aste l essness ,
your graveyar d , and your student ' s pri son . 58
I n the fal l of 1 769 , 59 Schubart took h i s l eave of Gei s l i n­
gen--and h i s fami l y--to assume a new pos i t i on i n Ludw i gsburg, t h at of
org an i st , conductor of sacred mus i c , and vocal i nstructor at the
schoo 1 . 60 He f i n a l l y made amends wi th h i s father-i n-l aw , who a l l owed
h i m to retr i eve h i s fami ly. In Ludwi gsburg he was once agai n absorbed
i n mus i c . A l though not assoc i ated wi th the court , he became we l l

5 7 � , 1 : 88 { L & G , 1 ) . 58 ss , 1 : 8 3 ( L & s, 1 )
59K l ob , Schubart , p . 1 20 . � ' 1 :88 ( L & G , 1 ) h as 1 768.

, 60 Ho l zer assumes that Schu bart g ave voca l i nstruct i on ,


though he cou l d not fi n d wri tten evi dence that th i s was the c as e .
Hol zer , Schubart al s Mus i k er , p . 1 3 .
known among the court musicians, and he himself was aware of all t �
musical activity in Ludwigsburg. His observations of and contacts with l
the great musicians of this city form a basis for his comments in the
J
Asthetik der Tonkunst. It was not long before Schubart himself was in

the mainstream of musical life. He participated in private concerts

and occasionally played second harpsichord in the opera,61 in

addition to his duties as organist.62 He played organ, clavier,

harpsichord, and piano, and gave instruction to ladies of the court.

Schubart had an opportunity for a court appointment at L udwigs­

'burg, but he spoiled his chances in an interview with court minister

lMontmartin in August of 1771. Montmartin visited Schubart and asked

him in which area he felt more comfortable, literature or music. Schu-

bart, assuming that Montmartin knew full well of Schubart's prowess on

keyboard instruments and probably hoping to impress Montmartin with his

:broad background, answered that he thought he was stronger in litera-

1ture, whereupon Montmartin replied, "That's too bad." A position was

not offered to him.63 Schubart also had marital problems. His

,wife and children left to stay with the BUhler family in Geislingen.64

61rhe first harpsichord was played by the Kapellmeister,


the second was for the accompanist. See Klob, Schubart, p. 152.
62schubart gives specific instructions for a good
organist. See GS, 1:98-99 (L & G, 1).
63Klob, Schubart, p. 14 0. Literature was indeed one of
Schubart's strengths, ana it was during his residence in Ludwigsburg
that several of his articles were published. GS, 1:108 (L & G, 1).
64In a letter to Bockh in December, 1771, Schubart writes,
"A wife who can abandon her husband does not deserve any sympathy."
Strauss, Briefe, 1:185. Schubart's wife and children had apparently

20
On 13 August 1772 Schubart was interviewed by Charles Burney,

who at that time was traveling through Europe in order to gather

material for a projected history of music.

making my acknowledgments to M. Schubart, organist of the Lutheran!


I can proceed no further in my account of this place, without,

to think the object of my journey was, in some measure, a nationalj


church: he was the first real great harpsichord player that I I
had hitherto met with in Germany, as well as the first who seemed :

concern. I travelled not as a musician usually travels, to� !

i
money, but to spend it, in search of musical merit and talen�
wherever I could find them, in order to display them to my coun- :
trymen. M. Schubart seemed sensible of this, and took all pos-
sible pains to please my ears, as well as to satisfy my mind. He I

is formed on the Bach school; but is an enthusiast, an original in:


genius. Many of his pieces are printed in Holland; they are full !
of taste and fire. He played on the Clavichord, with great del­
icacy and expression; his finger is brilliant, and fancy rich; he·
is in possession of a perfect double shake, which is obtained but
by few harpsichord players.

He was some time organist of Ulm, where he had a fine instru­


ment to play on; but here he has a most wretched one. His merit
is but little known where he is at present planted: the common
people think him mad and the rest overlook him.

We communicated our thoughts to each other in a singular


manner: I was not, as yet, able to keep pace with his ideas, or
my own impatience to know them, in German; and he could neither
speak French nor Italian, but could converse in Latin very
fluently, having been originally intended for the church; and it
amazed me to find, with what quickness and facility he expressed
whatever he would, in Latin; it was literally, a living language
in his hands. I gave him the plan of my History of Music to read,
in German; and to convince me, that he clearly understood my
meaning, he translated it, that is, read it aloud to me in Latin,
at first sight. My pronunciation of Latin, if I had been accus- I

tomed to speak it, would not have been intelligible to him; but as
he understood Italian, though he could not speak it, our conversa-:
i
tion was carried on in two different languages, Latin and

been gone since August of that year (see letter to Bockh, 26 August
1771; Strauss, Briefe, 1:181-82). This kind of sentiment expressed by
Schubart most certa1nly made him vulnerable to an adulterous affair,
for which he was excommunicated and which led to his expulsion from
Ludwigsburg in 1773. His infidelity may be the reason for his wife's
absence during this time, as Klob, p. 141, suggests.
Italian; so that the questions that were asked in one of these
tongues, were answered in the other. In this manner we kept on a
loquacious intercourse the whole day, during which, he not only
played a great deal on the Harpsichord, Organ, Piano forte, and
Clavichord; but shewed me the theatre, and all the curiosities of
Ludwigsburg, as well as wrote down for me, a character of all the
musicians of that court and city.

And, in the evening, he had the attention to collect


together, at his house, three or four boors, in order to let me
hear them play and sing national music, concerning which, I had
expressed great curiosity 65

Burney made several noteworthy observations. First, he confirmed

Schubart•s own estimation of his great abilities in performance on

keyboard instruments. Second, Schubart expressed his interest in

Burney's project for a history of music and even went so far as to

write down the characteristics of the musicians in Ludwigsburg. This

became important for Schubart when he began to compile his own history

of music in his Asthetik der Tonkunst, wherein he made j udgments

concerning the merits of musicians who were his contemporaries or

immediate predecessors. Third, why does Burney claim that Schubart

was an organist at Ulm when in fact he was not? Burney may have

misinterpreted Schubart•s response to his question about where he had

been employed, or Schubart, in trying to paint a rosier picture, may

have misled Burney into thinking that he was organist at Ulm. There

is a passage in the �sthetik where Schubart describes Geislingen, where

he had been organist, as an "Ulmish town.u 66 And fourth, Burney

65charles Burney, An Eighteenth-Century Tour in Central


Europe and the Netherlands, ed. Percy A.Scholes (London: Oxford
University Press, 1959), pp. 39-40.
66 see page 275 of this dissertation.

22

L.
emphas i zes Schu bart ' s i nterest i n i nd i genous or " n at i onal " mu s i c
whi ch man i fests i tsel f , i f on ly t o a sma l l degree , i n the Asthet i k .
One other po i nt mu st be made. B urney ' s l angu age i s no c l earer than
Schubart ' s . The statement "He i s formed on the B ach schoo l " i s a l so
found i n the Asthet i k . And a l though Joh ann Sebasti an B ach and C ar l
Ph i l i pp Emanu e l B ach are the l eadi ng cand i d ates for s uch a n attri bu­
t i on , no further i dent i f i c at i on i s pos s i b l e; thu s , i t i s i mpo ss i b l e
to determi ne whether the author i s refer r i ng to the o l der schoo l of
p l ayi ng , represented by J . S . B ach , or to the newer schoo l .
At the beg i nn i ng of 1 7 7 3 Schubart wrote a s at i r i c a l poem, sup­
posed ly cr i t i cal of pub l i c off i c i al s . Thi s , coupl ed w i th Schubart ' s
adul tery with one B arbar a Strei cher of Aal en , res u l ted i n an edi ct from:
Car l Eugen (d ated 21 May 177 3 ) , Duke of WUrttemberg , wh i ch requi red h i m
t o l e ave the country. 67
Schubart then went to Hei l bronn; h i s w i fe and c h i l dren went
back to Gei s l i ngen . 68 Schubart bo arded w i th the P irker f ami ly and
g ave l essons and si ngi ng and c l avi er, and he al so g ave v i rtuos i c per­
formances at pri v ate g ather i ngs . 69 A l though the cu l tural c l i mate
was to Schubart ' s l i k i n g , he was wi thout a l i vel i hoo d , and he fel t a
need to i mprove h i s s i t u at i on so t h at he mi ght fu l f i l l h i s obl i g at i ons
as a hu sband to prov i de support for h i s fami ly sti l l i n Gei s l i nge n .
Schubart p l anned t o g o by way o f Ansb ach and then seek h i s
fortune i n Berl i n , but a l etter from " a l ong-t i me acq u a i n t ance" by

67 str auss , B r i efe , 1 : 199 .


68 Gs, 1 : 1 2 3 - 24 ( L & G , 1 ) . 69 K l ob , Schubart , p . 165 .
the n ame of Grit sc h , i n M annhei m, announced a teach i ng po s i t i on at
the R itterak ademi e i n S aarbrucken . 70 Schubart went to M annheim
and took u p res i dence with Gr i tsch. After a short per i od of t ime and

. on the adv i ce of another acqu ai nt ance, i t was deci ded t h at Schubart


woul d not accompany Gri t sch to SaarbrUcke n , but wou l d travel i n stead to
H e i d e l berg . When he reached K astel l , he was cau ght i n a r a i nstorm and
was i nv i ted i nto the resi dence of a baron .
A young b aroness was seated at a h arpsi chord and beh i nd her
stood her teacher , the f i rst c l av i er i st of the e l ector [ K ar l
Theodor] .
When the baroness got u p from the h arps i chord , I s at down
and began to i mprov i se . Everyone l i stened , g ave approv a l , and
when I ended , the head of the house stood beh i nd me and smi l i ngly
g ave me h i s "bravo. " Al so the el ector ' s ch amber v i rtuoso g ave me
h i s comp l ete approv al , wh i ch I deserved , for I h ad reached , at
that t i me , my fu l l est mat ur i ty and p l ayed with prof i c i ency, yet
with taste • I composed a rondo wi th v ari at i ons for the
• • •

b aroness and was r i ch l y rewarded •


71
• • •

Once i n Heidel ber g , he was adv i sed by members of the pal at i ne court
to ret urn to Mannheim to seek emp l oyment . Upon h i s retur n , h e was
emp l oyed by Count N i ssel rode to i nstruct the count ' s son i n mus i c . 7 2
At t h i s po i nt , several p ages of Schubart ' s autob i ography are d evoted to
the art s . He was fortunate enough t o meet many of the art i sts o f a l l
types assoc i ated wi th the Mannhe im court , 73 and he even trave l ed to
Schwetzi n gen to perform for the e l ector:
The e l ector p l ayed a f l ute concerto accompan i ed by the two
Toesch i s and the cel l i st D anz i . After th i s , I p l ayed several
p i eces on the p i an o , s ang a Russi an war son g wh i c h I had even
wri tten myse l f , stood up , spoke about l i terature and art , and

70� , 1 : 1 3 2 { L & G , 1 ) . 7 1 Gs , 1 : 138-39 { L & G , 1 ) .


7 2Gs , 1 : 14 2 { L & G , 1 ) •
7 3 Gs , 1 : 15 2 ( L & G , 1 ) •

24
won the elector's complete approval. " I want to hear and speak
to you more often," he said with the most cheerful mien as I bade
my farewe11.74

Schubart's spirits were high as he hoped for a court appointment, but

an inappropriate comment about the Akademie, one of the elector's

undertakings, ended all chances for a position.

Schubart was then taken in by Count von Schmettau, with whom

he discussed questions of religion. Schubart also made an acquaint­

ance with Baron von Leiden, secretary to the Bavarian minister, who

convinced Schubart to change his religion.75 In October 1773 he

accompanied Baron von Leiden to Munich in order that Schubart might

become a Catholic and thereby have a better chance to find employment

since Roman Catholicism was the state religion of Bavaria. On the way

to Munich, they passed through, among other cities, Darmstadt, Wurz­

burg, and Nordlingen, where Schubart became acquainted with musicians

and music of those cities, information which would be used later in his

Xsthetik.76 He was particularly impressed with the musicians of

Munich.77 But early in 1774, a court correspondent from Stuttgart

came to Munich to denounce Schubart, stating that Schubart was not

sincere in his conversion to Catholicism because he did not believe in

the Holy Ghost.78 Schubart could not remain in Munich after this

74GS, 1:151 (L & G, 1) •


75GS, 1:167-68 (L & G, 1).

76 Hammerstein, "Schubart," p. 23.

77GS, 1:186-93 (L & G, 1). 78GS, 1:207 (L & G, 1).

25
His first incl ination was to go to Stockholm, or so �
I
public disgrace.
i
he wrote to his wife.79

However, he traveled onl y as far as Augsburg. There he met

iConrad Heinrich Stage, whom Schubart had known in Geislingen. Stage

:was a printer and booksell er in Augsburg, and he asked Schubart to

iwrite something that he coul d publ ish. Schubart for some time had been

!thinking of writing a novel, but he final ly decided on a journal80

[to be published every Monday and Thursday. This Deutsche Chronik

i (subsequently published under different titles) reported accounts and

views of political events, in addition to criticism of literature, fine

arts, and music. 81 Schubart•s leisure method of writing is

probably reflective of his lifestyle.

I wrote it [the Chronik], rather I dictated it, in the inn,


with a mug of beer and my pipe, [and] without reference materials
[Subsidien] in order to demonstrate my exQerience and a little bit
of wit which Mother Nature had given me.8 2 •

Both his autobiography and his Asthetik were dictated in this manner,

.and both without the aid of reference material. The Chronik came under

condemnation early. In one article, Schubart praised the freedom of

the English people. He was immediately denounced by Burgermeister

79 Gs, 1:218 ( L & G, 2).

80sy 1770 approximately 180 weekly publications were in


circulation throughout Germany, but there were only four in Swabia--two
in Stuttgart and two in Augsburg--and in all of Wurttemberg there were
hardly more than a dozen publishers. Hammerstein, "Schubart,11 I
;pp. 113-21 develops the history of the Chronik. .

I
. 81oavid Ossenkop, "C. F.D. Schubart•s Writings on Music, ..
(Master•s thesis, Columbia Univesity, 1960), p. 24.

I
I
82Gs, 1:221 ( L & G), 2.


von Kuhn, and the Chronik could no longer be published in Augsburg.

, publication was taken up by Christian Ulrich Wagner in

Ulm. 83 Schubart's attitude of "Live as you want, but let me live

ias I want" 84 is typical of his free lifestyle and one which would

eventually get him into serious trouble.

The dictation of the Chronik occupied two mornings a week.

j During the rest of the time, Schubart was involved in the arts of

iAugsburg.
i

I gave lessons on the piano, and had the good fortune to pre­
pare, in a short time, a couple of excellent pupils [subjekte],
who were heard publicly with approval. I played the organ, harp­
sichord, and clavier, everywhere with approval; I gave lectures on:
literature and the arts, hosted learned and artistic gatherings in
my home, read the newest publications and scores, took advantage
of the arts, libraries, art galleries 85
• • • •

Schubart was indeed well-informed and was quite busy with

his pursuit of knowledge. He had proposals of projected works by

which he expected to share his knowledge, but none of these c ame to

fruition. 86

By the end of 1774, he had alienated some because of his free

spirit. A Father Merz eventually won a court decision which forced

Schubart to leave Augsburg. 87

His next stop was Ulm. He comments that " the censor here is

as liberal as anywhere in Germany." 88 Thus, he envisioned no

83GS, 1:223 (L & G, 2). 84 GS, 1:224 (L & G, 2).

85GS, 1:237-38 (L & G, 2). 86 GS, 1:238 (L & G, 2).

87Klob, Schubart, pp. 216-17. 88GS, 1:262 (L & G, 2).


! problems such as he had experienced to date. The Chronik was quite

successful, for it also appeared in London, Paris, Amsterdam, and

St. P etersburg.89 Schubart was also recognized for his musical

talent, and various people visited him or would take him to an inn

� where they would arrange a bacchanalia in his honor.90 And he

was reunited with his family.91

He also had more time to travel. I n the spring of 1775, he

: visited his brother-in-law in Nordlingen; he also visited his mother,

: whom he had not seen for ten years.92 He went to Wallerstein and

reported on the musicians of the court in his autobiography,93 and

he traveled to Memmingen to visit Rheineck, for whom he wrote a text

for Rheineck's wedding cantata and also directed the performance (15

July 1776).94

But even with all of this freedom, Schubart still had

difficulties. His criticism of political injustices95 and a

comment about the duke's mistress96 earned him a ten-year prison

term, which began on 23 January 17 7 7 at Hohenasperg, twenty-five miles

from Stuttgart.

89�, 1 :275 ( L & G, 2) 90GS, 1:266 ( L & G, 2)

91Klob, Schubart, pp. 221-22.

92�, 1:270 ( L & G, 2). 93GS, 1:273 ( L & G, 2).

94 H ammerstein, "Schubart," p. 26 .

95ossenkop, "Schubart•s Writings on Music," pp. 25-26.

J
(New York: Macm1 I Jan, 1980) , 16:750.
96 oavid C. Ossenkop, "C. F. 0. Schubart," The N ew Grove
Dictionary ,of Music a�d Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie, 20 vol s.
II
i

28J
Dur i ng the f i rst year Schubart was p l aced i n sol i t ary conf i ne­
ment . Apparent ly he was al l owed to h av e a B i bl e, but he d i d not h ave
i p aper on wh i ch to wri te . I n h i s autob i ography, he expres sed remorse
for h i s past act i on s and compared h i mse l f w i t h b i b l i c a l person ages ,
s uch as Judas , Ephrai m, and the i nhabi t ants of B aby l o n . H i s sel f­
den i a l and persona l s ufferi ng became i mportant factors i n the process
of repentance. 97 I n Febru ary 1 7 78 he was moved to a l arger cel l ,
,but sti l l he was not permi tted to wri te , p l ay musi c , or t o s pe ak to
anyone. 98 As t i me p assed , some of these restri cti ons were l oos-
ened . He began to rece i ve v i s i tors i n the s ummer o f 1778 ; duri ng 1 778
and 1779 he d i ct ated h i s autobi ography , wh i ch he ed i ted once he was
rel eased from pr i so n , to a fel l ow pr i soner through a hol e i n the wal l .
By 1 78 1 he co u l d wri te l etters . He was a l l owed to p l ay the organ at a
church serv i ce and the c l av i er , and he was al l owed to g i ve i nstruct i on
i n keyboard , s i n g i n g , and f i gured b ass to sever al fami l i es of p r i son
, off i c i al s. He was a l so act i vely engaged i n wri t i ng poetry. 99 Many
of h i s poems and mus i cal compo s i t i ons were p ub l i shed dur i ng h i s

97 GS , 2 : 20- 21 , 3 9 ( L & G , 2 ) .
98GS , 2 :42 ( L & G , 2 ) and K l ob , Schu b art , p . 28 3 .
99GS , 2 :66 , 1 06 , 1 10 ( L & G , 2 ) ; GS , 2 : 1 79 ( L & G , 3 ) ;
Kl ob, Schuoart , pp . 289 , 3 1 3 ; Ho l zer , SchiHrart al s Mu siker, p. 24;
Ossenkop, "Schubart • s Wri t i ngs on Mu s i c , u p . 28 .

29
imprisonment, the most important collection being his Musikalische

Rhapsodien )00

On 17 May 1787 he was released from prison and was immediately

employed in the Stuttgart court as a poet. 101 He was also allowed

to resume publication of his Chronik. His final years seem to be

uneventful, at least compared to his turbulent early years. A combi­

nation of his lifestyle, especially in the consumption of alcohol, 102

and a hypochondriac attitude weakened him.103 In a letter dated

August 1790, Schubart•s wife writes that Christian "has not been in

the opera house for a whole year." 104 In the fall of 1791, he

contracted a fever and he died on 10 October at the age of fifty-two.

Translator ' s Notes

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide an English

translation of Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart•s I deen zu einer

�sthetik der Tonkunst and to annotate the translation as needed in

order to verify, clarify, or correct Schubart•s statements. For a

100 c . F. D. Schubart, Musikalische Rha�sodien, 3 vols.


(Stuttgart: gedruckt in der Buchdrukerei der Aerzog l i chen Hohen
Carlsschule, 1786 ). A less important collection was his Etwas fur
Clavier und Gesang (Winterthur: Heinrich Steiner, 1783).
101Schubart•s exact position is somewhat confusing, for
he refers to himself as theater and music director (i. e. , he plays the
keyboard at opera performances) and elsewhere as professor, theater
director, and court poet. See Klob, Schubart, pp. 349, 361, 388.
102Hammerstein, "Schubart," p. 31.

103 ss, 2:223 (L & G, 3). 104strauss, Briefe, 2:285.

30
concise summary of Schubart's views concerning music in the late

eighteenth century, I would refer the reader to David Charles

( M . A . thesis, Columbia University, 1960), pp . 101-44.


Ossenkop's "Christian F riedrich Daniel Schubart's Writings on Music,"

An attempt has been made in this translation to remain as

close as possible to the original German . Schubart's style contains

:relatively simply sentence structures, as one might expect of a work

;that was dictated throughout and not subsequently reworked by the


:
author. Yet simplicity does not always yield clarity. There are many

places where the author's meaning is vague, and here annotations have

been added.

Ludwig Schubart, who assumed the responsibi l ity for editing

his father's manuscript, indicated headings and subheadings but no

chapter numbers . In order to simplify the numbering of footnotes in

this translation, the transl ator has numbered each heading and sub­

heading as a separate chapter. Similarly, Ludwig divided the treatise

into two parts giving a heading to part two but not to part one. Foot­

notes to the original edition, whether by Schubart or by his son

Ludwig, are indicated by asterisks and are placed above the footnote

line ; the translator's footnotes, which are near l y a l ways in arabic

numbers but occasionally indicated by an asterisk, are always placed

below the footnote line . Underlined words in this translation were

ital icized in the original 1806 edition. However, bracketed foreign

words are underl ined as a matter of current practice, but they may not

have been ita l icized in the original.


The fol l owing octave designations wi l l be used in this
transl ation:

1 1 l _b l " l
c- b c -b C c
I I
C- B

Abbreviations

Because of the number of footnotes and the need for shortened i

titl es within those footnotes, it is appropriate to incl ude at this

point, for the convenience of the reader, a l ist of text

abbreviations:

Abbreviated T it l e F u l l T it l e l 05

Asthetik or Asthetik der Tonkunst Schubart: Ideen zu einer Asthetik l


I

der Tonkunst 1
I
Burney F Burney/Schol es: An Eighteenth- I
Century Musica l Tour 1n France !
and Italy

Burney G Burney/Scho l es: An Eighteenth­


Century Musica l Tour in Centra l
Europe and the Nether lands

i Burney H Burney/Mercer: A Genera l History


of Music

105see the Bib l iography for comp l ete entries.

L ---- --�-----··------
------- -----···················-- ----·· ---,
··············-�---�------ ------

Eitner Q Eitner: Biographisch-biblio­


graphisches Que I i en-Lexikon

F�tis: Biographie

iForkel H Forkel: Allgemeine Geschichte


der Musik

Gerber L Gerber: Historisch-biograph­


isches lex1kon der TonRQnstler

Grove 6 The New Grove Dictionary of Music


and Musi c1ans

GS C . F . D . Schubart's, des
Patr1oten, gesamme ite
Schriften und Schi cksale

Hawkins H Hawkins: A General History of


Music

Holzer Holzer: Schubart als Musiker

L & G Schubart: Leben und Gesinnungen

MAadJ Musikalischer Almanach auf das


Jahr

MAfD Forkel: Musikalischer Almanach


fUr Deutschl and auf das Jahr

M und KAadJ Musikalischer und Kunstler­


Almanach auf das jahr

Martini H Martini: Storia della musica

MGG D ie Musik in Geschichte und


Gegenwart

R ISM Repertoire international des


sources musicales

Schi 1 1 ing Schilling: Enclcloe adie der


aesammten mUS l kal l SChen
issenschaften, oder Uni versal ­
Lex l kon der fonkunst

Strauss Strauss: Schubart's Leben in


seinen Bn efen

33
THE TRANSLAT I ON
CHRIST. FRIED. D AN. SCHUBAR T'S

IDEEN
ZU EI N E R 1STHETIK
Df.R

T 0 N K U N S T.

H E 1\ A U 8 0 E 0 £ 8 E N

VO N L U D V\' I G S C H U B A R T.
X 6 1 U G L, I' II I: II U. L E G 4 1' 1 G Jf i & A 1' M,

W I E N.

BEY J. v. D E G E N.

8 U C :U D 1\ U C K £ 1\ l'ND 8 U C II H A M D L E 1\

I 8 0 6.
"--------�------ -- -----,
-��

FOR EWORD

The fol l owing fragment, which is published fourteen [recte

fifteen] years after the death of the author, woul d have been offered

ito the publ ic earl ier if so many a disconnected articl e had not first

'to have been compl eted, so much in l an guage and diction corrected, and

so many omissions- -particul arl y in the exampl es where the author did

not have the sources at hand- -fil l ed in. My l ate father dictated the

fol l owing pages, just as his biography, at the fortress Hohenasperg to

someone unskil l ed i n writin g, without subsequentl y reviewing the manu-

l an guage, an d without el iminating the atrocious sl ips of the pen, which !


script, without fil l ing in musical omissions, without reviewin g the

often go to the point of total unintel l igibil ity.* The manuscript

I
pages were strewed among his papers an d were only brought together

painstakingl y. Neverthel ess, since it was one of his favorite thoughts !

to write an Aesthetic of Music- -of which he so often spoke with enthu-

siasm--since he al ready gathered a quantity of material to that end,

and during the years 1784 and 1785 had begun writin g, I thus undertook

the above-mentioned l abor, al l the more gl adl y the more interesting

the idea seemed to me and the more striking so many an articl e seemed

\ to be.

I
� ==�-
*He had few books around him whil e he undertook the work and

j
dictated a great deal fr ·

__
A l so , after I h ad done my p art on the manuscr i pt , i t was s t i l l
i mport ant to cons u l t wi th some competent connoi sseurs abou t i t and to
l earn the o p i n i on of the art i st i c p ub l i c by way of excerpt s [vorgel egte
Proben ] . These s ame excerpts were presented to p atrons of the fi ne
arts in G erman mont h l y p er i od i c a l s i n W i e l and ' s Der neue teutsche
! M er k u r , i n the Eng l i sche B l atter, and i n the l i epzi g Al l geme i ne mus i ­
j k a l i sche Ze i tu ng . 1 The j udgments were f avorab l e; new vi ews , d i st i nc­
[t i veness of styl e , c l ar i ty and popu l ar i ty of present at i o n , an d , wi t h
! al l apparent e ase, mu ch profound l y creat i ve truth b ased on experi ence
[were found i n i t s v ar i ou s parts .
i
And thu s fo l l ows n ow the who l e , as
:far as i t mi ght proceed from the ext ant papers .
Here the reader , even the non-mu s i c i an , fi n d s a br i ef com-
prehens i b l e , and attract i ve l y presented h i story of mus i c--from the
Hebrews , Greeks , and Roman s on up the the great mus i cal schoo l s of the
� I tal i ans , Germans and Frenc h . The German [schoo l ] i s f urther d i v i ded , 1

1 The Apr i l 1801 edi t i on of Der neue teutsche Merkur,


pp . 261-75 , cont ai ned an art i c l e wh1 ch consi sted of Schubart ' s sec­
t i ons on the horn, Benda , and the P al at i ne schoo l . T he sect i on on
Eng l i sh mus i c i s found i n Ludwi g Schubart ' s Eng l i sch e B l �tter ( 1796 ,
[ Vo l . 5] , No. 4 , pp . 270-7 3 ) . Sever a l excerpts ( "The Hi story of
Ital i an Mus i c to Jommel l i , " "The Hi story of German Mus i c from Luther
to C ar l V I , " "The P al at i ne Schoo l to Vog l er , " " G l u ck , " "The Saxon
Schoo l , " and " Georg [ recte Joh ann Ch r i s t i an ] B ach" ) appeared i n vari ous
i ssues of the A l l geme1 ne mu s i k a l i sche Zei tung ( 11 , 1 8 and 25 J an u ary
1804 and 1 7 Septem5er 1806) . Additional excerpts may h ave appeared i n
other per i od i cal s , such as the art i cl e about aesthet i c al questi ons
whi ch was pub l i shed i n the 12 October 1 7 93 i ssue of the Berl i n i sche
mus i kal i sche Ze i tung. The text of the ):(sthet i k i s essenti ally the s ame
as the separate ly p ub l i shed art i c l es with the except i o n of cert a i n
changes i n spel l i ngs , changes i n p aragraph subd i v i s i on s , and the
;addi t i on of i ta l i cs . Thu s , i t i s i mposs i b l e to form an opi n i on about
!Ludwi g ' s ro l e i n edi t i ng h i s father ' s manuscr i pt or to determi ne
!content and styl e of the or i g i nal manuscr i pt.
I
- - � - -------------
37 1
---� I
the manner of schoo l s of pai nt i ng. i nto V i ennese. Berl i n.
I
Saxo n , and P a l at i n at e ; the remai n i ng German pri nce ly courts--Wurttem-
ber g , Sal zburg. Mai n z . etc . , just as the i mp eri a l c i t i es-- are treated
i n spec i al sect i ons .
The most i nterest i ng t h i ngs i n th i s h i stor i c a l p i ctu re are the
often rather e l aborated character i st i cs of famous composers and v i r­
tuosos : they are most l y correct , s t ated w i th expert k now l edge and
. conc i se brev i ty . and must be i mportant to anyone who h as a general
i nterest in the art . The abi l i ty to char acter i ze a g re at master in a
few l i nes so that the i ni t i ate recogn i zes h i m at f i rst g l ance , even
though the n ame i s l eft out , i s , as i s wel l known. among the most d i f­
f i cu l t probl ems of the wri ter . To my mi nd the characters of Hande l .
G l uc k . B ach ( f ather and son ) , Benda. J ommel l i , Lol l i . Mad ame Mar a ,
Raaff . and some others are s o d r awn i n these p ages t h at one recogn i zes
them i nstant l y i n the f i rst l i nes and t h at the i r mu s i cal portrai t i s
l i kewi se brought to the m i n d of the reader . The i r faded sounds are
rev i ved ag ai n i n words , and one recogn i zes the pos s i b i l i ty t h at the
often l amented trans i tori ness of performed mus i c cou l d be capt ured
thro ugh the wor k j u st as one h as defi ned l asti ng art works . The expe­
r i ence of the author i n mus i cal performance as we l l as i n compos i t i on
shi nes forth everywhere , and h i s poet i cal l angu age often proved usef u l

38
to h i m to sei ze the f i nest nuances of feel i ng and to l end words to
, obscure i deas wh i ch one m i ght th i nk h ard ly capab l e of expres s i o n . *
To these attri butes are added a warm, German p at r i o t i sm, whi ch
a l so characteri zed the V ater l and schroni k , 2 and j u st h ere found i ts
most val u ab l e susten ance . For Eng l and and France b ow down before the
mu s i cal gen i us of G ermany, and even I t a l y ' s art i st i c g l ory can now name
no Mozart and H ayd n to us . The German i n strumental i st s h ave l ong been
and sti l l are the best i n P ar i s , London , Rome , and [ S t . ] Petersburg,
and the very n ame German i n these countri es arouses a f avorab l e pre­
d i spos i t i on for the performi ng vi rtuoso [Kraftmann] .
I n the second part of the work , whi ch was to contai n the pri n­
c i p l es of mus i c , the author fi rst furni shes a descr i pt i on of a l l the
i nstruments , from the roya l organ down to the u npretenti o u s Jew ' s h ar p ,
and dwel l s espec i al l y u pon types of keybo ard i nstruments [ C l av i er­
Arten ] , on whi ch he d i st i n gu i shed h i ms e l f , and about whi c h he

*W hat one can t ake except i on to these characteri st i cs i s a cer­


t ai n general i ty i n pra i se and repri m an d , a certai n monotony of t i rades
wh i ch the ed i tor was not always a l l owed to modi fy. One c an do good
servi ce to another wri ter wi thout wi p i ng away the l east of h i s d i st i nc­
t i veness; b ut one can a l so force upon the author h i s [the ed i tor ' s ] own
styl e--we h ave ex amp l es--and one h as then tru ly d amaged [the author]
even i f thi s sty l e i s good .

I 2Ludwi g i s referri ng not to a spec i f i c t i t l e, the j o urn al


I whi ch h i s father wrote i n 1788 and 1789, but to the j o urnal i n general
( 17 74-77 , 1 787-91 ) .
39
i mparts many a secret sk immed from forty years of exper i ence. Then
he turns to the so n g , to mu s i cal styl e , to the techn i ca l terms , to
col orat i on , to mus i ca l gen i u s , and to exp ress i on , and conc l udes wi th a
character i zat i on of k eys , wh i ch provoked atten t i on even u pon i ts fi rst
appearance and s i nce then was character i zed by one of the foremost
conno i s seurs as a " profound ly creat i ve, tru e , and q u i te or i gi nal tone
pai nt i ng [ Tongemah l de] . '' As th i s ch aracter i zat i on i s i n the future by
acc l amati on more c l ose ly and profound ly estab l i shed , every composer
w i l l know wh i ch k ey he h as to sel ect for a g i ven fee l i ng or p as s i on .
The great e poch , wh i ch i n o ur d ays the immort al Mozart brou ght
forth i n mus i c , fel l no further [ i . e. , beyond Mozart] i n the t i me of
the author. I was at fi rst wi l l i ng to append the who l e f i n i shed char­
acters of H aydn and Mozart to the work; but I gave i t u p as wel l as the
cont i nu at i on of h i story from 1785 to 1800 { by another hand ) , for the
qui te s i mp l e reason that I on l y wanted to g i ve the l eg acy of my father
u nm i xed, uncut , and w i t h utmost retent i on of h i s i nd i v i du a l styl e .
The rubri c s about mu s i c a l not at i on , kexs , thorough bass, about
compos i ti on , about me l ody, harmony , et c. were i ndeed noted , but con­
tai ned noth i ng other t h an some passages and casual words--on l y gu i de­
l i nes for performance [ a l s F i ngerze i ge bey der Ausfunrung] . A spec i al
sect i on of the book was to have deal t wi th the quest i on , "What i s there
j sti l l l eft to do i n mu s i c? '' The author hoped to prov i de a l asti ng ser­
l v i ce to h i s favori te art wi th a most profound answer to th i s q uest i on
[ more than to any other , and he was determ i ned to ded i cate to mank i nd
l the l ast energy of h i s l i fe to the advoc acy of i ts spont aneous d i gn i ty ,
! puri ty , s i mp l i c i ty , and strength .
My d istance from the place of printing has given

various misprints and i rregulari t i es i n the spelli ng, even though I

checked the manuscri pt carefully , whi ch I beg to amend i n an appendi x.

: Easter Day 1806

The Edi tor


CONTENTS*

Introduction • • • • • • • • • . . . . [ 1]

A Sketched History of Music . . . [ 3]

Jews • • • • . . [ 7]

Greek Music [17]

Romans • • • . . . . . . . . [32]

Concerning I taly ' s Great Singers . . . . . [ 53]

Schools of the Germans . . . . . . . . [ 63]

The Saxon School . . [9 6]

The Palatine School • . . . . . . . [121]

WUrttemberg • • . . . . • [ 14 7]

Salzburg . [ 1 57]

Brunswick . . . . • • [ 159]

Ansbach • • • • . . . . . . . . . • [ 16 1]

Wallerstein-Oettingen • [ 166]

Durlach • • [ 17 0]

Hamburg • • • • [ 173]

Mainz, Trier, and Cologne . [182]

Cologne • • • • [ 184]

*The table of contents represented here duplicates the 1 806


edition. It is quite different from the contents page of this dis­
sertation because of the chapter divisions and headings which have
been added by the translator. Bracketed numbers signify the original
pagination.
42
Tri er • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . [
Tax i s • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ 189]
N as s au-Wei l b urg • . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ 19 2]
Casse l � Darmst adt � and H an au . . . . . . . . . [ 194]
D armstadt • • • . . . . . . . . [ 195]
Han au • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • [ 197 ]
Augs burg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ 21 1 ]
Frankfurt • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ 218]
U lm • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ 221 ]
The Char acters of F amous Mus i ci an s . . . . . . . . . . [ 223]
Sweden and Denmar k • . . . [ 240]
Russ i a . . . . . . . . . . . [ 245]
Pol and • • • . . . . . . . . . . [ 24 7 ]
Swi t zer l and . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ 25 0]
H o l l and . . • • • • . . . . . . . [ 253]
Eng l and . . . . . . . . . . . . [ 255]
F rance • . . . . . . . . . . [ 26 1 ]
PART TWO
THE P R I NC IPLES OF MUS I C
Concern i ng the Mu s i c a l I nstrument s • • • • • • . . . . [ 277]
Concerni ng the H ar psi chord or the C l av i er • • [ 286 ]
Concerni ng the F i nger i ng • • • • • • • • • • • . . [ 29 2]
Concern i ng So l o P l ayi ng . . . . . . [ 295]
Concern i ng W i nd I nstruments . . . . . . . . . . . [ 308 ]
Concern i ng S i ng i ng • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ 335 ]
Concern i n g Mu s i ca l Sty l e
Concerning Chamber Sty l e • . . • • • • • • • . . [354]

Concerning Musica l Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [356 ]

Concerning Musica l Nuances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [363]

Concerning Musica l Genius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [368]

Concerning Musica l Expression • . . . . . . . . . . . . [372]


[ PART ONE]
[THE H I STORY OF MUS IC]
I. I NTRODUCT I ON

I t h as been asserted h i therto that on ly the pri n c i p l es of the


mathemat i ca l part of mu s i c cou l d be formu l ated, the aesthet i c part
l yi ng qu i te o uts i de the sphere of cri t i c i sm. Accord i ng l y , works of the l
f i rst type h ave accumu l ated to the po i nt of d i s gust , and of the l atter
we possess b arel y a few weak , tremb l i ng essays . Musi c ' s skel eton , l i ke
al l skel etons , i s d i s gust i ng to v i ew , yet i t has great v a l ue for the
cri t i ca l analyst . On the contrary, the aesthet i c port i on o f mus i c i s
much more d i ff i cu l t but al l the more fru i tf u l and p l easan t . It i s
concerned much more w i th me l od i c i nvent i on t h an wi th h armony and modu­
l ati o n , or, wh i ch i s the same th i ng , t h at wh i ch g i ves thi s corpse f l esh
and co l or i ng. The fol l owi n g treat i se i s desti ned to t h i s end : to
treat t h i s i mport ant part of art and to represent the aesthet i c pr i n-
1
c i p l es of mus i c as c l e ar l y as poss i b l e. Not for v i rtuosos and conno i s-
seurs al one, but for anyone who does not want to be al together i gnorant
of th i s d i v i ne art , an attempt to show q u i te c l ear l y how one c an act u-
al ly grasp and judge mu s i c a l beauty wi l l be wel come . The who l e trea­
t i se w i l l turn on two l arge quest i on s : "Wh at i s mu s i c al beauty?" and
"How i s thi s beauty produced? "
The obj ect i on t h at one may not form an opi n i on about s ou nds--
that the sounds mu st be absorbed l i ghtni ng q u i ck by the ear and be fe l t
with the heart because every art i f i c i al d i ssect i on decreases the

46
i l l u s i on --th i s obj ect i on l oses al l power when one con s i ders t h at
wou l d l i kewi se not b e permi tted as a ru l e to form an op i n i on about sub- ·

j ects of pai nt i ng , whose i mpres s i on s are certai n ly j u s t a s tran s i tory*

as the i mpres s i on s of mus i c . Yet , one reads Men gs , H agedor n , L i ppert ,

F uess l i , Add i son , d ' Argenv i l l e , l C ayl u s , W i nckel mann , Goeth e , and

Herder about th i s and other f i n e art s wi t h de l i gh t . What matters here

i s whether one fee l s the beaut i es of mu s i c i tsel f i n one ' s heart ?


Whether one i s at l e ast a master o n an i nst rument ? Whether one has

ph i l osoph i cal l y ref l ected about th i s art ; and , f i nal l y , whether one

possesses the g i ft to grasp a s ucces s i on of sound s and to c l othe them


i n sui t ab l e word s , to fol l ow the composer ' s f l i ght of i mag i n at i on and

the out pouri ng of h i s heart , and to show the reader why thi s ph rase

real l y i s beaut i fu l . But before anyth i ng the mu s i c al aesthet i c i an


mu s t c arefu l l y i nvest i g ate the effects of mus i c and know h ow t o show

accord i ng to correct pri nc i p l es why th i s or th at mot i on s ho u l d bri n g

forth such gre at a n d dec i s i ve effects , a n d why another phr ase shou l d
s l i p away power l e s s l y from the heart of mank i nd .

*The object i on that the pai nt i ng rema i ns , b u t sounds f ade away ,

i s fal se; the c l ose i n spect i on of a s core br i ngs s ound s to me j ust a s

prec i se l y to � e ar a s i f t h e p i ece were actua l l y performed . ( Th e

Author ) .

l see Dezal l i er d ' Argenvi l l e i n t he A ppend i x.

47
'-----
- · --·-·---- -· ---- --- - ---- --- ------ ---'
II. A SK ETCH ED H I STOR Y OF MUS I C

Mu s i c i s as o l d as the wor l d . M an cou l d even b e c al l ed a

s i ng i ng creature as w i t h Ar i s tot l e ' s s pe ak i ng creat ure. Al l mank i nd

w as born wi th a t a l ent for s i ng i ng . B ut th i s abi l i ty i s dev e l o ped

more or l ess t or cert ai n we ak nesses i n the org an s of the voi c e , or an


al together unmu s i cal upbri ng i ng h i nder th i s devel o pment of n atural

abi l i t i e s i n most peop l e . I n a commu n i ty of more t h an a thou s and

peop l e t h ard l y a s i ng l e person wi l l be fou nd who i s not mi ght i l y


affected by the f l ood of temp l e son gs and i s not c arri ed away by i t s

surge. I t i s t t herefore , c h i l d i sh and tot al l y ag ai n s t the d i gn i ty of

human i ty if one wanted to t ake up wi th any anc i ent mu s i cal h i stor i o­

grapher t h at men l earned s i n g i n g from the b i rd s or t h at mu s i c i s an

i m i t at i ve art . The unvaryi ng monotony of the b i rd ' s s ong i s too

t i r i ng for m an k i nd to deter i orate to th i s i mi t at i on except i n certai n


humorous hours . Th e m art i n [ Schwa l be ] on our gutter st i l l ch i rps
tod ay as i n Ad am ' s t i me ; the soar i ng l ark s i ngs now o ver t h e h eads

of the pl oughm an as i t s ang over the head of Abe l the shepherd ; and

the n i gh t i ngal e warb l es i n our t i me no d i fferent l y t h an i t d i d to the


f i rst cou p l e from E den ' s sh aded grove . On the other h an d wh at i nf i n i te

c h anges h as mus i c undergone among the h uman race ! H ow t aste i s gov­

erned by al l h e aven l y re a l ms ! From the unsoph i st i cated fo l k song of a

g ras s nymph to t h e bravura ar i as of a M ar a or G abri el i --wh at b l endi ng ,

wh at tonal ch an ge ! And from the v i l l age f i d d l er u p t o a


or Cramer--wh at d i s s i m i l ar i ty of t ast e [ an d ] o f s k i l l ! H ere man
appears i n the nobl e pos i t i on t h at the creator put h i m i n . I ndeed ,

the seven tones al so l i e i n the t h ro at of the b i rd , but wh at man h as

made out of these s even tones ! He i m i t ates the rust l e of t h e gent l e


s pr i ng breeze w i t h t hem, the howl o f t he n i ght wi nd, and t h e forest­

bendi ng storm. He l oves , he angers , he bewai l s , he f ume s ; [ h e ] r aves ,

prays , curses; he l au gh s , h e weeps , h e j o i ns i n wi t h the H al l e l uj ah of


an gel s and d i s associ ates h i msel f f rom the thunder i n the muffl ed noi se

of the death h arps--and al l o f t h i s w i th seven tones !

The god l i ne s s of mus i c i s therefore q u i te u nm i s t ak ab l e . To

man i s mu s i cal gen i u s i n n at e , but i t depends on the c u l t ure how f ar

t h i s , th i s mu s i c a l geni u s , shou l d d i s s emi n ate. We h ave even today

i nnumerab l e examp l es t h at men are born w i t h the t al ent o f d i s coveri ng


the a l t o , teno r , or b ass to a mel ody. The peas ant g i r l accompan i es

her fri end wi thout know i ng t h at t h i s mi ght be the accomp an i ment . The

art i s an bu zzes h i s ras py bass vo i ce [ Strohb as s ] to the song of h i s


w i fe wi thout ever h av i n g formal l y l earned the re l at i o ns h i ps o f the

b as s . ( I n the ch apter o n mus i cal gen i us th i s po i nt shou l d be s ep a­

r ated more exten s i v e l y . )


Undoubt ed l y voc al mu s i c was go i ng on l o ng before i n st rumental

musi c, for the i nvest i g at i on of a sound -emi tti ng bo dy i s too d i ffi cu l t

for the i nf ancy o f h umani ty . S i n g i n g i s s o n atural and f l ows s o free l y


and so art l es s l y from our hearts th at every fee l i n g of cheerfu l ne s s or

of sweet me l ancho l y or every p ass i onate i mp u l se i s s u ff i c i ent for us t o

open our l i ps to son g . Qu i te certai n l y t h e f i rst coupl e h ad al ready


sung ; the i r descendants echoed th e i r sounds , and not u n t i l after many

49
cent uri es was i t reserved for J ubal l to l ay the groundwork for the
d i scovery of i nstrument al mu s i c . The shalme i , or the sh epherd ' s f l ute,
and the lyre, because of i ts s i mp l e construct i on , r i ght l y b e l on g among
the f i rst d i scovered i n strument s , and when the s acred wr i t i ngs say
about J u ba l , "From h i m descended the p i pe and f i dd l e , " i t i s cert a i n
t h at the shepherd ' s fl ute and lyre- -and by no means our v i o l i n- - i s
u nderstood by t h at . F or wh at r i ches of h uman know l edge does the
v i o l i n , as we possess today , not req u i re ! The symme try of the bel ly,
of the sound-post , the extremel y s i mp l e t u n i ng, the noti on of e l i c i t i ng
heave n l y tones from d i s gust i ng cat gut by means of horseh ai r smeared
w i th ros i n h as certai n ly mat ured o n l y i n much l ater t i mes .
But i t i s certai n , and i t c an be proved i rrefut ab ly from the
nature of man k i nd , th at even before the F l ood mus i c among the h uman
r ac e was urged on very v igorou s ly , and Bodmer i n h i s " Descendant s of
Noah '' [ Noahch i de ] --th i s d i v i ne representat i on [ Gemah l de] 2 of the
ear ly worl d- -hard ly h as ex ag gerated the portr ayal of the state of mus i c
i n t h i s age. Immed i ate l y after the F l ood one f i nd s ag ai n traces of the
rev i v i ng mu s i c . Th e Chal deans , and part i cu l ar ly the Phoen i c i ans , very
early h av e combi ned mus i c wi th d i v i ne worsh i p . They pract i ced the

l Gen . 4 : 2 1 .
2The "Gem lh l de" descri bed here by Sch ubart i s act ual ly used
i n a f i gurat i ve sen s e : poeti c verse funct i on s a s a subst i tute for the
v i sual e l ements of a pai nt i ng . B odmer ' s b i b l i c al epi c N o ah , publ i shed
i n 1750 , today i s regarded wi th as much zeal perhaps as�ubart seems

to h av e cher i shed i t , though wi th o ppos i te o p i n i on (cf . Der ros se
Brock h aus , 1 5th ed . , 20 vo l s . [Lei p z i g : F . A. Brockhaus , 19 1] , ! i90 :
"6 1 s eigene zah l rei che D i chtungen , z . B . sei ne v erst i egenen b i b l . E pen
[ ' No ah , ' 1750 , u . a . ] , s i nd poet i sch wertl os , " An Eng l i sh
• • • •

trans l at i on of Noah by J . Col l yer appeared i n 1 767 .


50
l song i n great chor uses and accomp an i ed them p art i cu l ar l y w i th w i nd
i n str uments of var i ou s i nvent i ons . The i r so-cal l ed t r umpets were made

of met a l , but s t i l l more frequent l y of c l ay. Such c an be exp l ai ned by

the s i mpl i c i ty of these i nvent i on s . Mus i c among th e Egypt i an s arose


even h i gher. The vot i ve s on g of I si s and O s i r i s was s u ng by severa l

thou s an d pr i est s , and bes i des t h e resound i ng crumhorn , d rum , cymbal ,

wh i ch was made o f stee l and struck wi t h an i ron s tr i k er , was even


accomp an i ed wi th an i nstrument that was so i ntense that i t c arr i ed and

exal ted the s i ng i ng of many thousand s . I n P ari s , London , Rome , and

other great art i s t i c repo s i tor i es one f i nds some of these i nstruments

of s uch enormo us h e i ght and wi dth t h at no man c an p l ay them n ow

( perh aps al so bec ause the mouthp i ece i s m i s s i ng ) . Some of these wi n d

i nstruments h av e f i ve t o s i x hol e s , some even more , wh ereby vari ety


cou l d be brought to the sound . I nasmuch as the taste o f the Egypt i an s

was exceed i n g l y great i n al l p i eces , o n e mi ght h ave al so been ab l e t o

demonstrate, wi thout h i stor i cal ev i denc e , th at they l oved t h e g i g an t i c


i n mus i c--concerni ng wh i ch , by the way, al l wri ters who h ave d i scussed

the Egypt i an h i story show . *

*How fri ghtfu l l y stri k i ng t h e f u neral mus i c o f the E gypt i ans


1
mu st h ave been i f one mi ght be l i eve the test i mony of Herodot ! 3 B ut

l i f the me l ody [ S at z ] was as s t i ff as the i r pai nt i ngs and statues , i t


l wou l d h ave no more i nterest for u s .
� ----

3 The second book of Herodot u s • account of the Greco-Pers i an


Wars cont a i n s the d i scus s i on of E gypt ( se e Book I I , Ch apter 7 9 ) . I t i s
i nterest i ng to note t h at th i s i s Bu rney ' s th i rd excerpt f rom H erodot u s

51
The mus i c of Med i a and P er s i a was at f i rst s er i ous and
m aj est i c , but very soon fel l to weakness w i t h the n at i on . The Pers i ans

and Med i ans s i n g for women , s ays X enophon ; 4 they don ' t make the soul

strong , but r at h er they u nnerve i t . 5 Accord i ng l y , at the t i me of


Dar i u s Codomannus , the Pers i an s l oved the d e l i c ate l y coo i n g f l ut e , to

wh i ch an attr act i ve g i r l s ang and mi x ed a l l k i nd s of sen sual mot i on s


among the s i ng i ng .

( s ee B urney H , 1 : 1 68-69 ) , and , fu rthermore , th i s p art i c u l ar excerpt i s


the l east stri k i ng of al l . See "Herodotu s : The Pers i an W ar s , Book I I :
E uterpe , C h apters 4 7 -48 and 59-60 , " tran s . George �awli nson , The Greek
Hi stor i an s , e d . Franc i s R . B . Godo l ph i n , 2 vol s . ( New York : Random
Hou se , 1942) , 1 : 1 1 1 and 115 .
4 T here i s no ment i on o f s i ng i ng for women , but t here i s a
story i n Herodot u s of a man who l ost h i s chance for a ri ch br i de
bec ause he d anced . Or i s Schubart t h i nk i ng of s ome ot h er source
wh i ch he m i st aken l y attr i butes to Xenophon?
5 schubart perh aps refers t o a p as s age f rom Xenophon • s
An ab as i s . See 11 Xenophon : The An ab as i s of Cyrus , Book V. , C h apter 4 , "
tran s . Renry G . D akyns , The Greek H i stori an s , ed . F r an c i s R . B .
Godo l ph i n , 2 vo l s . ( New York: Random Hous e , 194 2 ) , 2 : 3 26 - 27 .

52
III. J EWS

Among a l l E astern peopl e, the J ews surpass by far the remai n i ng


i n mus i c. Very ear l y they h ad already produced great masters , or as
they cal l ed them Menatzeachs , wh i ch we wou l d c a l l v i rtuosos , i n voc al
mus i c as wel l as in i nstrument a l mus i c , i n our l an gu age . And i f the
poet i c art of a peopl e al ways observes equal mot i on w i th t h at of mus i c ,
i t i s a s yet i mpos s i b l e to conc l ude to wh at he i ght mus i c i s s a i d to
h ave r i sen among the Jews .
Lowth i n h i s De s acra poesi Hebraeorum prae l ect i ones ( 1753) h as
i ndeed sai d much about Hebrew poetry , but by no means the thousandth
p art wh i ch the connoi sseur perce i ves . * I n al l c l asses of poetry the
Hebrews were master s ; but wh i l e con s i der i n g on ly the lyr i c a l [ poetry] ,
i t can al so be con c l uded from th i s of the perfect i on of Hebrew mu s i c .
I f the son gs wh i ch are i n the B i b l e h ave been set so spl endi d ly
to mus i c , who even tod ay can put somewh at more s p l end i d ones i n

*Herder i n h i s Vom Gei st der hebr a i schen Poes i e [ 1782-83] h as


s ai d far more than Lowth and for the most part h as exhau sted the c l aims
of the wri ter. 1 ( The Editor ) .

1 Th i s i s an abbrev i ated st atement from an art i c l e on L owth


wh i ch appeared i n Schu b art ' s Vater l and i sche Chron i k ( 1787 ) . See GS
8 : 89-90 .

53
compet i t i on w i th thei rs? The song of Moses i n the wi l derness was sung I
and accomp an i ed by i nstruments of that t i me. 2 Perh aps the wor l d
wou l d b e more asto n i shed i f we knew the mel ody i t sel f wi th i t s harmoni c
treatment , as ev ery person fu l l of fee l i ng i s aston i shed over the song. !
At the t i me of the Judge s , mus i c began to dec l i ne among the Hebrews ,
but i t ag ai n obtai ned h i gh f l i ght under D av i d and Sol omon . The spel l s
of D av i d ' s h arp , wh i ch many a s i mp l eton ri d i cu l ed, are eas i l y exp l ain­
abl e to everyone who knows prec i sely the mag i c of assoc i at i on between
poetry and mu s i c . Qu i te cert ai n ly D av i d dec l aimed great heart -render i ng
n at i on a l events before S au l and accomp an i ed them w i th the s i mp l e chords
of h i s h arp . On ly through th i s c an the great effect be understood, to
a certai n degree , wh i ch cou l d uncha i n a furious S au l . 3
Undoubted l y D av i d was one of the greatest mu s i c i ans there­
about , because he knew how to comb i ne the spel l s of mus i c wi th those
of poetry. Yet Hebrew mus i c fi rst reached i ts summi t at the t i me of
Sol omon . At the d ed i c at i on of h i s temp l e he h ad 8 , 000 s i n gers and
1 2 ,000 i nstrumental i st s ; and the sp i r i t of thi s great monarch i s a
guarantee to us t h at mu s i c wou l d not h ave deni ed i ts remai n i ng t aste.
In order for us to comprehend th i s to some extent , we mu st pl ace before
us the present-day hymn i n such a w ay as i t i s accomp an i ed by the

2 Exod. 1 5 : 1 - 1 9 . See a l so Exod . 1 5 : 20-21 .


3 1 S am. 1 6 : 23 .

54
org an , the pi erci ng z i nk s , and the reson ance of the ram ' s horns
[ Pos aunenh al l = ?s hofar ] . 4 i
The H ebrews h ad v ari ous i nstruments wh i ch we do not k now any

l onger. For the most part these i nstrument s were bl ow n ; an d wh at was

struck wi th the h and , one u sed o n l y i n the more pri v ate co ncerts of
the rul ers [ der Gros sen]

The resound i ng ram ' s horn [ H a l l po s au ne] may h ave h ad many

s i mi l ari t i es wi th our cow horns [ Kuhhorne] ; and the fest i v e occ as i on


corrmended them .

T h e i nstrument wi th seven stri ngs merel y answers the great

r i d d l e that the Hebrews , as al l n at i on s , h ad knowl edge al re ady of seven

tones . The hept achord was k nown to them , as to other peop l e , because

the n umber seven i s prom i nent i n al l arts and sci ences as a st andard of

al l perfect i on .

W i th t h e H ebrews one k new no other connect i on t o mu s i c t h an

wi th rel i g i on . The i r temp l e song was f u l l of d i gn i ty and m aj esty; the

L ev i tes , who after al l were chosen for the d i v i ne serv i ce , mu st h ave

al so performed the mu s i c , yet al ways u nder the superv i s i o n of a certai n

c horal l eader. Thus Asaph , at the t i me of D av i d , for examp l e, was s uch

a master. 5 Judg i ng by h i s d i v i ne s ongs , h e mus t h av e s et great

4 s ur ney d i scus ses the prob l em at i c termi nol ogy o f anci ent
i nstruments by c i t i ng the Engl i sh v ers i on of P s a l m 150 : 3- 5 and then
g i v i n g s i x trans l at i ons of the s ame v erses , none of wh i ch agree
t
tot a l ly. See B urne H , 1 : 200- 201 . Fork e l adds the L uther trans­
l at i o n . Forke l A , :129 .
5 see 1 Chro n . 6 : 39 ; 1 5 : 1 7 , 1 9 ; 1 6 : 4- 7 , 37 ; 25 : 1 -9 ;
2 Chro n . 5 : 1 2 ; 20 : 14 ; Ezr a 2 : 41 ; 3 : 10 ; N eh . 7 : 44 ; P s . 50 ; 7 3-84.

55
e a s ; an d as t h e accou n t s abou t Hebrew mu s i c i n gener a l are ob s cu r e ,

I wou l d a l most a s s ert t h at en h armony or u n i s o n

od er E i n k l a n g ] m i g h t h a v e b e e n i t s n a t u re .

A n t i p h ony w a s , as o n e c an c o n c l u d e from t h e P s a l ms , a l s o k n o wn

to t h e Hebrews . Bu t aft e r a l l , i t can be g a t h e red from t h e H e b rew

s o n g s t h at c l e a r n e s s of e x p r e s s i on , t h u n d e r i n g d e c l ama t i o n , and s l av i s

i n s t r u me n t a l accomp an i me n t mu s t h a v e been i t s ch aracter . I t i s to be

regretted t h at t h e i n v e n t i on o f n o t a t i on or i g i n a ted i n s u c h l a t e t i me s ,

otherw i s e i t wou l d be ea sy e n ou g h to d eterm i n e t h e c h a r a c t er of m u s i c

amon g a l l peo p l e .

T h e H ebrews d eterm i n ed t h e r i s e a n d f a l l o f t o ne s , o f wh i c h
I
t h ey p r ob ab l y h ad n ot more t h an f i v e , wh i c h agreed w i t h t h e f i v e v owe l �
I
�' !' 1, �' an d �; 6 t h e fi r s t d e s i g n ated t h e l owe s t t o n e , w h e r e a s t h e I
l a s t , t he h i g h e st . Q u i t e cert a i n l y t h ey were a l so s u c h wher eby t h e
i
l ong or s h o rt d u r a t i on o f s on g wa s d et erm i n ed . To t h e mu s i c a l symb o l s

[ S c h r e i b k u n s t ] of t h e Jews a l s o b e l o n g s t h e e i g h t e e n me t r i c a l acce n t s .

W h e t h er t h e t r u e form of a c ad en ce formu l a [ e i n e s k U n s t l i c h en G e s a n g e s

was cont ai n ed i n i t s e l f , accor d i n g t o t h e a s sert i on mad e i n t h e work

Sc h i l t e H ag g i b b or i m , 8 or whether t h ey a re s a i d mer e l y to ex p l a i n

6 F o r k e l H , 1 : 1 5 6 - 57 c i t i n g J o h a n n C h r i s t o p h S p i ed e l ,
U n v e rwerffl i che S p u r e n von d e r a l ten D av i d s c h e n S i n gk u n s t , . . . •

( S t u t t g a rt : Metzl er und Erhardt , 1740) .

7 T h e s e met r i c a l accent s , wh i c h B u r n e y ca l l ed 11 mu s i c a l
accen t s , " a re i n fact c ad e n c e forum l a s . See Bu rney H , 1 : 392-9 3 ;
M a rt i n i H , 1 : T ab l e V I ( fo l l ow i n g p . 424 ) ; Forkel H , 1 : 1 5 2- 5 5 .

Bs n te h a g - g i b bor1'm ( 11 Sh i e l d s o f M i g h ty Men .. ) . Wi t h t h e
h e l p o f con temp o r a ry m u s 1 c a l t h ou gh t , P or t a l eone attemp ted a reco n ­
s tr u ct i o n of an c i e n t mu s i c , wh i c h ob v i ou s l y cont a i n ed s ome r at h e r

5
/ mnemon i c s i gns a s s i ng l e parts o f the who l e c an never be dec i ded w i t h

cert ai nty. B u t from al l of t h e h i stor i c a l f r agment s wh i ch h ave come

to our t i me and wh i ch are s upported i n p art by the most r i d i c u l ou s

hypotheses , t h e resu l t i s t h at t he mus i cal l an gu age o f t h i s n at i on m ay

h av e been mos t d i ff i c u l t and t roub l esome .

Whether the Jews now even tod ay underst and t h i s mu s i cal char­

acter i s not k nown to me . Y et the i r precentors mu st h av e a t ype of

notat i on , otherw i s e I do not compl ete l y comprehend h ow they c an bri ng


forth the v ar i ous i nf l ect i ons of the i r s ongs . *

The Hebrews h ad a great many i nstrument s , espec i a l l y wi n d s ;

t he i r resound i n g r am ' s h or n , wh i ch they u s ed i n war and d i v i ne worsh i p ,


h ad a powerfu l ton e. I t was heard at a great d i stance, the armi e s were

c a l l ed together wi t h i t , and h i gh feast d ays were announced or the

P s a l m of the pr i es t s was accompan i ed with i t . From the head i n gs of

the P s a l ms it may be conc l uded t h at the J ews h ad a n at i onal poem for

*Mart i n i , B urney, and Forke l i n the i r h i stori cal work s g i ve the

most s at i sfyi ng i nformat i on regard i ng th i s . 9 ( The E d i tor )

! an ac hron i st i c concept s . Athanas i us K i rcher used th i s treat i se as a


source for h i s Mu s urgi a u n i versal i s , al though the author was mi s ­
att r i buted . More contemporary to Schubart ' s t i me was a l at i n trans­
l at i on of t h i s Hebrew treat i se wh i ch appeared i n 1767 i n B l as i a

U gol i no • s Thesau ru s ant i u i t at um s acrum. See R I SM, B / IX/ 2 and
E i tner Q. Although kirc er i s cited by M art i n�rney , and Forke l as
the mai n s ource of the i r i nformat i on , i t may h ave been t h at Schu bart
was fami l i ar wi th the Ugo l i no vers i o n . See p age 58 , note 1 3 of t h i s
trans l at i on .
9 Thi s enti re n arrat i ve i nvo l v i ng the preced i ng two p ar agraphs
paral l el s t h at of Bur ney H , 1 : 21 2- 1 4 , wi th the except i on of the f act
t h at B urney states t h at the Hebrew l angu age ori g i n al l y h ad no vowel s .
every n at i on a l mel ody , t o wh i ch sever al others were sung. Accord i ng
t o the w ay that t h e pri nc i pal fee l i n g , wh i ch l ai d i n s uch a poem, was

now cons t i tuted , one n eeded o n l y such i nstrument s for i ts accomp an i -

ment a s were best su i t ab l e accor d i n g t o i t s spec i al n at ure and qual i ty . !

I t i s al so h i gh l y probab l e t h at they a l re ady knew the m i nor and major


keys . Yet i t c annot be c l aime d , as some more recent R abb i s t ry t o

prove to t he honor o f the i r peopl e , t h at the S amar i t an s h ad a l ready

k n own them. I t i s even more d i ff i c u l t to det erm i n e wh at each i nstru­

ment quoted i n the B i b l e (for ex amp l e , the h arp , G i t h i t 10 [ an

i nstr ument d i scovered at G ath ] , 1 1 Gedor, 1 2 the org an , t h e cym-

b al s , and the v ar i ou s wi nd i nstrument s ) h ad act u a l ly h ad for a r ange


and for an effec t . One sho u l d read w h at Gerbert , i n h i s s p l end i d

treat i s e soncern i ng s acred mus i c [ De c an t u et mus i c a s acr a , 1 7 7 4] ,

and Pfei ffer , i n a s i ng l e e s s ay on H ebrew mus i c , 13 h ave wr i tten

concern i ng th i s . Meanwh i l e , the aston i sh i ng effect of the Hebrew

mus i c , whenever , for e x amp l e , a D av i d t hrough the mag i c o f h i s h arp

10 P s s . 8 , 8 1 , 84 . 1 1 1 S am. 27 : 2 ; 29 : 3 .
1 2 I have not been ab l e to l oc ate t h i s t erm i n t h e L u ther
t r an s l at i on of the German B i b l e nor i n any s ources d e a l i n g wi t h Hebrew
mu s i c a l i nstruments . Cou l d Schubart • s s cr i be h ave mi s t ak en t h i s word
as a homonym for t h e Hebrew words k i nnor (psal tery ) or asor ( an
i nstrument of ten stri ngs ) ?
13 u eber der Mu s i k der a l t en H ebraer von Augu st Fri edri ch
Pfe i ffer ( Erl angen : Wolfgan g Walther , 1779) . Here i s an examp l e o f
confu s i ng attr i b ut i on . The work just ment i oned c er tai n l y i s more
contempor ary w i t h Schu bart • s own t i me per i od , but t here i s another
Au gu s t Pfe i ffer ( 1640-1698 ) who al so wrote an e s s ay o n Hebrew mu s i c ,
11 De neg i noth a l i i sque i nstrument i s mu s i c i s Hebr aeorum, " wh i ch was p art
of h i s Ant i qu i t at e s Hebrai c ae s e l ect ae ( 1689 ) , but wh i ch was al so
i nc l u ded in B l as i u s Ogol i nu s 1 The s aurus ant i qu i t at um s acrum ( 17 67 ) ,
ment i oned prev i ou s l y on p age 57 , note 8 of tfii s tran s l at i o n . W h i ch

�-----------------·--------�-------------------�----------_� 58 I
, drove away the spi r i t of me l ancholy from a S au l , i s qu i te eas i l y
prehens i b l e to m e when I cons i der that t h e Jews used to u n i te n
i ts h i ghest power w i t h musi c , and that one cou l d hear an i n strument
al one very r are ly or not at al l .
I t al so seems h i gh ly prob ab l e to me , for v ar i ous reasons , t h at
Hebrew poetry was more mus i cal poetry than [true] son g . The i nstrument
accomp an i ed the dec l aimer , who n atural l y mu st h ave been q u i te s p l end i d
and who was abl e t o express al l of the nuances and shad i ngs , e i ther
w i th short strokes or fu l l mu s i cal phrases wh i ch i nterpreted the spi r i t
of the poem. Every comma, who l e or h a l f l i ne , every s i g n of adm i r a­
t i on , the exc l amat i on , the quest i on , and ev ery per i od was expressed by
means of the accompanyi ng i n strument . Even today one can c l ear l y rec­
ogn i ze i n our best made p i eces for mu s i c al dec l amat i on the extraord i ­
n ary effect o f Hebrew mus i c . Yet one must l i kewi se not g o too far here
out of the pred i l ect i on for poetry and want to rej ect a l l composed
[ ausgefuhrten ] song , for the song, or the mus i c i n gener a l , c an real i ze
fee l i ngs and i deas accordi ng to the i r k i nd wh i ch are i mpos s i b l e for the
poetry. And that the Hebrews mu st h ave h ad s uch composed song i s c l ear
to see from more t h an one passage of s acred wri t i ng. Thei r s p l end i d

1 ant i phon al choru ses , as for examp l e , the Psalm " 0 g i v e t h an k s unto the

Pfei ffer d i d Schub art i ntend? The f i rst P fei ffer ( 1748-181 7 ) w as
acti ve i n Erl angen , and there i s a poss i b i l i ty that Sch ubart may h ave
k nown h im. B ut there are a l so reasons for i denti fying the second
Pfei ffer. References to the fi rst Pfei ffer may be found i n Sch i l l i ng
5 : 442 ; Fet i s B 7 : 20 ; E i tner Q 7 : 406 ; and R I SM B/V I / 2 : 64 9 ; the second
Pfei ffer may be found 1 n Fet1 s B 7 : 20 ana-RTSM B / V I / 2 :849- 5 1 . The
fi rst Pfei ffer i s probably the one Schu b art 1 ntend s .

59
Lord , for he i s good" [ " Danket dem H errn , denn er i st freu nd l i ch " ] 14
and the master l y Psalm " L i ft u p yo ur heads , 0 ye gates; and be ye l i ft
u p , ye ever l ast i ng doors ; and the K i ng of g l ory sh al l come i n"
[ "Machet d i e Thore wei t und d i e TUren der Wel t hoch , das s der Kon i g der 1
Ehre ei nz i ehe" ] , 1 5 whi ch assume an al ternat i ng and composed song; J
the i r sustai ned Hal l e l uj ah of many beat s ; the i r sel ah , wh i ch i s cer­
t ai n l y nothi ng other than a mus i c a l p ause whereupon another choi r
began ; the i r prev i ous ly menti oned men at ze achs i n al l of the i nstruments
a l ready known at t h at t i me; the h i gh f l i ght of thei r i mag i n at i on ; and
the fu l l stream of the i r fee l i ngs-- [these th i ng s ] prove th i s suff i ­
i ci ent ly. The great number o f s i ngers and i nstrument al i sts at the t i me
of Dav i d and So l omon exto l s part i cu l ar ly Asaph , C a l co l , and Deda n . Too
b ad that the i r sounds h ave faded away , and that the mus i c al l angu age of
the Hebrews , as al l the remai n i ng anci ent peopl e i n general because of
the absence of understandab l e s i gn s , cou l d not be preserved as the
poetry ! Th i s s i gh sti l l wi l l be drawn often from us , but at the same
t i me w i l l make the great worth of our d i scovery of mu s i cal not at i on so
muc h more percept i b l e. Sti l l I mu st note here that by means of the
B aby l on i an capt i v i ty and the resu l t i ng destruct i on of the J ews , mu s i c
among these peop l e h as suffered i mmense l y. Esr a , th i s great man,
i ndeed ag ai n estab l i shed the d i v i ne serv i ce and w i th th i s al so the
mu s i c , but only as shadows of the former magn i f i cence. 1 6 The
el ders wept b i tterl y , they who yet recal l ed the former s p l endor of

14 Pss. 1 06 : 1 , 1 07 : 1 , 118 : 1 , or 136 : 1 .


15 Ps. 24 : 7 , 9 . 16 Ezra 3 : 10-11 .

60
the d i v i ne serv i ce and part i c u l ar l y the fest ive sound s of mus i c . The
h i gh tri umph al ton e, the thunder i n g noi se of thei r former mu s i c was
s i l ent by th i s t i me, and one sang for the most p art the L amentat i ons of
Jeremi ah wi th weep i ng l utes and muted i nstrumental accompan i ment.
Mus i c does not wi l l i ng l y l i nger amon g a p eopl e who b ow to e arth because
of oppressi on , wan t , mi sery , and i n su l t . For t h at reason , mu s i c among
them recovered on ly gradua l ly. At the t i me of S i mon , 1 7 the h i gh
pri est , who was h i msel f an exce l l ent mus i c i an , there were agai n some
good mus i c i ans . Josephus , i n h i s h i story books as wel l as i n h i s
Jew i sh ant i qu i t i es , d i ffuses much l i ght o n the r i se and f a l l of Jewi sh
mus i c . 18
At the t i me of Chr i st mu s i c of the Hebrews does not p art i c u­
l ar l y seem to h ave been i n b l ossom. W i t h the moral and po l i t i c a l dec ay
of th i s n at i on , mu s i c and poetry a l so decayed . I ndeed , the t est i mony of
some p agan wri t ers , who cal l the mu s i c of the Jews the brayi n g of an
ass , i s not tot al l y val i d , but it i s certai n that mu s i c i n a l l forms
drew to a c l ose amon g the Jews after the death of Jesus . I n the year
A . D . 70 Jerus a l em was destroyed ; the Temp l e , together w i th the store

1 7 see S i mon P eter i n the Appendix.


1 B see "The Ant i q u i t i es of the Jews , " I I , 1 6 : 4 ; I I I , 1 2 : 6 ;
V I I , 1 2 : 3 ; V I I , 1 4 : 7 ; V I I I , 3 : 8 ; X X , 9 :6 ; "The Wars of the Jews , "
I I , 9 : 5 ; and "Ant i q u i ty of the Jews : F l av i us Joseph us Aga i nst Api on , "
I , 1 : 2 i n W i l l i am Wh i sto n , The Com l ete Works of F l av i u s Jose hus
( Grand R ap i d s , M i ch i g an : , rege • 1 s comp 1 a 1 on was e-
r i ved from footnote entr i es to Al fred Sendrey, Musi c i n Anci ent I srae l
( New York : Phi l osoph i cal L i br ary , 1 969 ) and A l fred Sendrey , Music in
the Soc i a l and Re l i i ou s L i fe of Anti u i t ( Rutherford , New Jersey :

61
of a l l mus i c al i n strument s , was burned ; the peopl e s c attered among

the n at i ons , and the few conno i sseurs of o l d Hebrew mu s i c per i shed

by and by .

Tod ay • s J ews h ave i ndeed great masters i n mu s i c . Thus one

, f i nds , for examp l e , espec i al l y among the Jews i n Pr agu e , v i rtuosos i n

a l l i nstruments , but t hese peopl e are no represent at i ves o f t h e anc i ent

t aste; they h ave devel oped q u i te accord i ng to t he new [taste] . For who .

wi l l bel i eve t h at the Jews at the t i me of good t aste wou l d h ave s u ng so


I
abomi n ab l y as the i r off i c i at i ng mi n i sters are n ow i n the h ab i t of

s i ng i ng i n the syn agogu es . They d i stort the sound s o d readfu l l y , make

s uch abom i n ab l e gri m aces , and often become so red and b l ue i n the f ace

that s omet i mes one shou l d become anx i ous about the l i fe of the

off i c i ator.

62
I V. GRE E K MUSIC

The Greeks must have been fami l iar with the secrets of this

art very ear l y. By their earl iest history, as it is very much vei l ed

in the mystic obscurity of fab l es, the power of music a l ready f lashes

through; one shou l d bel ieve that music has given the wings for its

astonishing ascent to this great peopl e. Who does not know the fab l e

of Orpheus who subdued the monsters of the forest with the magic of his

l yre that they came and l icked his sol es?1

In this who l e poem the phil osopher sees nothing other than the

first impression of music on a peopl e who were as musical as any in the

wor l d. Everything encouraged music in Greece. The favorab l e effect of

the heavens, the de l icate and responsive formation of Greek bodies, the

l enient and the appropriate form of government for the arts, the a l most

sacred reverence of genius of a l l manner, and especia l l y the b l ending

of re l igion with the arts must have brought music to extraordinary

fashion among these peopl e. For a l ong time the Greeks absorbed onl y

the magic o f music unti l they reconstructed the goddess hersel f and

formed a system. Yet one finds a l ready in the decrees of Draco's and

Sol on's vestiges2 that this peop l e emphatica l l y bound music with

1ovid, Metamorphoses, 11. A l so cf. �' 1:189 ( L & G, 1 } .


2c irca 621 B. C. and 594 B. C. , respectivel y.

63
educ at i on . Gymn ast i c s and mus i c were the two pri nci pal p i l l ars on
wh i ch the i r ent i re system was b ased . Yet i t i s beyond al l doubt th at
they g ave a much wi der i nterpretat i on to the word mus i c t h an we are
accustomed to accept tod ay. They understood mus i c under the concept
1 of art not merely i nf l uenci ng feel i ng by me an s of tones , but even g ave

i t a moral s i gn i f i c ance and i nc l uded there the h armony of al l the


powers of the soul , or as P l utarch s ays , the accord of mor a l fee l i ng •

. Meanwh i l e , i t engaged mus i c by thi s t i me i n the i nfancy of i ts h i story.


Homer h i msel f c h anted h i s d i v i ne poems , and a l though t h i s now mu st h ave
been more mus i c a l dec l amat i on than real son g , i t i s al ready a cl ear
d emonstrat i on h ow deep l y the Greek s fel t t h at poetry i s sai d to h ave
a l ways been uni ted w i t h mus i c ; the songs of Al caeus , P i ndar , and of
S appho , of Mus au s and An acreon were not merel y read , as we i mag i ne ,
they were chanted and accompan i ed by a lyre. Th i s l yre was essen ­
t i a l ly a hept achord, or a n i nstrument w i th seven stretched stri ngs ,
whi ch i nc l uded the fo l l owin g tone s : f, !, �, B f l at , f, Q, [ and] I·
B ut soon the octave was added.
The Greeks recogn i zed very e ar ly the power of fu l l chord s .
They knew that the fundamenta l al ready cont ai ned i t s f i fth and t h at
through the most i nt i mate un i on w i t h the l ater the t h i rd i s generated. 3
Thi s they cal l ed the s i mp l e chord. But soon they foun d through the
exactness of the i r ears that the prime redup l i c ated i tsel f w i th the

3 schubart bases h i s st atement not on h i stori cal fact , but on


h i s observat i on of the s i mp l i c i ty of the tri ad and on the f act t h at the
tri ad i s noth ing more than a n atural phenomenon of so und . He exp l ai ns
i t thu s l y : " Uberal l wi rd der Akkord n ach e i ner l e i Gesetzen geb i l det .
Der Grundton kUsst i n ei ner Bogen l i ni e d i e Qui nt , wi e sei ne G att i n ;
64
I octav e . They even pl aced the mi nor seventh i n thei r
• correct, m u s i cal ear noti ced that the penetrati n g oct ave, whenever i t
begi ns to ti re , vol unt ari l y l ean s toward the mi nor seventh : as the man
ki sses h i s wi fe i n order to prop agate hi s race. ( An observati on whi ch
the great I tal i an harmoni st Tart i n i has made i n hi s s p l endi d , but
unfortunate l y almost compl etel y unknown , treati se on harmony . ) 4

dann schl upft di e Terz aus i h ren Umarmungen hervor und bi l d et jene
hohe mysti sche Tri as , -- den ti efen unerschopfl i chen I n hal t jeder
harmon i schen O ffen baru ng . Wo nur ei n Ohr i st , f�h i g , den Hal l tonender
Korper au fz u sau gen , da wi rd es sei nen Accord schon f i nden , wei l das
Herz , wi e der Resonanzboden , dabei nachk l i ng t . " C. F . D. Schu bart ,
" Vortrag , " Musi kal i sche R hapsod i en , 3 vo l s . ( Stuttgart: ged rukt i n
der Buckdrukerei der Herzogl ichen Hohen C arl sschu l e, 1786 ) , vol . 1 ,
c i ted by Rei n hol d Hammerstei n , Chri sti an F r i edri ch D an i el Schubart : ei n
schwabi sh-al emanni scher Di chter-Musl ker der Goethezei t ( P h . D . di sser ­
tation , U n iver sity of Freiburg , 1940) , p. 158. I t is a l so i nterest i ng
to note that the phrase "Der G ru ndton kUs st i n ei ner Bogenl i ni e di e
Qu i nt , w i e sei ne Gatt i n ; d an schl upft d i e Terz aus i hren Umarmungen
hervor " i s simi l arl y st ated i n the very next paragraph of thi s tran s­
l ati on as " • •wi e der Mann se i n Wei b kUs st , urn sei n Gesch l echt

fortzupfl an zen . " Ho l zer rai ses the questi on about how a man ki sses hi s
wi fe " i n a curve" [ i n ei ner Bogen l i n i e] and some of the probl ems
as soci ated wi th Schubart 1 s fig ur at i v e l anguage and i t s i nterpretati on
i n modern u s age. See Hol zer , pp. 56-5 7 .
4 G i u seppe Tarti n i , Trattato di mu si ca secondo l a vera sci enza
del ' armon i a ( P adova: Stamperia del sem 1 n ario [Giovan n i Manfr�] , 1754) .

65
The Greek sc a l e was , therefore , the fol l owi ng :
7 . Nete • • • • e
6 . P aranete • . . . d
[the h i ghest t etrachord]
5 . P aramese • . • • c
4 . Mese • • • • • . a
3 . L i ch anos • . . . g
[the l owest tetrachord ]
2 . Parhyp ate • . • f
1 . Hypate . . . . • e
Pythagoras f i rst not i ced the g ap contai ned wi thi n and set u p
the fol l owi n g scal e i n two d i sjunct tetrachord s :
8 . Nete • • . . . . . • • • e
7 . P ar anete • . . . • d [the h i ghest
t etrachord]
6 . Tri te • • . . • c
5 . P aramese • • • • . • . . b
4 . Mese • . . . . . . . . . a
3 . L i ch anos or Hyperp ate . g
[the l owest
2 . P arhypate . . . . . . • f tetr achord]
1 . Hypate • . . . • e
What now concerns the tuni ng of the Greek str i ng i nstruments
w as whether such was const i t uted accord i ng to the fol l ow i ng measures of
Boet h i u s :
e the h i ghest str i ng
b
a
} the two mi dd l e stri ngs

e the l owest st r i ng
or whether the Greek tetrachord cont ai ned tones before the t i me of
66
Pyth agor as , wh i ch l i e c l oser together , one c annot c l aim w i t h certai nty. �
It was always very i ncomp l ete and the arpeggi o i s so fl atter i ng ; yet ,
the tones resu l t from true d i s sonances i n the further devel opment.
Pyth agoras f i rst not i ced t h i s i ncompl eteness and i nvented on thi s
account the famous i n strumen t cal l ed the Hel i kon [= monochord ] , wh i ch
h ad an a l together s i mp l e form and accordi ng to i ts construct i on some
s i mi l ar i ty w i t h our present d u l c i mer .
Thi s i n strument was fi rst adapted for that purpose i n order to
determ i n e the rel at i onsh i ps of consonances thereo n . K i rcher i nd i cated
seven l i nes to t h i s preparat i on and s ai d , "One sho u l d f i rst d i v i de a
s i de of a square i n two, then i n four , and f i nal ly i n three equ a l
p art s . Through these t h u s made po i nt s one sho u l d then draw p aral l e l
l i nes . Hereupon , one draws from the upper corner at the top of the
aforement i oned s i de a l i ne to the mi dd l e of the l owest l i ne , then th i s
l owest d i v i ded l i ne (to s uch k i nd i n two equal part s ) g i ves the
accord ; the second l on ger l i ne from underneat h ag ai nst the t h i rd of
t he i r equ a l s [ g i ves ] the Semi ton i um majus or the l arge i mperfect ton e,
for examp l e , c s h arp, �, �' f of such a fourth ag ai nst the f i fth
[ g i ves] the Ton um majorem or whol e tone , etc. 5 Cae l i us Rhodi g i nus
g ave n i ne str i n gs t o the He l i kon , whereon each bore the n ame of a Mu se .

67

5
I� t q uadratum V A IJ. c uius l�tu s AB prim � diuid.atu r bifariam in E. d eind
F
�. tn
c
1 11 + p a rt es a:qualcs 1 0 pun,:bs
, G EC. polhcm o 1 0 3 partes � q u ales in puoCl:is
FD.
Ducan turq ue per diuiGon um p u nct� linea: pcrallcl� CT. DS. R E
. FQ. G P. f� o pera­
cto duca rur linea AN e x p u n ct a pu n c tu m medieta tu lateris OB . h a bc b ifq ue m­
firurneatum peractum , qu o om nrs gen e ris c onfonantia: conti nentur .

r---�-----fl�--�� F
r---
--��--- -��--- G

B
�tprimo quidem Vnifonum dabunt BN ad NO .
Stmitonium maius MP ad LQ
'l'onum min ortm IS ad RK,
1'onum m.Jiortm Con J bu nt LF ad MG & SI a d OJ. •

Stmiditonum RK ad PM item VA ad SI.


Ditonum PM ad ON i tem Sl ad Q!- .
Di.zttjforo n LF ad K E item ON ad MG. i tem VA ad R.K .
Di11ptntt TL ad XN. 0N ad LF. RK ad ON. VA ad Q.� ­
Hexachordon minus VA ad P M .
Htxachordon maius PM ad MG. SI ad ON.
Di,pafon VA a d ON . Q!.. ad LF. .
Diapafo n cum tono mi11ore Sl ad MG. cum ma1on tono RK ad LF :
.

Diapafon cum dirono SI ad LF. i rem PM.ad K£ .


Diapafon cum di� ujJ.�ron Q!. ad. KE i tem VA ad LF.
:
Di,pafon cum dtapm!t ON ad HC. 1tem RK ad KE. VA ad MO.
Dit�pafon cum htxachord,? mRiort SI ad K E .
.
Dijaiapafon QL ad HC. item VA ad KE. & fie de ooctons .

Athanasius Kircher, Musur i a Universa l is sive


dissoni in X . libros 1ges a, vo s. orne: aere urn ranc1 c1
Corbelletti and Ludovico Grignani, 1650; reprinted from one volume,
Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1970), p. 189. See also Gioseffo Zarlino
Dimostrationi harmoniche (Venezia: Francesco dei Franceschi, 1571;
facsimi l i e repri nt ed., Ridgewood, New Jersey: Gregg Press, 1966),
p. 116 and Hawkins H, 1:409 -10.
From th i s one s ees that th i s i nstrument , i f i t were real l y

p l ayed , i ndeed bor e the performance o f al together s i mp l e compos i t i o n ,

but 1n total was sti l l v ery i mperfec t . I t i s near l y i mposs i b l e for

one to modu l ate to another key on th i s i n strument s i nce i t l acked

l ead i ng tones [ E i n l ei ter] .

Of the few tran scr i pt i on s of anc i ent Greek mu s i c wh i ch

Mr . B urette d i scovered i n the K i ng of France ' s L i br ary at the

beg i nn i n g of the prev i ous c entury , the hymn to the Muse C a l l i ope ,

wh i ch i s al re ady known , m i ght al so be presented here:


ft3ljl dstl � 1 I �
a � I a: J: l :t l
......
I
A - E l.. - OE , Mou - aa , l.lO L. qJL.-

fl e a l 11 J
j:
� I I J � Ic j j I -

-A.n , MoA. - rrnc; O ' E - 11nc; Ka"C - - xou , Au-


ap

� j I � J I J J lV l I
V-l�j � � i
- pn OE CXIJV cln: ' CIA - O"E - wv , E - l.lac; <W E -

c lJ
¥� +_1 j l 21: I J J j I � t j l
00 - - "CW, KaA -AL. - o - ao -
l
-vac; VE L. JTE L. : a

Vt= J ,
J:
Mou
l �
..,.. -#-
'
l I ;t 1 j 1 $
- -
!
?r
I
,\\: l
CXIJV 'KPO -Ka"C a VE -"C L. "CEP - nwv ,

J 1 � � �I
-�

t* l I J l I l
-

l
KaL.
$
ao - <DE
+
llU - c;o - oo

"Ca , Aa - "COUc; VO-VE ,

� l J I � J I
�"":')

&¥ Lln
l J l i J J
- Y L. - E ,
I
rraL. - av ! Eu - ll E - VE L.c; rra-

� 4= -p E -
:± I
O"E
l
1.10 l.. .
...

II

Exampl e 1. Hymn to the Muse Cal l iope6

70
T h i s l i t t l e G reek son g , t h at , accord i n g to i t s s i �p l i c i ty ,

compl ete l y appro aches o u r anc i ent choral s i ng i ng, h as w i th al l of i ts

s i mp l i c i ty the defect of an extreme l y l imi ted scal e . E verywhere tones

are mi s s i n g wh i ch g i ve gracefu l ness and roundne s s to the so n g . Nowhere !

i s t here a tr ace of modu l at i on to another key. I ndeed , th i s was i mpos- \


s i b l e by the absence of so many semi tones , wh i l e s t i l l eas i l y al l owi ng

i nvented devices of art i st s to br i n g forth the h al f and q u arter tones .

At the t i me of Al exander the Great , mus i c was i n fu l l b l oom among the

Greeks . A l ready a c entury before h im , Per i c l es , the conno i s s eur and

admi rer of every art , h ad a l so patroni zed mu s i c wi t h l av i sh genero s i ty.

To a great f l ute p l ayer he g av e , accord i ng to our money, a present of

20 ,000 gu l de n . T h e conqueror of As i a rewarded t h e mus i c i an s t i l l more

l i beral ly. He took the best vi rtuoso of h i s t i me , T i motheu s , w i t h h i m

and honored and rewarded h i m royal l y . Th i s mu s i c i an h ad every s pel l of

mu s i c i n h i s power . He roused s l eep i n g courage to content i on ; he mi t­

i g ated the b l azi n g wart i me storm ; he d i stended the spar k s of l ove to

f l ames ; he softened A l ex ander ' s hero i c heart to p i ty towar d s the Greeks

murdered by the Per s i an s ; from p i ty he proceeded to vengeance and for­

t i f i ed Al ex ander ' s f i st w i t h the murder er ' s torch , w i t h wh i ch he s et

f i re to P ersepo l i s , as Dryden h as m atch l es s ly exh i b i ted al l of t h i s

6 The ex act so urce of Schubart ' s mu s i c al examp l e i s not k n own .


A compar i son of th i s one t o Burney ' s ( B urne H , 1 : 88-8 9 ) reveal s t h at
t
i t fo l l ows Burney ' s controver s i al rhythms , ut there ex i st s s l i ght
unexpl anab l e d i fferences in both text and p i tches . Another i nt er pre­
t at i on may be found i n J ean Benj ami n de L aborde, E s s ai sur l a mu s i que
anc i enne et modern e , 4 vo l s . ( P ar i s : P h i l i ppe Denys Pierres , 1780;
repri nt ed . , New Yor k : AMS P ress , 1 978) , 1 : x i v-xv ( fo l l ow i ng p . 200 ;
and a h armo n i zed ver s i on by Prout i n Hen ry S . M acran (ed . ) The
H armoni c s of Ar i stoxenus ( Oxford : C l arendon P ress , 1 902) , � 8 4 -85 .

71
l 1 n b ;auty and s t r�ngth ;-�
i n h i s mast e r l y ode A l ex ander ' s F east , o

P ower of Mu s i c . 7

I f o n e d ares to b e l i ev e t h e enthu s i asm of t h e poet . o n e c o u l d

t h u s go even further i nto the h i story of Grec i an mus i c . I n Homer ' s

I l i ad . p art i cu l ar l y i n t h e Odyss ey, one f i nd s i nnumer ab l e traces how

h i gh mus i c al re ady was esteemed i n the e ar l i es t t i me s of t h e Gree k s .

B ut al l ow an ces mu st b e made for the b l ossomi n g i nvent i ons of poet s ;

thus , we d o not h ave any def i n i te account of t h e fates of th i s d i v i ne

art amon g t h e H e l l e nes . The tones were ab sorbed and no t h eory was

wr i tten . F i n a l l y , Ari stoxenus appeared and fi rst an atom i zed the h e av -

e n l y body of mus i c . H e brought forth a n umber sys tem t h at s hows no

gen i us and proves noth i ng but t h at the f i fth , t hi r d , and h i g her oct ave , !
i n a word , the f u l l c hord . l i es i n t h e s p here of mus i c . F rom th i s

r e l at i on sh i p of even and odd n umbers he proves t h at mus i c i s n ot h i n g

other th an ar i t hmet i c , wh i ch one mys t er i ou s l y perce i ves . F or ex amp l e : 8

1 2 4 5 [ recte 8] 16 32

3 9 15

7 14

I n these n umbers l i e t h e r e l at i on s h i ps of mus i c j u s t as t h ey

are found amo n g u s tod ay . Yet s i nce t h e f i gures of t h e t horough b ass

7 John Dryden . A l ex an d er ' s F e as t , or The P ower of Mu s i c : An


Ode i n H onor of S t . Ceci l i a ' s Day ( London : Pri nted for Jacob Tonson ,
1697) .

8App arent l y , Schubart i s demonstrat i ng t h e h armo n i c s er i e s .


Assum i n g fundament a l C , t h e fi rst s er i es , 1 , 2 . 4 . e t c . , wou l d
represent d i fferent oct aves of t h e f u n d ament a l tone. The second
ser i e s , 3 . 9 , 15 . wou l d represent the major t r i ad g - d ' ' - b ' • . And
the th i rd s er i es , 7 and 14 , wou l d represent oct ave B f l at s .
st i l l h av e a further r ad i us and t h e s em i tones are a l so u nderstood , h i s

system i s thus no l on ger tota l l y s u i ted to o ur t i mes . I n s p i te of t h at

t h e c l as s i f i c at i on of the Greeks concern i ng mus i c al tones was q u i te

s p l endi d . Name ly , they d i v i ded such accord i ng t o t h e proof of

P l utarch :

a ) i nto t h e d i aton i c ,

[3 ) i nto the chrom at i c , [ an d ]

v ) i nto the e n h armo n i c sound i n g g en u s

T h e d i aton i c sca l e o f t h e Greeks proceeded equ a l t o ours i n

who l e and h a l f steps , but the c hromat i c and enh armo n i c p roceeded to an

a l together d i fferent typ e , n ame l y , the one i n h al f steps and a mi nor

th i r d , the oth er i n quarter tones and a major t h i rd. T he i r c hromat i c

scal e cont a i ned tones wh i ch w e denote today w i t h s h arps , for examp l e ,

G maj or , D major , A maj o r , E maj or , B major , F-sh arp major , C-sh arp

m aj o r , and G-sh arp m ajor.

The mi nor key they d i d not know at a l l ; for it is nonsen s e i f

one wants t o a s s ume t h at the Lyd i an f l ut e was c reated so l e ly for ent l e

keys : a f l ut e of a l oud mi nor k ey c an not b e i mag i ned . 9 The Lyd i an

f l ute was c ert a i n l y s i mi l ar to our f l ute; and t h e Dor i an , to o ur oboe .

9 Here Schubart s eems to b e l i ev e th at Lyd i ans were i nc apab l e


o f creat i ng ref i ned mus i c because o f t he i r supposed l y b ar b ar i c n at ur e .
H erodot us , whom Schu b art h as a l re ady quoted, stated t h at t h e Lyd i an
peop l e were aggress i ve and w ar l i ke . Sendrey p rov i des add i t i on a l
i nformat i o n : "L i ke other peo p l es of t h e area , t h e Lyd i ans wors h i pped
Cybe l e , whose r i tes used org i ast i c cer emo n i es and a n o i sy mus i c t h at
c r e ated a s t ate of sensuous frenzy among t h e wor sh i pper s . .. ( A l fred
Sendrey, Mus i c i n t h e Soc i a l and R e l i i ou s L i fe of Ant i u i t [ Ruth er­
ford , New ersey: ar e g 1c 1 n so n n vers y ress , , p . 75.
An d , accord i ng t o Sch ubart ' s own ch aracter i z at i on of t h e k eys l at er
i n th i s tran s l at i on , one w i l l come to u nd erst and t h at Schu b art does

73
Nevertheless, it deserves to be noticed here that the Greeks

also began very early to distinguish vocal music from instrumental

music, and that the best, admirable effect of music could not be other-

wise comprehended of poetry, being for a long time mistress over music,

and that , therefore, the Grecian musicians had nothing to do other than

to accompany great poets [Rhapsoden]. The Greeks had certain odeums,

which one can almost compare to our opera houses; in these odeums not

only great declaimers, mimics, and artists of all types practiced, but

also musicians . Whatever was dead, whatever no other expression of

poetry permitted, thither streamed the rapids of music !

The Greeks indeed did not have our musical notation with which

one can impart the musical ideas of all nations, but they did have cer­

tain marks which they set down over or under the words of the poem and

whereby they could show the rise and fall of the voice so well. We

indeed now do not understand their musical signs any longer, yet we see

so much from it that it was extremely limited. The sluggish or quick

motion of the tones, the determination of the beat, the observation

of musical colors, the blenqing of tones, and particul arly the arrange­

ment of beats the Greeks lacked totally . Even the profound scholar

not believe that such a peopl e are capable of playing music in a


tender, minor key . The lydians are not always characterized as war­
like, however, for Mattheson presents just the opposite viewpoint when
he stated that "the Lydians sang finer and more effeminately than the
others, • "
• and that they "were everywhere described as sensual
• •

people ." (Ernest C. Harriss , Johann Mattheson ' s Der vol l kommene
Capellmeister : A Revised Trans 1 ati on with Critical Commentary [Ann
Arbor : UMI Research Press, 198 1 J , p . 1 / 9 . ) Burney even speaks of the
"soft Lydian" and that the Lydian mode was appropriate for " complaint
and songs of sorrow . " (Burney H, 1 : 6 2). Apparentl y, Schubart is
relying more on ancient texts than on contemporary accounts .

74
P l utarch h as proved noth i ng further i n h i s treat i se on Greek mu s i c
than that , i n rel ati onsh i p to us , they stand approxi mate l y as a dwarf
to a g i ant . S i mp l i c i ty and correct re l ati onsh i ps may h av e approx i ­
mately const i tuted the c h aracter o f Greek mus i c . B ut what i s t h i s
comp ared wi th t h e mus i c of the I t a l i ans or Germans ? ! When the Gree ks
sank down from the i r ori g i nal greatness , thei r mus i c al so sank ; and
D i o , the h i stor i ographer , r i ght ly sai d , •the Greeks how l and s i ng no
more, the Greeks ' l yre ' and p l ay no more . • lO
Before I conc l ude the art i c l e about Greek mu si c , I mu st fi rst
br i efly show t he i r c h ar acter i st i cs as f ar as i t can be done.
F i rst of al l there seems to h ave been far more dec l amat i on than
song . P athos was certai n l y pecul i ar t o th i s mus i c a s one can deduce
wi th authent i c i ty p art ly by the s p l end i d poems , but al so p art ly from
the few fragments thems e l ves .
The f i rst Chr i sti ans found Grec i an mu s i c so sp l end i d t h at they
kept many pract i c ab l e me l od i es and put on l y Chr i sti an texts underneath .
They publ i shed a Grec i an songbook whi ch consi sts of ei ght p arts or
sty l es of s i ng i ng , and therefore cal l i t " e i ght sound s " [ Achtk l ang] . ll
[ Achtk l ang] . l l Th i s Achtk l ang al so c ame at the t i me of Char l emagne
to the Catho l i c church , and our great Luther kept them and put German
texts underneat h .

lO r found n o such reference under the word "Greek s• i n


C as s i u s Di o Coccei anus ' D i o ' s Roman H i story, tran s . Earnest Cary , The
Loeb C l as s i c a l L i brary , g vol s . (Cambridge, Mass . : H arv ard Uni vers i t y
Pres s , 1914) .
l l cf. B urney H , 1 :44 2 , s . v . "Octoechu s " ( "Oktoechos " i n
Grove 6 ) .
We thus possess them sti l l i n our church i n t h e mag n i fi cent
songs:
11 E i n K i nd geboren z u Beth l ehem"
"0 L amm Gottes , unschu l d i g "
11 E s i s t d as Hei l uns kommen her 11
" E i n feste Burg i st unser Gott"
" D an k s agen wi r al l e"
"Chr i st i st erst anden"
" M i tten wi r i n Leben s i nd "
" Vom H i mme l hoch d a komm i ch her"
J udg i ng accord i ng to these magn i f i cent me l od i es , wh i ch for so
many centuri es resounded i n the Chr i st i an commun i o n , s i mpl i c i ty and
s u b l i mi ty h as been q u i te certai n l y t h e pri n c i pal feature of Grec i an
musi c . H i g h l y col ored keys , art i f i c i a l and far-reach i ng modu l at i on s ,
q u i ck and w i nged me l od i c mot i on , d i stri but i on t o the four v oi ces of
descant , tenor , a l t o , and bass they cou l d cert ai n ly not h ave known.
T he i r songs went i n u n i son : as one s ang, so s ang al l . A l so they seem
to h ave known noth i ng of the d i fference of the beat s and meas ure s .
T he i r mus i ca l rhythm, therefore , must h av e been extremel y exu berant ,
changeab l e , and d i rect , wh i ch our Kl opstock mi s sed i n today ' s mu s i c .
T h e d i v i s i on of t h e me l ody i nto beats i ndeed determi nes t h e movement
of the measure, but at the same t i me [ i t ] h i nders the f l i ght of imag i ­
n at i on . Whether t h e Greeks d i v i ded t h e mus i c al styl e i nto rel i g i ous ,
dramat i c , m i met i c, chamber , and fo l k styl e s i s very h ard to answer;
yet the scol i a [ ( Scol i en ) T i schgesange] prove, wh ereon H agedorn h as
afforded u s such a spl end i d treat i se, that they knew how to separ ate
76
the sound of fo l k songs carefu l l y from the sound of re l igious singing.

Judging according to Euripides, Sophocl es, and Aeschy l us, their

choruses were fu l l of majesty and dignity; and since even the choruses

of Aristophanes were sung, they must have been no strangers to the

comic sty l e. In a word and without having a know l edge of the Greek

l anguage, one can thus assert positive l y that the i r music indeed had

been in a proportionate l y choice situation, but by no means can be

compared to our music today . One searches in vain for these riches,

this diversity of ideas, me l odies, harmonies, modu l ations; this bol d

imagination; and these often indul ging improvisations.

77
I n conc l u s i on , we append thei r scal e :
For the c l av i er

,--
� -· 1 .. - i) +
I .."'

I
..., 1.. ....
.,
" ,I , v
....

c
:t ... k# bD A

I
'"
"!" =t I
Cil ""'

I
fl --- �.4 �
.......
3?:._ ""
-. I
...w
rJ r A"''
b..IL" ----..._..
..l ..... .... .. -· , D

I .,
I •

I _.._.. C.l l A
\ \
r:JIIr' A "I
- \
"A.I'"'D "'J
eJ
-
rJ,
""" ..y ..
� Olol"'� ,. ...... ..
� 1 I

fl 1:1 -
I ""
-
h !'tl> .. -

t, �
....

t '" ¥
.1"
b iJ +
- -
h# ... ... *
'

Examp l e 2 . The Sca l e of the Greeks l 2

1 2The brack eted notes wi th stems represent correct i on s of


Schub art ' s versi on as s uggested by F r i t z Kai ser and Margri t Kai ser
( eds . ) , Chr i st i an F r i edri ch D an i el Schubart : I deen zu e i ner Xsthet i k
der Tonkunst (Hi ldesheim: Georg Olms , 1969) , p . [ 3S5 ] .

78
Rel at i on s h i � [ P i tch] [ Hexachord ]
1 536 [ ee] [1 a]
1 7 28 [dd] [ l a sol ]
1914 [ recte 1944] [cc] [ s o l fa]
2048 [hh] [mi ]
2187 [bb] [ f a]
2304 [ aa] [1 a mi re ]
1592 [ recte 259 2] [g] [sol re ut]
2916 [f] [fa ut]
307 2 [e] [la mi ]
2456 [d] [ l a sol re]
2888 [c] [sol fa ut]
3096 [h] [mi ]
4374 [b] [fa]
4608 [ a] [ 1 a mi re]
5184 [ G] [sol re ut ]
5832 [ f a ut ]
6144
6912
f�j
[ D]
[ l a mi ]
[ s o l re ]
7776 [ C] [fa ut]
8192 [B] [mi ]
9 216 [ A] [re]
10368 [ r] [ ut ]

F i gure 3 . The Tona l Sequences of the Anc i ents 1 3

Yet I mu st deal wi t h the o bj ect i on wh i ch N epo s , i n the pref­


ace to h i s b i ography , tri es to promot e i n the fri ends of mus i c ; for

i t seems t h at i t h ad become d i shonorab l e for persons of s t and i ng to

1 3 schubart errs i n termi ng th i s c h art " of the anc i ent s , "


for the i r scal e wou l d h ave i nc l uded on l y the Lesser and Greater Perfect
System ( or from A to aa ) . W h at Schubart h as s hown i s a mi n i mal repre­
sentat i on of the scal e accord i ng to Gu i d o . Not i ceab l y mi s s i ng from h i s
vers i on , however , are the l etters o f p i tch notat i on and the hexachord
des i g n ati ons wh i ch are n ormal l y found i n theoret i ca l wri t i n gs . The
numbers h ere are exact l y the s ame as those wh i ch h av e been recorded i n
treat i ses on mu s i c s i nce Gu i do . Thus , i t s eems h i g h l y un l i ke l y t h at
Schu bart wou l d h av e d i ct ated t h i s c h art f rom memory , but t h at h e h ad
access to some sort of reference s ource i n thi s part i c u l ar i ns t ance
( a l though i t wou l d be rather s i mp l e to c a l cu l ate al l of the n umbers i f
on l y one number was g i ven ) . The two errors noted above are u ndoubted ly
pri nti ng errors .
79
devote themse l ves to mu si c , as he expres s l y ci tes the ex amp l e of
Epami nondas . 14 But here the di scou rse i s not about mu si c i n
general , but on ly about the abuse of the sensi t i ve Lydi an f l ute ,
whi ch at that ti me was so preval ent that the Grec i an sou l was not
strengthened by i t but rather was enervated .
And i n th i s re spect, i t wou l d sti l l be i n juri ou s today for a
hero i f he wanted to ease the nerves of h i s sou l wi th sen s i t i v e songs
and a woman l y i n strument . Therefore, the Greek s , for th i s re ason ,
con s i dered i t i mproper for a great man to devote h i msel f to a wi nd
i n strument becau se the mou th p i ece cau s es di storti ons of the mouth an d
chubby cheeks , and th i s was contrary to thei r h i gh concept i ons of
beauty and propri ety . But , as a ru l e , there were few great men i n
Greece who d i d n ot know how to p l ay a mu s i cal i nstrument, parti cu l arl y
the l yre . Thu s , accordi ng to Homer ' s te stimony , the embassy del egated
to the def i ant Achi l l es came across the hero wi th the l yre . Mi l t i ades ,
C i mon , Timo l eon , Al ci b i ades , ev en Peri cl es and Socrates were spl endi d
musi c i ans. They sang at thei r mea l s and knew how to enl i v en these
songs wi th the l yre, but i t sti l l remai n ed imp roper to pl ay the f l ute.
P l utarch , i n h i s often cel ebrated treati se on mus i c, reso l ved thi s
di spute total ly. 15

14 see Cornel i Nepoti s V i tae , recogn ovi t brev i q ue


adnotat i one c rit ica instrvxit E . 0 . � i n stedt, Sc ri ptorum Cl as si co rum
B i b l i oteca Oxoni ensi s ( Oxford : C l arendon Pres s , 1 904 ; reprint ed . ,
Oxon i i e Typographeo C l arendon i ano, [ 1 966 ] ) , p p . x i v-xv .
15 1 hav e fou nd no such st atement i n P l utarch ' s Oe Mu si ca.
See P l utarch ' s Moral i a, trans . Benedi ct E i narson and Phi l l i p H . Oe
L acy , The Loeb Cl assi cal L i brary, 15 vol s . ( London : Wi l l i am Hei neman ,
Ltd . ; Cambri dge, Mas s . : Harvard U n i versi ty Pre ss, 1927 ) , 1 4 : 344-455 .
80
V. ROMANS

The history of music among the Romans is an arid ground

wherein only here and there a little flower grows. T h e Romans were

totally copyists of the Greeks in all of the fine arts as also in

music. Yet one finds already in Livius traces of the oldest music

among the Romans. By this time Romulus and Tullus Hostilius, espe­

cially, combined music with their religious service. 1 As all music

which lies in the cradle, Roman music at that time was also small,

indigent, and plain. The excellent musical historian Padre Martini

maintains ( out of which sources I cannot ascertain } that Roman music

had for a long time no further range than our cow horn [ K Uhhorn ] , and

I also believe his testimony. The sounds of the cow horn lie totally

in nature; art must first seek out all of the remaining tones lying in

between. But since leisure, effort, comfort, and prosperity belong to

the study of this art, these mediant tones could not be expected so

soon from the warlike Romans. The instruments which were unearthed in

Rome were also made so poorly that those of the wilderness in N orth

America have more beauty and range. In the rich antique halls of the

Romans one finds instruments of such kind by the thousands, of which

1Livy discusses Romulus ( pp. 20-74 } and Tullus Hostilius ( pp.


74 -1 1 4 } , religious worship and celebration, but no specific m ention is
dy
made of music. Titus L ivius, Li , trans. B. 0. Foster, The L oeb
Classical Library, 1 3 vols. ( Lon on: William Heinemann; New York:
G. P. Putnam ' s Sons, 1919 } , 1 : 20-1 1 4 .
81
some hav e such a b i zarre shape that one does not know what he shou l d
make of them . The s i mp l e and doub l e p i p e , the crumhorn , the coi l ed
horn , the tuba or trumpet , the cymbal , and a type of drum can sti l l be
d i st i n gu i shed . Moreover, the i r l yres were made so restri ct i ve ly and
i mproper l y t h at no strong , wei ghty sound can b e expected from t hem.
The art of bri n g i ng about soundi ng -boards , of d i v i d i ng the str i ngs by
b r i dges , of d i mi n i sh i n g or i ncreas i ng the resonance seems to h ave been
unknown to them even at the t i me of Horace. Yet the peacef u l t i mes of
Augustus h ave a l so brought mus i c to better recept i on . The vestal v i r­
g i ns devoted themsel ves t o the song ; g i rl s and boys were trai ned t o
compete wi th one another i n choruses , a s o n e l earns from t h e secul ar
poems of Horac e , wh i ch were certai n ly chanted by al ternat i ng choi r s .
I f Roman mus i c h ad been a s s p l endi d a s poetry, somethi ng great and com­
p l ete must h ave come fort h . But the Roman s prove by the i r examp l e t h at
musi c does not always b l oom where the poetry has r i sen h i gh . I ndeed ,
some Roman phi l osophers shou l d h av e expl ored the pr i nc i p l es of mus i c.
B ut s i nce al l of t he i r wri t i ngs h ave been l ost , who c an j udge?
I t i s known that the Romans made use of mus i c in drama as
we l l as wi th thei r armi es , because they l earned the power of i t from
b arbar i c peop l e. But the i r war mus i c was , as one cert a i n l y knows ,
extreme ly wretched and powerl es s . T he i r theatr i cal , espec i al l y mi mi cal
mu s i c , must h ave been far better , because they i nterpreted the panto­
mi me of the great masters i n m i mi cry. But s i nce t he R omans l acked
mus i cal notat i o n , al l of the exampl es of the i r mus i c i s l ost .
W i t h the fal l of the Roman stat e , the arts a l so san k even
deeper , and l at er on one hard l y heard any wh i mper i n g soun ds of
82
1 mus i c . Thi s d i v i ne art mi ght h av e perh aps remai ned bur i ed for a l ong
t i me amon g the Roman and Greek ru i ns if the Chr i st i an s , con v i nced of

i ts power , h ad not cont i nued i t . That mu s i c was a l ready u s ed by the

apost l es i n hymns i s s h own by the admon i t i on of the Apos t l e P au l :

11 E d i fy yoursel v es even amon g one another wi th p s a l ms , hymns , and l ov e l y

spi ri tual s on gs . " 2 E very wors h i p meet i n g of t h e Chr i s t i an s began

w i t h a song and ended w i t h a son g , a c u stom wh i ch h as remai ned unt i l

our t i me . P l i ny s ays of the C hr i st i an s of h i s t i me [ t h at ] t hey r i se

ear ly, come togethe r , and s i ng a song to Chr i st , thei r God ; o n l y then

do they go to t h e i r jobs . 3

Ath an as i us , the great church f ather , was undoubted l y a s p l en­

d i d mus i c i an . He t horough ly i mproved the ch urch songs among the

Chri sti ans and c omposed some magn i f i cent songs h i ms e l f , of wh i ch we

s i ng h i s Te Deum l au d amus thou s ands of t i mes even today and d esecrate

i t thous and s of t i mes . L uther h as t r an s l ated i t i nto G erman and h as

kept Ath an as i us ' me l o dy . I n the Greek c h urch there are s t i l l many of

Athanas i us ' s ongs wh i ch h ave equal mer i t .

The songs of L act ant i s were ch anted for a l on g t i me i n the

Chr i st i an c hurch , and the C atho l i cs s t i l l s i ng them. L ut her drove o ut

the Lati n song tot a l l y from the German c h urch for the wi sest of rea­

sons , but he al so t r ans l ated some of the best o l d songs and retai ned

the me l od i es . I n the E astern church the true t aste of mu s i c was

2co l . 3 : 1 6 .

3 p l i n i u s , P l i n Letter s , tran s . W i l l i am M e l moth , rev. W . M .


t
L . H utch i nson , The loe Cl ass i c a l Li brary , 2 vol s . ( New Yor k : The
M acmi l l an Co. , 1 9 15 ) , 2 : 403-405 .

83
.----- ------ ------
--- ----

preserved l on ger t h an i n t h e Wester n [ c h urch ] , becau se h ere t h e mus i c

degenerat e d , espec i a l l y u nder the popes , very shor t l y i n i nd u l g i ng d i s -

p l ay and pomp , wh i ch s l ew t h e nob l e s i mp l i c i ty . T he i r song w as , as

J amb l i ch i us s ays , 4 " ro ar i ng , p r i est l y howl s , " and t h ei r i nstrumental

accompan i ment was nothi ng other t h an an u n i ntel l i gi b l e conf u s i o n and

j an g l i ng . I n t h e G reek churches o n e kept , i n c omp ar i son , t h e nob l e

s i mp l i c i ty u nt i l t h e fal l of the s t at e . The Greek monarchy proves t h e

phrase t h at t h e downf al l of a s t ate must not a l w ays prec i se l y be bound

w i t h the downf a l l of the arts and s c i ences , for o ut of Con st ant i nop l e ' s

r u i n s stepped forth t h e teachers of a l l t h e h uman r ace . T h e Muses f l ed

t o I t a ly and al s o wi t h them Po lyhymn i a , Urani a ' s cord i a l s i ster .

Very e ar l y , t hen , the I t a l i an s h av e b een epoch mak i ng i n mus i c ;

and th i s , thei r g l ow i n g epoch , i l l um i n at i ng the darkest o f cent u r i e s ,

h as st i l l not d i s appeared . A l l of E urope h a s deve l oped accord i ng to

t h e I t a l i ans , and t hey deserved th i s honor before al l peop l e of the

wor l d . For w h at was and i s t h e mus i c o f t h e I ta l i ans? T he i r song i s

touch i n g , thei r i nstrumenta l accomp ani ment was , especi a l l y i n t h e f i rst

p er i od s of the i r mu s i c , not noi sy and d e afen i ng , but a s t i l l , crys t a l ­

l i ne s e a , whi ch bore and l i fted t h e boat [ K ah n ] of s o n g . I t i s , there-

fore , worth the troub l e to search for the reasons whereby I t a l y swun g

away so f a r above a l l other n at i on s .

4 No suc h st atement i s found i n I amb l i ch u s ' L i fe of


Pyth a oras , t r an s . Thomas Tay l or ( Londo n : A . J . Val p y , 1818 ; r epr i nt
t
e d . , ondon : Joh n M . W atk i ns , 1 9 26 ) , and i t does not s eem l i ke l y t h at
such a statement wou l d b e found i n I amb l i ch u s o n t h e M ster i es of t h e
l
E t i an s Chal d eans and Ass r i an s , tran s . thomas Tay or (Ch1 sw1 ck :
1 1 ng am , , a source w 1 ch was not av ai l ab l e.

84
F i rst of a l l , the favorab l e c l i m ate, wh i ch i nv i tes mank i nd so
much to song and p l ay , may we l l h av e some part i n th i s soar i ng of the
i mag i nat i on , a l though I may not want to as sert wi th the great
W i nckelmann that the Greeks h ave become [great ] mere ly by the b l essi ng
of thei r Greek c l i mate and that , therefore , the I ta l i an fragrance of
oranges must h ave h ad such a gre at part i n the i r b l ossomi ng mus i c .
One h as i ndeed made t h e observ at i on that a favorabl e c l i mate produces
greater mus i c i ans than an unfavorab l e one; yet our norther n Germany h as
l imi ted th i s statement very much , for we h ave brought forth mus i c i ans
who d o not mere ly contend wi th the I t a l i ans , b ut they surpass them i n
gen i us and abu nd ance of d i scovery. A F ueg i an does not s i ng , but , on the
other han d , the Tah i t i an swi ms i n the b l i s s of musi c . But two border­
l i nes of the extremes here dec i de noth i ng . Yet th i s much remai ns
certai n , that a m i l d l and and cheerfu l l e i sure al most a lways b r i ng
forth son g .
The second reason for t h e ascent of I ta l i an mu s i c i s more
dec i ded and con s i sts of the extraordi nary encouragement i tse l f by the
n ob l emen [Grossen] and i n the pri nce ly reward s wh i ch they g i ve to d i s­
t i n gu i shed mu s i c i an s . The house of the Med i c i h as gai ned i mmortal
mer i t i n mus i c ; the great pr i nces of th i s house honored mus i c i ans as
i f they were the l eadi ng pi l l ars of the state . A Kape l l mei ster by the
n ame of Cryso l i das, a nat i v e of Greece , had a sal ary of 2 , 000 sequ i ns
[ Zechi nen] , the r ank equ a l to a l ord marshal l , and usual l y ate at the
duke ' s tab l e every d ay. Under th i s great encouragement of the Mu ses ,
mus i c i n I t a l y real ly fi rst b l oomed. One sti l l h as s acred p i eces from
that t i me wh i ch are fu l l of s i mp l i ci ty and maj esty. Al so, the theory
85
of music began to be investigated for the first time, and indeed with

such thoughtfulness that our more recent musicians can still learn

very much from that . The Republic of Venice emulated the Medicis

[Medicaern] most laudably in the support of music. One of their cit­

izens, by the name of Gioseffo Zarlino, wrote a work of four folio­

sized volumes on harmony, which is still today the handbook of the

greatest composers . The German Orpheus Bach once said to an English­

man who asked him what kind of a teacher he had had: "My father, '' he

answered, 11and Zarlino. " The Venetians invented several stops in the

organ; they combined instrumental music with the hymn in the church;

and finally became, in the previous century, the creators of opera .

The first opera, which was performed at Venice in 1624 [sic],

was certainly published but is quite expensive because of its scarcity,

and now one pays more than one hundred Louis d'or for it . The opera is

great in style, full of simplicity and majesty ; the song prevails with­

out exception, and the instruments are totally subject to it . The car­

nival entertainments have given cause for the discovery of opera. But

what the Venetians praise above all is that one has them to thank for

the great invention of musical notation. Before, it was extremely

troublesome to notate a musical piece. Everywhere one made do with the

so-called German tablature, where one drew four lines and indicated the

highness and lowness of the tones and their value by letters and

strokes. But Gu\do of Arezzo perceived the weakness of this type of

notating and discovered our notation of today, a discovery which is

even as great and important as the discovery of numbers . By means of

this method, one has finally brought musical notation to the point

B6
that not o n l y s et s down the s l owest as we l l as the f astest tones , but
the mu s i cal d i scover i es of al l n at i on s c an be preser ve d for posteri ty .

Rest s , the barl i ne , t h e i ncrease i n b e at s , t h e ex actness and n ature of


the k ey--for a l l of th i s we are i ndebted to the great Gu i do . H e l i s­

tened to the p u l ses o f mus i c and made t h em ev i dent by s i g n s . After h i s

death the notes were g i ven more and more perfect i on : one d i v i ded the

who l e beat i nto h al ves , quarters , e i ghths , s i xteent h s , t h i rty- s econd s ,

and s i xty-fourth s ; the fermat as , mordent s , and the symbo l s of a l l mu s i ­

c a l co l or at i on were i nvented s o t h at now the mu s i c a l l angu age i s the


most prec i se and perfect one i n the wor l d .

Mu s i c a l notat i on h as a l so g i v en a g i g ant i c i de a t o t h e g re at

Lei bni tz for i n vent i ng a u n i ver s a l l an gu age. He conc l uded t h at j u s t as


ev ery cu l t i v ated peop l e c an l earn t h e notes qui t e e as i l y w i thout u nder­
s t and i ng the l an gu age of another thu s , too, s i gn s comp arab l e t o mus i ca l

notes were equal l y pos s i b l e whereby our i de as co u l d be made u nderst and­

ab l e to fore i gn n at i on s . H e d i ed wi th the fu l l con v i c t i o n of the pos­

s i b i l i ty of t h i s d i scovery.

The papal co urt f i n al l y brought mu s i c i n I ta l y t o the h i ghest


po i n t . P i u s I V [ pope from 1559 to 1 56 5] and S i xtu s V [ pope from 1585

to 1590] e ven c anon i zed s ome mu s i c i an s . They publ i s h ed th e i r own l et­

ters and mandates by wh i c h mus i c was so h i gh ly recommended not on l y to

the ecc l es i ast i c s , but a l so i ts s p l endor and s p i ri t u a l i ty were proved


s uch that one near l y forgot everyth i ng e l se and o n l y s tu d i ed mus i c .

The pope h i ms e l f p a i d the mu s i c i ans extr aord i nari l y . The papal c h apel

at the t i me of the menti oned S i xtus cost 150,000 fl or i n s a year t o

m a i ntai n . N ap l e s and Genoa a l so took u p th i s mu s i c a l enth u s i asm

87
and soon a l l o f I t a l y was a l oud-sound i ng concert h a l l to wh i ch

European s were attracted there i n order t o l earn and h e ar true mus i c !

The strongest and most d ec i s i ve reason for t h e b l o s somi n g o f

mu s i c i n I t a l y i s sure l y i ts str i ctest u n i on wi t h rel i g i o n . I n more


t h an one p apal b r i ef one s t i l l re ad s tod ay t h e expre s s i on " S anct a

Mus i ca. " Even Pope Honori s wrote " Beat u s est , qu i ad honorem Dei , et

beat a V i rg i n u s M ar i ae, co l u i t mu s i c am . " 5 W i th the d etermi n at i on of


good work s , t hey expres s l y made the phras e : " It i s des erv i ng before

God for the peo p l e to enjoy w i th mu s i c . " Even i n the prev i ou s century

a C ar d i na l wrote : "Qu i mus i cam n o non cal l et , seu n u l l o o b l ectamento

an i mi i l l am a u d i t; ex d i abol o est , n am so l us i l l e omnem h armon i am

respu i t . .. 6 One m i ght take t h i s i mp e l l i n g p art i al i ty for mu s i c to

the po i nt of fanat i c i sm , and one m i ght i m ag i ne Rome throu gh s ever a l

centuri e s : h ow a l l i t s s umptuous t emp l es echo year after year wi th

h uman voi ces , str i n g sound s , org an tone , drums , trumpet s , and a l l wi nd

i nstrument s ; how n o I t a l i an prays , confesses , t ak es commu n i o n , o r per­


forms h i s d evot i o n s wi thout h av i ng the sounds of mus i c swim around h i m ;

and i f o n e want s , o n e s t i l l add s t h e s pec i al sens i t i veness o f the I t a l ­

i an nerve s : thu s a b l i nd man can rep l y t o the quest i o n , " Whereby h as

I ta l y become s o great i n mus i c ? " I n al l types o f mu s i c al s ty l es t h i s

env i ab l e country h as produced master s . They d eterm i n ed the s acred

styl e very e ar l y . A l l egri al ready s ome centuri e s ago composed such

5 B l e s sed i s [ h e ] who c u l t i v ated mu s i c t o t h e h onor of G od and


the B l e ssed V i rg i n M ary.
6 whoever does not underst and mu s i c , or i f h e h ears mu s i c wi t h
no d e l i gh t of t he s pi r i t , h e i s o f the d ev i l , for t h at o n e a l one h as
r ej ected a l l h armony.
88
sp l e nd i d choru se s and I ta l i an s on gs t h at o ne c annot h e ar t h em w i thout
del i gh t . H i s M i s erere , wh i ch even today i s sung i n near l y a l l Catho­

l i c churches on Good F r i d ay , i s set w i t h d i v i ne fee l i n g and w i l l never

cease to i mpre s s a s l on g as there are h earts th at burn for devot i on . ?

The P s a l ms of Or l ande d i L as s u s from the mi dd l e of t h e s i x -

t eenth centu ry h ave s o mu ch s i mp l i c i ty , sub l i mi ty , and maj esty of

express i on t h at I c an h ard l y conce i ve h ow one even today c an t r an smi t


the P sa l ms better i n mu s i c . The masterp i eces o f th i s great master l i e

buri ed i n the l i b rary i n Mun i ch , and o n l y from t i me t o t i me i s there a

scho l ar who b l ows away the d u st and studi es the scores of t h i s great

mu s i c i an . 8 Perh aps even a V og l er c an make u s f ami l i ar w i t h t h e

sett i n gs o f t h i s master.

The s econd per i od o f I t a l i an mu s i c l asts approx im at e l y from

1680 to 1750. I t cro s sed over from the extreme s i mp l i c i ty to somet h i ng

pompous and u n i t ed the wor l d l y mi en o f drama w i th the g l ow i ng counte­

n ance of the s acred sty l e . A n d th i s l ai d the f i rst s t e p for the d own­


fal l of mus i c ! S i nce noth i ng i s h arder t o determi n e t h an t h e

7 sch u b art h ad h e ard a performan ce of th i s work on Good Fri d ay


( ? 1 7 7 4 ) i n t h e Dome Church i n Aug sburg an d was awed by i t s beauty. GS ,
1 : 233 ( L & G , 2 } . I n add i t i on , several art i c l es abo ut A l l egr i ' s
--­

M i s erere appeared i n pr i nt c l ose to the t i me of Schu b art • s work on h i s


l�sthet i k , and t hese may h av e a l so po s s i b l y been a source of i ns p i r at i on


l for 1 ts i nc l u s i on i n th i s treat i s e . See MAfD 1783 , p p . 1 23-25 and
MAadJ 1 784 , po . 1 00- 1 1 2 . See a l so K ar l F . Cramer, ed . , M a azi n der

N ew York : Sch i rmer B ook s , 1980), p . 161 .


Mu s i k ( H amb urg : Mus i ca l i sche N i ed er l ag e , 1783 ) , pp . 1 5 7 - 5 , c i ted by
Leon ard G . R atner , C l as s i c Mu s i c : E xpress i on , Form, and S tyl e

B sch ubart s aw L as so ' s man u scr i pt s wh i l e h e was i n Mun i ch


( e ar l y October 1 7 7 3 ) . He al so commented that i t wou l d be best i f
these works rem a i ned unperformed, for mus i c i an s o f h i s d ay wou l d not
even beg i n to comprehend and apprec i at e the greatness of s uch " s i mp l e"
mu s i c . Thus h e h oped th at a scho l ar wou l d be ab l e t o en l i ghten h i s
countrymen . See GS , 1 : 198 ( L & G , 1 ) .
89
! border l i nes of mus i c al styl e s , noth i ng i s l i k ewi se e as i er t h an to r u n
aground on th i s reef . I t h as cert ai n ly not h appened yet , but the

downfal l of mu s i c i s near .

On t h i s prof an at i on no o n e i s g u i l ty other th an nob l emen , for


these men made the sen sel ess demand on gen i uses to i mp l ant the church

to the theater and the theat er i nto t h e church . T h i s compu l s i on c au sed

the composers to br i ng a certai n pomposi ty to the s acred styl e whi ch


n e ar l y comp l ete l y smothered the embers of devot i on . Anton C a l d ara

f i rs t wrote i n th i s styl e around 1 7 22 , yet he st i l l cont i nued the fugal

s tyl e . He was a g re at conno i s seu r of cou nterpo i nt and al so u nderstood

the power of the song, but h i s s pi r i t subm i tted to the t aste of the

i mperi al court where h i s Masses i ndeed h ave an appearance of theatri cal

choruses . Yet one wi shes very much that h i s styl e h ad been preserved .

C a l d ara g ave the i nstruments no more t h an wh at they shou l d h ave; he

e l ev ated the song and knew h ow to man i pu l ate the thorough bass . Al s o ,

h i s fugues wi nd r ather correct ly and shun t h e thought l es s tempo t h at


our modern composers h ave adopted, by wh i ch they h ave often made a

contred anse out of a s er i ous H al l e l uj ah and Amen .

Undoubted l y , the greatest spi r i t s h ave appe ared i n both of

these mus i c al epoc h s .


F u x , C a l d ar a , B resci anel l o , Ton i n i , [and] M arott i were mi nd s of

the fi rst r an k ; the great German masters , part i cu l ar l y , worked w i th


s ucce s s ag ai nst the destruct i v e f l ow ; and only l ater the stream pas sed

from i ts b an k s and destroyed the fi e l ds .

F rom 1740 to 1750 I tal i an mus i c b l oomed , e s pec i al l y the


dramat i c [ mus i c] , i n N apl es an d Berl i n to an except i onal degree .

90
� ------- -------,

Connoi ss eu rs cl a i m , not wi thou t fou ndat i on , that th i s has been the

most outstand i ng epoch i n mus i c . The k i ng of P ortu gal h ad , about t h i s

t i me , an orchestra wh i ch was the astoni shment of the worl d . But on

1 November 1755 L i sbon was sw al l owed up by an earthq uak e , 9 and

seventy- e i ght of the be st mus i ci ans of the wor l d were buri ed under the

ru bbl e . I n thi s gol d en peri od the song appl i ed to everythi n g ; i t pre­

vai l ed and the i n strument s served i t as vassal s . The d i g ni ty of the

organ was recogni zed throu ghou t Germany , and [ the organ ] was pl ayed by

[ Johann] Sebasti an B ach , H andel , March and , and Mart i n el l i wi th extra-

ordi nary emp h as i s . The mos t spl end i d wri t i ngs abou t mus i c were pu b­

l i shed , p art i cu l ar l y i n I t a l y and France. There were composers of the

fi rst ran k , and the vi rtu osos were rewarded to the po i n t of l av i shness .

B ut unfortu n ate l y at about thi s t i me the number of castrati i ncreased

so not i ceab l y . The I t al i an s fi rst came t o the abom i nabl e thou ght of

tran sformi ng t he human voi ce by emascu l at i on . C astrat i on s were even

au thori zed by a papal bri ef , and thi s bri ef , moreov er , has the detest­

ab l e cl au se, "Ad honorem Dei . " If God asked for cas trat i on to h i s

gl ori f i cati on, we wou l d hav e fou nd wel l - ex pres sed command s t o that end

in h i s word s . But God and h i s magn i f i cent l y ordered nature h ates al l

mut i l ati on s . Noth i n g demonstrates th i s more than t h e ca strati them­

sel ves , who, wi th al l thei r art to wh i ch t hey unden i ab l y rose, never­

thel ess howl and sc reech . God and n ature l a i d down the l aw that one
shou l d s et the descant and al to wi th femal es , on l y the ten or and bas s

wi th mal es . I f one vi ol ates thi s great commandmen t , Mother N ature

9 see page 13 of thi s tran s l at i on .

91
1 avenges hersel f through d i ssonance and adverse i mpres s i o n . H ai l to o ur
father l and that we i nd eed reward c astrat i but do not make any! Whoever
understands the art of properl y trai n i ng fema l es as the Germans has no
need of eun uchs .
S i nce the song was cu l t i vated so passi onately i n th i s mu s i cal
epoch t i n strumenta l mu s i c suffered . We h av e produced, th erefore, from
t h i s t i me , except for some great organ i sts , no s pec i al masters. Th i s
was reserved for the t h i rd epoch , wh i ch extends from 1750 unti l our
t i me .
E ven i n th i s t i me per i od , t h e I t a l i an s sti l l number great and
extraord i nary masters . Traettat Gal uppi , and Jomme l l i l ed the way.
Traetta sti l l mai ntai n s the d i gn i ty of the song but g i ves the i n stru­
ments more wor k . H i s operas are composed wi th profound know l edge of
the poetry and mu s i c ; h i s rec i tat i v e i s p assab l y correct; h i s ar i as
h av e grace and often mel t i ng tenderness ; and a l so h i s choruses do not
l ac k d ign i ty. B ut he was not a spec i al contrapunt i st , for h i s s acred
p i eces stream down l i ke s l ush on a b are rock. H i s sei zi ng after new
not i ons , h i s bor i n g co l orat ura, h i s frequent p auses , and other manner­
i sms destroy the s i mp l i c i ty of the phrase and promi se h i s compos i t i ons
no l asti ng permanence.
Gal uppi , f ar greater t h an h i s predecessors , h as extremel y s i m­
p l e and l ove ly songs , r i ch i nvent i ons , i ngen i ous modu l at i on s , and mag­
n i fi cent h armony. H i s i nstrumenta l accomp an i ment i s not rag i ng nor
drowni ng the h uman vo i ce , nor l ul l i ng for the i nstrumental i sts , but i s
so s p l end i dly chos en, [ and] thus s u i ted to the n ature of the i nstru­
ments . The notes are so easy, yet on ly a master can bri n g them out
92
comp l etely • G al uppi h as fee l i ng for profound beauty; he was , mostly
for that reason , a true i nterpreter of the poet i cal texts . He d i d not
at al l l i k e the storm of i nvers i on , wh i ch drops the p r i nci pal thoughts
as i n a rai n of f i re on the sou l of the l i stener. What ever the poet
s poke, he [ i . e. , the poet] repeated i t to the composer i n the s i mp l i c­
i ty of h i s hear t . H i s [ Ga l upp i ' s ] s cores seem so l uc i d ; thus one f i nds
so often wi t h him that he tri ed to express a pr i nc i pa l fee l i ng w i th a
s i n g l e note or yet wi th a few notes . One sees the proof as he set the
s p l end i d ar i a of Met ast as i o :
Se cerca, se d i ce :
L ' am i co dov ' e?
L ' ami co i nfel i ce,
R i s pon d i --mori . lO
Al s o , we possess masterwork s by h i m i n the s acred styl e. Yet
he succeeds mu ch better wi th a Kyr i e e l e i son and a M i serere t h an w i th
a Te Deum l audamu s and a Gl or i a i n exce l s i s , for l oud shouts for j oy,
i ntensel y l ast i ng f i re , [ and] heav en-as p i r i n g p athos were never the
I t a l i an ' s concer n ; yet one must s ay of the great Gal uppi t h at he has
c arefu l l y stud i ed counterpoi nt and h as worked out h i s f u gues wi th d i l ­
i gence. A Credo wh i ch he composed i n Ven i ce i n 1752 i s set wi th so
mu ch d i gn i ty and s imp l i c i ty that he h as made h i msel f i mmortal by t h at
a l o n e , i f h i s operas d i d not cry out sti l l l ouder around the gar l and of
i mmortal i ty. In a word , Gal uppi i s a man cel ebr ated t hrough a l l of
E urope, and he deserves thi s cel ebrat i on so mu ch more because h e


10 see B a l d ass are Gal upp i , L ' O l i m i ade , Ital i an O pera,
1640-1770 , no. 41 { New Yor k : Gar l and Pub 1 shi n g , 1978 ) , f . l03r-110v .
93
comb i ned the most god l i ke h eart wi th h i s great t a l ent . H e d i ed as
Ari on for h i s peo p l e 1 1 and bequeat h ed 50 ,000 th a l er for the poor.

\on h i s tomb stands the i ns cr i pt i o n :


Monumentum Gal u ppi
Ange l i c ant are

S c i u nt

q u ae cec i n i t 1 2
Jommel l i , the creator of a n ent i re ly new t as t e , and certai n ly

one of the best mu s i c a l gen i uses who h as ever l i ved . T h i s i mmortal man
p aved h i msel f , a s h av e a l l spi r i t s of the f i rst rank , a comp l et e l y

u n i que p at h . H i s h i gh l y ferv i d s p i r i t s h i nes forth from a l l o f h i s com-

pos i t i on s : b urni ng i mag i nat i on ; g l owi n g i nvent i vene s s ; great h armon i c

understand i n g ; abund ance of me l od i c p assages ; bol d , strongl y effect i ve

modu l at i on s ; an i n i mi t ab l e i nstrume nt a l accompani ment-- [ t hese t h i ngs ]

1 1 Th i s reference i s confu s i ng. The most popu l ar s tory con­


cern i ng Ari on comes from Herodotu s . Ar i on , l aden wi th treas ures wh i ch
h e h ad won at a mus i c contest , ret urned to the sh i p wh i ch was t o br i ng
h i m home ( t o Cor i nth ) . The s a i l ors , env i ou s of h i s wea l th , p l otted to
k i l l h i m, but Ar i on el ected to throw h i msel f overboard r ather t h an d i e
at t he i r hands . H owever , a mus i c -l ov i ng dol ph i n rescued h i m and car­
r i ed h i m b ack to shore , from wh i ch he was ab l e to return to Cor i nth .

(W i l l i am Smi th , e d . , A D i ct i onar of Greek and Roman B i ogra h and ��

M hol ogy, 3 v o l s . [ New York : �S Pres s , Inc . , 1967] , 1 : 28 • If, by
t e phrase " d i ed for h i s peop l e , " Sch ubart means that Ar i o n was .
extremely l oyal to the c i t i zens of Cor i nth , then th i s s entence makes at
l east some sense. Gal uppi was l oya l to the Ital i an peopl e and to the
I tal i an mu s i c a l sty l e .
1 2n A monument to G a l u pp i . The angel s now k n ow h ow to
s i n g wh at he h ad s u ng . " Gal uppi d i ed on 3 Janu ary 1 785 i n Ven i ce .
H ow wou l d Schub art h ave k nown about th i s i ns cri pt i on? H e was i n
pri son u nt i l 1 787 . I t m ay h ave been t aken from a j ourn al wh i ch wou l d
rout i ne l y report s uc h events . For e x amp l e , the i nscr i pt i on o n
Jomme l l i ' s grave- -Jomme l l i d i ed on 2 5 August 1 7 7 4 i n N apl es- - i s found
i n Schubart • s Deutsche C hron i k ( 1 2 J an u ary 1 775) : 27 - 28 . I t i s a l so
pos s i b l e t h at L u dwig added thi s i nformat i o n .
94
are the outstandi ng c h aracter i st i cs of h i s operas . A l so, J ommel l i
el evated h i mse l f to the rank of a mus i cal i nventor. The staccato of
the b asses � whereby they a l most rece i ved the stress of the organ
pedal s , the preci se determ i n at i on of mus i ca l nuanc e , an d � espec i al ly�
the a l l -effect i ve crescendo and decrescendo are h i s ! W hen he app l i ed
these fi gures i n an opera i n Nap l es for the f i rst t i me � a l l the peop l e
o n the p arterre and i n the l oges ros e , and the aston i s hment s hone from
wi de eyes . One fel t the m ag i ca l power of th i s new Orpheu s , and from
t h i s t i me on he was con s i dered the worl d ' s best composer.
He i s cen sured because h i s i nstrument al accompani ment i s too
deafen i ng . 1 3 H i s v i o l i n [wri t i ng ] , especi al l y the second , i s i n
conti nuou s l y hurri ed ag i t at i on , and a very strong s i nger i s needed i f
he wants to force h i s way thro ugh th i s i nstrumental storm. Jommel l i
used to v i nd i cate h i msel f ag ai nst these reproaches [ by s ayi n g that ]
whoever wants to h ave a good orchestra must g i v e i t someth i ng to do and
wi l l put i t to work i n numerous p l aces . A co l d or a far too s i mp l e
accomp an i ment makes the i nstruments l azy; for h e often used to s ay
[that ] every mus i c i an whom one bel i eves to be cap ab l e of noth i n g wi l l
p l ay badl y . H i s second reason was the great rari ty of good s i ngers .
A gen i u s i n s i ng i ng forces h i s way through becau se every orchestra has
enough d i scret i on to bow down before h i s son g ; and for b ad s i ngers i t
i s tru ly a k i ndness i f one sweeps them away i n the f l ow of the
accomp an i ment and drowns thei r mi stak es . No one u nderstood the art

13 schubart d i scussed th i s v ery prob l em w i th J ommel l i . See


GS , 1 : 94 , { L & G , 1 ) . Burney a l so makes a s i m i l ar observ at i on about
lrtal i an orcnestras i n gener a l . See B urney F , p . 7 7 .
95
of ad apt i n g the compos i t i on to acou st i cal effects better than

J ommel l i . I n l i tt l e rooms and h al l s most of h i s compo s i t i ons made a

very poor effect ; whereas i n l arge theaters , as for ex amp l e i n V i enna ,

N ap l es , and Stutt gart , thei r effect i s so much more remark ab l e . The

whol e opera hou s e seems to be a sea of sou nd , where ev ery wav e , every

surge, and often t he s p l ash of every s i ngl e note can be not i ced . In

s acred pi eces he was not a s fortu n ate ; yet h i s Requ i em , and especi al l y

h i s 59th P s a l m , wh i ch was h i s swan- song, bel ong among the best master­

p i eces of thi s type . 14 In the chamber styl e J omme l l i worked much

too carel e s s l y for h i s p i eces i n t h i s s tyl e to deserve much approval ;

yet he has shown i n some works , especi al l y i n h i s magn i f i cent G rafe­

necker symp hony , 15 that no styl e m i g h t be too di ffi cu l t for the

[ t ru l y ] great man . H e di ed i n Nap l es of an apop l ect i c f i t , out of

fri ght or ev en an ger over the unfortu n ate resu l t wh i c h h i s l as t opera

h ad and out of envy over t he p a l ms wh i ch the German Schu ster

ac h i eved . 16 Meanwh i l e , Jomme l l i ' s i mag e i n the hi story of mu s i c

wi l l remai n eternal l y unforget t ab l e , and the pupi l s o f mus i c wi l l s tud

h i s scores as pai nters and scu l ptors [ stu dy ] the an t i q u i t i e s .

14 see G S , 1 : 92-93 ( L & G , 1 ) .

1 5 rhi s symp hony or , more proper l y , ov ertu re ( i . e . , s i nfoni a )


a l so l ater served as the overture to J ommel l i ' s Cerere P l ac ata ( 17 7 2 ) .
See Al l gemei ne Mu s i k a l i sche Zei tung, 23 ( 1 3 October 1821 ) , col . 678.
Even at t h i s l ate date ( 1821 ) , the work was sti l l regarded wi th h i gh
este em .
16 schubart ' s eu l ogy o f J omme l l i i n t h e Deu t sche Chron i k
does n ot ment i on Schu ster n or the reason of Jommel l i 1 s d eat h . Deut sch
C h ron i k ( 17 October 1774 ) : 462-64 .
N ic o l a P orpora, founder of an a l toget her new s i ng i ng schoo l .
He h as trai ned the greatest I t a l i an s i ngers and h as h ad the song so
i n h i s power th at u nt i l now no one knew how to def i ne it with such
1
exactnes s . He was a profound , ph i l osoph i c al connoi s seur of al l voi ces
[Organe] wh i ch bel ong to song ; for that reaso n , h i s s o l f e ges are s t i l l
i tod ay the worl d ' s best . They i mprove the thro at , m ake the sound strong
and f l exi b l e , prepare [the s i nger ] for the performance of the most
d i ff i c u l t pas s ages , and determi ne the sounds whi ch are s ubject to the
head , nose , thro at , chest , and the a l l - i nv i gorat i ng heart .
Porpora part i cu l ar ly noti ced the d i fferences of the descant ,
of the a l to and contral to, and of the tenor and bar i tone. B ut for the
l ow bass h i s so l f eges are of l i tt l e v a l ue, because h e , as al l of h i s
countrymen, cons i d ered the b as s [ v o i ce] t o be too rou gh and b arbar i c to
be abl e to use i t for the theater, other than perh aps i n the choruses
or i n the comi c o pera sty l e ; thus , he i g nored i t comp l et e l y .
Pergo l es i was one of the greatest mus i c al gen i uses that the
I tal i an s h av e produced ! Too b ad that h i s geni u s wi thered too early,
for Pergol es i d i ed i n h i s th i rty-s i xth year [ recte 26 ] . Al l the p i eces
wh i ch we possess by h i m were v a l ued h i gher than gol d by a l l fri ends of
mus i c . H i s compos i t i on i s ext reme l y s i mp l e : with two v i o l i n s , a
v i o l a, and an a l toget her s i mp l e b ass h e accomp l i shed f ar more than som
of the most recent composers w i t h thei r r ag i ng storm of trumpet s ,
drums , horns , oboes , f l utes , b assoons , and al l other wi nd i nstruments .
Al s o , h i s modul at i ons are as good as h i s h armoni c movements are
extremel y s i mp l e , and he requi res as few notes as i s possi b l e for t h e
expres s i o n of h i s thought s . H i s St abat M ater [ 1736] i s n umbered
97
among the best masterp i eces of art . For more th an t h i rty years i t

has been performed t hrougho u t E urope dur i ng P as s i on Week wi t h u n i versal

approv al . H ow many thous and s of t e ars h as th i s p i ec e e l i c i ted al ready


from sens i t i ve heart s ! K l opstoc k , as i s we l l k n own , h as added a German

t ext , 1 7 wi th wh i ch i t i s now a l so sung by the P rotest ant s . And

t h i s great , general l y wonderfu l work cons i st s of two voi ces and four

i nstrument s . l 8 The modu l at i on s are s o n atural as i f art mi ght h ave

h ad nothi ng at al l to do with i t , and the e xpress i on of fee l i ng i s f u l l

of truth . B ut even t h i s masterp i ece i s not wi thout f au l t s , wh i ch


Vog l er i n h i s wri t i ngs stated w i th mu ch d i scernment . 1 9 I n s p i te o f

t h at , t h e publ i c d i d not accept Vog l er ' s correct i on s and l eft t h e work

as c h arm i n g as i t i s .

Pergo l e s i on l y composed a few o peras; but--as one m i ght s ay

wi t h Les s i ng ' s f ab l e- -the l i oness g av e b i rth on l y once, but she g ave

b i rt h to a l i on . 20 These operas were heard wi t h d e l i gh t not o n l y

i n V en i ce and G en o a b u t a l so i n M i l an , F l orence , and T ur i n . A l so ,

1 7 schubart announced t h i s f act i n h i s Deut s ch e C hron i k


( 7 November 1 7 7 4 ) : 5 10 - 1 1 and reported a performance of the work i n
K arl sruhe i n t h e D eu t s ch e C hron i k ( 10 N ovember 1774 ) : 5 18 and i n
Aug sburg i n the Teuts che Chronik { 1 1 Apr i l 1776) : 238- 39 .
1 8 Sch u b ar t reported the four-v o i ce set ti ng by H i l l er b ut
doubted that the work wou l d be enhanced by th i s add i t i on . See
Teut sche C hron i k ( 1 1 Apr i l 1776 ) : 239 .
1 9 see F l oyd K . Grav e , 11Abbe Vogl er ' s Rev i s i on of
Pergo l es i ' s St abat M ater , .. Journal of the Ameri can Mu s i col ogi c al
Soc i ety 30 ( Spri n g 1977) : 43-71 .
20Gottho l d E ph r a i m L es s i ng , " Von dem Wesen der F abel , ••
Wer k e , i n e i nem B an d , hrsg. und e i ngel ei tet von Gerh ar d Stenz e l ( n . p . :
I E . K ai ser , [c a. 1 953] ) , p . 834 . Act ua l l y , th i s fab l e w a s borrowed
from Aesop .

98
these carry the stamp of Pergol esi an geni u s , name l y , utmost simp l i c­
i ty. As l ong as such mus i cal compos i t i ons sti l l create a sensati on
among u s , the tru e mu si cal taste i s certai n l y there . The great
Jommel l i used to ri ght ly say [that] when a Pergol esi i s no l onger
appreci ated , then the downfal l of true mu si c i s certai n . The sacred
p i eces of th i s immort al composer are preserved as sanctuari es. Hi s
Masses , Psal ms , and Te Deum l audamus are honored wi th very l arge sums .
The ari a " Se cerca, etc. " was perhaps h i s best, al thou gh the greatest
masters after h i m tri ed hard to surpass him.
P adre Mart i n i ( i n Bol ogna ) i s j ust as great a composer as a
mus i c al cri t i c . He pl ayed the organ masterl y, had the pathos of the
s acred styl e in h i s power , and understood cou nterpo i nt from i t s founda­
ti on . Hi s pu b l i shed hi story of musi c , in three quarto-si zed vol ume s ,
i s the most usefu l work o f th i s type . Si nce he possessed an extra­
ordi nary store of mu si cal sou rces and for thi rty years gathered
materi al for th i s work , one cou l d , from th i s bas i s , a l ready expect
much from hi s hi story . I f Hawki ns, Burney, and Forkel have subse­
q uent ly surpassed h i m, the honor of a p i oneer yet al ways rema i n s to
him. The correct sketches of ol d and new mu s i cal i nstru ments gi v e a
deci ded worth to th i s book .
Pai s i el l o , a mod i s h , extreme ly wel l - l i k ed composer ; sweets
ra i n from h i s h and s, but one may not search for hardy mea l s wi th h i m .
He has to th ank for hi s fame mos t of al l the l ad i es , who fal l i n l ove
wi th his sweetn ess ; but he wi l l be l ooked at con s i derably by al l great
connoi sseu rs as a fl ower i n g tree : ni ce to l ook at , but from wh i ch no
l asti ng fru i ts can be expected .
9
P i cc i n i , a true pup i l of the G races; for t h at reason al l of
t h e E uropean l ad i es espec i al l y h ave foun d so much t aste i n h i m. Wh at

Chau l i eu , Gres set , and J acobi are amon g poet s , P i c ci n i i s amon g


mu s i c i an s . Hence, o n e f i nds occas i onal l y i n h i s compos i t i on s more

h oney th an s o l i d food , more b l os soms t h an fru i t . H i s reputat i on i nd eed

sti l l l asts , b u t I fear i t w i l l soon d i s appear as t h e fragrance of the


b l o ssom. I n o pera s ty l e he i s amon g al l compo sers t h e most prol i f i c

[ der gros ste Po lygraph ] .

S acch i n i . A l ready for a l on g t i me the f avor i te of our t i me.


He h as estab l i s hed i n I t a l y , France , Germany , and Eng l and more than a

p i l l ar of fame, e s pec i al l y through t h e compo s i t i on of h i s Oed i pe-- an

oper a wh i ch one c an a l ways regard as a pract i ca l h andbook for the

compo s i t i on i n t h i s s ty l e . H i s styl e i s good , l i ght , and p l eas i ng , as

h i s who l e ch aracter was . He does not s urpri s e by means of moment ary

f l ashes of grat i f i cat i o n but t akes one through the a lw ays proport i on ate

warmth of h i s phrases . He wri t e s very correc t l y and modu l at e s very

n at u ra l l y . H i s me l o d i c phrases are extremel y l ovely. One m ay hear h i s


mot i ve on l y onc e , yet one c an know i t by heart . H i s choru ses are

i ndeed s omewh at t h i n and c l ear yet a l ways h av e so much d i gn i ty. In

1 00
the sacred styl e h e d i d not h ave enough pract i ce; con sequen t l y , h i s
Masses h ave n ever attr acted attent i on . Al so, h e was snatched away from
i t he wor 1 d premature 1 y . 21

21 sacch i n i d i ed i n P ar i s , October 6 , 1 786 , yet Sch ubart


d i ctated thi s manuscr i pt between 1784 and 1785 . But there al so exi sts
another i ncons i stency wi th i n th i s paragr aph . S acch i n i ' s Oed i e �
Col one d i d not rece i ve i ts f i rst performance unti l Janu ary 17 6, and i t
was not u nt i l after i ts P ar i s premi ere i n Febru ary of 1 787 t h at i t was
acc l ai med a master p iece ( Grove 6 , 16 : 37 1 ) . A score was publ i shed i n
P ar i s i n 1 787 and a G erman tran s l at i on appeared i n pr i nt o n l y i n 1790 .
See Al fred Loewenberg, Annal s of Oper a , 1597-1940 , 2 vol s . ( Geneve :
Soc i etas B i b l i ograph i c a , 1955) , 1 : 4 20- 21 . Obv i ous l y , th i s p aragr aph
h ad to be wri tten somet i me after 1786 ei ther by Schubart h i msel f , or by
L udwi g Schubart , who may h ave been ed i t i ng thi s sect i on i n preparat i on
for pub l i cat i on ( e . g . , pages 84- 96 served as Proben i n the Le i pz i g
A l l g emei ne mu s i k al i sche Zei tung 6 ( 11 J anuary 1So4 ) : 23 1 -41 ) .

101
VI . CONCER N I NG I TALY ' S GR EAT S I NGERS

Undoubted l y the s i ng i ng art h as been i n greatest b l os som w i th

the Ital i ans among a l l n at i ons . Even to th i s hour h ard l y a peop l e

po ssess the song t o such an admi rab l e degree as they d o . E veryth i ng i s

sound and tone w i t h them. The mos t ord i n ary marmot youth often s i n gs

the most beaut i fu l and me l ody- r i ch l i tt l e songs . Yet t hey are s urpassed

by far i n re a l fo l k mu s i c by the German s . But by even as far , the

I ta l i an s surpass us i n f i ne , gre at , thorou gh l y trai ned s i n g i n g . Al l

s i ng i ng masters among us h ave d evel oped t hemsel ves i n th i s spec i al ty

accord i ng to the I t a l i ans . I n the l ast h u nd red ye ar s and i n t h e f i rst

h a l f of th i s century , t here were f ar greater s i ngers i n I t a l y than now .

The present s i ngers s i ng and c l uck too mu ch; al so they often smot her

the song w i t h exces s i ve col orat ure and f l or i d orn ament s . One i mi t ates

these mod i sh , sweet t r i f l es of another , and thus the d i v i ne s i mp l i c i ty

mu st be l ost i n a short t i me.

One of the pr i me re ason s for the h e i ghts to wh i ch the I t a l i an

s i ngers h ave r i sen , as h as a l ready been s a i d above of mu s i c i n genera l ,

i s the extraord i n ary h i gh repute where i n s i ngers stand and the l av i sh

s a l ar i es wh i ch they are gi ven . A s i nger of the f i rst r an k i n Nap l es

and Rome can br i n g i n 10,000 to 15,000 thal ers of our money year l y .

102
Just recent l y the famo us c astrato F ari ne l l i bought h i mse l f a duchy. 1
The I t a l i ans real l y h ave on ly three c l asses of s i n gers , name l y ,
sopr anos , al tos , and tenors ; they d i v i de t h e a l to i nto t h e h i gh and
contral to. But the deep ly mov i ng bas s vo i ce they i gnore out of c apr i ­
c i ousness or out o f s hortcomi n g o f s uch voi ces and use them only i n the
comi c opera. Perh aps , too, there are few beaut i fu l b as s voi ces in a
country where one dri nks noth i ng but w i ne.
The best aforesaid voi ces amon g them are so much more spl end i d .
A F aust i n a 2 d i d not s i ng , she practi ced mag i c . Her voc al r ange con­
t a i n s s ixteen q u i t e perfect steps . She was stronger i n the express i on
of s l ower tones t h an i n f ast r uns ; consequent l y no one expressed the
gri ef , the l ove, the devot i o n , and feel i n gs of such k i nd more i nt i ­
mately than th i s great s i nger. 3 One u sed to c a l l her a l one the tenth
Muse of the I t a l i an s . Now she s i ts as a matron i n V i en n a , 4 and her
thro at is dr i ed u p .

1 cf. B urney F , pp . 1 51-5 7 p as s i m . F ar i ne l l i sett l ed i n


Bol ogna c a . 1761 . When Burney v i s i ted h i m i n 1770 , t he mans i on was
st i l l not comp l eted . P resumabl y , th i s i s wh at Schubart refers to as
F ar i nel l i ' s "just recent ly bought d uchy. "
2see F aust i n a Bordoni i n the Append i x .
3 cf. B urne* G , p . 1 93 . Here B urney quotes Q u antz. Schubart
m i ght h ave borrowe from e i ther source, but i t seems more l i ke ly that
he wou l d h ave borrowed from B urney.
4 F au sti na ret i red somet ime after 1750 . B ut she and her
hu sband l eft V i enna i n 1 7 73 and went to Ven i ce , where they remai ned
for the rest of thei r l i ves. Grove 6 , 3 :47 . Most contemporary sources
agree. ( Burney H , 2 :7 38 states th at the Hasse fam i ly moved i n 1775 . )
However , Hawkins H , 2 : 874 , wh i ch was f i rst p ub l i shed i n 1 776 , st ates
that F austina "is now l i v i ng at V i en n a , " and i t may be thi s source to
wh i ch Schubart refers .

103
� amous contra l to of whom Hasse said [th at ] whoever h as not h e ard h i m
G i o v an n i C arest i n i . A castr ato and t hro ugh a l l o f E urope a

has heard noth i ng r i gh t . 5

H i s voi ce was cutt i ng l i k e a cornett • s tone and p i erced t h e


greatest orchestr a. He brought out the most d i ff i cu l t runs wi th

unbe l i ev ab l e ease. W i th these g reat q u a l i t i es h e f u rther combi ned an

a l together mag n i f i cent act i o n , and Frederi ck the Great was s o f a sc i ­


n ated by h i m th at for rnany years [ 1750-54] h e h ad t o s i ng o n l y for h i m.

But wh at one s ays [ f abe l n ] about h i s death i s a w i c ked i nvent i on of t he

I t al i an s . F or soon after h i s comp l et ed j o urney h ome to h i s f ather l and

from P etersburg i n 1 758 , he d i ed i n peace. 6

S a l i mben i , perh aps the greatest desc ant who h as ever l i ve d .

H e w as for m any ye ars an orn ament of the B er l i n theater [ 1 743-50] . He


pos sessed o n l y twe l ve perfect l y c l e ar tones i n h i s compass , but wh at­

ever l ay i n t h i s r ange h e expressed wi t h i ndescr i b ab l e gr ace and

beauty. He knew h ow to affect the heart of the l i stener s o as sured l y


t h at he never s an g w i thout be i ng rewarded wi th t he sweetest tear s . He

d i ed i n h i s twenty-e i ghth year , i n t h e f u l l maturi ty o f h i s voi ce and

at the hei ght of h i s f ame. The prev i ous l y ment i oned F ar i ne l l i , who

sung h i msel f i nto a du chy , posses ses , i n add i t i on to a w i de comp ass

5 r h i s exact quot at i on appears i n G er ber L , 1 : 247-48 , but


Gerber does not c i te the source of h i s i nformati o n . He does , h owever,
prov i de a l i st of wor k s u sed t o comp i l e h i s b i ograph i c al d i ct i onary o n
p ages xv-xv i . A p araphrase of th i s occurs i n B urney H , 2 : 783 , but was
not i n B urney G ( ag ai n borrowed from Quant z ) , th e s ou rce t o wh i ch
Sch ubart h ad acces s .
6 F ar i nel l i was i n P et er sb urg from J une 1 75 4 through 1 756
( Grove 6 , 5 : 7 79 ) , b u t h e d i d n ot d i e u nt i l 1 78 2 !

1 04
of tones and th e most sensi t i ve heart , st i l l the most profound i ns i ght
of art . He [ ?S a l i mben i ] 7 h as wri tten a book on the song, whi ch i s a
true masterpi ece. Hi s strength con s i sts espec i al ly i n the express i o n
o f the s acred styl e; consequent ly, he s an g more i n ch urches t h an i n
theaters .
Boss i . One of the best I t al i an t enors . H i s vo i ce i s fu l ly
nat ur a l , pure i n the l ow as i n the h i gh [reg i ster] . He s ucceeds wi th
the affect i ve remarkably wel l , but he a lw ays man g l es , as h e o ften h as
expressed , v i o l ent , i mpetuous , hero i c pass i o n ; on l y the German s i ngers
s ucceed i n th i s .
Apr i l e . The former j ewe l of the Wurttemberg th eater [ 17 56-69]
and one of the most perfect s i ngers of the wor l d . H e s an g wi th the
pur i ty of a s i l ver bel l up to the three- l i ned c [ c ' ' ' ] , h ad a profound
know l edge of s o n g , and a warm, swe l l i ng heart . He p art i cu l ar l y under­
stood to the h i ghest degree the art of v aryi n g an ar i a sever a l t i mes
with extraord i n ary gen i u s . Even t h e i mmort al Jommel l i adm i tted that h e
h ad mu ch to t h an k t h i s great s i nger for. 8

7 There i s no ment i on of a book h av i ng been wri tten by


Sal imben i i n any of the st a�dard reference sources .
8Q u i te an o ppos i te opi n i on i s expressed i n B urney F , p . 270 .

105
K at h ar i n a G abr i e l i * i s the t r i umph of tod ay ' s s i ng i n g art !
She h as extraor d i n ary he i gh t and u n u s u a l l owness [of r ange] , reads as

q u i c k ly as l i ght n i n g , and bri n gs out al l passages , t h e fast as wel l as

the s l ow , wi th u n u s u a l s k i l l . S t i l l she u n i tes w i t h i t a c h ar acter­


i st i c of the h eart and such a h i gh , pure fee l i ng t h at she i s n umbered ,

q u i te r i gh t l y s o , among the best s i ngers t h at I t a l y h as produced. Yet

a l l connoi s seurs mai ntai n t h at she i s of v a l ue on l y for the t h e ater and

does not pl ay a very f avorab l e ro l e i n the ch urch . Th i s i s easi l y

understood i f o n e t h i n k s about t h e enormou s s c a l e p as s ages t o wh i ch s h e

i s accu stomed. Al s o , her gen i us s eems to be i nc l i ned more t o the c omi c

t h an to the t r ag i c . She provokes more aston i s hment , s urpr i s e , o r even

l aughs than a st i l l , sweet , l ost - i n -d aydre ams fee l i ng . But i t wi l l be

h ard t o f i nd a s i n ger , i f i t i s not our own great G erman M ar a , who does

i t equal l y we l l i n the f l ex i b i l i ty of the throat , i n the me l t i ng of

tones , and p art i c u l ar l y i n the portamento.

In N ap l es , part i cu l ar ly i n T ur i n , many s i ngers are s t i l l found ,

among whom perh aps are s ome who bel ong i n the forego i ng sh i n i ng order.

The most recent t r avel wri ters , who at the s ame t i me are con noi sseurs

of mus i c , mai nt ai n t h at the I t a l i ans s t i l l cont i nu e to promote the

*One does not confuse her wi t h Francesc a G abri e l i , a stu dent

of S acch i n i , who as a pri ma donna s ang second to M ar a i n Lon don from

1 785 to 1786 . 9

9T he F r an cesc a G abr i e l i ment i oned here i s act u a l l y Adr i an a


G abr i e l i ( 1755-95 ) , known as " L a F arrare s e , " as noted by Scho l es i n
B urney F , p . 1 24 . T h i s mi stak en i dent i ty i s perpetu ated i n G erber ,
et a l . Francesca was K at ari n a ' s s i ster.
1 06
si n g i ng art to i t s h i ghest l evel s and to prefer good s i n g i ng to the
most shi n i ng performance i n i nstrumental mus i c . But great connoi s seurs
want to be conv i nced from sound reasons t h at there mi ght not be any
more rea l schoo l s of the art of s i ngi ng and that consequent ly the great
t aste n atural ly mu st fal l .
One sho u l d read the s p l en di d tract of the i mmortal Tos i about
the art of s i ng i ng1 0 i n order to be ab l e to comp are the o l d and new
taste of the I t al i ans much eas i er . But t h e t i mes unfortu n ate l y h ave
a l so changed . At the t i me of Tosi one sti l l transported app l es , pears ,
and cherri es; n ow one i s s at i sf i ed with thei r b l ossoms . The great
P ope G angane l l i 1 1 cons i dered so i mport ant t h e fal l of t h e art of
s i ng i ng that he made the most magni f i cent preparat i on s i n order to
control i t. 1 2 But wh at Montesqu i eu says a l so app l i es h ere : i f the
taste beg i n s to s i nk , the h an d of a gen i u s c an someti mes i ndeed stop
i t ; but i f the g en i us i s dyi n g , t aste only p l unges mu ch more q u i ck ly
and wi thout stopp i ng. 13

10 P i er F r ancesco Tos i , Opi n i on i d e ' c antori ant i ch i , e


moder n i o s i ena o sservaz i o n i sopra 1 1 canto _fi_gura_to ( B o l ogn a : Lel i a
a a 1 1 a Vo l p e , l/C.3 J . A l:ierman tran s 1 at 1 on ot tn l S treat i s e appeared
i n 1757 .
1 1 see C l ement X I V i n the Append i x .
1 2Schubart wrote several es s ays o n the l i fe o f P ope
Cl ement X I V , some of wh i ch appeared i n h i s Chron i k , b ut these contai n
on l y a few i nc i dental references to mus i c and noth i ng whi ch support s
th i s p art i cu l ar stat ement. See, for examp l e , GS 7 : 7-96 and Deut sche
Chron i k ( 1774 } : 4 29 , 433-38 ; ( 1775 } : 305-307 , 3307
1 3Thi s quotat i on does not appear i n Montesq u i eu ' s "Essai
sur l a go �t d an s l es chases de l a n ature et de 1 ' ar t , n wh i ch wou l d be
the most obv i ou s p l ace to fi nd such a statement , but perh aps th i s
phrase i s h i dden e l sewhere i n h i s wri t i n gs . See C h ar l e s Lou i s
107
I nasmu ch as the I t a l i an s now h av e stu d i ed a l l the p arts of
i mus i c so thoro ugh l y , i t can be sus pected from afar t h at they must h ave

a l so h ad very good i nstrumental i st s . And certai n l y t h ey a l so contended


here for the p a l ms , a l though , speak i n g wi thout prejudi ce, o ur father­
. l and h as sure l y a l ready c aught them i n th i s . The great study of the
,song l ed the I t a l i ans astray somewhat in neg l ect i ng the i nstr ument s ;
!
and because a del i ghtf u l cl i mate often can produce asthma, q u i te cert-
'

ai n ly no except i on a l wi nd i nstrument a l i st s are expected from I t a l y .


H i story knows not o n e great I t a l i an trumpeter, trombon i st , cornetti st ,
horni st or b assoon i st , and the i r f l ut i st s h ard ly extend beyond the
med i ocre. B ut h ave the I ta l i ans h ad great obo i sts more n umerous t h an
the B esoz z i ? 1 4 Former l y there were qu i te s p l end i d organ i sts and
h arpsi chordi st s among them. Who does not know a Scotc i , Scar l att i ,

Montesqui eu , Oevres comp l etes , texte pr e sent e et an not � p ar Roger


Cai l l os , 2 vol s . (Par 1 s , Ga l l i mar d , 1949-5 1 ) , 2 : 1 240-63 . There i s ,
however , a p ass age i n the wr i t i ngs o f L i vy , wh i ch approx i mates t h i s
, one: "• • • then l et h i m note how , wi th the gradua l rel axat i on of
d i sc i p l i ne , mor a l s f i rst g av e way, as i t were , then s ank l ower and
l ower , and fi nal ly began the downward p l unge wh i ch h as brought us to

t he present t i me, when we c an endure nei ther o ur v i ces nor thei r cure. "
T i t u s L i v i u s , i vy , t r an s . B . 0 . Forster , T h e Loeb C l as s i c a l L i brary ,
1 3 vol s . ( Lon o n : W i l l i am Hei nemann ; N ew York : G . P . P ut n am ' s Sons ,
1919 ) , 1 : 7 . Schubart , i n h i s Deutsche Chron i k ( 14 September 1 7 75 ) :
590-92 , l aments the f act th at music seems to be fa l l i ng , and those who
cou l d prevent i t s fal l are not doi ng anyth i n g. For examp l e , nHasse i s
dead ; G l u ck i s wri t i ng for a forei g n country and appears to be t ak i ng
Hermannsschl acht to the grave ; the London B ach i s no l onger ours;
c we t zer s gen i us i s suppressed by the p i t i f u l reward s of h i s
contemporari es; the great B ach i n Hamburg rests on h i s l aurel s ; H i l l er
runs after the Lei p z i g craze and catches--butterf l i es ; Homi 1 i us • • • • ••
But no menti on i s made of Montesqu i eu . The cont i nu at i on of th i s
art i c l e , ( 18 September 177 5 ) : 597-600 , i s l es s cr i t i c al and centers
on the pos i t i ve aspects of severa l German courts .
14 schub art heard one of the Besozzi s i n Augs burg, but h e
d i d not s pec i fy wh i ch one he hear d . See Deutsch e Chron i k
108
Jozz i , and Mart i nel l i ? Moreover , these great masters u nderstood
counterpoi nt , common modu l at i on , l i g atures , and al l remai n i ng arts of
organ and c l av i er p l ayi ng; but i n our d ays they s i n k even deeper from
the hei ght of th i s fame , and a German of on ly mi nor i mport ance i n organ
or c l av i er p l ayi n g makes the greatest sens at i on i n I t aly.
The famou s c l aveci mbal i st Mayer of F l orence, Schubart • s stu-
dent , c ame as a merch ant ' s serv ant to I ta l y and i s now one of the fore­
most of h i s i n st rument i n al l of I ta l y. 1 5
Tod ay Cl ement i i s regarded as the best c l av i er master i n Italy.
It i s true t h at h i s r i ght h and i s remarkab ly strong ; new p as s ages ,
extreme l y bol d modu l at i ons , stud i ed movement , i nterest w i t h al l the
f low of notes [Wei tschwe i f i gkei t] , and ori g i n a l l y g av e h i m a h i gh
stand i ng . But h i s l eft h an d seems as i f i t were l amed by the stroke;
consequent l y , a c l av i er p l ayer c an on l y devel op one-s i ded l y after th i s
manner.

( 30 May 1774} : 144 and GS , 1 : 234 ( L & G , 2 ) . There were f i ve Besozz i


obo i sts al i ve and act i� i n 1774 but on ly two i n Germany, Antoni o and
C ar l o , father and son , both i n D resden . I t may h ave b een Anton i o t h at
Schubart hear d , s i nc e Antoni o supposed l y l eft Dresden i n 1774 and went
to T ur i n . He cou l d h ave stopped i n Augsburg on h i s way to I ta l y .
15 schubart ment i ons a fo urteen-year-o l d c l avi er student who
v i s i ted h i m duri ng h i s house arrest (short ly before h i s i mpri s onment i n
1777 ) and who " i s now [ prob ab l y a s he rev i sed h i s autobi ogr aphy after
1787 , s i nce t h i s quotat i on appears as a footnot e ] one of the best
h arps ichord p l ayers i n I t a ly . " GS, 1 : 249-50 ( L & G, 2 ) . I f th i s i s
the s ame pers o n , then we can d at� ayer ' s b i rth c a . 1 7 6 2/63 . By
1 784/85 , he wou l d h ave h ad seven ye ars s i nce Schubart • s arrest to
mature; he wou l d b e at a good age for a promi s i ng v i rt uoso; and s i nce
Schu bart appears to be q u i te fond of t h i s student , a b i ased opi n i on may
a l so account for the fact that he does not appear i n the b i ograph i cal
d i ct i on ar i e s .

109
A s for t h e org an , the gen i u s o f I tal i an mu s i c p asses by s ayi n g
noth i ng of i t and v i s i t s t h e o ak grove s of Germany. Meanwh i l e , I t a l y

h as started the s p l end i d v i o l i n schoo l .

T art i n i publ i s hed the best pri nc i pl es o n t h e v i o l i n and brough t

bow contro l and f i n ger i n gs to a s o-c a l l ed system. 16 H i s mu s i c was

fet ched out ent i re ly from the v i o l i n and on t i me u nder the stroke .

Thi s schoo l a l so d i scovered such a correct r e l at i on sh i p of v i o l i n

stri ngs t h at not h i ng more i s to be expected t hereon . But t h e comp l ai nt

abo ut the T ar t i ni schoo l i s t h at thei r maj est i c , represent at i ve stroke

i nh i b i ts the q u i ckne s s of execut i o n and i s by no mean s presented i n

fast passages . However , the pupi l s f rom th i s schoo l are perfect l y good
for the s acred styl e , for the i r bowi n g h as exact l y as much power and

stress as i s nece s s ary for the true expre s s i on of the sol emn , s acred

i d i om.

Domi n i ca F errari . Th i s great man i s the founder of t h e new

v i o l i n schoo l . Not the deep-cutt i n g s troke of a Tart i n i , not the

majesti c and fest i ve phrasi ng of t h e bow , not the grasp of t h e comp l ete

note i s the character of th i s man . On account of [hi s ] b i z arre

[ c h ar acter] he took exact l y the oppos i te p ath of T art i n i . H i s bowi n g

1 6 several treat i se s m i ght app l y h ere . One poss i b i l i ty i s


Tart i ni ' s Trai t� des agr�ents de l a mus i que ( Par i s : 1 ' auteur ,
[ 17 7 1 ] ) . There i s a l so a lettera del deronto s i gnor G i use�pe Tart i n i
a l l a s i g nora Madda l en a L ombardi n 1 1 nserv 1 ente ad una 1 mpor ante l ez1 one
per 1 s uon ator 1 d 1 v i o l i no { Venez i a : Col omban1 , 1 770) wh 1 ch B urney
tran s l ated 1 nto Eng l l sh ana wh i ch was p ub l i shed i n London i n 1771 .
A German tran s l at i on by Hei nr i ch Leopo l d R oh rmann was publ i shed i n
H an nover i n 1 786 . R I SM B / V I / 2 :819- 20 . D av i d B oyden, "The V i o l i n and
I ts Techn i que i n t h�th Century, " M u s i cal Quarter ly 36 ( J an u ary
1950) : 9 - 38 c i te s Tarti n i ' s L ' Arte de l Arco { n . d . ) .

110
i s not strai ght but crooked . H e stroked not w i t h al l h i s mi ght but
!on ly s l i d away over the stri ngs , s e l ected the peri phery of the bri dge,
vent ured upwards h i gh on the f i ngerboard, and thereby brough t forth a
tone about the s ame as rubbi ng [the r i m ] of a g l ass fai r ly l i ghtly so
t h at i ts crystal cortex resound s . B ut the mi stake of th i s great man
was that , out of obst i nacy, he d i d not as s ume that wh i ch was good i n
T art i ni . The T art i n i tones are al l q u i t e fu l ly devel oped , but the
Ferrari are unri pe . H e k i s ses , a s i t were, on l y t h e fru i t o f the tree,
but does not s h ak e it so t h at the notes f a l l as a B orsdorf app l e to
our l ap . H i s execut i o n was therefore more echo than n atura l tone .
Anton i o L ol l i . Perh aps the S hakespeare among v i o l i n i sts . He
comb i ned the perfec t i ons of the Tart i n i and Ferrari schoo l s not on ly i n
themsel ves , but found s t i l l an ent i rely new p ath . H i s bow s troke i s
eternal ly i ni m i t ab l e. One be l i eved unt i l now [that ] fast p as s ages were
only expressed by means of a short stroke , but he pu l l s the whol e bow ,
as l ong as i t i s , d own the stri ngs unt i l he i s at the poi nt of the b ow ,
and thus the hearer h as heard a who l e hai l storm o f tones . B eyond that
he possesses the art of drawi ng together new tones from h i s v i o l i n
wh i ch have never b een heard before. He i mi tates ev erythi ng that h as a
sound i n the an i m a l k i ngdom to the most extreme i l l us i on . H i s ve l oc i ty
extends to the poi nt of mag i c . H e not on l y p l ays [ ab stossen] octaves
and tenths wi t h p erfect i ntonat i o n , but he a l so p l ays [ sch l agen ]
doubl e tri l l s i n thi rd s and s i xths . And he ascend s so as to become
d i zzy i n the h i g hest atmosphere of tones that he often conc l udes h i s
concertos w i th a tone wh i ch seems t o be the non p l u s u l tra o f tones .

111
Co l d pedagogues i ndeed reproach h i m that h e does not a l ways

observe the beat � but i t i s comi cal to s et l i m i t s to turb u l ent l i ve s

and bei ngs of g en i u s . A n i mport ant rebuke i s t h at whenever one s ays �

• Lo l l i h as fal l en i n l ove too much wi th the comi c styl e . H e f l uttered


about not sel d om i n buffoonery and thereby made the l i stener l au gh

i n the mi dd l e of the stream of feel i ng . .. 1 7 B ut j u st as t h e court

j ester o n the p ag e of K i ng Lear i n S h akespe are i s not o n l y endurab l e

but i s o f extreme effect , i t was al so wi t h L ol l i . P athos produces

exert i on and the comi c rel axes ; prec i se l y so, the great Lo l l i h ad a

powerfu l effect o n the l i s tener . As for h i s compo s i t i o ns , they do

i ndeed contai n ri ch enj oyment ; but from t he s i de of art they are very

f au l ty for L ol l i ' s s p i r i t h ates al l l i mi t s .

N ard i n i . Tart i ni ' s greatest student , a v i o l i n i s t of l ove,

n urtured i n the bosom o f the Graces . The tenderness o f h i s p l ayi ng

cannot be desc r i bed ; every comma seems t o be a dec l ar at i on of l ov e .

P art i cu l ar l y , he succeed s to the h i ghest degree i n t h e sent i ment a l .


One h as seen i ce-co l d pri nces and l ad i es - i n-wai t i n g weep when h e pl ayed

an adag i o . Tears often d ro pped f rom h i m t o the v i o l i n whi l e p l ayi ng.

He cou l d transm i t every aff l i ct i on of h i s sou l wi t h h i s m ag i cal

p l ayi ng ; but h i s me l ancho l i c manner made i t s o t h at one was not

17 I n 1 7 74 Schubart reg arded L o l l i as 11 the greatest


v i o l i n i st i n the wor l d " ( Deutsche Chron i k [ 28 November 17 74] : 556 ) ,
and i n h i s autob i ogr aphy fie c al l ed Lol l i "the greatest v i rtuoso .. t h at
he h ad k n own ( GS � 1 : 9 5 [ L & G , 1] ) , but he al so noted there t h at L o l l i
h ad tendenci es-,ror the com1 c styl e , wh i ch apparent l y became more and
more usual i n Lo l l i ' s p l ayi ng as the ye ars progressed . See MAadJ 1 782 ,
p . 33 . A gre at deal of cr i t i c i sm comes f rom L o l l i ' s v i s i t to Engl and
i n 1 785 . See Burney H , 2 : 1020-21 and Gerber L , 1 :8 20 .

112
al ways h appy to hear h i m , for he was capab l e of tran sformi ng , as by
mag i c , the most u nrestrai ned i mprov i s at i on i nto the most wanton d ance
upon graves . The stroke of h i s bow was s l ow and sol emn; yet he d i d not
tear out the notes by the root as Tart i n i , but mere ly k i ssed thei r
t i ps . H i s stacc ato was s l ow , and every n ote seemed t o b e a drop of
b l oo d wh i ch fl owed from the most sens i t i ve sou l . One mai n t ai ns that
an u nfortunate l ov e g av e the soul of th i s great man t h i s me l ancho l i c
d i spos i t i on , for persons who h ad prev i ous ly heard h i m s ay that h i s
style i n younger ye ars h ad been v ery bri ght and ros e-co l ored. 18
Al l of Ita ly deve l oped accord i ng to these great men , and even
tod ay one ei ther attaches h i mse l f to one of them or becomes e c l ect i c
and constructs a new one from the i r manners .
I n al l o f the remai n i ng i n struments the Ital i ans h ave not been
epoch mak i n g , and they themsel ves adm i t that they are student s of the
Germans , p art i c u l ar ly i n wi nd i nstrument s .

18These l ast three v i o l i n i st s ( F errar i , Lol l i , and


N ard i n i ) wer e , at one t i me, i n the emp l oy of the Duke of Wurtt emburg.
See B urney G , p . 38 . Schub art served as an org an i st i n L udwi gsburg ,
where the duke now res i ded , and B urney ' s v i s i t to Schub art h i msel f i s
recorded on p age th i rty- n i ne of B urney G . I t shou l d not be s u rpri s i ng,
therefore, t h at Schubart presents these three v i o l i n i sts together i n
h i s treat i se.

113
VII . SCHOOLS OF THE GERMANS

The sources of t h i s h i story are found s c attered h ere and t h ere,

for examp l e, by M i z l er , M atthes o n , M arp u r g , H i l l er , H awk i ns , Burney,

Fork e l , J u n ker , and other mus i c al author s . Meanwh i l e , we s t i l l l ack a

tot al l y p r agmat i c h i story of German mu s i c . Yet i t i s h oped t h at we wi l l

g et one short l y .
I n the d awn of German h i story- - as s oon a s a n at i on began t o

become Germany- -one a l ready hear d of t he i r t aste for mu s i c . Mu s i c must

h av e en l i v ened t he i r b an quet s , mu s i c mu st h av e l i fted t he i r f eet at


dance s , mus i c r esou nded before t he i r al tars i n Thu i skon • s s h e l tered

grove, l [ an d ] mus i c accomp an i ed t h em i n b att l es and deat h . The

mel od i es of the b ard i c s on g s were depi cted q u i te dre adfu l l y by C ae s ar

and T ac i t u s . 2 The b ards u s u a l l y stood o n a mound , or o n a rock , i n

t h e v a l l ey of b at t l e and contro l l ed from t here the i r confl i ct wi t h

songs . The f l ow o f the me l od i es was comp l et e l y u n i que , wi l d , warl i ke ,

l i n b i b l i c al t i mes , t h e grove was t h e s i te of p ag an worsh i p .


Hence i t s u s ag e i n th i s p art i cu l ar p as s age. See , for examp l e , Jude
3 : 7 , 2 K i ngs 1 8 : 4 , 2 Chron . 33 : 3 , et al .
2The tran s l ator h as not been ab l e to f i nd any s uch descr i p­
t i on . See C . J u l i us C ae s ar , The Gal l j c War, tran s . J . E dward s , The
Loeb C l as s i c a l L i brary ( C ambr1 dg e , Mass . : H arvard U n i v . P res s , 1 91 7 )
and Ren e Lecromp e , C � s ar , D e B e l l o Gal l i co : I ndex Verborum
( H i l deshe i m : Georg Ol ms , l 968 � , p p . l 0 2- l03 . S ee a l so Cornel i u s
Tac i tus , D i al ogu s ; Agr i co l a ; German i a , t r an s . W i l l i am Peters o n , Th e
Loeb C l as s 1 c a l library (london : W1 l l 1 am H e i nemann ; N ew Yor k : The
Macmi l l an Co. , 191 4 ) .

114
and h ad perh aps some resemb l ance t o o ur marches . The anci ent Germans
al l s ang i n u n i son--t h e women an oct ave h i gher t h an the men- -and t h i s

s i ng i ng was accomp an i ed wi t h s ome n o i sy i n strument s . E s pec i a l l y , they


used to str i ke s heet s of meta l together creat i ng a great deafen i ng

no i se or ho l d t he i r s h i e l d i n front of t he i r mouth to amp l i fy the

s i ng i ng vo i ce . Al s o , i t i s cert a i n t h at they h ave h ad a type of h arp

h i ch they on l y u sed at d i v i ne serv i ce s . Crumh orns and cornetts h ave


been found i n v ar i ou s p l aces of Germany . But h as it ever been deter-

i ned whether t hese i nstr uments c ame from the Germans or f rom the

Romans ? Meanwh i l e , one s t i l l f i n d s s ome German i do l s wh i ch s h ow a type

of tr umpet i n t h e s h ape of a funnel and [wh i ch ] prove s uff i c i en t l y t h at

the Germans were fam i l i ar wi th w i n d i n struments at a very e ar l y age .

Charl emagn e h ad the songs of t he b ard s w i t h t h e i r me l od i es co l ­

l ected and tr i ed to i ntroduce them among h i s own troop s . When these

v a l u ab l e ant i que monuments are red i s covered ( for s ure l y t h ey l i e h i d­

den , perhaps i n s ome corner ) , one w i l l then be i n a pos i t i on to form

pos i t i ve l y an o p i n i on about o l d German mu s i c . H owever , th i s mu ch i s

!
cert ai n : the mu s i c of o ur f at hers mus t certai n l y h ave h ad a great

a ttract i on , t h at t hey k n ew h ow t o b r i n g out great effects w i th i t as

lt he wi l d peop l e i n Amer i c a do today , but t h at i t mus t h ave been f ar

1more stormy d ec l amat i on ( a h orr i b l e , w i l d roar i n g ) t h an true mu s i c .


Th at such a war l i ke peop l e wou l d h ave comp l ete l y i gnored t h e affec-

t i on ate and p l eas antness of mu s i c , one s u rmi ses w i t h assu rance.

Yet , I wou l d l i ke to hear s ome dri n k i n g son gs of the o l d Germans

wh i c h they u s ed t o s i ng at th e i r banquet feasts [ Festgel agen] and

1 15
c h , even accord i ng to the test i mon i es of the i r foes , mu st h ave h ad
much ch arm.

At the i r d i v i ne serv i ces they s an g the prai se of Mann u s ,

Thu i s ko n , Thuet , Wood an , Vel eda , and Herd a , 3 i n f act , often i n a l ter­
n at i ng cho i r s ; thei r as s i stants [ Opferkn aben ] h ad t o s i ng a l o n g , too.

One sees , t h erefore, t h at the p ro pens i ty for mu s i c of t hou s ands

of years was i nheri ted by u s . Yet i n the d arkest of a l l ages , o ur


countrymen a l w ays k ept mu s i c , and w hen C h ar l emagne was emperor , th i s

propen s i ty for mu s i c mu l t i p l i ed i ts e l f so much thereby t h at i t stepped

i nto a l l i ance w i t h t h e C hr i s t i an re l i g i on . B on i fac i u s , t h e apost l e of


the Germans , i ntrodu ced t h e L at i n song i n our church e s ; where as , cert­

l ai n l y ,
1
the G ermans t h ems e l ves s up posed for a l on g t i me and express l y

mai ntai ned that i t was abs urd t o s i ng somet h i ng that one d i d not under­

s t and . B u t by and by they submi tted t h ems e l ves to t h i s decree of the

ch urch and became [ so ] acc ustomed t o t he s e L at i n son gs t h at L uther h ad

trou b l e pers u ad i ng h i s s upporters to s i ng i n German .


I n Germany, for a l ong t i me , there was no org an i n the church ,

but [on l y ] one i n strument wh i ch was s i mi l ar to a c ert a i n extent to the

French serpen t . St i l l l ater , t he cornetts and trombones were i ntro­

duced to t he church , and on l y i n the t h i rteenth cent u ry d o I f i nd an

account of an org an at Co l ogne.

The Germ an s d i st i ngu i s h ed t h ems e l ves remar k ab l y t hrough beau­


t i fu l song and through s trength i n the w i nd i nstrument s . Thu s , a

3 T act i tu s , German i a , p p . 267 and 277 ment i on s M an nu s ,


Thu i skon , and Vel eda.

116
trav el i ng b i s ho p from R ome wrote about t h em : " I t i s surpr i s i ng h ow
these drunken and wi l d beasts s i ng and p l ay s o beaut i fu l l y . " Yet mus i c

w as exposed to v ery great m i s u s e among t he Germans . I t was used at

fur i o u s fo l k d ances , at b acch an al i a , and at b awdy g ather i n gs , i n a


word , to the corrupt i on of man k i nd . T h u s , the wander i n g mus i c i an s were

cons i dered d i s h on est , and the S achsens p i egel 4 record s expre s s l y t h at

one mus t not t o l er ate a mus i ci an among honorab l e peop l e . But one s ees
o n l y too wel l t h at t h i s does not app l y to the who l e of mu s i c but merely

t o the dest i tute , i t i n er ant s treet mus i c i an s , who gener a l l y make them­

s e l ves desp i c ab l e through s l oven l i ness .


U nt i l t h e t i me of Luther, s acred mus i c i n Germ any bec ame more

and more br i l l i ant : great s ums were s pent on s i ngers and i nstrumen ­

t a l i st s ; s i ng i n g schoo l s were founded everywhere; fore i gn i n struments

were not on l y brought to Germany , but t h e org an was a l so e n l arged w i th

v ar i ous stop s ; and a Nuremberger even i nvented the pedal whereby the

organ attai ned great perfect i on as i t s t ands tod ay. Cornett s , trom­
bone s , horns , and trumpets were for a l ong t i me p art i cu l ar ly f avor i te

i nstruments of the Germans u nt i l t h ey a l so f i n al l y made for t h ems e l ves

the t ab l e h ar p , v i o l i n , fl ute, obo e , b as s oo n , and other i n st ruments ,

and h ad produced , a l ready i n early t i me s , masters t h ere i n . B ut theo­

ret i ca l wor k s around th i s t i me were n ot yet wr i tt e n , al though the

f amous abbot Gerbert wan t s to mai nt ai n t h at many a s p l end i d mus i c al


treat i se l i es h i dden i n c l o i sters .

4 A comp i l at i on of S axon cu stomary l aw made c a . 1 220-35 by


E i ke von Repkow .

117
The famous n u n Hrotswitha was not o n l y a poetess , but al so a

, s p l end i d composer. She not on ly s an g remark ab ly we l l , but al so set


some p i eces to mus i c hersel f , wh i ch po i nt o ut her beaut i fu l mu s i cal
spi r i t .
A great obstac l e t o t h e ass i mi l at i on o f mus i c through a l l of
!Europe was the absence of not at i on . I n Germany one made u s e of the
so-cal l ed tab l at ure , wh i ch usual l y h ad four l i nes and i nd i cated the
mel ody with l etters , numbers , and other s i gn s . But as soon as Gu i do
h ad i nvented not at i on , i t was al so i ntrodu ced i n G ermany, genera l l y by
the b i shops . From th i s t ime o n , the supp ly of mu s i c i ans i n the c l o i s­
ter i ncreased extraord i nari ly. The n umber of Masses , motets , Credos ,
Kyr i e s , Requi ems , ant i phons , and others of s uch k i nd--who c an count
them a l l !
I t wou l d b e too mu ch to wi sh that a beaut i fu l anthol ogy be
made from al l these p i eces , wh i ch wou l d represent , al l at once, the
mus i c at that t i me. The char acter of t h at mus i c i s extremely s l u gg i sh
i n mot i o n , but th i s f au l t i s compensated by the s ub l imi ty of movement ,
through the s i mp l e i nstrumental accomp an i ment , through sens i t i ve song,
through u nconstrai ned modu l at i on s , and through other noteworthy
qual i t i es .
When L uther stepped forward , the s acred mu s i c of the Germans
h ad al ready deteri or ated to empty, v i gorous pomp . Mu s i c was no l onger
measured accord i ng to i ts s i mp l e effect , but accordi ng to i ts d i sp l ay.
Si n g i ng was now and then qui te petu l ant , such that a Wurzburg b i s ho p ,
when he heard some new s acred musi c i ntroduced , cr i ed o ut l ou d , H G i r l s
d ance to t h at ; that p i ece i s merry ! " [Made l s t an zt n au s , • s StUckel
1 18
�l�g! ].
/ he
The i mmort al Luther reg u l ated t h i s drawback as much as

cou l d . At fi rst he ret a i ned the ant i phon s and mote t s ; l ater he g ave

them u p for the G erman choral e s i n g i n g . Lut her was h i ms el f an exc e l ­

l ent m u s i c i an . H e s ang wi th feel i ng an d p l ayed the l ute. The great

composer H andel posses sed many p i eces not ated i n L uther ' s own han d .

H e m ade these q u a l i t i es h i s own and s easoned h i s own comp os i t i on s wi th

t h i s magn i f i cen t sal t . Some sacred song s , for wh i c h we hav e t h i s

un i q ue man to t h ank , are a t rue treasure i n the Germ an h i story of a rt .

He u s ed to not ate the chora l es mo s t l y i n fou r parts , but he d i d not

append any [ add i t i onal ] accomp an i men t . The peri phery of i t s tones i s

chosen so natu r a l l y that they sel dom wan der ou t of the sphere of an

octav e . F rom L uther , for t h e benef i t of mu s i c , i s recorded here the

mu s i c a l prep arat i on s to German col l eges an d school s and the ci ty mu s i ­

c i an s [ St ad t z i n ken i sten ] , who u sed to const i tute a type of g u i l d at

t h i s t i me . The f i rst h av e been accepted a l mo st i n al l of the Germ an

schoo l s : over a choral stu dent [Chor SchU l er ] i s p l aced a c antor or

chorag us wh o g i v e s the you n g peop l e i n stru ct i o n i n s i n g i n g as the cor­

net t i s t does th i s w i th the i n stru ments . W i th these s i n gers the song

and s acred mus i c were borne [ bestri tten ] , and the school master ' s and

c antor ' s p o s i t i ons were fi l l ed from them. Even the d i rge was p erformed

by these choral students . But the cornet t i sts h av e the occu p at i on of

p l ay i ng a chora l e every day at the tower and of a s s i st i n g w i th s acred

mus i c . One a l so sees from t h i s arran gement how much our Luther recog-

n i zed the power of mu s i c . I f the wea l th of the P rotest ant C hurch h ad

not been l e ssened , sacred mu s i c wou l d certai n l y be regarded eq u a l to

t h at of the C at h o l i c s . Al re ady at L uther ' s t i me a choral e book was

119
pub l i shed to wh i ch L uther wrote a foreword wh i ch breathes true i ns p i r a­
i on for mu s i c . Th i s i nterest i ng book t h at d i ffuses so much l i ght over

he tenet at t h at t i me i s now most r are to f i nd .

One sees from th i s s ketched descr i pt i on that o u r f ather l and

at th at t i me p u shed more toward s s acred mu s i c t h an toward s the profane.

he concerts themse l ves , wh i ch were g i ven at i mper i a l and other d i st i n­

u i s hed sovere i gn co urts , h ad the wor k i ngs of s acred mu s i c . The

i n strument al i st s st i l l knew noth i ng of forte an d p i an o ; henc e , the i r

erformance must h av e been extremel y f ast . Neverthe l e s s , one at l e ast

t i l l h as some fo l k songs from t h at t i me wh i ch are fu l l of truth and

ature. B ut i n these fo l k songs , and i n our g l i d i ng d ance [ S ch l e i fer]

are foun d the n at i on a l mu s i cal ch ar acter of our peop l e .

he greatest s i mp l i c i ty , unsoph i st i c ated and heart-s t i rr i n g me l od i es

ommend the fo l k song at that t i m e , as qu i ck mot i on and the d ance­

i nv i t i ng me l od i es commend the Schl e i fer . I t i s s t i l l s ometh i ng to

at how , w i th s uch a ser i ou s peop l e as the Germans were a l l

the wanton 3/8 meter cou l d g ai n such great progress t h at it


ven to th i s hour i s u sed i n al l the prov i nces of Germany as a n at i on a l

ance. B ut a h ard s u b st ance c an on l y be brought from i t s equ i l i br i um

by a r ash and s tron g st i mu l us .


The me l od i e s of the master s i ngers , wh i ch l i k ew i se h ave been

reserved throughout for m any centur i es , are a l so qu i te or i g i n a l . As

honorab l e i s our c h ar acter , so honorab l e al so are these me l od i es . The

erman fo l k songs , as the master songs , sel ect the m i nor key i nfre­

quent l y , j u st as the master songs ; th u s , they g i ve the i mpres s i on of

an unusual l y l ove l y , n atura l , and c l ear v i ew . Our coun trymen and


1 20
trav e l i ng art i s an s h ave kept these me l od i es near l y u nch anged . But now
one often hears the mel od i es s u n g i n other keys and embe l l i s h e d .

F ormer l y o n e s an g :

,. �
IK ffi
Gott
I f
••
g ru s s
t
dich
'ir r I r
1 i eber
r &
Wan de rsmann !
t

WO -

&$ r tUn
r
s teht
lftdir
f
de i n
I f
S i nn?
l 1
E x amp l e 3 . German F o l k Song

N ow the r abb l e s i ng t h i s fo l k song at t h i s t i me a s :

\K r � s � �E
§� Gott g rll s s d \ C 1 i e-
§ 1�£ g
ber
� �I
Wan - ders -mann ! wo-

� l
r �- � !t Q I �
hi n steht dir Si nn?

E x amp l e 4 . German F o l k Song Embel l i s h ed

One sees from t h i s l i tt l e d emon strat i on th at o n l y the o l d


b as i c me l od i es remai n except t h at the k ey was a l tered , a l though the

B l ack Forest peas ants and general l y t h e Swabi an countrymen h ave st ayed

1 21
to t h i s d ay w i t h t h e f i rst . A l so t h e movement i s much q u i c k er and

embel l i shed wi t h ornaments . Yet the m aster s i nger s , wh i ch by t h e way

are s t i l l i n N u remberg , U lm , 5 and Str asbourg , h av e kept t h e unsoph i s­

t i c ated mot i o n of t h e o l d meol d i es u nch anged, and every conno i s seur

w i l l certai n l y study them wi th prof i t and p l easure .

Before the t i me of the Th i rty Years ' War, mu s i c b l oomed among

us p arti c u l ar l y at t h e i mper i a l co urts and the ep i scopal p al aces .

The emperors Char l es [ 1500-58] , Max imi l l i an [ 15 27 - 76 ] , and Ferd i n and

[ 1503-64] mai ntai ned l arge choruses of s i nger s and i n strument a l i st s for
s acred and sec u l ar u se s . There was never a mea l wi thout t ab l e mus i c ,

whereby l i eder were s u ng , wh i ch v ery often fel l awkward l y and mass i ve l y

and [wh i ch ] h ad noth i ng i n common wi t h the neatness and s i mp l i c i ty of

t h e anc i ent sco l i a and the c hosen top i cs wh i ch t h e anci ent t ab l e

s i ngers [ Ti sch s a nger ] ob served , accord i ng to the test i mo ny o f Home r .

T h e e l ector of B av ar i a [Duke A l brecht V] h ad at t h at t i me a q u i te

s p l end i d orchestra and h ad i n Or l ande d i Lassus a Kape l l me i ster

[ 1563-94] from whom one c an st i l l l earn much today . I n g enera l the

dukes of B av ar i a i n anc i ent t i me s as i n the most recent were a l ways


the greatest patrons of mu s i c and of the art s i n g ener a l . I n the

Mu n i ch l i brary one f i nds a comp l ete reperto i re of mus i cal compos i t i on s

from those o l den t i mes from wh i ch o n e c an j udge v ery we l l t h e t aste at

t h at t i me i n the s acred as i n the profane styl e . But here al s o the

observ at i on comes true t h at , j ust as n ow , the profane h as near l y

5 c f . GS , 1 : 226 ( L & G , 2 ) .

1 22
overpowered the s acred sty l e ; at that t i me the ecc l esi ast i ca l p athos
swal l owed up the uncontrol l ed , s ec u l ar styl e.
Thi s phenomenon exp l ai ns i t sel f very e asi l y from the ch aracter
of t h at t i me . The zeal for t h e d i v i ne servi ce was s o great then t h at
the echo of the ant i phons and hymns was a l so heard wi th del i ght at the
roar i ng b anquets . I t was , part i cu l ar ly i n the c l oi sters , somewh at
al together customary to get drunk duri ng the chant i ng of a p s a l m, about
wh i ch the fore i gners h ave cri t i c i zed us very s ever l y , and i nd eed
r i ghtly so. The wretched Thi rty Years ' W ar a l most made smo l der i ng
rui ns out of the who l e of our father l an d . Before Wot an ' s thunder i n g
char i ot f l ed al l o f t h e arts and sci ences , and above a l l , the heaven l y
Po l yhymn i a. Where there i s much l ament i ng and cryi ng ; where m i sery and
mi sfortune stagger over the domai n wi th wh i tened cheeks and s craggly
hai r ; where wi dows and orph ans , the aged and cri ppl ed s i t and cry at
the edge of streams--there the harps are s u spended on the wi l l ow
branches . 6 Thi s was the st ate of th i ngs i n a l l of Germany at th at
t i me . Many hundreds of c l o i sters were p l undered ; the pri cel ess scores
were burned and scattered ; the best i nstrument al i sts s erved o ut of
desper at i on as p i pers and trumpeters among the armi es; the temp l es
echoed noth i ng anew except the p l ai nt i ve Mi serere; the d ance and
g l adness fl ed from Germany ' s groves; and even the German song became
s i l ent at dr i nk i n g-bout s . Yet a s the musi c o f Germany was s o deep l y
rooted at that t i me , mart i al musi c was d evel oped t o i t s greatest forc e .
O ur composers i nvented then t h e march , a type o f mu s i c wh i ch extol s

6 psalm 137 : 2 .

1 23
the heart and courage of a f i e l d army , th at thereby the l oss of the
b ard ' s son gs can a l most be compen s ated .
T h i s great d i scovery h as a l so a t act i c a l reason for s i nce t h at
t i me of the great wars , the measured step was est ab l i shed ; thus i t was
!necessary to express th i s step throu gh a mus i c al tempo. The march was
.even t aken up by the c av a l ry , but wi th the d i fference that the tempo
I
was qui cker .
The o l d German march s urpas ses by far most o f the newer
marches i n h i gher mart i a l consci ousness for noth i ng i s more r i d i c u l ous
t h an to t ake up the I t al i an coos and s i gh s i n a march as one i s now so
frequent l y apt to d o . After the Th i rty Years • War the fi ne arts and
sc i ences rev i ved thems e l ves wi th s l ow breaths , but q u i ckest was mus i c .
At the co urt of Emperor Maximi l i an i t was st i mu l ated wi th the greatest
: zea l . The emperor h i msel f p l ayed the v i o l i n v ery wel l after those
!
1
t i mes and al so now and aga i n assumed a s i ng i ng part i n the Mass . From
1th i s t i me on i t was as i f i t were hered i t ary among t h e i mper i a l fami ly
to d i st i n gu i sh themse l ves throu gh mus i c. Among the pri nces as wel l as
among the pri ncesses of the Austri an house there were conno i s seurs ,
respecters , and p atrons of mus i c . Leopo l d i ndeed had no great t aste,
but he mai ntai ned an orchestra of over a hu ndred strong. Joseph I
unfortunate ly i n many regards , espec i al l y with respect to mus i c , ru l ed
for too s hort a t i me. He not on ly p l ayed v ar i ous i n struments master l y
b ut al so requ i s i t i oned great mus i c i ans from I t a l y o r sent Germans there
i n order to be trai ned . N one of h i s prov i nces , perh aps none i n a l l of
Germany, surpassed the Bohemi ans i n mus i c. Si ng i n g school s were even
founded i n the v i l l ages there, and the wi nd i nstruments were
1 24
part i cu l ar l y pursued wi th such zeal that the Bohemi ans to t h i s hour
surpass not o n l y I t a l y but even the rest of Germany herei n . But wh at
i s the most s i gn i f i c ant thi ng i s that the Bohemi ans formed a comp l etely
ndi v i dual taste i n mu s i c wh i ch i s fu l l of grace and c h ar acte r , but i t
al so appro aches the comi c somewhat . The Bohemi an c h amber sty l e i s
i i ndi sputab ly the mo st beaut i f u l i n the wor l d . One hears a process i o n
of P rague students p l ayi ng symphon i e s , sonatas , l i tt l e p art i tas ,
marches , mi nuets , and sl i di ng d ances [ Schl ei fer]--wh at h armony, what
roundness of performance , wh at u n i ty , wh at so ar i n g sound ! B ut i n
s i ng i ng t h e Bohemi ans sti l l h ave not brought i t as far as , for examp l e ,
t h e S axon s and B avari ans , where there are s i ng i ng schoo l s for s o many
years and where t here i s a compl ete ly nat ural abi l i ty to s i ng among the
peo p l e . I n B av ar i a everyt h i ng babbl es and s i ngs . Who c an h e ar
anythi ng more beaut i fu l that a l i tt l e B av ari an cou ntry song? So
ori g i n al and at t h e s ame t i me sweet ; so me l od i c ; so entertai n i n g , and
especi al ly so moody; yes , often s i l l y- -no peop l e of the wor l d h ave
prod uced [ such] fo l k songs .
U nder K ar l VI mu s i c rose to a hei ght wh i ch h as st i l l not been
seen i n Germany. He mai ntai ned a hundred s i ngers and over three
hundred i nstrument a l i sts . Both of h i s K apel l mei sters , F ux and C a l d ara,
were the most profound composers in the wor l d. F ux was p art i cu l ar l y a
gre at contrapunt i st : h i s M asses st i l l today are masterpi eces fu l l of
sacred pathos wherei n one fi nds such magn i f i cent ly treated fugues that
a composer today cou l d h ard ly wri te any that are better . He al so
bec ame a mus i c a l wr i ter and wrote a Gradus ad P arnassum i n L at i n ,
where i n the found at i ons of mu s i c are d i scus sed w i th great d i scernment .
1 25
Thi s magn i fi cent book was a l so tran s l ated i nto German for the u s e of
composers and even today deserves u n i ver s a l recommendat i o n . But i t

deal s comp l et e l y w i th the mathemat i c a l mu s i c and does not to uch u pon

i t s aes thet i c port i o n by any mean s .


I n 1 7 24 [ recte 1 7 23 ] 7 an o pera was performed i n P rague i n t h e

open a i r , the l i ke s of wh i ch no o n e i n t h e wor l d eve n t o t h i s d ay has

ever seen . The s i ngers and i nst rument a l i s t s n umbered o ver a thousand.
Four K ape l l me i sters stood on h i l l ocks and l ed the mu s i cal s torm. More

t h an f i fty l arge h ar p s i chords accompani ed , and v i rtuosos f rom a l l p arts

and ends of E urope were heard ther e . The great i de a w a s performed


q u i te wel l i n s p i te of i ts g i g ant i c p l an , but t h at s ays noth i ng of i ts

cost l i ne s s , for the performance of t h i s opera cost the emperor 300 ,000

g u l de n . The res u l t co u l d not h ave been great bec ause t h e mu s i ca l mach­

i ne s were p l aced too c l ose together , and I t a l i an , German , and Bohemi an

performance [ s tyl e s ] c ros sed one another . Thi s enormou s o pera found

afterwards , cert a i n l y from the j ust afore s a i d reas o n , n o s uccessor or

i mi t ator among the European court s .

S acred mu s i c , espec i al l y , b l oomed i n fu l l s p l endor i n t h e

i mperi al stat e d ur i n g the t i me of K ar l , ch i ef l y i n V i en n a . I n a l l t h e

churches the most s p l end i d M asses were performed , a n d one a l so heard

here and there a d i st i n gu i s hed organ i st . Froberger and B uxtehude were

i n those d ays t h e mag i c i an s on th i s i nstrument . Emperor K ar l a l so h ad


s ome v i o l i n i st s o f great t aste; the choral s i ng i ng was s p l end i d l y

7 The o pera was F u x • s Costan z a e F ortezza for t he coron at i on


of Emperor K ar l V I . C a l dara conducted ; a l so present were Car l Hei nr i ch
Grau n , Q u ant z , Wei s s , and Z e l enka.

1�
staffed ; i n a word , German mus i c was e poch mak i ng fi rst u nder K ar l V I .

the t i me [bei n g ] , V i en n a h as sh aken off the I t al i an chai n s total l y

and h as ach i eved a p ec u l i ar i ty i n s ac red , theatr i c a l , m i me , c h amber ,

and fo l k styl e , wh i ch the fore i gners wonder at w i t h s i l en t e n vy .

Thorough ness wi thout pedantry; grace o n t h e who l e , even more i n i so­

l ated p art s ; a l w ays p l easant co l or i n g ; great u nderst and i ng of wi nd

i nstruments ; per h aps somewhat too much " comi c " s al t--are t he ch arac-

t er s of the V i enn a schoo l .


U nder the i mmortal M ar i a There s a mu s i c i n V i en n a rose h i gher .

She herse l f sang a s an angel i n her youth and p l ayed t h e c l av i er very

we l l . W agensei l was h er teacher . Th i s man was dur i ng h i s l i fet i me


one of the best c l av i er v i rt uoso s : h e understood the n at ur e of t h i s

i n str ument very we l l . H i s sonat as and concertos p l ac ed both h ands i n

l i ve l y mot i o n ; h i s f i nger i n g i s so n at ur a l ; yet by no means does he

reach the B ac h i an . B H e even p l ayed wi t h unusual expre ss i on and

worked out a fu gue extemporaneous l y w i t h much thoroughn es s .

Mar i a There s a , t o p l e ase her h u s b and , p atro n i zed the I t a l i an


t he ater so mu ch t h at the or i g i n al i ty of the V i ennese t aste s uffered

B i n an art i c l e on C ar l P h i l i pp Emanuel , W i l he l m F r i edm an n ,


and Joha n n Sebas t i an B ac h , Schub art wrote th i s about C . P . E . B ac h :
" I ch , der i ch schon s e i t e i n i gen J ah re n d i e neuesten K l av i erst ucke
durchst u d i r t e , fand oft , d ass d i e gr osten Mei ster i hr e K l av i erst Uc k e
m i t B ac h i scher [ i t a l i cs added] Gangen aufstutzen . • Deutsche Chron i k
( 16 J anu ary 1775):38-39 . Another examp l e from Schubart 1 s wr i t i n gs i s
t h i s : "Mu thel [ i s t ] aus der B ac h i schen [ i ta l i cs added ] Sch u l e; • • "
• •

Deut sche ChrQn i k ( 9 February 1775 ) : 94 . Here, MUthel met both


J . S. B ac h and c. P . E . B ac h , s o i t i s i mposs i b l e t o determ i n e w h at
Schubart real l y mean s . But the word " B ach i an " s eems to i nd i c at e
"trai ned aft er t h e m an ner of B ac h , " or "formed on the B ac h schoo l , " a s
Burney puts i t . S e e p ages 2 1 a n d 23 of th i s tr an s l at i o n .

1 27
somewhat from i t ; yet the great masters a l so used t h i s drawback i n
order t o reach a benef i c i a l end by smoot h i n g the rough edges of the

Germans w i th I t a l i an mus i c . H as s e was the G erman Orpheus at t h at t i me .


N o t on l y Germany , b ut a l l of It a l y perpetu ated the memory o f th i s gre at

man w i th l oud approv al . H e u n i ted the tenderness and g r ace of I ta l i an

song w i t h the thoroughness of the German phras e ; he studi ed h i s poet

i th more th an c u stomary thoughtfu l ne s s ; he l ov ed s i mp l i c i ty ; he g av e


the i ns tr ument l i t t l e t o d o i n order to h e l p the s i ng i ng ; h e was s i mp l e

i n h i s modu l at i on s and extremel y c l e ar i n h i s h armon i es . H i s mel od i c


movement s are q u i te new , often very str i k i n g . H i s i m ag i n at i on was very

r i ch and d i d not a l l ow h i m to become exh austed by a great q u an t i ty of

operas composed i n Germany and I t a l y or by so m any Mas ses and ch amber

p i eces . A l l the courts respected th i s m an and over l oaded h i m w i t h

g i ft s . Frederi ck t h e Great often offered h i m h i s serv i ce s , b u t wh i ch

he dec l i ned out of l ove to the S axon court ( at t h at t i me t h e Royal


Po l i sh co urt ) . I n shor t , Hasse was i n rea l i ty a great , t horough

composer contr i b ut i ng t o the greatest h on or of the Germans . When s ome­

one once degraded t h e great Hasse before Jommel l i , the great master

s ai d w i th l ofty i nd i g n at i on , " I cannot endure i t when one b e l i t t l e s my

t e acher . " 9

9 schub art added th i s foot note to h i s auto b i ogr aphy :


" Jomme l l i was general ly very c a l m [Q? l l ig ] . A f l atterer once cri t i ­
c i zed the German compos er i n my presence . ' Si l ence ! ' s a i d Jomme l l i
wi t h an angry g l ance. ' I h ave l e ar ned a great deal from H as se and
G r au n . ' " GS , 1 : 94 ( L&G , 1 ) . Then wou l d l og i c a l l y fo l l ow the as i de
o f Jomme l l;--( i . e . , •• fe:annot endure i t when someone be l i t t l es my
t eacher . " ) .

1�
At the s ame t i me d ance mu s i c i n V i en n a was a l most brought to
i ts zen i t h . Starzer composed s uch thorough l y s p l end i d bal l et s t h at

t h ey not o n l y ench anted the t aste o f t h e V i en nese p u b l i c but al so o f


every fore i gner . So much thoughtfu l ne s s rei gned i n the phrases o f th i s

man t h at i t i s regrettab l e not to be ab l e to admi re h i s s trength even

more i n the s acred styl e . For Starzer was dest i ned for the ch urch , but

h i s s p i r i t l ost i t sel f i n the wh i r l of the theater . H aydn , me anwh i l e ,


l ed the s acred mu s i c i n V i enn a . H i s s tyl e i s f i ery , f u l l and nob l e ,

the s hout for j oy i n h i s H al l el uj ah and Amen made h i m f amo u s , but h e


t r i f l es somet i me s out of pred i l ect i on ag ai nst t h e Austr i an t aste i n

putt i ng orn ament s i n h i s Masses where t h ey shou l d not b e p l aced. These

s p ang l es often resemb l e the chec kered dress of the h ar l eq u i n and pro­

f an e the p athos o f the s acred s ty l e . H i s fugues , h owever , are worked

out wi t h f i re and thoroughne s s .

The B er l i n schoo l h as for a l on g t i me made a great sen s at i on .

And even i f i ts br i ghtness i s n ow i n a s omewh at f aded cond i t i o n , i t

st i l l deserves t o b e i nvest i g ated most p a i n s t ak i ng l y . F rede r i ck the

Great , who q u i t e cert ai n ly seemed to be no fri end of the mech an i cal

church serv i ce , h ated the s acred sty l e , and thus he t r an s p l anted i t

comp l ete l y t o the s t age and i n the concert h a l l . H ard l y h ad h e t aken

up the government when h e al re ady a l l owed the best I t al i an s i ngers to


come as a counterwe i gh t to h i s worr i es as a ru l er . M any gen i u se s d i s­

t i ngu i shed thems e l ves u nder h i m as u nder t h e go l d en s t aff of every

great man . The most noteworthy of whom are the f o l l ow i n g :

1�
Grau n , lO a K ape l l me i ster i n the l i teral sense; equ al to
every mus i cal s ty l e . H i s operas are composed wi t h i ndescr i b ab l e l ove-

l i ne s s and s i mp l i c i ty . Yet o n e f i nd s monotony i n t h em and g enera l l y

more s t u dy of cou nterpo i nt t h an s t u dy of mus i c . N everthel ess , h i s

me l od i es are s p l en d i d , h i s modu l at i on s thorough l y new , h i s h armon i es

wel l chosen , and h i s manner of wri t i ng extreme l y s i mp l e ; h e composed

m any o peras i n the most s p l end i d t aste. B ecause h e h i ms e l f s an g very


wel l , he al s o composed a l l ari as s o tunefu l ly t h at even today they

correspond to t h e cons en s u s of the who l e wor l d . Tendern e s s i n feel i ng ,


c l ear i mag i n at i o n , magn i fi cent u nder s t an d i n g , youthfu l s p i r i t , and a

h e art open to every good sen s at i on are found i n Grau n • s scores . The

p r i n c i pal feature i n h i s mu s i c al character was th i s : to entrust every­

t h i n g to the vo i ce and on l y l i tt l e to t h e i nstruments . H i s b asses are


wr i tten w i t h extreme contrapu ntal correctnes s ; contr ary to t h e custom

of the I t a l i an s , h e f i gured them a l l w i t h such cons c i entousness t h at

e ach modu l at i on was noted by i t . I n a l l of h i s p i eces nei ther the

dr ummi ng bass nor the s t accato comes out. H e k new t h e n at u re of each

i ns trument utter l y : a s a great p a i nter m i xe s col ors o n h i s p a l ette , s o

h e m i xed sound s . Y et h i s i nterest was more the very mov i ng t h an the

very s t ate l y . On profund i ty h ard l y a composer i n t h e wor l d c ame n ear

h i m ; i n a l l mus i c al wor k i ngs he s h owed h i mse l f to be a master . His

s acred work s h ave a l ove l i ness and s o l emn i ty wi t h wh i ch few c an be

comp ared . H i s voc al phras e , t h e ebb and f l ow of h i s modu l at i on s , h i s

cryst al c l e ar h armony, the extremely art i st i c h and l i ng of h i s

l O comp are Schubart • s assessment of Graun w i t h B urney• s .


See B urney H , 2 : 9 5 2- 54 .
130
decl amat i ons and rec i t at i ve , abov e a l l t h e n at ure of t h e m i dd l e
voi ces--espec i a l l y the v i o l a wh i ch h e a l l owed to wor k so cord i al l y

w i th t h e bass--the au sp i c i ou s reforms o f h i s texts , i n a word :


wi sdom, i nt e l l ect , profound understan d i ng of a l l mus i c a l rel at i onsh i ps ,

accommodat i on to the s p i r i t of h i s century but never to t h e po i nt of

s al v i sh l owl i ness , l um i nous phras e , profound sweepi n g profun d i ty al most

to the boundar i es of ped antry are Grau n ; that l i fe l ess s i l houette ! His
Death of J esus [ Tod yesu] was g azed at by a l l the wor l d , 1 1 a l though

one cou l d equ a l l y s ay , and r i ght l y s o , t h at sti l l too much secu l ar mi en

ex i st s . B ut Graun d i d t h i s for a profound reason : t h e angel took the

p i l gr i m ' s form, i n order to be ab l e to s peak wi t h i nh ab i t ants who l i ve

i n a l ow l y s t at e [ S t au bbewohnern ] . 1 2 O h � who h as ever treated a

fugue as t h i s o n e : "Chr i st h as l eft u s a n examp l e that w e shou l d

fo l l ow i n h i s foot steps . " 13

H i s l ast wor k was the great Te O eum l au d amus [ 17 5 7 ] on the

P ragu e batt l e , wh i ch i s fu l l of d i g n i ty , n at ure , majesty , art , and

1 1 " Gr au n • s Tod Jesu i st g ew i ss besser g earbe i t et [ t h an


Al l egri ' s M i serer e ; see p age 89 of th i s tran s l at i on ] , u n d we i t mehr
werth ; • • n • MAfD 1 783 , p . 1 24 .

1 2comp are the tran s l at i on of t h i s passage w i t h t h at fo und


i n Leon ard G . Rat ner , C l as s i c Mus i c : Expres s i o n , Form and St l e ( New
Y or k : Sch i rmer B ook s , , pp. •c u ar s comp a 1 n ere
concer n s R am l er ' s devi at i on from, or perhaps h i s i nterpo l at i on of , t he
b i bl i ca l account of t h e P as s i on fo l l ow i n g Chri st ' s d e at h . See Matt .
27 : 5 1-53 , Mark 1 5 : 38 , and L u ke 23 : 45 . The pass age i n quest i on i n
Graun ' s sett i ng h as a seraph i m d escend i ng from the h e aven s to l ament
l ou d l y t h at "he i s no more ! " C ar l Hei n r i c h Grau n , Der Tod Jesu , ed .
How ard Serwer ( M ad i son , W i scon s i n : A-R E di t i on s [ 1975] , p . xix . The
mus i c a l sett i ng i s accompan i ed rec i t at i ve for a sol o bass voi ce wi t h
obv i ou s work p a i n t i ng i n the accomp an i ment . An anecdote about t h i s
v ery p ass age m ay b e found i n M und KAadJ 1 783 , p . 141 .
13 1 P et . 2 : 21 .
131
h armony; i n short , the best Te D eum l au d amu s i n the wor l d . H e d i ed ,
th i s great , god l y man , i n h i s fort i eth ye ar. Frederi ck , h i s k i n g , even

s tood i n Bohem i a s u rrounded by l eg i ons of enemi es when he rece i ved t h e


news of Graun ' s d e ath . He hes i t at e d , s h o o k h i s head , and s a i d : " E i ght

d ays ago I l ost my best f i e l d marsh al , now my Grau n : a great man i s a

great man ! I wi l l appo i nt no f i el d marsh a l nor K ape l l me i ster unt i l I

ag ai n f i nd a Schwer i n and a Graun . "

W i th so many qual i t i es , Graun s t i l l tr i ed h ard to i mprove the

art of s i nge r s . B ecause he h i ms e l f was a g reat s i nger, as a l re ady men­

t i oned , he succeeded i n t h i s so mu ch e as i er . The best s i ngers , for

examp l e , C arest i n i and S al i mb i n i , 14 admi tt ed to h ave l earned very

much from Grau n . Of heavy col or atura h e was not i n the l e ast a l over;
on the cont rary , h e trai ned the h uman vo i ce by sp l end i d s i ng i n g

exerc i ses to bri ng forth e ach tone comp l et e and rou n d , to expres s the

t ext wi th extreme d i st i nctness , to dec l a i m the rec i t at i v e i ntel l i g i b l y ,

an d , espec i al l y , t o perform the ou tstand i ng p l aces wi th emot i o n .

Above a l l Graun accomp an i ed a s a master; thus h i s basses are s o

m agn i f i cent l y f i gured , for Graun r i gh t ly mai ntai ned t h at i t wou l d b e


l az i ness or l ack of u nderstand i n g i f one f a i l ed to d o t h i s .

Gr aun al so s et s p i r i tual l i eder to mus i c , espec i a l l y some by

K l o pstock , and t hereby d emon strated how master l y h e k n ew h ow to treat

even s acred mu s i c [ choral ] . But there was not h i ng l es s s uccessfu l t h an

the comi c sty l e , for h i s s p i r i t was , as one c an a l ready see from th i s

14 "A l so , the famous s i nger G aspari n i , l on g ago estab l i shed


and we l l adv anced i n years , d i ed i n Berl i n . She and S a l i mb i n i and
C arest i n i were former l y the j ewe l s [ Zi erden] of the Ber l i n theater. "
Teutsche Chron i k ( 9 May 1776 ) : 300 .
132
:
sk etch of h i s ch aracter , f ar too ser i ous and too s o l emn for t h i s sort .

I n shor t , Graun was a creator of t h e wor l d -famous Ber l i n schoo l , and

h i s fol l owers h ad never g i ven up the v e s t i ges of t h e i r great predeces­

sor; thus they wou l d n ever s i nk to the ped ant i c st i ffness wh i ch one n ow

r i gh t l y censures the B er l i ner s .

Agr i co l a , 1 5 royal Prus s i an court composer ; acte d as com-

poser , s i n g i ng master , an d mus i ca l wr i ter , and i n al l three spec i a l t i es

h e rose above t h e av erage. H e composed s er i ous and comi c o per as; i n

the s er i ou s sty l e Gr aun was comp l et e l y h i s mode l . He i s very regu l ar ,

but f requent l y st i ff . H i s me l od i c movements are not a l w ays t h e best;

on the other h an d , h i s progres s i ve and contempor ary h armony i s f l aw­

l ess . I n the comi c styl e h e i s more ori g i n a l . H i s Buona F i g l i uo l a 16

h as real l y s pl e nd i d p a s s ages . He a l so composed very wel l for the

c l av i er , yet more w i th art th an wi th n ature. H i s w i fe sang s p l end i d ly ;

h e h i msel f g ave master l y i nstruct i on i n s i ng i ng ; h e tran s l ated the

f amo us Tos i S i ngsch u l e [ i n 1 7 5 7 ] i nto pure G erman and i nc re ased i t yet

w i t h m ag n i fi cent comments .

Marpurg , one of the greatest mu s i c al theor i sts i n a l l o f

E urope . H i s c ri t i ca l wr i t i n g s are not o n l y wri tten i n a very c l e ar

sty l e but a l so reveal deep mu s i c al v i ew s and great s ch o l arsh i p . He

i ndeed remai ned t r u e t o h i s once st i pu l ated mus i c al system and

1 5 I n cont ent , Schubart ' s o b i t u ary of Agr i co l a i n t h e


Deut sch e Chron i k ( 9 J anu ary 177 5 ) : 24 i s very s i m i l ar to t h e eva l u at i on
presentea nere .

16 L a b uo n a f i l i uo l a was composed by N i cco l o P i cc i nn i i n



1760 . A sett i n g of t i s text i s not l i sted amon g Agr i co l a ' s work s .

133
defended i t to the poi nt of pedantry; yet one must admi t t h at i n h i s
Beytrage 17 here and there are found very correct suggest i ons on
musi ca l aesthet i c s wh i ch no one h ad even treated before h i m. Th i s man
was so thorough [ and ] h i s j u dgments on mu s i cal works and art i sts were
[ ausf i e l en ] so pert i nent s yet h i s own compos i t i ons are so forced and
st i ff . H i s c l av i er pi eces are h i gh ly forced and mathemat i c a l l y l ai d
ou t; h i s ari as are hand l ed co l d ly and school master l y; and h i s songs
are wi thout s avor and strength . Yet the connoi s seur must study them
for the s ake of thei r profundi ty.
K i rn berger i nd eed an i ce-co l d theori st s but a wr i ter of great
i mportance . One sti l l has noth i ng more fundamental t h an h i s D i e Kunst
des rei nen S atzes [ 17 7 1 s 17 76-79] . 18 I ndeed s one g ets a l oud
poundi ng of the heart when he sees the many f i gures and contrapuntal
mu s i ngs over whi ch one must l abor ; b ut whoever wants to l earn to com­
pose thorough ly must not pay attent i on to the persp i rati on on the fore­
head nor be i nti m i d ated by the dryness of a K irnberger . H i s system
cert ai n ly goes deeps but i t i s too one-s i ded and thus deteri orates to
i nj u sti ces ag ai nst men who h ave anot her system. The fugues of
K i rnberger are cert a i n ly awkward and troub l esome s but are treated wi th
great art and mu st be stud i ed carefu l l y by organ i st s and c l av i er
p l ayers . B ut whatever he h as wr i tten for the vo i ce i s i ntol erab l e

1 7 F r i edr i ch W i l helm M arpurg s H i stori sch-Kri t i sche Beytrage


z u r Aufname der Mu s i k , 5 vol s . (Berl i n : J . J . Schttt z ens Witwe [-G. A .
L ange] , !154-78 ) .
18 Joh ann P h i l i pp K i rnberger , The Art of Str i ct Compo s i t i on ,
tran s . Jurgen Thyme, ed. D av i d Beach (New Haven : Yal e University
P res s , 1 98 2 ) .
134
and set wi t h a d e at h l y co l d heart and t herefore w i thout any effect .

B etween the i ce -co l d t heori st and fervent gen i u s a g appi n g ch asm i s

est ab l i shed ; t h i s i s a l so seen i n K i rnberger , who , w i t h h i s cr i t i ­


c i zi n g , f au l t -f i nd i n g , and brood i n g , h as g i ven t h e Ber l i n schoo l a

b ad reput at i on .

Krause h as expressed exce l l ent k now l edge i n mu s i c i n h i s tract

on mus i ca l poet ry [ 1 7 5 2] , as wel l as on poet ry i n gener a l . No poet who

work s for a compo ser c an be wi t hout t h i s usef u l book . He shows from

I t a l i an and German examp l es h ow ar i as , c av at i n as , rec i t at i ves , duet s ,

t r i o s , and c horu ses o f poets and compos ers must b e proper l y t re at ed .

The publ i c req u i res a n ew ed i t i on of t h i s beaut i fu l book where pr i n-

c i p l es and examp l es of most recent t i mes are more sat i sf actory .

One a l so h as v ar i ou s mu s i c a l compos i t i ons of t h i s Krause wh i ch

are treated , i ndeed , wi t h much art but wi th l i t t l e t ast e . F o r th i s

reason , h i s l i ed er co l l ect i on pub l i s hed i n Berl i n , 19 l i eder by

Germ an s i n four p art s on wh i ch the greatest masters worked, was appre-

c i ated by peop l e . Al though the phrase i s v ery correct , the songs are

wel l sel ect e d , and a l so the me l od i es are often not bad l y adv i s ed . But

w i th not h i ng i s c arp i ng cri t i c i sm and st i ffness l es s to l er at i ng t h an

w i t h the mus i ca l l i e d .

Qu ant z . P erh aps t h e best f l ute p l ayer i n t h e wor l d , at l east


i n t heory no one h as s urpassed h i m. He h as made a fortune at the

P russ i an court as st i l l few mu s i c i an s i n E urope h av e done. S i nc e h e

19 c hr i st i an Gottfri ed Krau s e , l i eder der Deut s chen m i t


Mel od i en , 4 vo l s . , {Ber l i n : G . L . W i nter , 1767-68) . See RISM B/ I I/
p . 218.
--

135
was the f l ut e t e acher of h i s k i ng [ beg i nn i ng i n 1 7 28 ] , h e enjoyed h i s

f avor for more t h an t h i rty consecut i ve year s . He rece i ved a s a l ary of

4 ,000 t h a l ers , 20 rece i ved one h u nd red d u c ats for e ach f l ut e tested

by h i m , and i n add i t i on to t h i s [he rece i ved ] many g i ft s . He l i ved i n

h i s own p a l ace at Potsd am wh i ch t h e k i n g h ad presented to h i m. His


d i l i gence was aston i sh i ng ; the k i ng posses sed over three hundred unpub­

l i shed concertos by h i m, w i thout [ count i n g ] t he i nn umerab l e sonat as ,

concertos , and other p i eces wh i ch h e h ad composed for h i m. Unt i l h i s

end F reder i ck preferred Quant z • s compo s i t i on s for t h e f l ute t o a l l

others . The wor l d pos sesse s very many p i eces by t h i s man . H i s method

of b l ow i n g ( [ i . e . , ] t h e manner of p l ayi n g and h and l i ng h i s i n strument ) ,

h i s new and most n at ur a l f i nger i n gs , [ and ] the m any wel l -proport i oned ,

composed work s h av e made h i m the t e acher of a l l of E urope i n t h i s . B ut

w i t h t h at , Qu antz • s mer i t i s sti l l not comp l et e . He wrote a c l as s i c

work about the f l ute u nder the t i t l e An l e i tun9 d i� F l ot e z u s p i e l en

[ 17 5 2] w i t h i l l ustrated examp l es and , by measured n umber s , adv i s ab l e

f i n ger i n gs . By me ans of th i s book h e assu red l y and comp l et e l y won t he

l aure l of i mmort a l i ty . H ard l y anyt h i ng e l se c an be s a i d about t h i s

i n str ument t h an w h at h e wou l d h av e s a i d here . Whoever h as an e ar ,

thoughts , and d i l i gence c an h i mse l f l earn [to p l ay ] t h e f l ute from th i s


book w i thout an i nstr uctor [because] the sty l e i s c l ear and d i st i nct ,

[ and ] the pr i nc i p l es are f au l t l ess . B ut t h i s work i s a l so h i gh ly

20Q u antz act u a l l y rece i ved an annual s a l ary of 2 ,000 th a l ers ,


t h a l ers , as B urney reports i n Burney G , p . 195 . Burney ' s i nform at i on
was b ased on Q u an t z • s auto b i ogr aphl c a l s k etch , p u b l i shed i n 1 754 i n t h e
t h i rd n umber o f t h e f i rst vo l ume of Marpurg ' s H i sto r i sch-Kr i t i sche
B eytrage zur Aufh ahme der Mu s i k ( see p ag e 1 34 , n . 17 o f t h i s
tran s l ation } .
1 36
recommended to other mus i c i an s . One f i nd s therei n magn i f i cent h i nt s
a n d pract i ca l sugges t i on s for the estab l i shment o f a n orchestr a ,

arrangement and p l acement o f i n strument a l i sts , trai n i n g o f t h e voi ce ,


and accompan i ment of t h e h arps i chord - -a l l of wh i ch exh i b i t t h e h and

of the mast er . Q u antz mai ntai ned t h at the deeper t h e mu s i c i an l ooks

to the who l e , the better he wou l d be on h i s p art i cu l ar i nstrumen t .

C onsequent l y , v i rt uosos wi thout th eory were t o h i m noth i n g more than

n atura l i sts and organ g r i nders who do not u nderstan d wh at they are

p erformi n g . I n s h ort , Q u antz i s t h e mode l o f a true v i rt uoso ,


accord i ng to whom those who want to be d i s p l ayed wi t h th i s t i t l e must

measure up . He d i ed venerab l e i n ye ars as i n worth . He l eft beh i nd a

fortune of 70 ,000 t h a l ers . Freder i ck h ad a mon ument erected for h i m :

on b l ack marb l e rested h i s b u st of wh i te m arb l e; underneath one sees a

f l ute enc i rc l ed wi t h l aurel ; the i ns cr i pt i on read s : •Man i bu s Qu an z i i

I nstru x i t R egem F ri eder i c um secundum . .. 21

The f am i l y of Bend a , wh i ch extended i tsel f even to our t i me i n

v ar i ous bran ches , h as brought forth many mu s i c i ans . H ere i s the d i s­

course of the two f amo u s v i o l i n i s t s :

The e l der F r an z Bend a [ 1709-86 ] w as a l ready i n F reder i ck ' s

ser v i ce [ 173 3-86 ] when Frederi ck was sti l l a crown pr i n c e . I n h i s best

years h e p l ayed the v i o l i n as a m ag i c i an . H e trai ned h i ms e l f as a l l

great gen i u ses thems e l ves d o . The tone wh i ch he drew o u t of h i s v i o l i n

was the reson ance of a s i l v er bel l . H i s arpegg i os are new , strong ,

[ an d ] f u l l of energy; the f i nger i n gs were profound l y s t ud i ed ; and h i s

21 s y the h and s of Q u an tz , h e i nstructed K i ng F reder i ck I I .

137
performance was comp l et e l y s u i t ed to t h e n ature of t h e v i o l i n . I ndeed ,

h e d i d not p l ay as fast as our rash contemporar i es n ow d emand , b ut [ h i s

p l ayi n g was] s o much more l uc i ou s , profo und , [ and ] d ec i s i ve . In the

ad ag i o he h as near l y reached the m ax i mu m : h e l ad l ed f rom t h e heart and

p en etrat ed i nto t h e h e art , and one h as seen more t h an once peop l e weep

whenever Bend a p l ayed an ad ag i o . 2 2 H i s v ar i ous v i o l i n p i eces are

general l y u sed even today as exerci ses for v i o l i n i st s . No one amon g the

Berl i n c hamber mu s i c i an s knew how to j o i n profu nd i ty w i th grace as he;


consequent l y , h i s approval sti l l cont i nue s . When Lo l l i was i n Ber l i n ,

Bend a , a l thou gh h i s h ands were a l ready very st i ff , p l ayed h i m a n ad ag i o

s o i nexpres s i b l y mel od i ou s l y t h at Lo l l i me l ted with d e l i gh t and cri ed

o ut , "Oh , i f I cou l d p l ay an ad ag i o l i ke t h at ! But I mus t be too mu ch

of a h ar l equ i n i n order to p l ease my contempor ar i es . " Bend a composed a

g re at deal , yet h i s p i eces are now becomi n g more and more r are because

t h i s great man h as more manuscr i pt s of h i s compos i t i on s t h an [he h ad ]

engr aved and pr i nted . F rom t h i s man one h as on l y twe l ve s o l o s for t h e

v i o l i n wh i ch were engraved i n P ar i s [ 1 763] and a f l ute so l o t h at was

p u b l i shed i n Berl i n [ 17 56 ] . I t i s hoped t h at one wou l d make h i s

p i eces , as a true v i o l i n schoo l , more u n i versal throu g h p ub l i c at i o n .

H i s d au gh t er , J u l i an e Bend a [ Re i c h ardt] , h as e arned u n i v ersal

approval i n Germany for hers e l f by her beaut i fu l h arps i chord p l ayi n g ,

her m ag n i f i cent vo i ce, and h e r l ov e l y l i eder , wh i ch s h e p u b l i shed s et

to mus i c [ 1775-80 , 1 78 1 , 1 78 2] . H i s [ i . e . , Franz ' s ] younger brother ,

22c f . B urney G , p . 1 7 3 . See a l so C hr i stoph D an i e l


Ebel i ng , tran s . , Car l B urney ' s der Mu s i k Doctor s Tagebuch ,
• • •

3 vo l s . ( H ambur g : Bode , l l /3 ; repr 1 nt ed . , c as s e l : B arenre i ter,


1959 } , 3 : 91-9 2 n .
1 38
Joseph Bend a � p l ays t h e v i o l i n l i k ew i se v ery we l l , but by no means

reaches up to h i s brothe r . He a l so composes very beaut i fu l p i eces i n

c h amber sty l e . 23

Schu l z , mus i c master at t h e F rench theater i n B er l i n [ 1776-78]

and afterward s Kape l l me i ster for Pri nce Hei n r i ch [from 1780 to 1787 ] ,

p l aces h i mse l f for t h e most p art i n t h e s acred styl e . H e a l so wri tes

stron g l y and thoroug h l y , and h as perfected t h e counterpo i n t . But what

h as made a n ame for h i m the most are the s p l end i d art i c l es of h i s


concern i ng mus i c i n the l ast part of Su l zer ' s l ex i con of t h e f i ne art s

from the l etter S on [ 1773] . 24


...
H i s pr i nc i p l es are great and most l y

correct ; h i s German styl e i s pure and crystal l i ne ; and h i s mu s i c a l


k now l edge i s l ad l ed out from exper i ence and s u i t ab l e profound t ho ught .
He i s one of the f i rst who fe l t the need to treat the aesthet i c p art of

mus i c l i k e the mathem at i ca l [ p art ] . S i nce he i s a s t u d i o u s mu s i c i an


and knows exact l y the s i mi l ar i t i es of the arts and s c i ence to mu s i c ,

then noth i ng other t h an s omet h i n g t horo u gh and beaut i fu l i s expected

�rom
I

h i s wri t i n g . [ I t i s ] too b ad t h at we h av e on l y d i s connected l y

23 I n h i s n i nth l etter , R e i c h ar ad t wr i tes about t h e B en d a


f am i l y , espec i a l l y Fran z , Car l [=Joseph ] , F r i ed r i ch , a n d J u l i an e ( see
a l so p p . 4 1 ff ) , wi t h much prai se and a l so ment i on s other v i o l i n i sts
such as La Mot t e , Lol l i , D i ttersdorf , Pesch , Fran ze l , and Crame r .
R e i chardt al so compares the d anc i ng of Noverre to B end a • s v i o l i n
p l ayi n g . A s i m i l ar anal o gy l i nk s t he v i o l i ni st/composer Del l er w i t h
Noverre. S ee p ag e 203-4 of t h i s trans l at i on . Johan n F r i edri ch
Rei ch ardt , Bri efe e i nes aufmerk s amen Rei senden d i e Mu s i k betreffend ,
2 vo l s . ( Fr ankfur t u nd Lei pzig : n . p . , 1774 ; �rankfurt u nd b resl au :
n . p . , 1 7 7 6 ; rpt . e d . , H i l desh i m : Georg Ol ms , 1977 ) , 1 : 161-7 2 .
24 Joh an n Georg S u l zer , A l l gemei ne Theor i e der schonen
KUnste, 2 v o l s . ( Le i pzi g : M . G . We 1 dmanns Erben u nd Rei ch , 177 1 ;
Berl i n : George Ludwi g W i nter , 1 77 4 ) . A rev i sed second ed i t i o n was
pub l i shed i n 1 778-79 ; a t h i rd ed i t i on i n 1 786-87 .
139
( i . e. , i n al ph abet i cal order ) exp l ai ned pr i nc i p l es from whi ch i t i s
very d i ff i cu l t to d i scern h i s system .
W i l he l m Fri edmann B ac h . U ndoubted ly t h e greatest organ i st
i n the wor l d ! He i s a son of the wor l d f amous [Johan n ] Sebasti an
B ach , and has re ached h i s f ather i n organ p l ayi ng i f not surpassed
[ h i m] . 25 He possesses a very f i ery gen i u s , a creat i ve i mag i n at i o n ,
or i gi nal i ty and newness o f thoughts , a n i mpetuou s q u i c kness , and the
mag i cal power to ench ant al l hearts wi th h i s organ p l ayi ng. H e h as
comp l ete ly t aken possess i on of the n ature of the organ ; sti l l no one
h as copi ed h i s u nderstand i ng of the stops . He mi xes the stops as the
p ai nter mi xes h i s co l ors on the pal ette wi thout i nterrupt i ng h i s
p l ayi n g for ev en an i nst ant and thereby bri n gs forth wonderfu l tot al ­
i ty. H i s h and i s a g i gant i c h and wh i ch does not t i re by pl ayi ng al l
d ay l ong. C ounterpo i nt , l i g at ures [ l i g aturen], new , u n u s u a l modu l a­
t i on s , magn i f i cent h armoni es , and extreme ly d i ff i cu l t phrases , wh i ch he
br i n gs out wi th the greatest pur i ty and correctness , heart-st i rr i ng
p ath os , and he aven ly grace--al l of these thi ngs the mag i c i an B ach
u n i tes i n h i mse l f , and i n that way provokes the aston i shment of the
wor l d . If the organ i s good and comp l et e , one does not n eed i nstru­
mental accompan i ment when B ach p l ays , for he takes the p l ace of an
orchestra of a hundred persons by mean s of h i s creat i ve s p i r i t . Except
for h i s great father, no one h as ru l ed the pedal wi th th i s authori ty as
he. He t akes u p the theme of a fugue wi th the feet , makes mordent s and
tri l l s with the feet , and prev ai l s over t he most n umerous congreg at i on

25 see Deutsche C hroni k ( 6 J une 1 7 74 ) : 159-60 .

140
wi t h h i s footstep . Too b ad t h at h i s organ compo s i t i on s are more
v al u ab l e but r arer t h an go l d ; yet , i t i s a conso l at i on for art t h at

t h i s foremost master h i mse l f h as assemb l ed h i s org an p i eces and h as

prom i sed to h av e t h em p ub l i shed after h i s deat h .

E l i zabeth Mar a . S h e and t h e abov e ment i on ed G ab r i e l l i compete

w i t h one another over the l aurel of s i ng i n g , but a l l true conno i sseurs

h av e deci ded i t a l ready i n M ara ' s f avor . H er range i s of an aston­

i sh i n g compas s : she reaches from t enor a u p to c [c • • • ] , h ence u p

t hrough n i neteen [ s i c] go l de n r ungs w i th h i ghest ref i nement and cor­

rect nes s . 26 She read s off everyt h i n g from the p ag e t h at i s l a i d

before her; 27 she i s a s strong i n t h e adag i o as i n t h e a l l egro .

I n her bravura ari as she bri n gs forth the most remar k ab l e r u n s wi t h

e xtreme accuracy; 28 she throws o ff s i xteenth s a n d t h i rty- se cond s

wi t h such power t h at no v i o l i n i st does i t l i ke her . Her vo i ce i s c l e ar

and p i erc i ng . S he s i n gs w i t h comp l et e and b roken vo i ce (or sotto

voce ) w i t h equ a l beauty. Her tri l l s , ferm at as , mordent s , r u n s ,


mezzot i nts , espec i al l y her c adenzas , are i ncomp arab l y beaut i fu l . Al l

of th i s she comb i nes wi th a depth of fee l i n g wh i ch aboun d s i n every

l i st ener and f i l l s h i m w i th d e l i gh t . I n every sty l e s h e s i ngs exce l ­

l ent l y . She s ucceeds i n the l i ed as i n t h e chor a l e bec ause s h e l i ft s

26 MAad J 1782, p . 34 has h er r ange from g to e • • • .

27 " Anfangs sche i n s i e auch i hren R uhm g an z a l l e i n i n


Schweri gkei ten z u s uchen . N i chts was i hr z u schwer ; s i e s an g pri ma
v i st a S ac hen , d i e auch grossen V i o l i n i sten MUhe m achten; und d as s an g
s 1 e al l es l e i ght , re i n und correc t . " " •u n d s i e sang s i e a l l e zur
• •

hochsten Verwu nderu n g vom B l att weg . " MAadJ 1782, p p . 34- 35 . C f .
B urney G , p . 1 6 7 .
28 cf. B urney G , p . 1 99 .
141
and sustai ns the who l e notes wi th except i on al power . S he h as never
sung i n the comi c styl e , yet she has many mood s , as al l gre at s i n gers

d o , and does not a l ways rema i n the s ame . When the grand duke was i n

Berl i n , Mar a shou l d h ave exce l l ed i n a n ew oper a . But she s ang bad l y

out o f c apr i c i ousness because s h e w a s not g i v en the ro l e t h at she

demanded . 29 Smi l i n g , the k i n g sai d to the grand d u k e , " I t wou l d be

e as i er for me to l e ad 200 ,000 heads of my army t h an t h at woman • s head

here . " 30 Mara • s husband i s a very good v i o l once l l i st , but i s too


conce i ted . 3 1

Duport the e l der h as h umb l ed h i m , for he p l ays the v i o l once l l o

wi th such mag i c a l power that one wi l l h ard ly f i nd h i s equ a l i n Europe .

H e d i rect s the bow as i n a storm, and the tone rai ns down . H e s l i des

bol d l y over the f i n gerboard to the extreme end and f i n al l y d i s appears

i n the tenderest h armon i c s . H i s concertos and sonat as are so d i ff i c u l t

t h at on l y J ager i n Ans bach knows how to bri ng them out . 32

29 " Uebr i g ens besas s s i e so v i e l C ap ar i cen ; san g , besonders


wenn der Kon i g n i cht i n der Oper war , oft so n achl as s i g ; • " •MAadJ
• •

1782, p . 35 .
30 c f . the fol l owi n g excerpt from MAad J 1784 , p . 1 7 2 :
"Al l e i n er [ P r i n z Georg ] wurde e s g ar b a l d mOde, una pfl egte n achmal s ,
a l s Kon i g von Eng l and , 6fters zu s agen , er wo l l e v i e l l e i chter e i ne
Arrnee von 50000 Mann command i ren a l s e i ne Gese l l sch aft von Oper i sten . "
31 Re i ch ardt , Bri efe , 1 : 8 , prai ses Joh ann Mar a • s p l ayi ng
and cal l s him " cert ai n l y o n e o f t h e greatest gen i uses . " An extended
art i c l e abo ut Johann Mar a was i n the MAadJ 1782, pp . 36-37 . Schub art • s
stat ement b as i c al l y agrees wi th these contempor ary report s . But see
Lord Mount- Edgcumb e , Mu s i c a l Remi n i scences ( London , 1 8 28 ) , c i ted by
Grove 6 , 1 1 : 6 39 , where Mara is des cribed as " an i d l e drunken man and a
bad p l ayer on the c e l l o . ••
32Rei ch ardt • s asse ssment of Duport agrees wi th Schubart • s .
See Rei ch ardt , Br i efe , 1 : 1 7 7-78 .
142
Ernst E i chner . Thi s favor i te of the Graces p l ayed the bas soon
w i t h unusual sweetness . He compl et e l y took up th i s grumb l i n g , mock i ng

tone and tu ned i t to the most del i c ate tenor and to t h e most l ov e l y
contral to . 33 P l e as i n g gracefu l ness and me l t i ng sweetness was h i s

performanc e , j u s t as the styl e of h i s compos i t i on s . But he heaps too

many sweets on h i s compos i t i ons and thereby destroys the u n i ty of the

phr ase. For t h at reason h i s styl e becomes mott l ed more often , and many

of h i s p i eces seem to h ave more t h an one mot i ve . Freder i c k t h e Great

used to cal l h i m on l y des sert , whereas the crown pr i n ce [ F r i edr i ch

W i l he l m ] enj oyed h i m as a hearty d i sh . He remai ned h i s [ i . e . , the

crown pri nce] f avor i te u nt i l he [ E i chner ] d i ed--al as , much too e ar l y

for the mu s i c a l Mu se t 34
Rei c h ard t . W i th th i s man , whom fut ure g enerat i ons w i l l f i rst

c a l l great , beg an a comp l et e l y new mu s i c a l epoch i n Berl i n . 3 5 The

k i ng made h i m K ape l l mei ster of h i s c ho i r and orchestra [ 1 775 ] , 36 a

h i gh l y i mport ant pos i t i on i f one does not forget that h e was Gr aun ' s

successor ! He trai ned h i mse l f for the great post of K ape l l me i ster

through sel f -study and tr ave l . He p l ayed the c l av i er and v i o l i n wi th

gre at ag i l i ty , even to mastery . H i s phr ase i s s p l end i d . H e draws out

33 Agai n , see Rei chard t , Bri efe , 1 : 181-84 .

34 E i c hner entered the serv i ce of Fri edr i ch W i l he l m i n 1 7 72


at Potsd am, but d i ed i n 1777 .
35 I n an ed i tor i a l i n the Teutsche C hron i k ( 3 June 1 7 76 ) :
355-56 , Sch ub art pred i cted the d awn i n g of a new era i n Ber l i n ' s mus i c
mak i ng under Rei c h ardt ' s l e aders h i p .
36 schubart an nou nced th i s appoi ntment i n the Teutsch e
Chron i k ( 4 J anu ary 1 7 7 6 ) : 15 .

143
the geni u s of mus i ca l cri t i c i sm [Kri ttel ey] and asserts that thou ghts

of t he geni u s c annot a l ways be d ec i phered , a l thou gh h i s predeces sors

demanded i t . D i s s ected beauty seems to be nonsen s e to h i m . H e t hrew

h i msel f to t he fermen t i ng heap of co l d [ mu s i c al ] theory, as Curt i u s to

the swamp , but wi th the d i fference that the d i sease [col d theory]

i ts e l f d i d not su b s i d e comp l etel y . 3 7 He i s a wr i ter , composer, an d

v i rtuoso. H i s pri nci p l es on the vari ous styl es of mus i c are fau l t l es s .

H e l i k es the song better th an anythi n g , and h e prefer s German poetry to

al l others for mu s i c . General l y , h i s operas , concert os , and ch amber

mus i c are treated i n a v ery beaut i fu l s tyl e . Among the mus i ca l wri ters

he i s one of t he best . H i s performance i s f i rst-rate. In h i s mus i ca l

journeys , a s wel l a s i n h i s l etters 38 there are numerou s pri n c i p l es

wh i ch the true mus i ci an mu st sel ect wi th care. H i s Mu s i kal i sches

Kunstmagaz i n [ 1782 and 1791 ] i s fu l l of great ob servat i ons wh i c h onl y

the s i mp l eton can fai l to appreci ate . He has set some song s from

3 7 schubart seems to comb i n e the two most popu l ar l egend s


concern i n g Mettus ( or Met i u s ) C u rt i u s i n to one anal ogy . I n the f i rst
l egend , Curt i us i s a S ab i ne general dur i n g the t i me of R omu l u s . Whi l e
be i ng chased by the Romans , he l eaped i nto a swamp , wh i ch covered t he
v a l l ey l ater occup i ed by the forum , i n order to es cape. Curti u s
man aged to free h i mse l f . P eace was subseq u ent l y made because of hi s
sel f- sacri fi ce . I n the ot her l egend , a Roman youth , accord i n g to L i vy ,
offered h i msel f a s a human s acri fi ce to f i l l a great chasm near the
forum ca . 362 B . C . The god s were appeased , the chasm was c l osed , an d
the forum was no l onger i n danger. Wi l l i am Sm i t h ( ed ) , A D i ct i on ary of
Greek and Roman B i ography and Mythol ogy , 3 vo l s . ( N ew York: AMS P res s ,
1 1 9ot ) , 1 : 9Ub . Here , Schu bart l l Kens Rei chardt to the Roman youth who
throws h i ms e l f i n to the swamp , i n stead of the chasm , to appease t he
gods ( or , i n th i s c ase , t he cri t i cs of mus i c) , b ut the appeasement i s
not comp l ete .
3 8 schu bart rev i ewed the f i rst vo l ume of R e i ch ardt ' s Bri efe
i n h i s Deutsche C hron i k ( 2 February 1775) : 75-79.

144
Mess i ah [ Der S i eg des Mess i as , 1 784] wh i ch compete wi th the great
poet and are a re l i ab l e demonstr at i on of h i s nob l e t ast e . When
Rei chardt s ays that he knows no greater poet than K l opstock , that
suff i c i en t l y proves h i s correct feel i ng . Whatever he s ays about the
choral e and about the i nvesti ture of s acred s i n g i n g , i n g eneral , i s
near l y aposto l i c ; herei n he i s r i g ht l y a f avor i te of L avater 39 and
of al l the d evout . He there by made h i ms e l f vu l nerab l e to h i s many
enem i es , s i nce he swam too h ast i l y ag ai nst the stream and wanted to
contri bute al l at once to the theoret i cal and styl i sh m an i a; sure l y
t h e future g enerat i on wi l l best dec i de t h e meri t o f th i s man . B ut i t
i s al so certai n t h at h e wants more than he can accomp l i sh ; h e i s , as
i t were , a mus i c al P i et i st .
Freder i ck the Great h i mse l f f i n a l l y comp l etes the ro l e o f the
st ate ly mus i ca l spect ac l e i n Ber l i n . After h i m it was n i ght [he d i ed
i n 1786] , and i n h i s presence a l i ght s hone i n wh i ch a l l of E urope
bas ked and rav i shed . Thus , as he was a creator i n everyth i n g , so he
w as al so i n mu s i c . U tmost acc uracy reduced t o bas i c p r i n c i p l es was h i s
fi rst precept . He remai ned i nv ari ab l y t rue to th i s precept and l et the
styl i sh d i scover i e s i n mu s i c swarm and buzz about , even as unconcerned
as the stormi ng batt l e around h i s ears . He heard everyth i ng . The
g reatest v i rtuosos of the worl d h ad the i r odeum i n Berl i n , but he
a lways judged accordi ng to h i s preconcei ved pr i nc i p l es . Al l decept i ons
of mu s i ci ans wi thout i nner strength ( i . e . , wi thout correct ly founded
theory ) s l i pped off h i s rocky sou l as dri zz l e . He h i msel f p l ayed the

39 see L av ater in the Appendi x .

145
f l ute as a master , accomp an i ed sp l end i d l y wi th the h arps i chord , and
understood compos i t i on master ly. He furn i shed the mot i ves to many of
Graun • s ar i as . I n a word , F rederi ck the Great i s a l so the creator of
one of the best mus i cal school s as he i s the creator of one of the
most famous po l i t ic a l and t act i c al schoo l s i n t h e wor l d .

146
VII I . THE SAXON SCHOOL

The Saxon s h av e d i st i ngu i shed themsel ves from anc i ent t i me on


by the i r propen s i ty for mu s i c .
W i ttek i nd , a tru l y great man , ret ai ned a cho i r o f s i ngers and
i nstrumental i sts by wh i ch he i nfl amed h i s troops to content i on . As
C hr i st i an i ty was brought to S axony, Otto the N ob l e was the f i rst who
i ntroduced sacred mus i c to h i s stat e . The L at i n song [chant ] i ndeed
found l ong-st and i n g o ppos i t i on w i t h the S axons , but f i n al l y i t broke
t hrou gh among the dukes from the B i l l ung t r i b e . Hei nr i ch the L i on
i mproved w ar mus i c and never l ed h i s troops to the batt l ef i e l d wi thout
the cour age-rous i ng trumpet [Tuba] . He h i ms e l f p l ayed the t rumpet
[ Trompete] as a master and used to s ay, "W i thout song there i s no b at­
t l e [Waffendrang] . " And so i t went u nt i l the t i me of Luthe r , whose
i mmortal serv i ce to mus i c we h ave al ready i nd i cated above. We are
i ndebted to the Saxons for the heartwarmi ng choral e . Former l y , i t was
the cu stom thro ughout al l of Germany t h at only the canons and choi rboys
s an g . B u t Luther r i ght l y c l aimed t h at s i ng i n g was p art of the d i v i ne
ser v i ce , and from th i s t i me on al l p l aces of worsh i p resounded with
s acred hymns . Th i s great cu stom spread from Saxony throughout al l of
Germany and h as become u n i versal , i n recent t i mes , through the Refor­
mat i on of the C atho l i cs . Luther ' s enemi es used to s ay , "Luther h as
hurt u s more by son g t h an by h i s doctrine . ..

147
Mor i tz mai ntai ned an admi r ab l e cho i r. He brought f i gured
s acred mus i c throughout Saxony; [ h e ] founded s i ng i n g school s and g ave
the i r d i rectors the t i t l e of Cantor s . Even tod ay these s p l end i d mu s i ­
cal i nsti tut i ons , wh i ch are the pr i de of Germany and the envy of for­
e i gn countri es , are i n S axony and h ave produced the greatest mus i c i an s .
The Saxons h ave s o d i st i ngui shed themsel ves i n mus i c throughout many
centuri es that the I t a l i ans i nc l u de a l l of Germany u nder the word
Sasson e , a country that they recogn i ze al one as thei r worthy r i val i n
mus i c . When E l ector Augu stus [ Augu stus I I the Stron g ] became K i ng of
Pol and [ 1697 ] , mus i c rece i ved a new fl i ght , and i t s prevai l i ng s i m­
p l i c i ty degenerated a l most to Pers i an revel ry. He secured [v erschr i eb]
the greatest si ngers and composers from Italy and was one of the f i rst
who b l ended the I t a l i an taste wi th the German. Thi s b l end i ng , f rom
August ' s t ime forth , h as become a pri nci pal feat ure of German mus i c .
Therefore, i t requ i res a great connoi s seur to d i st i ng u i sh the char ac­
ter i sti cs of the pecu l i ar German mus i cal styl e from the i nterbreedi ng
w i th the I t a l i an s .
U nder t h i s ostentat i ous k i ng the f i rst operas were performed
accord i ng t o I t a l i an taste an d , i ndeed , with greater d i spl ay t h an i n
I taly i tsel f . One s aw e l ephants and l i ons here , not st uffed as i n
Italy, but appear i n g i n more fri ghtful real i ty. Decorat i ons , mach i n­
ery, f l yi ng scenery [ F l ugwerk]--al l of that was v i ewed i n i ts fu l l
spl endor for the fi rst t i me i n Germany. But i ts orchestra was too
strong and t umu l tuous to h ave been ab l e to operate s u i t ab l y; one
compares it wi th the roar of the sea that swal l ows up the p l ead i ng
voi ces of the d i stressed. F rom th i s t i me on the S axon t aste recei ved
1 48
a new di rect i on i n mu s i c , for a l l of t he rest of Saxony devel oped

accor d i n g to Dresden .

Augu stus I l l kept thi s enthu s i asm for mu s i c . Operas con­

t i nued wi th the i r except i on a l d i spl ay so t h at even t he I ta l i an s

gat hered arou nd and , wi t h concea l ed en vy , cast a s i d e l ong l ook at t he

progress of S axon mu s i c . Under h i s re i gn the orchestra became more

pol i shed an d l earned to uni te strength wi t h grac e . The greates t

composers of the wor l d h ave come from th i s school and , i ndeed , are not

merel y me l an chol y brood er s and fau l tf i n ders but thorou gh , tru l y

i ngen i ou s composer s who a i med strai ght for the heart .

The best church choi rs [ C apel l en ] of Eu rope i n th i s centu ry

h ave been staffed wi th Saxons . They, the Saxo n s a l one , c an compete

wi t h al l of I ta l y wi thou t the rest of Germany . I f mu s i c h ad a s h ri n e ,

the fo l l ow i n g busts wou l d h av e to be pl aced there i n a s s acred

monuments :

Johann Dav i d Hei n i chen , great i n church styl e , greater sti l l i n

mu s i cal theory. H i s General -Bass i n der Compo s i t i on [ 1 7 28 ] , ev en up to

ou r t i me , has been respected by al l thorou gh mu s i ci an s as a canon i ca l

book . He pu s hed dee p l y i nto t he es sence of mu s i c , ca l cu l ated i ts most

el egant rel ati on sh i ps , poi n ted ou t t he myst i ci sm of contrary mot i on , or

Mot u s contrari u s , t au ght to f i gure the basses wi th utmost con sci en­

t i ou sne s s , drew the accomp an i st ' s attent i on to the f l ex i b i l i ty to bend

u nderneath the song , an d gave the most mag n i fi cent ru l es to the art of

l see Augu s tu s I I I i n the Append i x .

149
c ompo s i n g . Neverthe l ess , a cert a i n anxi ety appear s between t h e l i nes ,
wh i ch h i s al l too f ar -reac h i ng theoret i c a l know l edge mu st h ave

produced .

Johann Sebast i an B ac h . Undoubted l y , t h e Orpheus of Germans !

Immort a l t hrou gh h i mse l f and i mmort a l thro u gh h i s great son s . The

wor l d h as h ard l y ever produ ced a tree wh i ch q u i ck ly bore i ncorrupt i b l e

fru i t a s th i s ced ar . Sebasti an B ach was a gen i u s i n the h i g h est

d egree. H i s s p i r i t i s so ori g i n al , so g i g anti c a l l y sh aped t h at cen­

t ur i es w i l l be needed before h e wi l l one d ay be w i th i n reac h . He p l ayed


t h e c l av i er , h arps i chord , and c i mb a l on ; and i n the org an , who equal s

h i m? Who was ever compared to h i m? H i s h an d was g i g ant i c . He struck ,

for examp l e , a twe l fth w i th h i s l eft h and and ornamented i n between

there w i t h h i s m i dd l e f i ngers . He made runs on the ped a l w i t h utmost

prec i s i on [ an d ] d rew the stops so i mp ercept i b l y q u i ck l y t h at the hearer

was a l most swal l owed up i n the wh i r l poo l of h i s sorcery. H i s h and was

i ndefat i g ab l e and endu red organ p l ay i n g a l l d ay l on g . He p l ayed t h e

c l avi er even a s strong l y a s the organ and transcri bed a l l t h e e l ements

of mu s i c wi t h At l ante an power; the comi c styl e was as f am i l i ar to h i m


as the ser i ous . H e was a v i rtuoso and composer i n equ a l d egree . Wh at

Newton was as a ph i l osopher [ s i c] , B ac h was as a mu s i c i an . H e h as com­

posed many p i eces for the ch urch as we l l as for the ch ambe r , b ut every­

t h i ng i n such a d i ff i c u l t sty l e t h at h i s p i eces today are s e l dom h eard

at t he i r best . H i s [cant ata ] cyc l es , wh i ch he wrote for the ch urch ,

are now encountered o n l y r arel y , a l though t hey are an i nexhaust i b l e


treasure for the mus i c i an . One encounters s uch bo l d modu l at i on s t here ,

such great h armon i es , such n ew me l od i c movements t h at o n e c an not

150
mi stake the ori g i n al gen i us of a B ac h . B ut the ev er more dest ruct i ve
search for smal l hess among the moderns h as al l but comp l etely el i mi ­
n ated the taste for s uch g i g an t i c p i eces . Thi s can even be asserted
for h i s organ p i ece s . Hard ly any man h as ever wri tten for the organ
w i th such thoughtfu l ness , w i t h such gen i u s , wi th such i ns i ght i nto art
than B ac h ; but i t t akes a great master i f one wants to perform h i s
p i eces , for they are so d iff i cu l t that h ard ly two or three men l i ve i n
Germany who cou l d perform them fl aw l es s l y . An i mprov i s ati o n , sonat a ,
concerto, o r f i gured choral e for t h e org an composed b y B ach usual l y
has s i x l i nes : two for the upper manu a l , two for the l ower , and two
for the p ed al . The stops are most l y marked , wh i ch one h as to d raw
hurr i ed ly. The ped al i s unusual ly busy , and the l i g atures , the runn i ng
phrases , and other ornaments are composed for the organ w i t h such d i f­
f i cu l ty th at one must often ponder on one l i ne for hours . On top of
th i s , the l eft and r i ght h and more often h av e i nterv a l s of a tenth or
twel fth , wh i ch on ly a g i ant can bri ng out.
B ach ' s c l av i er works certai n l y do not have the grace of
today ' s , b ut they make amends for th i s def i ci ency through strength .
How much our c l av i er p l ayers of today cou l d l e arn from thi s i mmortal
1nan if it were no l onger a matter of the f i ck l e approva l of fash i onabl e
i n sects than of the greater , more i mport ant conno i sseurs . The B ach i an
p i eces are not transcri bed from other i nstruments , b u t are true c l av i er
p i eces . He understood comp l etely the nature of the i nstrument ; h i s
phrases strengthen the hand and fi l l the ear. Both hands are i n . equal
pursu i t , so th at the l eft does not become weaker when the r i ght becomes
stronger. He a l so h as such an abundance of i deas that no one comes as
151
j c l ose to h i m there i n than h i s own great �· W i th a l l of these qual ­
i t i es , B ach st i l l comb i ned the r arest tal ent for i nstruct i o n . The

greatest org an i st s and h ar p s i chord i st s throughout a l l of Germany h ave

deve l oped in h i s schoo l , and i f Saxony here i n h as a not i ceab l e qual i ty

before al l other provi nces to th i s hour , i t mu st be owed a l one to the

aforesai d great man .

H andel . A g ai n a g i ant ! H e was born at the H a l l e U n i vers i ty

and d i spl ayed from youth an extr aord i nary mus i cal gen i u s . The afore­

s a i d great B ac h was h i s most t ru sted fri end from c h i l dhood o n . H an del

pl ayed the organ and c l av i er s pl endi d ly and thereby made h i mse l f known

f ar and wi de wh i l e yet i n h i s youth . At age t h i rteen h e c omposed an

opera i n H amb ur g . H e then travel ed t o I t a ly an d wrote oper as and other

p i eces , wh i ch met w i t h unusual approv al . T here he a l so defeated the

great Scar l att i at the c l av i er and st i l l h ad not reached h i s twenty-

fourth ye ar , yet h i s fame was u n i vers al i n E urope. Some t r avel i ng

Eng l i shmen took h i m w i t h them to Londo n , and i t was here where he

f i n a l l y found the c i rc l e wh i ch was wi de enough for h i s g en i u s . There

he became a royal K apel l mei ster and p l ayed , for more th an f i fty year s ,

a ro l e t h e l i kes o f wh ich no mu s i c i an h as ever p l ayed i n E ng l an d . He

was a l most i do l i zed by the Br i t i sh and e arned a very great fortune.

I n Westmi n i ster h i s grave i s among the n at i on ' s greatest men . B ut no

mus i c i an h as ever penetrated the s p i r i t of the Bri t i sh so deep l y as

t h i s one . F i rst , he studi ed Eng l i sh poet s w i t h t h e greatest e ag erness ;

then , he set some of the i r best p i eces to mu s i c . Al exander ' s Feast

[ 17 3 6 ] by D ryden h as assu red h i s f ame forever. Th i s p i ece i s st i l l

performed every year i n London dur i ng St . Ceci l i a ' s D ay [ November 2 2]

152
wi th ever- i ncreas i ng approv al . I t i s s i mp l e , stat e ly , and r i ch i n
grat i f i c at i on . Hande l h as obt ai ned t h e s p i r i t o f t h e i ngen i ou s Dryden
so compl et e l y t h at no mu s i c i an s i nce h as agai n d ared to set t h i s poet i c
masterpi ece t o mus i c .
R aml er h as made a G erman text for t h i s compos i t i on [ 1 766 ] so
t h at Germans wou l d be ab l e to j udge for thems e l ves t h e express i on . 2
Handel h as a l s o composed the c ant at a Ceci l i a [Cec i l i a, vogl i un squ ardo
( ? 1736 ) ] by Pope w i t h a l most the s ame success . S i nc e Pope d i d not
present to the composer such abundant great thoughts as Dryden , nei ther
cou l d H andel express h i s gen i us as wel l here. Yet th i s p i ece al so was
recei ved very wel l by the Eng l i sh and i s sti l l often performed i n
London . H andel h as made many oper as i n the I t al i an and Engl i sh l an­
gu ages whereby h i s approbat ion i ncre ased unt i l the e n d . The spi r i t of
h i s operas h as someth i ng q u i te ori g i n a l . Those he composed i n I ta l y
are comp l etely I t a l i an wi th the except i on of some aspects of t h e German
i d i om. The ones made i n Eng l and h ave recei ved mu ch of the pecu l i ar
ch aracter of th i s nat i on . Handel often sel ected, for examp l e , a gen-
eral l y popu l ar fo l k song and brought i t to the theater w i th embel l i sh ­
ments and art i f i c i al modul at i ons . He has to thank the enth us i ast i c
adorat i on for thi s craft wi th wh i ch the B r i t i sh rewarded h i m unt i l the
end of h i s career. And even yet they mai ntai n t h at Handel s urpasses
every mu s i c i an who h as ever l i v ed . E ven t h e s acred pi eces wh i ch Handel
made i n London , to th i s hour , h ave not been d i sp l aced by any others .

2A s i mi l ar st atement about R aml er • s trans l at i on may be found


i n the MAfD 1783 , p . 191 n .

153
H ande l was a s p l end i d contrap u nt i st , yet he never s acr i f i ced
the gen i us of art , as one r i gh t l y reproaches some of h i s countrymen.
A l so , h i s chamber pi eces espec i al l y some �rg an sonatas and fugues,
wi l l be preserved as l ong as true mus i c al taste remai ns i n the wor l d .
H andel was a man o f unusual mi ght [ l i ebeskraft] ; h e was one o f the
heav i est eaters i n london and was never s i ck i n h i s l i fe . Wi th s uch a
body cou l d such a spi ri t do thi ngs ! H andel was , for ex amp l e , c apab l e
of p l ayi ng o n the cou p l er [Koppe l ] for hours , with the greatest force,
w ithout comp l ai n i ng about fat i gue. H i s h and was as f ar-reac h i ng as
B ach ' s ; accordi ng l y, some phrases i n h i s org an pi eces are very h ard to
br i ng out . Handel a l so understood the th eory of other i nstruments
perfect ly. In short , h e i s one of the most perfect gen i uses who h as
ever l i ved .
Gottfri ed August Homi l i us . 3 A very thorough church styl i st
[Ki rchenstyl i st ] . He espec i al ly understood the art of sett i ng a
chor us master ly. S i mp l i c i ty, sub l imi ty, and d i gn i ty characte r i ze h i s
choruses . He d i d not search for bol d h armon i c movements , yet he found
them . Now one begi ns t o put h i s works i nto pr i nt , i n fact , even oppor­
tune ly, for the church mus i c i ans among the Protest ants deter i orate
more and more. Homi l i us a l so h as the honor to h ave trai ned many

3 I n a report from Augsburg , app arent ly from one of Schubart ' s


correspondents , there i s an eval u at i on of Homi l i us ' most recent ora­
tor i o [ ? ] wh i ch bears essent i al y the s ame tenor as Schubart ' s descr i p­
t i on i n th i s tran s l at i o n . Teutsche Chron i k ( 1 1 Apr i l 1776 } : 238 .

154
thorough art i sts , amon g whom H i l l er i s certai n l y one of the best. 4

I f Homi l i u s uses ros a l i as too frequent l y , one mu st excuse i t as i n the

s p i r i t of h i s t i me . 5 Yet for t h i rty or forty years one cou l d h ear

q u i t e wel l the repet i t i on of a phrase i n another key and bel i ev e the

resu l t thereby to be strengthened .

Lorenz �hri stoph Mi z l er von Kol of . M aster o f P h i l osophy,

Doctor of Pharmacy , Scho l ar l y Co urt Ad v i ser , Staff Phys i c i an , and ·

H i stor i ographer of Warsaw, st ayed for the most part i n War s aw, p l ayed
the c l av i er very wel l , and i s one of the most famou s German mus i c al

wri ters . H i s Mu s i k a l i sche B i b l i othek [ 1738-52] was t h e f i rst German

newspaper . 6 I t was wr i tten i n a good manner and wi th much i n s i gh t .


M i z l er h ad stud i ed mus i c h i story thoroug h l y , b u t h i s theoret i c al man i a

i s unbearab l e . He be l i eved , for ex amp l e , the mathemat i c al c a l c u l at i ons

of a p i ece to be the essence of mus i c ; accord i ng ly, h i s own compos i -

t i ons became st i ff and t astel ess and were a l ready h i s sed off the stage

duri n g h i s l i fet i me i n Wars aw , Lei p z i g , and Dresde n . Meanwh i l e , the

grat i tude of posteri ty i s always d u e M i z l er t h at he rel ated s o many

pr a i seworthy appl i c at i ons to the th eory of mu s i c . One c an even today

4 I n ment i on i n g the pub l i c at i on of H i l l er ' s n ewe st P as s i on ­


Orato ri o [ ? ] , Sch ubart cred i t s Homi l i us , H i l l er ' s teacher, for the
s uccess that H i l l er h as h ad . D eut s che Chron i k ( 9 J un e 1 7 74 ) : 166-67 .
5 schubart wrote an art i c l e on ros a l i a. See t h e th i rd sup­
p l ement to the Deut sch e Chron i k ( October 1774) : 33-38 . See al so p age
21 9 of th i s tran s l at i o n .
6 Al though t echn i cal l y not t h e f i rst per i od i c a l ( M attheson ' s
Cri t i c a mus i c a , for exampl e , pred at es M i z l er ' s ) , Sch ubart does not
menti on any of M atth eson ' s ear l i er j o urnal s i n th i s treat i se.

155
l earn much from h i s wri t i ngs i f one has enough pati ence to work through
h i s subt l eti es .
Joh ann Gottfri ed Muthe1 . 7 From B ach ' s schoo l ; one of the
best and most thoughtful organ and h arp s i chord p l ayers . H i s p i eces
h av e a comp l etely ori g i n al character : d ark , omi nous , unusual modu l a­
t i ons , stubborn i n mot i ons , i nfl exi b l e agai nst the fashi onab l e taste
[ Modegeschmak ] of h i s contempor ar i es . B ut even th i s or i g i nal character
of h i s spi ri t deserves that the c l av i er i st shou l d study h i m and thereby
become accustomed to the d i ver s i ty of performance. MUthel h i msel f i s
a sp l endi d p l ayer, to whom B urney h i msel f d i d j u st i ce , B and who
deserves to be better known i n the mus i ca l wor l d than he re al l y i s .
B ut he wraps h i msel f i n h i s obscuri ty and only gi ves u s concertos ,
sonatas , and other c l av i er p i eces from t i me to t i me , wh i ch j u st i fy my
opi n i on .
H i l l er . Mus i c d i rector i n L e i pzi g ; the favori te composer of
the German s . As much as Hi l l er stu d i ed Ital i an son gs , he studi ed the
German ones even more and , accord i ng l y , h i s songs cut so deep l y i nto
our heart th at they h ave become common throughout al l of Germany.
Whi ch travel i ng art i s an , wh i ch common so l d i er , wh i ch young g i r l does
not s i ng h i s "Al s i ch auf me i ner B l e i che, etc. , " "Ohn e L i eb und ohne
Wei n , etc. , " and v ar i ous others? In the fo l k song no one h as reached
H i l l er . H e i s the f i rst , after Standfuss , who h as brought comi c

. 7 The art i c l e i n the Deut sche C hroni k { 9 Febru ary 1 775) : 94-95
i s essent i al ly the same as the section tran sl ated here, except that
Schubart cr i t i c i zes MOthel ' s mus i c bec ause i t h as l i tt l e effect on the
l i stener.
BB urney G , pp . 1 21 , 240-41 .
1 56
operas to the stage i n the German l an gu age. H i s Der l u st i ge Schu ster
[ 1759 ] , 9 D i e J agd [ 17 70] , Der Dorfbal b i er [ 17 7 1 ] , Der Aerndtekranz

[ 17 7 1] , and sever a l others h ave brought fort h gener a l sensat i on i n

Germany. There i s not a theater among us where t h ey were not performed

more than onc e . And one h as not attri buted th i s so much to the text ,

wh i ch i s often rat h er i mpudent , but mu ch more to the mag n i f i cent songs

wi th wh i c h H i l l er knew how to e n l i ven these operas . Even i n the h i gher

ar i as H i l l er h as proved h i ms e l f to be a master . Who c an , for examp l e ,


l i sten to the p i ece "Bi l d vol l gHtt l i ch hoher Rei tz , et c . " wi thout

r apture? H i s choruses are worked out wel l and po i nt to a man who h as


stud i ed mus i c on a l l s i des . S i nce H i l l er remarkab l y wrot e a l ot , he

h i ms e l f thus bec ame often v ery d i v ers i f i ed , but he cont i n u a l l y suc­

ceeded wi th the l i ed . He publ i shed c h i l dren ' s songs 10 and s ev eral

co l l ect i ons of German songs , al l of wh i ch wi l l be sounded l on g after

thousands of f ash i on ab l e l i eder are s i l en t . As a theoret i c a l wr i ter

H i l l er h as shown h i s f ame. He wrote the Mu s i cal News 1 1 for sev eral

years , wh i ch he eventual l y pub l i shed as a newspaper , where i n much t aste

and know l edge ex i st . By me ans of th i s j o urn a l , many i mport ant mu s i cal

9 J t mi ght be t h at Sch ubart i s referri ng to t h e 1 766 v ers i on


of th i s oper a , for wh i ch a voc a l score was publ i shed i n 1 7 7 1 . Th at
wou l d make th i s wor k more contempor ary w i th the others ment i oned .
10Th i s refers to e i ther the L i eder fUr K i nder [ 1769] or h i s

FUnfz i g e i st l i ch e L i eder fur Ki nder [1774] , but probab l y t h e l atter
bec ause chubart adverti sed the score i n h i s Deut sche Chron i k
( 7 November 1774 ) : 5 1 1 - 1 2 .
1 1 Joh ann Ad am H i l l er , Woc hent l i che N achri chtenund
Anmerkungen d i e Mu s i k betreffend , (Lei pzi g : Zeitungs expedi t i on ,
1766-70) and supp l ement Mus 1 ka l 1 sche Nach r i chten und Anmerkunge n ,
( Le i pz i g : Ze i t ungsexpedi tion , 1169).
151
noti ces h ave been c i rc u l ated amon g u s . H i l l er certai n l y proved h i m­
se l f to be a great theor i st . H e opposed theoret i cal nonsense whi l e
d r aw i ng our attent i on more to the aesthet i cs of mus i c . [ It i s ] too bad
that h i s newsp aper was not conti nued ! Hi s most i mport ant work i s h i s
exc e l l ent Anwe i s u ng zur S i ngkunst , 1 2 wh i ch h e p ub l i shed at Lei pzi g
i n q u arto wi th the necessary exampl es [ Mustern] . H i s styl e i s beau­
t i fu l and re l ev ant , the pri nc i p l es are from the greatest masters and
extracted from pract i cal exper i ence, [ and ] the examp l es are sel ected
accordi n g to the req u i rements of our n at i on and are a l so exp anded to
i nc l ude choral s i ng i n g . When one u n i tes wi th i t what Vog l er h as s ai d
about the trai n i ng of the vo i ce , we Germans possess i n t h i s area some­
th i ng comp l ete wi th whi ch we c an defy fore ign countr i es . H i l l er has
founded a s i ng i ng school i n L e i p z i g accord i ng to these p r i nc i pl es from
wh i ch the greatest s i ngers h ave al re ady come forth .
Joh ann Gottf r i ed W a l ther was mu s i c d i rector i n Wei mar
[ 1 707-48] . He p l ayed the organ master ly and composed a few ch urch
[ c antata] cycl es w i th much thorough ness . B ut wh at made a n ame for h i m
was h i s mus i ca l d i ct i on ary [ 17 3 2] . Before h i m no one h ad ever wri tten
a book of th i s k i nd . I t i s for i ts t i me u nu s u al ly comprehens i ve and
even tod ay i s an essent i al resource , especi al ly wh atever concerns the
h i stori c a l p art of mu s i c . The fore i g ners , p art i cul ar l y M art i ni , speak
about i t with much respect . I t wou l d be n i ce i f th i s book were ag ai n
rei ssued by a H i l l er or Forkel and enl arged w i th t h e necessary

73) .

158
au gment at i on . 13 In the way of resources , we now l ack ab so l ute l y

noth i ng s i nce Rousseau , M i z l er , Marpur g , Gerber t , For ke l , and others

h av e suppl i ed s p l end i d contr i but i on s . Wal ther ' s son 14 was one of
the best org an i sts i n Germany, espec i a l l y a m aster i n the ped a l , b ut

he overref i ned t h e chor a l es too mu c h . He was for a l on g t i me mu s i c

d i rector i n U l m , and [he ] d i ed i n h i s n at i ve c i ty of Wei mar .

Sche i be . A great theor i st and a s p l end i d composer. He

bec ame Kape l l me i ster i n Copenh agen [ 1 740-47 and 1 766- 7 6 ] and supp l i ed

many works wh i ch l ay c l a i m to [h i s ] i mmort a l i ty . F ew composers knew


how to work out the rec i t at i ve as master l y as h e , h i s ar i as are r i ch

i n l ov e l y mov ements , and h i s c horuses are sonorous and s tron g . The

I t a l i an operas composed by h i m d i d not recei v e as much approv a l ,


because perh aps he d i d not possess eno u gh strength i n the I t a l i an

l an gu ag e . On the other h an d , h i s German p i eces reaped u n i versal

pr ai s e . The g re atest poets-- K l o pstock , Gerstenberg , Sch l ege l , and

others - -suppl i ed h i m w i t h poetry , wh i ch h e set to mus i c wi th much

expres s i on . H i s Ar i adne auf N axos [ by Gerstenberg] and C eph a l u s u n d

P rocr i �_ [hy Johann E l i as Sch l ege l ] are h i s masterp i eces . 1 5 He a l so


composed mu ch for t h e church , w i t h gen u i ne underst and i ng of church

13 c f . B urney H , 2 : 947-48 .

14 Joh an n C h r i stoph Wal ther ( 1 7 15-71 } . Joh ann Gottfr i ed


Wal ther became i l l i n 1745 and requ ested that h i s son t ake over h i s
dut i es as org an i st . The duke , Ernst August , refused to appoi nt the
you n g Wal ther as s ucces sor to h i s f at her . Th e son l ater obt ai ned a
pos i t i on at the c athedral i n U l m i n 1 75 1 . Grove 6 , 20 : 1 9 1 -9 2 .
15 soth o f these were cont ai ned i n a col l ect i on ent i t l ed
"Tr ag i c C antatas for One or Two Vo i ces w i t h C l av i er . " ( Copen h agen
and Lei pz i g : Franz C hr i st i an Mumme , 1 765 } . A second ed i t i on

159
sty l e . I n add i t i on t o that h e possessed a n exp anded l earn i ng , espe­
c i al ly i n f i ne l i terat ure. Th at i s why h i s styl e i s more than correct ;
i t i s beaut i fu l . We possess a r i ch supply of mus i cal wr i t i ngs by h i m,
wh i ch revea l th i s profound i n vest i g ator i n mu si c as the man of correct
tast e . The i mmort a l Les s i ng con s i dered h i m to be the best mu s i cal
wr i ter in Germany. He e l aborated on a l l aspects of mus i c . H i s i ntro­
d u ct i on to mus i c a l composi t i on , 16 wh i ch he pub l i shed the f i rst
vo l ume i n q u arto short l y before h i s death , i s the resu l t of many years
of deep research . A better work h as h ard l y ever been wri tten on th i s
great theme ! How often one must l ament that the death of an excel l ent
man i nterrupted th i s i n val u ab l e wor k ! I n short , Schei be was one of the
mos t l earned mus i c i an s of our century ! What i s the h i gh l y c e l e brated
Doctor of Mus i c B urney compared to a Schei be? 1 7
Schwei tzer . One o f t h e most ce l ebrated and most popu l ar
composers of recent t i mes . He comb i nes profound thoroughness w i th

appeared i n 1 77 9 . See R I SM A/ I/7 : 367 . Schei be ' s death was noted by


Schubart , who cal l ed h iiii'"One of the best mus i c i an s of our century" and
who c l ai med t h at Ari adne auf N axos and a Te Oeum [ s i c] were h i s best
works . See Teutsche Chronik (9 May 1 7 76} :306-301 .�
16 Johann Ado l ph Sche i be, Ueber d i e mu s i kal i sche
Compos i t i o n . Ers�er The i l : D i e Theori e der Melodi e und H armon i e
{ le 1 pz1 g : Schwl c k er t , 177 3 ) .
17 B urney men t i ons onl y Schei be ' s Oer Cri t i sche Mus i k us.
Burney ' s ev a l u at i on of German theory i s not highly complimentary :
"Mattheson , wi th a l l h i s pedantry and want of t aste , was the fi rst
popu l ar wri ter on the subject of Mu s i c i n Germany; the rest were
s c i ent i f i cal l y dry and d i dact i c ; b ut as t aste i mp roved both i n Mus i c
and l i terature , better wri ters sprung u p . Among the f i rst of these was
John Ado l ph u s Schei ben • • " Burney H , 2 : 948 . I n the f i rst edi t i on of
• •

h i s " German Tour , " Burney s l i ghted the German s for " l ack of gen i us , " a
s l u r for wh i ch he l ater apo l og i zed . See Burney H , 2 : 963 .

160
unusual grac e . H i s s p i r i t revea l s a c ert ai n propens i ty to greatness i n

h i s works , wh i ch d i st i n gu i sh h i s p i eces before many ot her s . After h e

h ad f i rst made a n ame for h i mse l f b y me ans of v ar i ous sma l l works , h e

f i n a l l y stepped f orward w i th W i e l and ' s A l c este [ 1773] , 1 8 and the

l ou d app l au se of o ur peopl e urged h im on . He h as not on l y compl et e l y


equal l ed h i s poet , but i n many p l aces h as surp assed h i m i n fee l i ng and

expres s i on . How i n i m i t ab l y beaut i f u l i s i t not expressed when Al ceste

wh i mper s , "0 me i ne K i nder ! me i ne K i nd er ! " ; and w h at modern I ta l i an ari a


c an be compared to the one i n G m aj or i n Al ceste? The compet i t i on of

the obbl i g ato v i ol i n s w i th t h e song makes the most magn i f i cent effect .

H i s choru ses are a l so fu l l of s p l endor and d i gn i ty . H i s t aste i s not

n ew . I n spi te of t h at , h e p l uc k s on l y a s many f l owers f rom t h e modern

mus i ca l bed as t he thoroug hness of h i s s p i r i t c an bear . H i s second

seri ous o pera, Aurore [ 17 7 2] -- l i kew i se wri tten [poes i rt] by W i e l and-- i s

j ust as beaut i fu l and r i ch i n enj oyment ; but wh atever h e h as wor ked on

i n the comi c f i e l d , h e on l y h a l f s ucceeded, because Schwe i t zer ' s spi r i t

i s too great for t h e mu s i c al H an swurst . H i s best operas , meanwh i l e ,

are the f avor i t e p i eces at the best theaters i n Germany. A l l fr i en d s

o f mu s i c certai n ly regret , wi t h u s , t h at o ur s p l end i d Schwe i t ze r , from

propens i ty for t h e easy l i fe , wor ks much too l i tt l e .

18 Schubart annou nced th i s wor k u nder the h e ad i ng " E i ne


Mus i k a l i sche Neu i gkei t " i n the Deutsche C hron i k ( 21 Au g u s t 1 7 7 5 ) : 535 .
I t was revi ewed ( ? by P rofessor [Anton ] K l ei n ) but d i d not cont a i n as
much det a i l as what Schubart presents here. See Deut s,ch e C hron i k
( 7 S eptember 1 7 75 ) : 57 5 - 76 . And Schubart ' s own r ev i ew i n the Deut sche
Chron i k ( 9 November 1 7 75 ) : 7 20 i s much more cri t i c a l and does not
ment1 on spec i f i c d et a i l s .

161
N auman n . Born a S axon and present l y K ape l l me i ster [f rom 1 7 7 6 ]
i n Dresden . H e h as s udden l y proc l a i med h i msel f t o t h e mus i c a l wor l d

through a genu i ne master p i ece. K i ng Gustav I I I h ad a work wri tten i n

the Swed i sh l angu ag e , ent i t l ed Cor a , 19 and N aumann s et i t to mus i c

w i t h s uch s uccess t h at i t not on l y exc i ted sympathy i n Sweden but i n

the who l e mus i c a l wor l d . I n Dresden N aumann set a G erman text to i t

[ and ] i n Lei p z i g t h i s great work was p ub l i s h e d , wi th f i tt i ng s p l endor .

H ere one searches i n v ai n for profound modu l at i on s and n ew h armon i es ,

a l though the phr ase i s crystal c l e ar ; but the mel od i es are mor e l ove l y

and h av e v ery muc h t h e stamp of newness and gr ace [ s o ] t h at one cannot

compare them wi th anyth i ng . One swi ms i n del i g htfu l sen s at i on whenever

one h e ars the t hree s i ngers s i ng i n the sun-temp l e accomp an i ed by the

breat h i n g of t h e s weetest wi nd i nstruments . The rec i t at i ves are worked

out very wel l , and the ari as me l t i n g . I f Ven u s need s a K ape l l me i st er ,

s h e wou l d c erta i n l y choose a N aumann because h i s son gs are s u bmerged so

comp l et e l y i n l ov e . B ut accord i ng t o my f ee l i ngs , he dec l i nes too


often i nto effem i n acy , many t i mes e ven i nto debauchery. 20 His

tones pas s , as i t were , i nto t h e l i stener ' s b l ood and st i mu l ate h i s

s en s u a l p l easure s . Meanwh i l e , one must con s i der t h at a res u l t o f the

142-43 . ) The German tran s l at i on of Cor a appeared i n 1 780 (MAfD 1 783 ,


1 9 cora och A l onz i o , a s er i ous opera i n three act s : l i bretto
by Al derbeth after J . -F . Marmont e l ' s L e s I nc as . ( See MAfD 1783 , pp .

p . 1 5 . ) ; concert performance parts t aken from the oper a were publ i shed
i n Dresden ( 1780 ) and i n H al l e ( c a. 1 78 1 ) . Thi s opera f i na l l y recei ved
i t s prem i ere i n Stockho l m on 30 September 1782.
20 " N aurnann goes on wri t i ng , i n what s eems to me an I t a l i an
styl e , too feeb l e and pl ac i d for those who admi re the or i g i n al i ty and
force of P i c c i n i and P aesi e l l o .. '' B u rney H , 2 : 960 .

16 2
temperament of the compo ser , becau se each work i s an i mi t at i on of the
master. N aumann understands the art of emp l oyi n g w i nd i n struments at
· n ecessary p l aces f ar better than one was accustomed unti l now from
S axons . He h as , i n add i t i on , arranged v ar i ou s th i n gs for the royal
stage i n Stockh o l m , but whi ch the k i n g h as u sed very st i ng i ly. Some
l i eder wh i ch we possess from h i m were wri tten qu i te adm i r ab ly , espe-
c i al ly the amorous ones . I n short , no one underst and s the amoroso
tod ay better than the charm i ng Nauman n , who i s so comp l et e l y engrossed
i n the spi r i t of our t ime . On the other h and, one c an r i gh t l y mai ntai n
that he can al most never s ucceed i n the sub l i me wi th th i s study of the
grac i ous.
Georg B end a . Not on ly the greatest among al l h i s brothers , but
one of the best composers who h as ever l i ved, one of the epoch makers
of our t i me ! He i s thorough wi thout pedant i c exactness , great and
smal l , serio u s and wi tty, [and ] equ al ly s p l end i d i n church , dramati c ,
and chamber styl e. H i s mel od i c movements are espec i al l y c atchy for
every trai ned ear , but the anxious mi en of art s h i nes forth n ow and
then . Accord i ng l y , not al l of h i s ari as are good to commi t to memory.
On the other han d , h i s rec i t at i ves and choru ses are so m aster ly treated
that here i n he h as a l most reached the per ihel i um of art . How i n acces­
s i b l e are the choruses i n h i s operas; [how ] super i or i n Romeo and
J u l i et ! 21 I n wh i ch mag i c l abyr i nth are h i s duets and tr i os
p l ai ted ; how masterfu l ly he knows how to al ter [ i nverti ren] the

21 Romeo u nd J u l i e , a S i ngspi e l i n th ree acts ; l i bretto by


Gotter , after Shakespeare. The fi rst performance was i n Got h a on
. 25 September 1776 . Grove 6 , 2 : 465 .

I 163
poet ' s word s ! When Rousseau s ays , i n h i s mu s i c a l d i rectory , "the t ext
i s an oran ge [ Pomeran ze ] i n the h and of the composer , wh i ch h e s queezes

so l ong unt i l i t s 1 ast go l den drops f a l l , n 22 one h as h ard l y ever

shown t h i s better t h an Jomme l l i and Bend a.

Y et Ben d a h as t h i s pec u l i ari ty t h at , contr ary to t h e custom,

he a l so m akes u se of counterpo i nt i n t h e dramat i c styl e . H e u ses ,

for examp l e , the a l l a breve and f u g al styl e more t h an once and always

w i t h extraordi n ary effect . He h as al so f amou s l y shown h i mse l f to be a

d i scoverer. H e was the f i rst i n Germany who brought t h e mu s i c a l , or

dec l amatory , d r am as i nto f avor and rai sed the actor ' s l an gu ag e through

h i s mag i c a l me l od i es . Thi s , h i s great d i s covery, was soon rece i ved

t hroughout a l l of E urope under the n ame me l odrama; al s o , t h i s m ag n i f­

i cent i dea h as hence been t r anspl anted by h i m to German s o i l . T hrou gh

t hem the d i gni ty of decl amat i on i s e l evat ed to utmost he i gh t . E ach

s i gn of adm i rat i on , exc l am at i on , [or] quest i on ; e ach comma, e ach pause,

e ach stroke of thought or of e xpect at i o n ; e ach fl ar i ng or s i nk i ng

fee l i ng of the d ec l a i mer ; e ach h ard l y percept i b l e p as s i ng o f word s-­

[these t h i n g s ] were expressed thro u gh t h i s type of mus i c . Occ as i on a l l y

t h e mu s i c al accomp ani ment even crashes i nto t h e word s , not to drown

them , but to c arry them on t he i r surges . B enda ' s master p i eces of

22 I n Rousseau ' s d i ct i onary, t h i s statement does not appear


s . v . "text , u "wor d s , " " oper a, " " composer , " or urec i t at i v e , " and there
i s no entry for " l i bretto . " See J e an J acques Rou s s e au , A Comp l ete
D i ct i onary of Mus i c , tran s . W i l l i am W ar i n g , 2d ed . ( Londo n : pri nted
for J . Murr ay , 1 77 9 ; rpt e d . New Y ork : AMS P ress , 1 9 75 ) .

164
th i s type are h i s Medea [ 17 7 5 ] and Ari adne auf N axos [ 17 7 5 ] . 23 In

both me l odramas the thoughts and feel i n gs of the poets are expres sed so

comp l et e l y through t h e mus i c t h at even the most av ar i c i ous l i stener


l e aves the parterre or the l oge conten t . The overtures t o these new

dramas and the marches t ak i ng p l ace there i n are u n i que i n the i r k i nd .

Benda h as app l i ed al l known mus i c al movements t o these dramas . And

everyth i ng i s set so l i ght l y th at even a person w i t h on l y moderate

s k i l l can perform i t proper l y . Propen s i ty t o sweet me l ancho l y seem ,

however , to be Bend a ' s pr i nc i pal feature; for t h at reason , p ass ages of

th i s k i nd are a l ways s uccessfu l before al l others . The shock i ng

[ Entset z l i che] and awf u l , however , do not l i e so comp l et e l y i n h i s

sphere. He therefore was not preferred as a compl ete mu s i c a l commen­

t ator of Sh akespeare . H i s i mag i n at i on i s not wi l d but depen d s on the

scepter of reason . H i s wi t does not b l oom through buffoonery for pub­

l i c approval , but he shows h i mse l f on l y t hrough the l ov e l y cu l t i v at i on

of h i s mus i c a l i de as . H i s col ori n g i s not daz z l i ng but extreme l y

l ov e l y and warm as h i s heart . He s ucceeds exceed i n g l y w i th t h e riai v e ,

but he a l ways f ai l s wi th t h e grotesque l y comi c. He h as studi ed the

son g wi th great energy and effect . A vo i ce of moderat e compass c an

s p ark l e i n the performance of a B enda ari a.

23 B oth work s were pri nted i n p i ano reduct i on i n 1 778


and subsequent l y cri t i c a l ly rev i ewed i n Johann N i ko l aus For ke l ' s
M u s i kal i sch-kr i t i sche B i b l i othek , 3 v o l s . ( Goth a : C ar l W i l he l m
Etti nger , 1778-79) , 3 : 250-85. It i s al so i nterest i ng to note that
B end a ' s Wal der [ 17 7 6 ] recei ved an extended rev i ew i n t h i s same
Mu s i k al i sch-kri t i sche B i b l i othek { 2 : 230-7 4 ) , but Sch ub art does not
mention thi s parti cul ar work.

165
E ven i n h i s s acred pi eces t h i s great man h as d i st i n gu i shed
h i ms e l f . We possess a few c hurch cyc l es 24 by h i m wh i ch prove to

a l l of Germany h ow stro n g Bend a was i n s acred p atho s . Wherever there

i s s acred mu s i c i n our f ather l and , t here h i s c an t at as were a l so per­

forme d . Even i n the smal l est mus i ca l c i t i es , a l so i n v i l l ages , where

one on l y k nows mu s i c to some extent , Bend a i s known. B u t one mu st


regret t h at he h as set the descant vo i ce somet i me s much too h i gh to be

ab l e to br i ng the notes o ut at a l l t i mes . The D [ d ' ' ' ] , for examp l e ,

bel o n gs t o the g amut o f voi ces of great range.

And yet , wi t h everyth i ng s ai d , the mer i t of t h i s great man i s

st i l l not exh austed . He al so set v ar i ou s secu l ar c ant atas t o mu s i c .

Who h as not been t r ansported t o r apture by h i s L a l age by K l ei st ? 25


Tear s fal l when the p as s ag e begi n s " N ur e i nen Druck der H an d , et c . " and

f i n a l l y the s i gh , w i t h whi ch t he p i ece c l oses , "the wh i mp er i ng L al age ! "

cutt i ng through t h e very marrow and bon e . Even t h e c l av i er p i eces of

th i s master are exce l l ent l y wri tten and prove t h at h i s great s p i r i t

knew h ow t o wor k i n v ar i ou s styl es wi t h good fortune. And n ow Bend a

affi rms t h i s great approv al for t h i rty years , not i n d ecreas i ng but
a l ways i n i ncreas i ng degree s . Wh at a b r i g ht ness th i s i mmort a l man

d i ssemi n ates to the mu s i c a l h i story of our f ather l and !

24The cyc l e for 1750- 5 1 was l ost ; 1753- 54 , some c antat as


were l os t ; 1 760-6 1 preserve d . Grove 6 , 2 : 464 .

t �
25 Am nts k l a en U ber d i e F l ucht der L a l a e ( 17 7 4 ;
Q
hol ograph , 1 77 2) . c h u6arf brief1y revi ewed fh 1 s work i n the
D eut sche C hron i k ( 12 September 1 7 74 ) : 381 and adv ert i sed the score i n
th e Deutsche Chron i k ( 7 November 1 7 7 4 ) : 5 1 . L ater , i t was rev i ewed
i n MAfD 1783 , p p . [ 207 ] -8 .

166
Schuster , a n at i ve of Dresden , now K ape l l me i ster i n
N ap l es . 26 O n l y twenty- f i v e years o l d , h e stepped forward as t h e

r i v a l o f the great Jomme l l i and even i n N ap l e s wrested the pr i ze from

h i m by means of an opera. 27 H i s phras e i s bo l d and fu l l of f i re .

H e comb i nes I t a l i an me l od i c energy wi t h German t horoughness and does

not a l w ays make bows before t h e fash i on ab l e t aste of our dec adent
contemporari es . He i ndeed descends somet i me s t o the l i stener , yet h e

more often pu l l s t h e l i stener u p to h i m. H e l i ke s t h e s i mp l e song more

t h an the i ntr i c at e one. H i s i nstrument a l accomp an i ment i s f i ery w i th ­

out d rown i ng t h e song . H i s modu l at i ons are bo l d and s urpri s i ng ; h i s

ar i a mot i ves are n ew and penetrat i n g . H e tre at s h i s duet s wi t h Graun ' s

g en i us . But h e somet i mes i g nores h i s c horuses , wh i ch often o perat e


better o n the l i stener by r ag i n g and fumi n g h armoni es th an b y correct

ones. Schuster ' s f ame s o spre ad i n N ap l e s , Rome , Mant u a , F l orence , and

Tur i n th at the I t a l i an s t hemse l ve s h ave e l evated h i m among the best

composers of the p er i od . A s s p l end i d a s h e i s i n the operat i c sty l e ,

a s t h e I t al i an s c l a i m, h e m i ght b e even more excel l ent i n t h e ch urch

styl e . H e h as composed an orator i o for the l ast pope [ C l ement X I V] , 28

26 Schubart announced the t i t l e of K apel l mei ster i n h i s


Teutsche Chron i k ( 22 Febru ary 1 7 76 ) : 1 22 . But h e was apparen t l y i n
error , for on an h onorary t i t l e of maestro d i c appe l l a was g i v en to
Schu ster.
27 schu b art perh aps i s referri ng to Schuster ' s D i done
abbandonat a ( 17 76 ) .
28There i s no reference to Schu ster ever h av i ng wr i tten an
oratori o for t h e pop e , and h i s j ourn eys to I t a l y were spent m ai n l y i n
N ap l es and Ven i ce .

167
a great conno i sseur of mu s i c , 29 for wh i ch he recei ved a thousand
seq u i n s together w i t h a gol den c l ock adorned with d i amonds . Thi s
s i tuat i on i s so much more noteworthy s i nce Schu ster i s a L utheran . He
has at the s ame t i me i ntroduced the p i ano i n I t a l y , on whi ch he i s a
great master and h as shown the manner of mani pu l at i n g th i s i nstrument
to the proud I t a l i an s . Schuster has been work i ng for four years o n a
German o pera, to wh i ch a famous poet h as supp l i ed the t ex t . 30 When
th i s appear s , Germany wi l l know even more about h i m and wi l l val ue h im
as h i gh l y as fore i gn countri es a l ready val ue h i m.
Ro l l e h as made h i mse l f wor l d-f amous through h i s church cyc l es ,
cantat as , orator i os , motets , org an , and c l av i er p i eces . U tmost pre-
c i s i o n of the phras e , ser i ousness and d i gn i ty i n the e xpress i o n , and
magn i fi cent basses d i st i ngu i sh h i s mu s i c . H i s rec i t at i ves are worked
wi th much art , and h i s choru ses are f u l l of grandeur.
Abrah am auf Mori a [ 1776 ] and L az arus [ 1778 ] made by the i nt i ­
mat e , warm poet N i emeyer are h i s masterp i eces . 3 1 I n p art i cu l ar
one cannot l i sten to h i s Lazarus w i thout bei ng pi erced by the del i ght-
f u l expect ati on of h i s resurrect i on . B ut the overcr i t i cal h ave wanted
to f i nd fau l t wi th i t , s i nce he has i ntroduced Jesus s i n g i n g . But i n

29 " [ C l emens ] war e i n ken � er der Tonkunst und e i n


• • •

Freund und BeschUtzer der Vi rtuosen i n j eder Kunst . " C . F . D .


S chubart, "Kurze Gesch i chte P ab st C l emens X I V , " Deut sche Chron i k
( 6 October 1774) : 4 3 7- 38 .
30 I t i s i mposs i b l e to d etermi ne whi ch opera Schu bart h ad
i n mi n d . I t may b e that th i s opera was never comp l eted, for the
l i brett i st s of the operas comp l eted about th i s t i me are not "famous"-­
at l e ast i n Schub art ' s est i mat i on .
31 Rol l e i s descri bed as " N i emeyer ' s travest i st " i n the MAfD
1782, p . 46 .
168
the fi rst pl ace , here he had to fol l ow the poet , and , i n the second

p l ace , it i s certai n from h i s tory t h at Jesus h ad actual l y sung d ur i n g

h i s l i fe . Short l y before hi s su ffer i ng , h e began t o s i n g the usual

song of prai se, wh i ch is s a i d to h ave been after a me l ody we l l - known

i n those days [ and ] repeated l y sung by a l l God -feari n g Jews . Who can ,

therefore , reproach Rol l e for i t even if he a l l ows Chri st to s i n g , that

i s , wi th al l of h i s poss i b l e di g n i ty? Rol l e i s especi a l l y a g reat

master i n t he m an i pu l ati on of the fugue, and th at fug ue wh i ch appears


in azaru s des erves to be p l aced among the best pi eces of thi s type of
'
m u s i c so mi sunderstood today. The c l av i er p i eces by th i s master h ave

much wort h , 3 2 yet he has been surpas sed herei n by many others .
N eefe. One of t he most thorou gh and most p l eas i ng composers

of ou r t i me . He h as become known by h i s comi c operas , l i ed er , c l av i er

p i eces , b ut most of a l l by h i s Kl opstock od es , wh i ch he set to

mu s i c . 33 The l atter work was i n real i ty a dari n g undert ak i n g , an d

he has succeeded mag n i f i ci en t l y . The me l od i es are mostl y su i ted to

3 2 see Burney G , p . 2 3 9 . Rei chardt a l s o v i s i ted Rol l e , and


he offers an op 1 n 1 on about Rol l e • s works. See Joh ann Fri ed r i ch
Rei c hard t , Bri efe e i nes aufmerksamen Rei senden d i e Mu s i c betreffend ,
2 vo l s . ( Fran kfurt u nd Lei pzi g : n . p . , 1774; Frankfurt u nd Bresl au :
n . p . , 1 7 76 ; rpt . H i l deshe i m : Georg O l ms , 1977 ) , 2 : 55-56 .
33 chri sti an Got t l ob Neefe, [ 1 3 ] Oden von K l opstock mi t
Mel odi en ( F l en sburg - Le i p z i g : Korten , 1776) . Apparently Schubart
had kn own that Neefe was al ready worki n g on thi s col l ecti on when
he wrote the art i c l e about Kl opstock • s odes in t he Deut sche Chron i k
( 6 Apr i l 1 7 75 ) : 2 2 3 . A cri t i ca l rev i ew of thi s col l ect i on appears 1 n
Fork el • s Mu s i kal i sch-kri t i sche B i b l i othek , 1 : 2 1 1 - 2 6 , wh ere " Barda l e , "
" Se l ma und Sel mar , 11 and "Cid1 i , " i n parti cu l ar, are d i scus sed among
other poems . Another col l ect i on a l so was pri nted i n 1 7 76 : L i eder mi t
K l av i ermel od i en ( G l ogau : Chri st i an Fri edri ch GU nt her , 1776) , wh i ch
Schu art rev 1 ewed i n t he Teutsche C hron i k ( 1 J u l y 1 7 76 ) : 42 2 - 2 3 .

169
IK ' s great spi r i t and ex press hi s profou nd l y mel an chol i c

feel i ng q u i te admi rab l y. Barda l e, Sommermendnacht , the el egy Sel ma

und Sel ma [ recte Sel ma und Se l mar] , and the pi ece from Ossi an ' s •• Komm

z u F i n ga l s Feste , n d i st i ng u i sh themsel ves before others . B ut he suc­


ceed s onl y in the me l an chol i c and tender pas sages and not so wel l i n

the p as s ages where the ode ' s h i gh fl i ght po i n ts mos t of al l to the

poet . Neefe ' s ph rase i s very pu re , an d hi s me l od i es are often mag i ­


cal l y beaut i fu l . I n the sel ecti on of keys , he i s very fortu nate i n

th at h e deep l y feel s that every good poem has i ts own mu s i cal k ey.

For examp l e , t he spl end i d Kl opstock poem to C i d l i , wh ere he f i nds her

sl eepi ng , wou l d hav e been l ost i n al l chromati c k eys ; where, on the

other h and , i t rece i ves i ts fu l l power i n d i aton i c keys , such as i n

E-fl at major or part i cu l arl y i n A-fl at major. The songs of thi s


composer are extreme l y s i ngab l e and of unu sual l y attract i ve mel odi e s ;

t hey deserve very much to be p l aced on the harpsi ch ord rack of ou r

s i ngers . Yet I mu st note that Neefe ' s Kl opstock odes and l i ed er c an be


best performed on a good cl av i chord , becau se here one can best express

t he sens i t i ve pas s ages: the s i gh i ng , l amen t i n g , weep i n g , the gentl e

nuan ces , the portamentos and mez zoti nts . The comi c oper as of thi s

�aster i n deed cont a i n many beaut i fu l pl aces yet show that Neefe ' s

spi r i t i s not mad e for the com i c theater . I t seems to me that Neefe

�au l d s h i ne most as a church composer . But unfortu n ate l y hi s present

� est i ny i s not su i ted to h i s spi r i t . He serves as mu s i c mas ter at

� eyl er ' s Theatr i ca l Soci ety [ 1 7 76- 79 ] . Neefe a l so thereby di st i n­

g u i shes h i msel f before many mu s i c i an s i n that he wr i tes very good

German . One h as i n the Deu tsches Mu seum and i n other German


170
lmonth l y mag azi ne s s ome e s s ays o n mu s i c al m atters by h i m, wh i ch are
wri tten unusual l y we l l and thorou gh l y . 34

Wo l f , K ape l l me i ster i n Wei mar [ 1 7 7 2-92] , d i st i n gu i s hes h i mse l f

more by profound t horoughness t h an by s p i r i t u a l power. H e i s a very


good c l av i er p l ayer [ and ] h as an extreme l y c l e an and prec i se perform­

ance , [wh i ch ] a l ways remai ns the s ame but n ev er becomes f i ery . 35

Hi s c l av i er concertos req u i re a strong p l ayer , for there are a few

ri sky p as s ages . Wo l f h as al so set some c antat as by our Herder [ c a .

1781 ] to mus i c , wh i ch reveal much s k i l l for t h e h ero i c styl e . Hi s

c horuses are f u l l , stron g , and h armon i c al ly r i ch , but h i s ari as are

not t u nefu l enough . He somet i mes v i o l ate s the i d i osyncras i es of the

accomp anyi n g i nstruments . U nd er h i s d i rect i on the Wei mar orchestra

h as devel oped very we l l .

Stei n h ardt i s one of our best f l ute p l ayers , and h i s w i fe i s a

very correct s i nger. Good v i o l i n i st s an d wi nd pl ayers are not l ac k i ng

t here , bec ause the present duke h as a g reat deal of t aste, and h i s
pr i vy counci l l or , the f amous Goethe , hel p s i n everythi ng i n mak i ng

mu s i c at th i s court more s park l i ng . Gener al l y one c an s ay t h at the

enth u s i asm for mu s i c i n S axony is un i vers a l . Persons from a l l ranks

are fo und at the pub l i c concert s and compete w i th the v i rtuosos . The

E l ectress dowager of S axony [ Mar i a Anton i a Wal purg i s ] wrote, under

34 see the l i st i ng i n G rove 6 , 1 3 : 9 1 .


35 schubart cr i t i c i zes Wo l f for wri t i n g p i eces w h i c h are
too pl e as i ng for the l ad i e s . See Deut sche Chron i k ( 21 J u l y 1774} : 264 .

171
the name of Erme l i nda, a very p l eas i ng o pera; 36 bes i des , she s ang I

and p l ayed the harp s i chord wel l . 37 Cou nt BrUh l and several
grandees of the court h ave d i st i ngui shed themsel ves as master s on the
c l av i er , and there are today few of the Saxon l ad i es of cu l ture who do
not spark l e [bri l l i rt ] on the p i ano or i n son g .
True German thoroughness uni ted w i th sensi t i ve, p l e as i ng me l o­
d i es , i s t ake n , on the aver age , as the pri nc i pa l feat ure of today ' s
S axon mus i c . B ut for some t i me i t seems t o want t o deteri orate i nto
smal l ness and tri f l i ng through the i ncreas i ng t aste for operettas ,
wh i ch a l most borders on man i a. Throu gh the i nvent i on of mu s i c pri nt i ng,
wi th whi ch Brei tkopf h as made h i msel f i mmort a l , more of the best p i eces
can now be put i nto c i rc u l at i on q u i ck ly, and mus i c al t aste more e as i ly
spread s i tsel f w i d e l y . When prev i ou s l y al l p i eces were engraved, they
were very cos t l y . But b y means of mu s i c pri nt i ng, o n e now gets for a
Lou i s d 'or what one cou l d hard ly have bought w i th several . Al so, the
pri nted notes are now so beaut i fu l , c l ear , and d i st i nct that they com­
pete w i t h the best engraved i n P ar i s , Lon don , Berl i n , and N uremberg.

36 T a l estri , r eg i n a de l l a amazon i ( 1760) and I l t r i o nfo


del l a fedelt a (1754) . See Grove 6 , 11 :677 .
37 see B urney G , p p . 41 , 50-51 ( espec i al l y p . 5 1 ) .

172
IX. THE PALAT I NE-BAVAR IAN SCHOOL

I t h as a l ready been menti oned above that the dukes and el ectors
of B avar i a h ad gre at meri t i n mus i c al l al ong and t h at the nat i on over­
al l i s remarkab l y mu s i ca l . Every t r avel er , who t akes a l on g h i s ear and
heart , wi l l not i ce thi s wi th p l easure whenever he travel s through th i s
venerab l e , anc i ent prov i nce of B avar i a . Everyth i ng s i ngs and r i n gs
amon gst them, and even thei r so i l l -reputed, rough l anguage becomes
sonorous and l ovely i n the mouth of a B avari an g i r l whenever she s i n gs
a fo l k song . The B av ar i an song d i sti n gu i shes i t sel f especi a l l y by the
u n usual l y fast use of the tongue, s i nce they are c apab l e of cover i ng
every note of the most f l eet i ng pas s age w i t h one syl l ab l e ; the dro l l ,
burl esque, or vu l g ar comedy , no nat i on expresses i t b etter t h an a
B av ar i an or Sa l zb urger. W i th respect to the mus i cal meri t of the dukes
of B av ari a i n the ol dest t i mes , that wh i ch i s necessary h as b een remem­
bere d . M aximi l l i an Emanue l , one of the greatest German heros , mai n­
tai ned a very wel l organi zed orchestra and promoted c hurch mu s i c above
al l . Every c l o i ster i n B av ari a h as i t s own cho i r once mor e , where
s p l end i d l y wri tten p i eces i n the true church style often appear . The
many churches i n Mun i ch resound year i n and year out with songs and
hymns , and B avar i ans can t h an k th i s truly great e l ector t h at many of
these i nsti tut i on s h ave taken u p mu s i c . The many turmoi l s of war i n
wh i ch he i nvo l ved h i mse l f made h i m, of course, a l i tt l e l ess

1 73
respon s i ve to the st i l l peace of mus i c , but h i s just decrees to t ake
up mu s i c neverthel ess conti nued i n the mi dst of the d i n of war . I n the
r emai n i ng c i t i es , even i n the v i l l ages of h i s count ry, these char i t ab l e
i nst i tut i on s d i s semi nated themse l ves . Si nce t h i s t i me , even at the
sma l l est vi l l ages i n B av ari a, one often hears good s ongs accompani ed
w i t h i n strument s by the v i l l age i nh ab i t ants. The church styl e
t hroughout al l of B avari a has preserved , before other German provi nces ,
ost of its anc i ent d i gn i ty and grandeu r . Th e exqu i s i te descant v o ices
and , part i cu l ar l y , bass voi ces , wh i ch one comes across i n B avar i a i n
unusual depth and strength , certai n l y add much to th i s .
Emperor Charl es V I I of the B avari an house u n i ted spl endor wi th
al l of these features . He mai ntai ned approximately two hundred of the
cho i cest mus i c i ans , and bec ause he was a f r i end of the I t al i an s , he
emp l oyed many s i ngers , composers , and concertmasters from I t a l y . Con­
sequent ly, the mus i c al s p i r i t of B av ari a took a somewhat d ifferent
course. One adopted much from the gen t l e Ital i an song without thereby
s acri f i c i ng the ch aracter i st i cs of the nat i on . Meanwh i l e , i t mu st b e
confessed that the B av ar i an nat ional t aste i n general symp ath i zes w i t h
t h e I tal i an up t o t h e po i nt o f decept i on ; accord i ng l y , i t attr acted
attent i on to the poi nt of l oud l aughter whenever one heard a d ro l l
B av ari an text reci ted w i th the I t al i an sweet song of a mel t i ng I tal i an
mel o dy. Char l e s V I I was h i mse l f a conno i sseur of mu s i c . He p l ayed the
h ar psichord and v i o l i n wi th moderate s k i l l and i s s a i d to h ave set some
p i eces of mus i c h i msel f , wh i ch one wou l d n atural ly prai se bec ause he
was the emperor. The s ad fortunes of t h i s emperor, bec ause he was a
fug i t i v e al most to the end of h i s l i fe and becau se he had to s urrender
1 74
Mu n i ch to the enemy, h ad brought l i fe and act i v i ty of mu s i c i n B avari a
to a moderate standst i l l . The great v i rtuosos d i s persed by and by , and
the rejoi c i ng of B av ar i ans chan ged to wai l s of l ament at i on .
After t h e death of t h e wi se b u t unhappy emperor came h i s son ,
the p i ous Max i mi l l i an J oseph , to the throne [ 1745 ] . Har d l y h ad he con­
c l uded peace wi th h i s enem i es when the h armon i es , wh i ch h ad been dri ven
off , returned w i t h the i r reti nue to h i s country. T h i s e l ector was h i m­
sel f an excel l ent mus i c i an . He p l ayed the v i o l a d a g amba as a master,
always bowi n g a l ong w i th the v i o l i n s i n most of h i s concerts , l and
composed some church p i eces , whi ch are wr i tten i n the best t aste .
S i nce he was so comp l ete ly i n favor of prayers , he ded i c ated h i s mu s i c
compl ete l y t o rel i gi o n . H e reestab l i shed h i s orchestr a q u i te soon and
put the I tal i an K apel l mei ster Tozz i , who h ad command over f ar greater
peo pl e t h an he was h i msel f , i n charge [ 1 774-75 ] ; for Toz z i composed
o n l y moderately wel l , but he understood very wel l the art of coach i ng
s i ngers . Si nce the el ector was an ecstat i c l over of song, he a lways
mai ntai ned the most exc e l l ent s i ngers at h i s court , among wh i ch were
found the best c astr ati of that t i me . But s i nce these be l ong to the
I tal i an school , we pass over them and stay with the German s . U nder
th i s e l ector the fol l owi ng mus i c i an s d i st i n gu i shed themsel ve s :
Joseph M i c he l . A compo ser of many mi nd s . S i nce h e on l y
worked for t h e court , on ly a few o f h i s p i eces h ave come to the pub l i c .
He surpassed Tozz i by far i n compo s i t i onal s k i l l s , composed o peras and

l see B urney G , p . 5 1 .

175
church mu s i c with much t aste and thoroughness , and a l so proved the
chamber styl e to be h i s most f avor ab l e s i de. His p l easant , l uc i d
spi r i t i s al so evi dent i n h i s compo si t i on s . H i s phrases are not
myst i c al ly d ark , as an or ac l e thunder i ng out of the mouth of a copper
i do l , but l i ght and gener a l l y underst and ab l e . Mus i c al pub l i c spi r i t
i s t h e pri nc i pa l feat ure i n h i s charac te r ; therefore , he was a uni ­
vers al l y l i ked composer. L ater on he composed some G erman songs where
h i s sp i ri t took a h i gher fl ight and sought to expres s more German qual ­
i t i es . M i chel , of course , spent sever al years i n I ta l y [ 1774-76? ] but
preserved h i s n at i on a l styl e so th at the B av ar i an mus i c a l spi r i t sh i nes
through i n al l of h i s p i ece s . I n h i s chamber p i eces there i s a n e as i er
f l ow and much i nstrument al i ns i gh t . Even i f M i chel was no or i g i n a l
gen i u s , he at l e ast possessed a n exce l l ent mus i c a l t a l ent .
Joh ann von Croner . Best concertmaster of the e l ector , and at
the s ame t i me v i o l i n teacher of the p r i nce . The emperor u su a l l y stood
next to h i m whenever a symphony was performed and p l ayed the v io l i n
w i th h i m. 2 Crtlner was an unusual l y good r i p i en i st , but he d i d not
underst and the art of l ead i ng an orchestra wi th s uccess , 3 and ,
accordi ng ly , a st ate of confu s i on h appened very often . The el ector s aw
the d i sorder, but he contro l l ed i t j ust as l i tt l e out of the goodness
of h i s heart , as he contro l l ed the po l i t i ca l d i sorder of h i s mi n i sters .
T h i s Croner a l so d i st i ngu i shed h i msel f espec i al ly i n s o l o p l ayi ng ; he
h ad an unusual , s k i l l fu l stroke, short but n i ce , but he thereby

2cf. B urney G , pp . 50-5 1 .


3 aurney h as j u st the o ppos i te opi n i on . See Burney G , p . 50 .
176
dri fted too mu ch toward l ev i ty , and h e never s ucceeded i n br i n g i ng
out the real ch aracteri sti cs of the v i o l i n . The tempo rubato he knew

how to br i ng o ut master l y , but he was too l av i sh wi th t h i s prec i o usne ss

and often c au sed the accompan i sts to l o se the i r composure . He l oved

the comi c performance more t h an the ser iuus .

Rhei ner, a great b as soon i st , equ a l l y strong i n the presto as

i n the me l t i ng ad ag i o . H i s tone was p ure and fu l l , and h i s t aste very

d e l i c ate. 4 But he occ as i on a l l y d i d not avo i d groans and grow l s i n


the l ow range whereby one wou l d often bel i ev e that h e was hear i ng two

d i fferent p l ayers , one b ad and one good. H e usual l y composed h i s con­


certos and sonat as h i mse l f wi t h understand i ng and t aste and performed

them exq u i s i te l y . He bel onged t o t h e best reformers i n Europe o f t h i s

former l y so d i s gu st i ng b as s i nstrument . H i s st ubborn opi n i on s about

mus i c and h i s mas s i ve B av ar i an c h aracter oversh adowed h i s reputat i on i n


some respect s . 5

Secch i , the most d e l i ghtfu l [ and ] most ami ab l e obo i st of h i s

t i me . 6 The tones s i ghed under h i s l i ps from h i s beaut i fu l , yo uthf u l


sou l and broke forth o ut o f h i s mag i c a l i n strument . He d i d not p l ay,

4 cf. B urney G , p . 60 .

5 I n d i scuss i n g temperament and the i mportance of correct l y .


matc h i ng an i n strument with the v i rtuoso 1 S temperament , Schub art c i tes
the fo l l owi ng examp l e : " R hei ner was one of the greatest b assooni sts i n
Europ e , yet more stormy t h an d e l i c at e . " GS , 1 : 188 ( L & G , 1 ) .
6 " secc h i was the second great obo i st t h at I have he ard .
[ Lebrun was the f i r st . ] He s i ghed the sound s , and i n spi red more sweet
me l ancho l y t h an L eb r u n , whose temperament [ B l utmi schung] i s more
j o v i a l . " GS , 1 : 188 ( L & G , 1 ) . Schubart adds a footnote to h i s auto­
b i ogr aphy ilnd i c at i n g that L ebrun h ad d i ed i n B er l i n [ 16 December 1790] ,
thus l ead i ng u s to bel i eve t h at he was sti l l i n the process of e d i t i ng
h i s autob i ography .
177
he sang. He never brou ght forth di ffi cu l ti es becau se hi s stu d i e s were
• i n gr acefu l ness. The mezzoti ntos , the susta i n i ng and abat i ng of tones ,
the sensu al nuance of an i n temperan ce i n the pri n ci pal mot i v e , t he
l i ttl e fl ou ri shes , and especi al l y h i s masterly cad enzas carri ed away
al l l i steners . He was equal ly strong i n ac compan i ment as i n sol o, and
often the most ab l e s i nger h ad en ou gh to do to sti l l sparkl e next to
him.
I t was a wonder that a great organ i st or cl av i er i st never di s­
ti ngui shed h i mself under th i s el ector. On l y here and there one found a
mon k or pri est i n the cl oi ster who knew how to han d l e the organ , but at
h i s court there was hard l y a tol erab l e pl ayer (Kl i mperer] . The l ad i es
of the court were usual l y i n the hab i t of accompanyi ng [ o n ] the
harpsi chord at concerts , but so l o pl ayers were never heard except when
forei gners were heard . The el ectress dowag er of Saxony [ Mari a Antoni a
Wal purgi s] was the fi rst who brought i n a Spath p i ano from Regen sb urg
an d thereby ai ded somewhat the taste for the cl av i er . After the death
of the el ector [ 1777 ] , the Pal at i n ate was uni ted wi th B avari a, and the
great Mannhei m or chestra fu s ed wi th the B avari an orchestra so that
today it i s one of the worl d ' s best orchestras .
Even from the earl i est t i mes , the pal at i n e cou nts on the R h i n e
were great admi rers of mu s i c . I f the famous Heidel berg L i brary had not
been l ost to Rome by the most wret ched fate , we wou l d have found enou gh
documents to exp l a i n the ear l i est h i story of mus i c i n th i s house . One
cert ai n l y knows th i s much , that immed i atel y after the ti me of the Ref­
ormati on , wh en the pal at i ne counts became P rotest ants, very beaut i fu l
i n sti tuti ons for the ass i m i l ati on of th i s art were constru cted . In
178
the c i t i es and v i l l ages c antors and precentors were eng aged who mu st
h ave i nstructed the youth i n chor a l e s i ng i ng an d made the German

l i eder uni versal i n the l and . W hen the pri nces of t h i s house resi ded
i n He i de l berg , they a l ways h ad a cho i r around them. One reads wi th

d e l i ght i n the o l d G erman h i story t h at the o l d p al at i ne count s wi th

the i r pr i n ces and pri ncesses , [ and ] al so wi t h many s t ate l y kn i ghts and
brave men , s at around the t ab l e , every b i te a s i f i t were s easoned w i th
mu s i c , and s i pped the s pi r i t of the f r agran t Rh i ne wi n e ami dst

s i ng i n g .
When t h e pr i nces o f t h i s house were e l ev ated to e l ector i al r ank

[ 16 20] , mus i c i n the P a l at i n ate recei v ed a new l ustr e , and o n ly by

Fri edr i ch ' s [Fri edr i ch V ] s ad f ate , whom the i nh abi t an ats of t h e
P a l at i n ate prof aned wi th t h e i nappropr i at e t i t l e of t h e " W i nter Ki n g , "

was th i s l u stre d arkened . Th i s u nfortunate F r i edr i ch p l ayed t h e h arp

adm i r ab ly and al so a l ways h ad around h i m, i n h i s mi sfort une , mu s i cal

s er v ants who fri ghtened away the c l ouds of g r i ef from h i s brow t hrough
me l t i ng chor d s . When the Pal at i nate became qui et ag ai n after the

dreadfu l Thi rty Y e ars • W ar , Pol yhymn i a a l so tri ed ag ai n to rai s e h er


head t her e . B u t shor t l y t h e ensu i ng i n v as i on of t h e French i n th i s

b l o ssomi ng co untry s c ared her off . The P a l at i nate was a wi l dernes s ,

and every note o f j oy was ch anged i nto a wai l o f l ament at i on . As the


P al at i n at e s l ow l y recovered after t h i s r ag i ng destruct i on , the arts

al s o recovered s l ow l y , and wi th th i s , mus i c . Th e e l ectors became

C athol i cs , but mu s i c l ost noth i ng becau se of i t ; i t won much more, for


the C at ho l i cs from t i me i mmemor i al h ave patron i zed mu s i c f ar more th an

the P rotest ant s . S i nce c hu rch l y wea l th among t h e Protestant s c ame by

179
robbi ng the pri nces , [extra] funds were t hen l ack i ng to mai nt ai n
cho i rs . Al l they cou l d do was to mai ntai n careful ly the i r heart­
st i rr i ng chor a l e s . O n l y u n der the C atho l i c reg ime o f t h e p a l at i ne
el ectors were matters i mproved, wi th choral and f i gural mus i c i n the
churches . Even at t h e beg i nn i ng of th i s century a bequest of 80 ,000
f l ori n s a year was estab l i shed sol e ly for the s upport of pri nce l y
mu s i c . Thi s bequest i s s o f i rmly grounded that no e l ector c an abo l i sh
i t anymore. Thus no one may be surpr i sed when mus i c i n the Pal ati nate
qu i ck ly ascended to such wonderf u l hei ghts . Neverthel ess , i t was
i nd ebted fi rst to the prev i ous e l ectors for the l ustre wh i ch even
sti rred up the envy of the arrogant fore i g n countr i es and made the
court i nto a schoo l of tru ly good t aste i n mu s i c . Th i s e l ector [Karl
Theodor, el ector from 1742] p l ayed the f l ut e and w as an enthu s i ast i c
admi rer of mus i c . He not on ly l ured the wor l d ' s best v i rtuosos t o h i s
cour t , founded mus i c schoo l s , al l owed n at i ves o f gen i us t o t r ave l , but
al so ordered , w i t h great cost , the choi cest p i eces of al l k i nds from
al l of E urope and l et them be performed by h i s mu s i c masters . Q u i te
soon the Mannheim school d i ffered from al l other s; i n Nap l es , Berl i n,
V i enna, and Dresden , t aste to th i s t i me was always one-s i ded . One
great master l ed the fashi o n , he h e l d sway unt i l another came forth who
possessed enough power to suppl ant the previous one. W hereas N aples
d i sti n gu i shed i t se l f by spl endor , Berl i n by cri t i cal exactness, Dresden
9Y grace, V i en n a by the tragi -comedy , Mannheim sti rred up the worl d ' s
admi r at i on by v ar i ety. The e l ector ' s theater and h i s concert h a l l
were a l most an odeum, character i zed by the masterworks of al l arti sts •

. The e l ector ' s changi ng mood contri buted very much to th i s taste.

I 180
Jomme l l i , H as s e , Graun , Traetta, Georg B enda, S al es , Agr i co l a, the
London B ach , G l uck , [ and] Schwe i tzer al ternated there year after year

w i th the compos i t i o n s of h i s own masters , so t h at t here was no p l ace

i n the wor l d where one cou l d so s ure l y deve l op h i s mus i cal t aste so

q u i ck l y as i n M an nh e i m . I f the e l ector w a s i n S chwet z i ngen and h i s

s p l end i d orchestra fol l owed h i m there, one wou l d h ave bel i eved h i mse l f

t o be transpl anted t o an ench anted i s l and where everyth i ng r ang and


s an g . From the b athhouse of h i s Hesper i d i an g arden sounded the most

s en s ual mu s i c ev ery even i ng ; from a l l t he shops and cott ages of the

sma l l v i l l ages one heard the m ag i c a l sounds of h i s v i rt uo sos , who were

s k i l l ed on al l types of i ns truments .

No orchestr a i n the wor l d h as ever s urpassed the performance of

t h e Mannh e i m orchestr a . Its forte i s t h under ; i t s crescend o , a c at ar act

[ s i c ] ; i t s d i mi nuendo, l i k e a cryst al stream s p l as h i ng i n t h e d i st ance;

i t s p i an o , a spri ng breeze. The wi nd i nstruments were al l as s u i t ab l e

a s they cou l d be: they l i ft and c arry, o r they f i l l u p and an i mate the
storm of the v i o l i ns . Th i s schoo l h as d i st i n gu i shed i tse l f f amous ly i n

t h e art o f s i ng i ng , al though the c ho i r of s i n gers here was never as

outst andi ng as i n B er l i n or V i en n a. German and Ital i an s i n gers h ave

t r ai ned t hemsel ves i n th i s great schoo l and aft erward s h ave become the
e n vy of other choi rs . Yet m any more adm i rab l e i nstrument a l i st s h ave

gone forth from th i s schoo l . Lord Ford i ce used to s ay, when h e


t r avel ed through Germany, t h at when i t comes to Pru ss i an t act i cs and

M annhei m mus i c , the G ermans regard al l other peopl e as u n i mport ant .

And when Kl opstock heard t h i s orchestr a, the great , r are l y surpr i sed
man cr i ed out ecstat i cal l y , "Here one swi ms i n the l asci v i ousness

181
of mus i c ! " A l l k i nd s of mus i c were c u l t i v ated there w i t h utmost pre­
c i s i on . The church p i eces are profound and fundamental ly set; the
1 oper a sty l e i s r i ch and v ar i ed ; the p antomi me of the d ancer i s
enl i vened by the most appropri ate mel od i es ; the chamber musi c h as f i re ,
g reat ness , strength , and v ar i ety by many of the best v i rt uosos , even
var i ety of mus i cal styl es; and i n the symphony everyt h i n g storms
toget her i n an i nexpressi b l y beaut i fu l tota l i ty. The most f amous men
of thi s schoo l are the fol l owi n g :
Hol zhau er was K ape l l mei ster f i rst at the WUrttemberg court
[ 1751-53] , then h e c ame at thi s rank to the Pal at i n ate [ 1 753-58 ] and
hel ped the most i n the perfect i on of th i s great orchestra. He was not
on l y an unusual l y thorough and i ndust r i ous art i st who h ad stud i ed com­
pos i t i on profound l y and thorough l y , but an excel l ent mi nd , whose mu s i c
h ad i t s own st amp , al though h e was not so obst i n ate i n i t not t o seek
gol d from fore i g n l and s . German character col ored w i th I ta l i an grace
was nearly h i s pri nc i pal mus i c al feature . Through t h at he affected
u nderst and i ng , through th i s he affected the heart , and thus he touched
the who l e of man . Whatever he composed i n the I tal i an l angu age i s
i ndeed goo d, yet i t appears that here he was not ri ght at home. On ly
when the German t aste tri umphed over the i nhab i t ants of the pal at i ne
court d i d he fee l compl ete , and he composed the Germ an opera GUnther
von Schwarzburg [ 1776 ] . 7 The poet ry i s by Professor K l e i n ,

7 The b i ography of Hol zhauer i n the MAadJ 178 2 , pp . 23- 26 ,


deal s extens i ve ly wi th GUnther von Schwarzburg . See al so Schub art ' s
Teutsche Chroni k ( 3 October 1776) :630-31 , where he makes t h e st atement :
"A German opera from German h i sto ry ! from a German author ! German
composi t i on ! and p erformed i n the best German theater ! "
182
as a ru l e a tru ly deserv i ng man i n our l i terature, but th i s t i me h i s
couns e l was not at i ts best , and h i s composer Ho l zb auer, went f ar above
h i m. The symphony of th i s German opera i s wr i tten w i t h much art and
i n s i gh t . I n jl l i e s the character of the who l e oper a, compressed so
t h at the fol l ow i ng scenes sp i n out , as i t were, only the symphony.
Most of the ar i as h ave new and beaut i f u l mot i ves and are real ­
i zed very wel l . The duet s are master ly worked out , and the c hor uses
r i se by means of pomp and greatnes s . Ho l zb auer espec i al l y knows how
to use the i nstruments w i t h great emphas i s , al though i t seems t h at he
mi ght d aub [ p i n s l e ] too much here and there . The accomp an i ed and
u n accompan i ed rec i t at i ves are not on ly grammat i c al l y correct and
emphat i c a l ly sui ted to the l aws of dec l amat i on , but they al so become
extremely al l ur i ng through the i nterspersed ornaments , through the
tran s i t i on to the ari o so , etc . Equi pped wi th these qual i t i es ,
Hol zbau er al so ventured to the c hurch sty l e , but i n wh i ch , accord i ng
to my fee l i ngs , he d i d not s ucceed as wel l as i n the dramat i c styl e.
H i s fugues and al l a breve p i eces race through one another so t i mi d l y
and the h armoni es i n them are s o t h i n th at one real ly sees that
Hol zbauer d i d not study counterpo i nt deeply enough . The c h amber p i eces
of th i s composer do not want to s ay muc h ; they are most ly sti ff and
o l d -fash i oned . S t i l l th i s master h as the str i k i ng fau l t that cadenzas
composed by h i m are much too l on g , not drawn from the spl en d i d mot i ves ,
but c apri ces wh i ch d i sturb the u n i ty of the who l e. A l ong cadenza i s a
state with i n a state and a l ways shades the i mpress i on of the who l e .
Consequent l y , Hol zbau er bel ongs t o our good but not to our excel l ent

1 83
master s . I f h e h ad not composed h i s GUnther von Schwarzburg , one
1WOu l d st i l l h ard l y know h i m by n ame .
V ogl er . An epoch maker i n mus i c [ an d ] certai n l y one of the
best organ and h arpsi chord p l ayers i n E urope. H i s h an d i s round and
s p l end i d . H e bri ngs o ut the most fri ghtf u l p as s ages [ and ] the most
per i l ous sk i ps w i t h wonderfu l ease. Hi s v ar i at i on s are mag i c al and h i s
fugues [ are ] worked out wi th profound understand i ng . H e i mprov i ses
q u i t e s p l end i d l y; I mai ntai n that he i mprov i ses better t h an he com­
poses . He h as made h i s h and unusual l y strong by cont i nu al p l ayi ng.
Vog l er possesses i ncontestab l e f i re and geni us; yet he reve a l s in h i s
compo s i t i on s , as i n h i s p l ayi n g , p ed antry. 8 Thi s phenomenon i n t he
h i s tory of i deas wou l d be puzzl i ng to me , i f i t had not been known t h at
Vog l er h i mse l f purs ued a system to whi ch he s l av i sh l y res i gned h i msel f .
He d i scovered a hept achord , from wh i ch h e wanted to c a l c u l ate the
n at ure and devel opment of a l l tones . Cert ai n ly h i s system h as much
profoundness and sel f -ev i dence, b ut no art can endure the s l aves ' yoke
of a system l ess than the art of mu s i c . V o l ger wants t o c al cu l ate, for
examp l e , al l s i mi l ar �nd progressive h armoni es i n mus i c. He remai n s so
f ai thfu l to these progress i on s and ar i thmet i c rel at i orsh i p s that they
shine through i n a l l of h i s compos i t i on s . A b i rd o n a str i n� cert ai n ly
f l i es but on l y re}ches as far as the str i ng wi l l al l ow . Gen i us f l i es
the eag l e f l i ght; [ i t ] dri nks sunbeams ! Every system constrai ns the
s p i r i t i n a l l arts and sci ences and i nh i b i ts the devel opment of h uman
know l edge . I t i s one th i ng to h ave order and a correct sequence of

8 see the anecdote i n MAadJ 1 784 , p . 1 25 .


184
thought , i mpr i soned by sel f-made r u l es , so th at no f l as h of the

l i g htni n g of a n ew truth can penetr at e . The cont i n u a l ref l ect i on on

d e at h l y co l d r u l es c au ses l av a streams of g en i u s to f a l ter , and i n stead

of f i re , s l u sh rushes forth . Th i s i s undoubted l y t h e c as e for Vo l ger;

h i s p i eces h av e muc h st i ffness , stub bornness , and co l dnes s . The i nd i -

gence of h i s i nvent i v eness i s a sequence of the t i m i d i ty wi t h wh i ch he

wr i tes . Whoever i s s at i sfi ed wi t h t h at �h i ch h e h as w i l l never become


a Croes us . Vo l ger has composed symphon i es i n a comp l ete l y or i gi n al

manner, wh i ch g i v e h i m g re at honor; thu s , for examp l e , t h e symphony

to H aml et [ 17 79 ] 9 i s a t r ue masterpi ece. F i rst , he s t u d i ed t h i s

great tragedy and expressed al l of the pri nc i pa l scenes w i t h tone s .

The l i stener i s not e as i l y s o comp l et e l y prepared for a g re at p l ay by

a mu s i c a l pre l u de as by t h i s one of Vo l ge r . H i s c l av i er pi eces are

sp l end i d for the b u i l d i ng of the h an d , but not a l w ays b eaut i fu l to the

l i stener , n e i ther exc i t i ng to adm i r at i on nor hearten i n g . I n a wor d ,

Vol g er i s a h armon i c but not a me l od i c m i nd whose p as s ages i n h i s con­


certos , sonat as , and v ar i at i ons are often extreme l y we i gh ty and i ntense

but more a resu l t of study t h an of g en i u s ; for that reason , one c an

remember l i tt l e about them� H i s church pi eces are a l l we i ghed out wi th

ar i t hmet i c consc i ent i ousness , but these a l so l ack sp i r i t u a l ascent ,

mus i c of the s pheres , and angel ' s rej o i c i n g . H i s f u gu e s are exqui ­

s i te l y composed , yet one a l so m i s ses th i s h armon i c f u l l ness . In

s hort , Vog l er i s a more spl end i d p l ayer t h an composer . H i s accomp an i -

ment on h arpsi chord i s f au l t l es s . H e p l ays master l y from the p age and

9 vog l er ana l yzed t h i s work i n h i s Betracht ungen der


Mannhei mer Ton sch u l e . See Grove 6 , 20 : 60 .
185
knows how to pass over to other keys on the spur of the moment . His
i nstruct i on i n s i ngi ng i s l i kewi se very cel ebrate d . He carefu l ly
d i st i ngu i shes the reg i sters [Tone] of the throat , nose, head , chest ,
and stomach [ de s M agens ] from one another. He was the f i rst who
contro l l ed the d i sgust i ng sob b i n g and gur g l i ng of the I t a l i an school
and g ave freedom to s i gh to the heart of the s i nger, when a s u i t ab l e
fee l i ng forces the s i gh from h i m. The s p l endi d s i nger L ang i n V i enna
[ 1 77 9- 9 2] i s � creat i on . She h as h i gh and l ow tones and marks the
tones wi th except i onal accuracy. She s i ngs i n fu l l - or h a l f-v o i ce
equ a l ly wel l . Her portamento; her suspens i on and sustai ni ng of the
tone; her except i on a l correctness i n read i n g ; her ref i nement i n per­
formance; her mezzot i nto; the easy, q u i ck f l ow [ Fortro l l en ] of tones;
her match l ess fermat as and c adenzas ; al so her outward, maj e st i c com-
posure- -for these she h as , for the most p art , her great teacher to
t h an k . V og l er h as a l so become a pro l i f i c mus i c al wri ter. H e publ i shed
a Tonsch u l e , 10 a mu s ic a l per i od i cal , 1 1 and other wr i t i ngs
wherei n the proof of h i s profound i ns i g ht to the h i story and the spi rit
of mu s i c i s so ev i dent th at even h i s oppos i t i on cou l d not fai l to
recogn i ze i t . H i s comments are often or i g i nal and p l anned wi th true
p h i l osoph i cal s p i ri t , but h i s sty l e i s often prec i ous and pedanti c , as
h i s mus i cal comp o si t i ons themsel ves; the use of l eg-pu l l i ng , of mod i sh

10Georg J oseph Vog l er , Entwu rf e i nes neuen Worterbuchs fUr


d i e Tonsch u l e ( F rankfurt und Leipzig : Vaarrentrapp Sohn und Wenner ,
1780) or Kuhrpfal zi sche Tonschu l e (Mannhei m: Author comm i ss i oned by C .
F . Schwan und M. Gotz , 1778) .
1 1 Georg Joseph Vog l er , Betrachtungen der M annheimer
Tonschu l e (Mannhe i m : n . p . , 1778-81) .
1 86
phr aseo l ogy , and of styl i sh grace g i ves h i m often an offens i ve appear­
anc e . I nstead o f showi n g h i s n at u r a l phys i ognomy , h e gr i m aces . His

best compo s i t i on s [ Au s ar be i tungen ] are i n the German encyc l oped i a1 2


and r eveal the mature researcher and t h i nker . Al so, the styl e i s far

better h ere t h an i n h i s ot her wr i t i ngs , perh aps because someone h as

pol i shed i t . Th e mus i c a l art i c l es i n th i s work are , t h erefore , f ar

more comprehen s i v e and f ar more profound l y t ho ught out t h an t hose i n

the S u l zer d i ct i onary. 1 3

R aaff . One of the best and most profound s i n gers i n

E urope. 1 4 H i s vo i ce i s the most beaut i f u l tenor t h at one c an hear .

H e ascends t o t h e sphere of the a l to and descends j u st as s uccessfu l l y

i nto the reg i on of t h e b as s . H i s tones are a l l t h i ck , f u l l , and pure .


He s i n gs everyt h i ng w i t h i n i m i t ab l e s k i l l from the p ag e wh atever one

l ays before h i m and v ar i es an ar i a repeated l y w i th i nd escr i b ab l e art .

H i s orn aments and cadenzas , as h i s mu s i c a l t aste i n gener a l , are

i ncomp arab l y beaut i fu l . Whatever h e s i ng s , h e s i ngs w i th t h e deepest

fee l i ng , and h i s beaut i f u l heart seems to resoun d ag ai n i n h i s son g s .

Moreover , per h aps on l y a few s i n gers i n t h e wor l d know how t o s peak


about the i r art so t horou gh l y as R aaff . [ It i s ] too b ad t h at t h i s

1 2o eut sche Enzyk l opad i e ( Fr an kf urt am M ai n , 1 7 78- 1804 ) .


1 3Joh an n Georg S u l zer , A l l geme i ne Theor i e der schonen
KUnste , 2 v o l s . ( Le i pz i g : M . G . We1dmanns Erben und Rei c h , 177 1 ;
Ber l i n : George L u dw i g W i nter , 1 7 7 4 ) .
14 ••R aaff i s the most matu re s i n ger t h at I have ever
h e ar d . " GS , 1 : 1 5 4 ( L & G , 1 ) . Schubart al so prai s e s Raaff for h i s
h umb l e charact er-- a q u al i ty not found i n most v i rtuosos . - GS, 1 : 113 ,
154 ( L & G , 1 ) .

187
rare man i s now grow i n g o l d and a l re ady beg i n s to tremb l e i n h i s

voi c e .

C hr i st i an C an n ab i ch . F as h i oned from n ature herse l f to be a

concertmaster ! One c annot underst and the ro l e of ripi en i s t more

perfect l y t h an C an n ab i ch . H i s stroke i s comp l etely or i g i n al . He has

d i scovered a compl et e l y n ew bow contro l and possesses the tal ent of

keep i ng the greatest orchestra i n order wi th the s l i ghtest nod of h i s

head and j erk i n g mov ement of h i s e l bow . He i s i n real i ty t h e creator


of the un i form execut i on wh i ch prev ai l s i n the p a l at i ne orchestra. He

h as d i scovered al l of those tri cks wh i c h Europe now adm i res . Perh aps

no one h as ev er st ud i ed the tone co l or of the v i o l i n as thorough l y as

th i s m aster . It i s extreme l y d i ff i cu l t to ascert ai n the or i g i n a l i ty of


h i s strok es; i t i s not Tart i n i ' s s t i ffness by far, sti l l l e s s of the

l axness of Ferrar i . As effort l ess ly as one c an imag i n e , he d i rect s the

bow and br i ngs out the l ow and h i gh , the strong and weak , even t h e

f i nest shad i ngs wi th abso l ute power. As great as he i s a con cert -

master , he i s even as great i n i n struct i on . The best sol o v i o l i n i sts

and the most spl end i d ri p i e n i sts come out of h i s schoo l . H i s or i g i nal

manner of pai nt i n g wi th the bow h as brought forth a n ew v i o l i n sect .

I n the l eadersh i p of an orchestra and i n the fash i on i n g of art i sts

stands h i s most super i or mer i t . As a composer he i s , i n my op i n i on ,

not of much i mport ance. 15 In the stran geness of stroke; in the

profound study of mu s i c a l c o l or; in a few , l ovely c l i ches st and s

15 I t seems t h at Schubart ' s op1 n 1 on h ad c h an ged over the


years . He d i sc u s sed C an n ab i ch i n the ch apter of h i s b r i ef journey to
Schwet z i n gen ( n r . M annhe i m ) . "My f i rst fri end •w as C an n ab i ch ,
• •

188
the who l e c h ar acter of h i s compo s i t i on s . H i s b a l l ets are not bad, but
i n f i fty ye ars no one w i l l read them any more. 16 C an n ab i ch i s a

t h i nker , an i n dustr i ous , t astef u l man , but not a gen i u s . I ndustry com­

p i l es and i t s comp i l at i ons d i sperse; gen i u� d i scovers and i t s d i scov­


eri es compet e w i t h perpetu i ty . Th at he dran k no wi ne duri n g h i s l i fe

perh aps may a l so weaken C an n ab i ch ' s f i re .

Toesch i . The second concertmaster [from 1 7 5 9 ] of the great

P al at i ne-B av ar i an orch estra. I n bow contro l h e i s c ert ai n l y no

C an n ab i c h ; the l atter commanded armi es , the former [ i . e . , Toe sch i ]

h ard l y a b attal i on . N everthel ess , h e possesses someth i ng qu i te


i d i osyncrat i c : h e h as made h i s own spec i al manner i n t h e symphon i c

who comb i nes the best German heart w i t h the most beaut i fu l u nder­
st and i ng of h i s art . One mu st speak to h i m and must even hear h i s
compo s i t i ons performed i n order to be ab l e to j udge them correct l y . A

S
s i n g l e fal se stro k e , a wrong bowi ng [ Bogen l enkun ] c an g i v e h i s p i eces ,
wh i c h are qu i te or i g i n a l , a f a l se c h ar acter and r i ng about f a l se j udg­
ment s . I h ave he ard them performed i n h i ghest perfect i o n , and they
seem to me to be much more study of the v i o l i n and of t h e peri pheral
f l ouri shes of mu s i c t h an g i v i ng ev i dence of profound creat i on from the
cryst a l sea of h armony i t se l f . H i s symphon i es , performed by t h e whol e
p al at i ne orchest r a , seem to me , at that ti me , to be the no n p l u s u l tr a
o f the symphony [ i t a 1 1 c s aaaea j . 1 t 1 s not mere l'y crowa n o 1 se, as the
moo shrl eKs 1 n revo l t ; i t i s a mus i c a l who l e , whose part s bui l d a who l e
agai n l i ke a sp i r i t u a l outpouri n g . The l i stener i s not on l y deafened ,
b ut sh aken and penetrated by t hrown-down l ast i ng effects . The so­
r i ght l y h i gh l y f amed pal at i ne orchestra h as to t h an k th i s m an the most
for i t s perfect i o n . " GS , 1 : 1 5 2-53 ( L & G , 1 ) . Schub art i mp l i es that
h e at one t i me [poss i blf:Y at the t i me he d i ct ated h i s auto b i ography , ca.
1 7 78-7 9 ] regarded C an n ab i ch ' s symphon i e s as tru l y great work s , but t h at
on ref l ect i on [ 1 784-85 , or the d i ct at i ng of �sthet i k der Ton kunst] i n
spi te of the powerfu l effect t hey h ad on the l i stener , the1 r worth ,
l i ke sound i t se l f , f aded qu i ck l y . Cou l d h i s opi n i ons be affected by ,
s ay , the MAadJ 1 7 8 2? See the next three foot notes .
16 s i l m i l ar observ at i ons concern i n g h i s performance and
compos i t i ons , espec i a l l y h i s bal l et s , are made i n the MAadJ 1782,
p p . 6-7 .

189
style by excepti on al power and effort . They [ i . e. , the sympho n i es ]
beg i n with maj esty and gradu a l l y s pout forth i nto the crescen d o , p l ay
fu l l of grace i n the andante, and end thems e l ves i n a j oyous presto.
Yet v ar i ety i s l acki ng, for i f one h as heard one of h i s symphoni es ,
he h as heard a l l of them. 1 7 C annab i ch h as bro u ght the symp hony
further by dri nk i ng water than thi s man [ i . e. , Toesch i ] has done by
dri n k i ng wi ne . Toeschi earned for h i msel f a l aure l , wh i ch wound
p h l egmat i cal ly around h i s head , and [he] fel l asl eep q u i te tender l y
on i t . 18 H i s bal l ets are treated w i th except i onal d e l i cacy; one
sees the dancers i n h i s scores , and noth i ng is s i mp l er t h an to l ay
words u nder h i s mag i c a l me l od i es , s o rhythmi c a l are they. Sweetness ,
p l eas i ng c h arm , and l i ght harmo n i e s are h i s pri nc i pal feat ure s . He
s eems to be more a student of n ature t h an of art , s i nce so l i tt l e
counterpoi nt comes out i n al l o f h i s phrases . Toesch i does not refi ne;
he rel i nqui shes h i msel f comp l etely to the o ut pouri ng of h i s g en i u s .
Perhaps h e i s , except for F l ori an Del l er , the most stat e l y of
Noverre • s i nterpreters . 19

1 7 cf. MAadJ 1782, p . 63 : " F ast al l e sei ne Compo s i t i onen


s i n d Wi ederho l u ngen ; wer e i ne gehort hat , hat s i e a l l gehort . So
pracht i g oft der Ang an g sei ner S i nfoni en i st i n E i nk l an g , so sehr i ns
K r i echende , B ur l es k e , i n see l en l oses Gel eyer fal l en sei ne l etzen
P rest i , und d ann ros al i ert er auch verzwe i fe l t . 11
18 cf. MAadJ 1782, p. 64: " Schubart nennt i hn ei nen
mus i k al i schen SchScher. "
19rhere i s a q u i te l engthy art i c l e--at l east , q u i te l engthy
for Schubart--i n the Teut sche Chron i k ( 4 Ju l y 1776) :427-29 on Noverre,
wh i ch al so ment i ons 1 n some detai l Del l er , who d i ed i n 1 77 3 .

1 90
Wi l he l m Cramer . a v i o l i n i st f u l l of g en i u s . H e trai ned h i msel f
i n the Mannheim schoo l but soon overtook h i s teachers . He now l i ves i n
L ondon [ 1772-99 ] , and the E ng l i sh cal l h i m the wor l d ' s best v i o l i n i st .
Even i f th i s judgment m i ght b e exaggerated. o n e must confess that he
h as brought admi rab l e perfecti on to h i s i n st rument . H i s bow i ng i s
q u i te ori gi na l : he b r i n gs i t not as other v i o l i n i st s strai ght down
but rather from the top away, and h e makes i t short and except i on al l y
del i cate. No o n e p l ays staccato [ st ak i rt ] w i t h such extraord i n ary
prec i s i on as Cramer . He p l ays very fast [ an d ] q u i c k , and a l l of t h i s
[ i s ] unconstrai ned ; h e succeed s the best wi th the ad ag i o , o r much more
wi th the affect i on ate and f u l l of expressi on . I t i s p erh aps not pos­
s i b l e to perform a rondo sweeter and more heartfel t th an Cr amer does
it. I n th i s p i ece he even l eaves a L o l l i beh i nd h i m.
Cramer composes h i s concertos , son at as , and so l os al l h i msel f ,
t h at i s , thorough l y ag ai nst t h e h ab i t o f most of tod ay ' s v i rtuosos , and
w i th exce l l ent tas t e . N o o n e who wants t o trai n h i mse l f i n the v i o l i n
c an d o wi thout the p i eces o f t h i s master. H i s fi nger i ngs are so thor­
o u gh and natural that the most d i ff i c u l t passages are made eas i er . His
w i fe bel ongs among the best h arp p l ayers of our t i me . O n e bel i eves
t h at he h as been transpl anted to E l ys i um whenever she and her h usband
v i e wi th one another on the v i o l i n and h arp .
St ami t z , the father, a famous , extraordi nar i l y thorough v i o l i n­
i st . H i s concerto s , tr i os , so l os , especi al ly h i s symphon i es are sti l l
i n great esteem , a l though they al ready h ave an ag i ng mi en . The short­
comi ng of the new, mod i sh , f l or i d ornaments he repl aces by other , more
sol i d qual i t i es . He h as profound ly stud i ed the nat ure of the v i o l i n ;
191
T herefore, the phrases seem to a l most f a l l as one i nto the f i nger s .
H i s b asses are composed s o master l y t h at they c an serve as h umi l i at i ng

mode l s for today ' s s h a l l ow composers .


S t ami t z , t h e son , the most f amous v i o l i st i n Germany and one of

o ur most charmi n g composers . He has profound l y stud i ed the c h ar acter-

i st i c of the v i o l a so t h at h e p l ays t h i s i nstr ument w i t h such a charm

t h at was n ever h eard of before . The o l d i nstruments must be treated

extreme l y de l i c at e l y i f they shou l d work i n t h e tedi ous p a s s age , and

the worthy son of St am i tz u nderst ands t h i s art i n fu l l meas ure . Cer­

t ai n l y noth i ng st i l l h as b een composed better for t h e v i o l a t h an what

h e compo sed . One f i nds so much truth , so much beauty and c h arm i n h i s

wor k s t h at h e i s ack now l edged u n i v ers al l y i n Germany, I t a l y , F r ance,


and Engl and as a pupi l of the Graces . H i s symphon i es a l so h av e a

c h aracter i st i c feat ure : they are fu l l of pomp and h armony. His

and antes are espec i al l y successfu l i n a master l y way- -der i ve d from


h i s sens i t i ve h e art . H e i s now c h amber v i rtuoso for t h e q u ee n of

E n g l and [ Ch ar l otte ] . 20

F i l t z be l ongs to the o l der composers of the Man n h e i m orchestra ,


but h i s s p i r i t an d h i s works h ave l on g ago made h i m i mmort a l . I con­

s i der h i m to be the best symphony wr i t er who h as ever l i v ed . P omp ,

sonor i ty , powerfu l , a l l -tremb l i ng thunder and r age of the h armon i c

d e l u ge , n ewness o f i de as and t urns o f phrase, h i s match l es s pomeoso ,

20stami t z was supposed l y i n E ng l and from 1 7 7 7 unt i l at


l east 1 7 79 . See K ar l Ferd i n an d P oh l , Mozart u n d H aydn i n Londo n ,
2 v o l s . ( V i en n a : C ar l Gero l d ' s Son , 1867 ; repri nt ed. , New York : D a
C apo Press , 1970 ) , 2 : 27 2- 7 3 . Howev e r , t h e exact sourc e o f Sch u b art ' s
i nformat i on i s not k n own .

192
h i s surpri s i ng and antes , h i s catchy minuet s and tr i os , and f i n al l y h i s
q u i ck , l ou d , r ej o i c i ng prestos--to th i s hour h ave not been ab l e t o rob
h i m of gener al admi r at i on . [ It i s] t oo b ad t h at th i s s p l endi d mi nd ,
bec ause of h i s b i zarre fancy of eat i ng s p i ders , w i thered away
premature l y . H i s p i eces today are a l ready sel dom performed because he
al l owed few to be engr aved . Most of h i s compos i t i on s were sto l en from
h i m, otherwi se we wou l d h ave nothi ng at a l l by h i m. For h e thought so
modes t l y of h i s own works that he made k i nd l i ng [ F i d i bus = a p i pe
l i ghter] out of many of h i s most excel l ent works after they were
performed . General ly F i l tz posses sed a rather spec i al mus i c a l and
phys i cal c h aracter. He had much Bri t i shness in h i s p hys i ognomy and i n
h i s who l e psych i c stat e .
L udwi g Augu st Lebrun , 21 a true mag i c i an on the oboe. Thi s
i nstrument , wh i ch comes so c l ose to the h uman voi c e , i s h ard l y a hun­
dred years o l d , and F i scher, Besozz i , Secc h i , and t h i s Leb r u n seem to
h ave al ready exh austed i t . Lebrun has forced two tones from i t wh i ch
unti l now d i d not l i e i n i t s gamut - -the Q and f [ recte E ( e • • • ) ] . 22
The oboe as a r u l e h ad a certai n sol emn tone whi ch sounded c l ose to

2l "One of the greatest mus i c al gen i uses that I h ave ever


come across wa s Lebrun ; at that t i me a youth i n years , but a man i n
h i s art . He h as--even accord i ng to t h e test imony of h i s great r i v al
B esoz zi , w i th whom I s poke i n Au gsburg- -att ai ned the max i mum [ i n
perfect i on ] on the oboe . H i s ornaments , i nvent i ons , and cadenzas are
most i n i m i t ab l e. He overcomes al l d i ff i c u l t i es of h i s i n strument ,
p l ays c asual l y [ l ei cht] and ser i ou s l y [schwer] , i ns p i res wonder and
sweet feel i ng , expresses fore i gn works as wel l as h i s own , and i s ,
i n a word , an ori g i nal mi nd . 11 GS , 1 : 1 53-54 ( L & G , 1 ) .
22The 1 806 ed i t i on shows " C 11 ( and wh i ch was not among
L u dwi g ' s addend a ) but l ater ed i t i on s correct the mi st ak e .

193
the goose • s hon k . T h i s i s now not only ref i ned by the n amed great
masters but transformed to such a tempt i ng sound that we c an r i ght ly
number th i s i n strument among the most p l eas ant d i scover i es of the h uman
spi r i t . Hard ly wi l l one be ab l e to do somet h i ng more wi th i t [than ]
wh at Lebrun h as not al ready done. H i s tone h as the utmost del i c acy .
He not on ly s i ghs , coos , l aments , and weeps but al so p l ays i n the
bri l l i ant co l ors of j oy . H e succeeds wi th the l i v ely presto a s with
the i nnermost s i gh i ng l argo. 23 In h i s concertos h e overcomes a l l
d i ff i cu l t i es , and i n h i s so l os he i s who l ly emot i ona l . He composes hi s
p i eces most ly h i mse l f , a l tho ugh he p l ays i n more than one styl e . His
compos i t i ons are exceed i ng ly f i ne and sweet as drops of nect ar. He has
made bal l ets and c h amber pi eces wh i ch are evi dence of the most ref i ned
t aste. The ether al beam of gen i us twi tches i n everythi ng that he
wr i tes , th at he performs . He h as thus r i ght ly earned admi rat i on from
France and Germany. Al though h e i s not as l earned as Besozz i , he has
doubt l es s l y more gen i us than the l atter . 24
Franz i s k a O anz ; , 25 wife of the preceed i ng , d aughter of a
famous P a l at i ne- B av ar i an cel l i st , who excel s more i n accompan iment
t h an i n so l o. H i s d aughter i s the best s i nger of the e l ector . 26

23 schubart c l aims t h at i t was he who suggested to Lebrun


that the oboe m i ght be capab l e of sound i ng more c ant ab i l e , a chal l enge
wh i c h Lebrun accepted and i n wh i ch he succeeded. See Deutsche Chroni k
( 2 Febru ary 17 7 5 ) : 78 .
24 schubart made a comp ari son o f these two oboi sts i n h i s
Teut sche Chron i k ( 2 May 1776 } : 288 , i n wh i ch h e favors Lebrun.
25 see Franz i s k a Lebrun in the Appendi x .
26 cf. � ' 1 : 1 54 ( L & G , 1 ) .

194
adm i r ab l e h e i ghts t h an Fran z i sk a , for she reached the t hree-l i ned A
Amon g a l l s i n gers now l i v i ng , no one h as brought her vo i ce to more

[ a • • • ] , 27 and i ndeed not wi t h poor i nton at i on but w i t h c l e arness

and d i st i nctness . She bri n gs out the col oratura, wh i ch c an be as d i f­


f i cu l t as i t c an b e , wi t h muc h correctnes s , but h er tone i s not strong

eno u gh i n sent i menta l and sens i t i ve ar i as . She seems to g l i sten more

t h an the h e art wants to touch ; al so her s p i r i t seems to h av e more


i nc l i n at i on to t h e comi c t h an to the trag i c perform an c e . She was ,

at the s ame t i me , an e l egant c l av i er p l ayer and composed s evera l

son at as 28 for her i nstrument , wh i ch are fu l l of beaut i fu l h armon i es

and i nt i mate emot i o n .

Wend l i ng , a s uper i or f l ut e p l ayer who knows h ow t o comb i ne true

pr i nc i pl es w i t h perfect performanc e . H i s performance i s d i st i nct and


beaut i fu l , and the l ow and h i gh tones are equal l y fu l l and dec i s i ve.

He i s prouder of h i s p l ayi n g of the beaut i f u l and sent i mental than of

t he d i ff i c u l t , r ap i d , and s urpr i s i ng . In t h i s regard h e u sed to c a l l


the fr i ends of d i ff i c u l ty on l y l eapers and jugg l er s ; and here i n h e i s

on l y h al f r i g ht , for the s uccessfu l conquest of great d i ff i cu l t i es h as

a lways been a pr i nc i p a l feat ure i n the c h ar acter of true men of power .

T h e cont i nu i ng quest and c atch i ng of sweet tones weakens t h e h and .

H i s compos i t i on s are u n u s u a l l y thorough and are prec i se l y

s u i ted t o the n ature o f h i s i nstrument . Cert ai n l y , h i s me l od i es

27 Thi s m i ght be a mi spri nt . MAadJ 1782, p . 1 0 shows f • • • .


28The son at as , two sets of s i x , were p u b l i shed i n L ondon
between 1779 and 1781 , and ed i t i ons appeared i n M an n h e i m an d Ber l i n
s hort l y thereafter .
195
grow o lder as he does h i ms e l f; i n s p i te of that h i s p i eces mu st be
stud i ed w i th c are by every i nstrument al i st . H i s w i fe 29 has d i st i n­
gui shed hersel f as one of our best theater s i n ger s . She f i gured i n
French , Ital i an , and German p l ays , though f ar more i n comi c rol es than
i n tragi c ones . She began to tremb l e too ear ly, wh i ch made the most
unfavorab l e i mpress i on i n seri ous performace. The d aughter30 of
th i s honorab l e mus i c a l pai r was i nd eed once the foremost beauty i n the
orchestra, but the n atural co l dness of h er ch aracter made her a l l but
u n i mportant i n song and harpsi chord p l ayi n g .
Fr anzl , one o f the most del i ghtfu l v i o l i n i st s o f o ur t i me,
equ a l ly strong i n accompan i ment as i n featured performance. H i s bowi ng
has so much del i cacy and gent ly swayi ng gracefu l ness t h at no one c an
hear h i m wi thout deep emot i o n . He i s no s l ave to h i s own manner, but
a l so p l ays unf am i l i ar works w i th warmth. The v i o l i n p i eces composed by
h i m be l ong to the best of th i s type; they are certai n l y not stormy and
f i ery , but so much more heartfe l t , i nt i mate , and fu l l of new me l od i c
movement. H i s Ho l l ando i s , rondos , and other equ a l ly sweet d i scover i es
of mu sic espec i a l l y succeed to the po i nt of mag i cal i l l us i on . His
al l egro ro l l s by so l i ght ly and unrestri cted that h e seems to do
noth i ng whenever he does everythi ng . B ut perhaps h i s bow contro l i s
somewhat too over-ref i ned an d forced ; at l east i t i s not as free as
Lol l i ' s .

29see Dorothea Wend l i ng i n t h e Append i x .


30 see E l i s abeth Wend l i ng i n the Append i x .

1 96
Rei ner , 31 the best b as soon i st out of the Mannheim schoo l .
H i s i ntonat i on i s c l ear, h i s ornament s are t astefu l and beau t i fu l ,

but he does not reac h the i ntens i ty by f ar of a Schwarz or R i tter.

W i nter , one of the best pu p i l s from t he Vog l er schoo l . He


p l ays the v i o l i n admi rab l y and wri tes and composes v ery we l l . His

symphon i es are bol d l y con structed i n p art ; h e espec i al l y knows how to

h and l e mi nor k eys , wh i ch so e as i l y l u l l to s l eep , w i t h mu c h art and


wi sdom. He i s a l so a mus i c a l wr i te r , and h i s ess ays i n t h e Mannheim

Tonschu l e g i ve ev i dence of u nderst and i ng and aftertho u gh t , but h i s

German styl e i s st i l l not po l i s hed enoug h .

These were , therefore , t h e most s u peri or masters wh i ch the

great Mannhe i m schoo l h as brought fort h . But from t i me t o t i me st i l l

the most admi r ab l e s u bj ects go forth from her and become s o u gh t and

esteemed i n a l l of Europe. S i nce the afores ai d u n i on of the P a l at i n ate

w i th B av ar i a, t h ese exce l l ent mi n d s h av e w i thd r awn most l y f rom the

b an k s of t h e Rh i ne and tran s p l anted t h emsel ves to Mun i c h ; yet a d i s­


t i ngu i shed c ho i r s t i l l h as rema i ned to t h e ser v i ce of t h e M an n h e i m

German theater.

31 There i s s ometh i ng wrong h ere . Sch i l l i ng cross-


references "Re i ner " to "Fel i x Rhei ner , " but i t i s c l e ar t h at Fel i x
Rhei ner i s not i ntended here. Sch u b art h as a l ready commented on
Fe l i x Rhe i ner ( "Reuner" i s Sch u b art ' s spel l i ng , bu t Sch i l l i ng cross­
references t h i s agai n to F e l i x Rhei ner ) prev i o u s l y as act i ve i n
Mun i ch . Th i s Rei ner i s i n M an nh e i m . Schi l l i ng ' s b i ography o f Rhei ner
p l aces h i m mos t l y i n Mun i ch . A l tho u gh there i s a twe l ve-year per i od
( 17 70-8 2 ) when he tr avel s thro u g h Europe ( Germany, Eng l an d , F r an ce ,
and I ta l y ) , h e i s not l i sted , nor i s any Rei ner , as an emp l oyee of the
M annheim court . See MAfO , p . 1 16 , or John P . Newh i l l , ''Th e Contr i bu ­
t i on o f the M annheim �o l to C l ar i net L i terature , " The Mu s i c Rev i ew ,
40 (May 1979 ) : 91 .

197
From t h i s s hort descr i pt i on of one of the greatest mu s i c
school s , the pri n c i pa l c h ar acter shows t h at there i s more except i on a l

power t h an theoret i c a l med i t at i on i n t h at p l ace . S i nce the remai n i n g

German courts and con s i derabl e pri nces and d i gn i t ar i e s of the I mper i al

D i et never formed a d i st i nct i v e mu s i c schoo l , i t wi l l be enough to h ave


wandered through t hem i n spi r i t and i n a genera l way to h ave

c h aracteri zed t h e i r ad v antages i n art .

198
X.
"
WURTTEMBERG

The cou nts as wel l as the dukes of WUrttemberg were al ways

gre at l overs and p rotectors of mu s i c . Pri n c i pal l y beg i n n i ng i n the

si xteenth century , i mmed i atel y after the begi n n i n g of the Reformat i on ,

mus i c bl oomed extraordi n ari l y i n Stuttgart . From 1 5 50 t o 15 75 at the

pri ncely cou rt of that pl ace , th ere was a famou s Kapel l mei ster kn own

throu ghout Germany by t he n ame of Si gmund Hemmel , who h ad n ot o n l y

stu d i ed mus i c s o thorou gh l y that th ere sti l l ex i sts i n man uscri p t a

tran s l ati on and commentary on t he famous Zarl i no ' s H armon i k by h i m .

He al so mad e a n ame for hi ms el f by mean s o f su i t ab l e compo s i t i ons

fu l l of profou nd contrapu ntal l earn i ng . H e devoted h i msel f ch i ef l y to

the church styl e after the spi ri t of that peri od . H i s P s al ms of D av i d ,

composed of German songs wh i c h he publ i shed i n q u arto i n 1569 and set

i n fou r voi ces , i s sti l l hi g h l y regarded by experts . Vari ou s me l od i e s

of h i s h ave been adm i tted to our church , wh i ch are so fu l l of d i gni ty

and rel i g i ous grandeu r that n o one among us wi l l mak e them better . How

admi rab l e are the songs A l l ei n zu di r H err J esu Chri s t , Wenn mei n

StUnd l ei n vorhanden i st , [ an d ] Mei n junges Leben h at ei n End , wh i ch

were al l composed by th i s H emmel . I n the S tuttgart arch i ves motets and

other pi eces of thi s master mu st sti l l l i e , wi th wh i ch the worl d , i n

order to stu dy the spi ri t of the ag e , shou l d become acq uai n ted .

1 99
S hort l y before the t i me of the T h i rty Years ' W ar , t h e f i rst
Choral b uch was pub l i shed i n Stuttg art i n 1618, wh i ch was rece i ved by

v ar i ou s German prov i nces and was i ntrodu ced i n connec t i on w i th the

pub l i c worsh i p . The d ev astat i n g , b l oody war drove off the mus i c a l Muse

here , as i t d i d everywhere , and she d i d not retu rn ag ai n to th i s reg ion

t h e who l e of the sevent eenth century because the war ' s h ard sh i ps never

ce ased dur i ng t h at per i od . A new r ay for mu s i c show n f i rst w i th the

beg i n n i ng of the e i ghteenth century. Duke Eberh ar d Ludw i g mai ntai ned

an orchestra of t h i rty person s , wh i ch S tor l l ed as K ape l l mei ster [from

1703 to 1 7 19] . The duke , a war l i ke sou l , l i ked the wi nd and no i se-

mak i ng i n struments very mu ch . The rooms of h i s p a l ace resounded con­

t i n u a l l y of trumpet s and drums , and from h i s t i me f i gured mu s i c was

i ntroduced i n Wurttemberg c hurches . S to r l was an u n u s u a l l y thorough

man , whose pub l i shed C horal b uch 1 for orchestra i s an u n q uest i on ab l e

w i tness . Even u nt i l th i s hour i t i s , i n and out s i de of t h e reg i o n ,

g ener al l y l i ked , and , except for Te l eman n ' s , i t i s pos i t i ve l y t h e best

t h at we pos sess . H i s h armon i es are n at ur a l and extreme l y correct , the

s i gn atures are s i mp l e , and h i s basses are most l y p erfect . H e a l so

wrote the f i rst church cyc l e 2 i n WUrttemberg , wherei n the tutt i s and

f i n a l choruses are espec i al l y master l y .

2 see Joh annes M attheso n , Grund l at e e i ner E hren-Pforte


( Hamburg : i n Ver l egung des Verf assers , 740) , pp . 52 and 351 .

200
He had comp osed a Te Deum l audamus 3 on the occasi on of the

Utrecht Treaty of 1713 wh i ch , because of correct expressi on and

becau se of fu l l harmoni es , especi a l l y becau se of thorou gh fu ga l

treatment, i s today sti l l admi red by experts.

Duke Karl Al exander patron i zed mu s i c even more becau se he

seemed to have recei ved an ent hu s i asm for mu s i c wi th the Cathol i c

rel i g i on . H i s orchestra was numerou s an d we l l en gaged , an d i t s

1 eader wa s :
Bresci anel l o from Bol ogn a , a very good an d p l eas i n g composer .

S i nce th eater mu s i c i n th i s regi on was sti l l n ot i n mot i on at that

t i me , he devoted h i msel f comp l ete l y to the church and chamber styl e .

H i s Masses are cert a i n l y n ot treated i n an ex al ted styl e but are

charm i n g and devoti ona l l y awak en i n g . The i n struments i n them are some­

wh at too i ntri cate and cov er t he song . H i s chamber p i eces l asted many

years throu ghout i n general approv a l unt i l they f i n a l l y per i s hed i n the

fl ood of newer d i scoveri es .

The true b l ossom i n g of Wurttemberg mus i c began wi th the re i g n

o f Duke Karl . 4 S i nce he had fo rmed hi s mus i c al taste i n Berl i n , he

therefore tri ed to u n i te profu n d i ty wi th gracefu l n ess i n h i s orchestra

from the begi n n i n g . He sol i c i ted many si ng ers from I t a l y, fi l l ed hi s

orchestra wi th fi rst- rate mast ers , and took the great Jommel l i wi th

a yearl y wage of 10 , 000 fl ori n s as pr i n ci pal Kapel l mei ster [ 17 5 4 - ca .

1768] i n to hi s servi ce . From thi s t i me forward the mu s i cal taste i n

3Accordi n g to Schu bart .


4 see Karl Eu gen i n the Appendi x .

20 1
th i s reg i on became comp l etely I tal i an . F ormerly one heard o n l y the
operas of Hasse and Graun , but now one wanted to hear nothi ng but the
operas of J ommel l i . 5 These operas were not only p l ayed wi th excep­
t i onal spl endor but a l so executed to the h i ghest perfect i on . Under
Jommel l i the Wurttemberg court mu s i c was one of the worl d ' s best .
Apr i l e [ i n Stuttg art 1756-69 ] , Grassi , B uonan i , Ces ar i , 6 and espe­
c i a l l y the unequal l ed H ager , d i st i n gu i shed themsel ves a s s i nger s .
H ager was u n quest i on ab l y the greatest tenor o f h i s t i me. 7 He sang
with s uch ench ant i ng gracefu l ness and wi th s uch sympathet i c , heartfel t
emot i on that h e fasc i nated al l l i steners . Moreover h e was , i n the
German manner, such a profound mus i c i an t h at no Ital i an equ a l ed h i m.
He joi ned wi th these r are qual i t i es a t heatri c al demeanor wh i ch
reveal ed the greatest actor. When he san k t o the l ower reg i ster, he
w as an accomp l i shed bass; when he ascended to the h i gher regi ster , one
heard i n h i m the most unequal ed tenor . Hi s r ange went from b ass F u p
to t h e non-l edger- l i ned descant c [ c • • ] and every tone was s i l very.
The bravura ari as s ucceeded as d i d the senti ment al ari as . His
embel l i shments were comp l etely fu l l of beauty and a lways s eemed to
s prout from the mot i ve l i ke f l ower s . N o s i nger u nderstood t h e art

5 schubart v i ewed H asse and Graun as equal s , J ommel l i a step


above , and Gl uck a step above Jomme l l i . g, 1 : 9 2 ( l & G , 1 ) .
6 see Anna Seemann i n the Append i x .
7 I n h i s autob i ography, Schubart l i sted Apr i l e , Gras s i ,
R ub i nel l i , Bon af i n i , Buonan i , and Ces ar i as the l ead i ng si ngers of
the Wurttemberg court . GS , 1 : 9 3 ( l & G , 1 ) . Schubart cont i nued :
"Apri l e [ I ] was perh aps tne greatest si nger of h i s t ime • • • • "

Schubart then descri bed h i s strengths as a performer.

202
of dec l amat i on better than he. Metastas i o h i ms e l f must h ave admi tted
that no one h i t u pon h i s me an i ng as p erfect ly as H ager.
Jozzi [ i n Stuttg art 1 7 50-56] , the foremost h arpsi chord p l ayer
of the duk e . He p l ayed with great s k i l l , threw off thi rty-second notes
i n oct aves w i t h the l eft h and , a l w ays successfu l ly bro ught out the
stu n n i n g l eaps over the h and [ h and cros s i ng ? ] , and troubl ed h i msel f
more to be outstand i ng i n d i ff i cu l t i es than t o affect the heart of the
l i stener by mean s of gracefu l execut i on . H i s compos i t i ons for the
c l av i er are somewhat b i z arre , and for t h at reason h ave f a l l en out of
f ash i on too soo n ; yet one m i ght s t i l l recommend them t o h arpsi chord i sts
for the devel o pment of t h e h and . They wor k , by the way, on l y on the
qui l l ed harp s i chord ; b ut on the p i an o , pantal eon [Pant a l o n ] , and c l av­
i chord they are h ard to p l ay and do not sh i ne because they are too
p l ai n.
De l l er , B th i s admi r ab l e man matured u nder the g enerous i nf l u-
ence of Jommel l i , but he never cop i ed h i m, for Del l er soon was aware of
h i s own fountai n out of whi ch he cou l d create. Del l er admi red the gen­
i us of a Jomme l l i with enthusi asm but was proud and stubborn enough to
cal l out to h i m, 11 Don • t d i sturb my c i rc l e. .. He was at f i rst a r i p i en-
i st [ 17 5 1 ] i n the WUrttemberg orchestr a, but when Jommel l i l eft the
court , the duke appoi nted h i m concertmaster and court compo ser [ca.
1769-7 1 ] . Noverre , t he foremost bal l et master i n the wor l d ,

B Del l er must h ave been one of Schu bart • s c l osest fri ends
wh i l e i n Ludw i gsbur g , for Schubart ' s autobi ography al so i s very much i n
keep i ng i n the s ame s p i r i t as the � sthet i k der Tonkunst . -GS , 1 : 94-97 ,
202- 4 ( L & G , 1 ) .

203
contr i buted much to the devel opment o f D e l l er ' s s p i r i t . D e l l er com­
posed the mus i c to Noverre ' s mag ic a l b al l et s and i ndeed so s p l end i d ly
t h at these b a 1 1 ets h av e become admi red as masterpi eces throughout
E urope even today . 9
Noverre h i ms e l f admi tted to never h av i ng come across a better
i nterpreter of h i s mimi cal d i scover i es t h an De l l er . The great trag i c
b a l l et Orpheu s [ 1763] i s r i ch i n grand , dreadfu l , cel esti a l , and
exc i t i ng pl aces . Newness i n though t , grace and d e l i c acy i n fee l i ng ,
sentimental sweet ness i n t h e nuances , r i ch rhythmi c al mod u l at i on-- i n a
wor d , beauty sparkl es everywhere i n the musi ca l c h ar acter of t h i s man .
B ec au se he p l ayed the v i o l i n w i t h unusual gracef u l ness , the scori ng
[ Bearbei tung] of th i s i nstrument al so s ucceeded very wel l . Del l er
worked i n a l l sty l es; the comi c operas , for examp l e , h i s Contandi n a
n e l l a corte 1 0 and h i s Maestro d i C apel l a [ 1771] , are st i l l f avori te
p i eces of the WUrttemberg theater . The ar i as and c avat i n as , the duets
! and f i n a l choru ses h ave such l ovely and noti ceab l e mot i ves and are ,
' wi thout detri ment t o s i mp l i c i ty, so r i ch i n i ns i nu at i ng l y mu s i c a l
not i on s that they compete wi th the best comi c oper as . I f D e l l er h ad
wri tten for the German theater, he wou l d h ave become even greater
bec ause he often rej ected the I ta l i an prose and was over a l l more
German th an I t a l i an i n h i s way of th i nk i ng and i n h i s t aste .

9 see a l so p age 1 90 o f t h i s transl at i on .


10Th i s work may not h ave been composed by Del l er . See
Grove 6 , 5 : 350 .

204
Hi s church p i eces al so demonstrate a great tal ent for the
h i gher styl e. Had he l i ved l onger y he wou l d h ave furn i s hed us wi th
masterwork s in t h i s category. But he l eft the Wurttemberg cou rty went
to V i en na and Muni ch [ after 1771 ] y and di ed there before hi s spi r i t
had comp l etely devel oped i n the monastery of monk hospi t a l l ers y poor
and hard l y known . W i th i n the cemetery wal l s of th i s chari tabl e
monastery towers up the grave of thi s admi rab l e man . I fou nd i t i n
1774 covered wi th nett l e s ; meanwhi l e these l aure l s of fame after death
[ i . e. y the nettl es ] fl utter about hi s temp l e . He has al so composed
many chamber p i eces wh i ch sparkl e i n eq ual beauty and el egance. One
has hope of preservi ng the pi eces of th i s charmi ng master wi th others
in the forthcomi ng Stutt gart Musi ksamml ung whereby the mu s i cal sup ply
of the German s wou l d be en ri ched wi th new tr easu res .
The P l a brothers . I f Cas tor and Pol l ux , both i n spi red by God
who created them y had pl ayed the oboey they cou l d have hardl y p l ayed
better than these two. They were both Sp ani ards transpl anted to Ger­
manyy [where they] cu l ti vated thei r styl e under Jommel l i an d attai ned
except i onal sk i l l on thei r i n strumen ts . Th i s pai r of brothers i s q u i te
an ex cept i onal phenomenon i n mus i c. As they l oved one an other i n ex­
pres s i bl yy thei r mus i cal performance was al l the more sympathet i c.
Whoev er has heard them y heard the u l timate i n mu s i cal performance.
One thou ght pursued the other; one breath l i fted the other. Th i s com­
bi n i n g of psyches [ Si mpsych i e] had nev er before been heard i n Europe;
it seemed to be a mutual fri ends h i p of two cl osely uni ted ange l s .
Both composed , both p l ayed thei r phrases masterl y, and no one was ab l e
to dec i de who mi ght be the greater. The uni t i ng of s ound s , the ri se
205
and fal l of the port amento , the resemb l ance i n song , and , i f one i s

permi tted to s ay , no one has perh aps expressed , as l ong as t h e wor l d

ex i st s , l ove and k i ndness bett er t h an t hese brot hers . The younger


one d i ed i n L udwi gsb urg ; there the o l der one threw away h i s oboe and

[t hen ] wi thered away i n Spai n . The compo s i t i on s o f t h ese great masters

are extreme l y rare bec au se out of obst i n ancy they h ad l eft not h i ng to

pr i nt . However , one h as some o f thei r sonat as wh i ch are composed w i t h

i ndescr i bab l e ch arm an d wi l l remai n for a l l obo i st s a n ever l ast i ng

mode l .
Rodol ph e , o n e of t h e foremost h orn i st s . As i mperfect as t h i s

i n strument i s , he k new h ow t o wrest l e w i t h i t s i ncon s i stenc i es so

master l y . H i s strength was more i n the l ower reg i ster; he concerned


h i msel f with the u pper reg i ster on ly so f ar as the n at ure of the

i nstr ument a l l owed . The affect i on ate p as s ages a l w ays s ucceeded

s p l endi d l y , and he was one of the f i rst who expressed the mezzot i nt

w i t h the horn. But h i s greatest serv i c e i s t h at h e became an i nter­

pre�er for the b a l l et . H i s bal l et s h ave brought fort h a general sen-

s at i on i n P ar i s . German masters cens u re h i m for sweetness , or the a l l


too stri ct adherence to t h e French t aste. However , h e po s s e s sed pro-

fund i ty and even understood co unterpo i nt . As he grew o l der , he com­


posed a Mass , wh i ch i s st i l l p l ayed i n P ari s i n t h e Concert s pi r i t u e l

o n Good F ri d ay. l l

N i s l e , Rodo l phe ' s stu dent and r i v al , but ab so l ute l y not a

Rodo l phe. He p l ayed the horn qu i te s p l endi d l y , but whoever h e ard

l l There i s no ment i on of a M as s by Rodo l phe i n any of the


st and ard reference sources .
206
Rodol phe hears i n h i m [ i . e . , N i s l e ] noth i n g more than a stammerer .

H i s sp i r i t i s too smal l to f l y the i n nate fl i ght . Ni s l e • s compos i ­

t i on s are poor becau se he does not understand the phrase. I n the me an ­

t i me , one must adm i t that he h as hard l y an eq ual as s econd horn . His

doubl e tongue , h i s crescendo , the ease by wh i c h he sn atches the f i v e

l edger- l i n e contra C [C 1 J , h i s gent l e p i ano , and especi al l y hi s

portamento rai se h i m to t he l evel of an e ag l e amo ng horn i sts .

Seeman n , nei ther compos er nor sol oi s t , but a comp l etel y admi ­

rab l e accompan i st . The great Jommel l i h as trai ned h i m. So di ffi cul t

i s the art of accomp any i n g , so many- s i d ed are i t s i n tri caci es , so

profound [ i s ] i ts needs-- so capab l e [ al l vermogend] was Seeman n . He

posses sed al l the qual i t i es wh i c h the great B ach demanded from the

accomp an i st . H e knew how to cl i ng to every di spos i t i on of the s i nger ,

and he kept t i me a s no o n e el s e di d . He l i stened to ev ery pu l s e of the

mus i c ; no one was more capab l e th an he of control l i ng t he sp i r i tual

storm . He cl ung to ev ery temp er ament ; [ he ] seemed to understand


noth i ng , yet und erstood ev eryt h i n g . He hard l y h ad h i s eq ual when i t

came to i n stru cti ng si n ger s i n thei r presentat i on ; he noti ced ev ery

d i s son ance, ev ery dev i ati on from harmony. H i s compos i t i on s for cl avi er

and song are fi rst- rate . [ I t i s ] too bad that he wrote too l i tt l e ou t

of mi strust of h i s sp i r i t , bec ause he used to s ay, 11 A c an d l e i s

[ f i guri rt ] not hi n g i n the presence of the su n . .. He wi thered i n the

thi rt i eth [ s i c ] ye ar of h i s l i fe to the great l o s s of the mu s i c a l

207
wor l d . Gratefu l tear s fal l on th i s page ! Seemann was my teacher and

fri end . 1 2

Ces ar i . H i s w i fe [ i . e. , Seemann ' s ] w as an a l together f i rst­

r at e s i n ge r , great by n at ure , and t aught correc t l y by her h u sb an d . A

h uman thro at h ard l y expresses the runs more god l y t h an t h i s one. So

n a i v e , so wanto n ly beaut i fu l , so f l i rt i n g , and thus so r i ght- -one can

h ard l y i mag i ne s omet h i n g l i k e Cesar i . S he p l u ck ed o ff the s o und s o n l y

as though on the t i p of h e r tongu e , b u t s h e made u p f o r the pr i v at i on

of the l ower reg i ster by her prec i s i on o f execut i on . She a lw ays s ang
sotto voc e , but t h i s was sotto-he aven l y ! 0 echo from pr i meva l sound !

She was not a v i rtuoso , for she affected o n l y b ad l y ; b ut wh atever s h e

h ad stud i ed , s h e s an g as though no one wou l d s i n g after her .

Bonav i n i . F ema l e s i n ger i n great s ty l e . Her r ange was not

�ery exten s i v e , but the subd i vi s i on s of t h i s range were so much more

g o l den . Her r un s never s ucceeded ent i re l y , but her s u st ai ned and

�rescendo sou nds d i d so much more. A gen i u s she was not , but [she was ]

a g i fted i mi t ator .

The orchestra o f the W Drttemberg court con s i sted o f the best


v i rtuosos of t h e wor l d , and that was prec i se ly i ts fai l ur e . E veryone

b u i l t an i nd i v i du a l s ph ere, and t h e conformi ty to a system w as u n be ar­

ab l e . Thu s , there were often f l o ur i shes i n the l oud p as s ages wh i ch d i d

not be l on g there. An orchestra cons i st i ng of v i rtuosos i s a wor l d of

k i ngs who d o not h ave any sovere i gn author i ty .

1 2Th i s sect i on i s q u i te a b i t l on ger t h an t he br i ef men t i on


o f Seemann i n Schub art • s b i ograp hy . GS , 1 : 98 ( L & G , 1 ) . An d why i s
th i s one so sent i ment al ? The ob i tu ary-wh i ch appeared i n t h e D eutsche
Chro n i k ( 20 Febru ary 177 5 ) : 1 18 i s r ather object i v e .
208
XI. SALZBURG

T h i s archbi shopri c for s everal c enturi es h as done grat s ervi ce

to mus i c . There i s i n t h at very p l ace a mu s i c a l endowment , amount i ng

t o 50 ,000 f l or i n s per year , wh i ch i s u sed ent i re l y for t h e s u pport o f

a cho i r . The mu s i c i n t h at mai n ch urch 1 s one of t h e most we l l -st affed

i n a l l of Germ any. The organ t here bel ongs among t h e most s p l end i d
ones t h at ex i st ; [ i t i s ] too b ad t h at a B ach i an h an d does not an i m at e

t h i s masterwor k ! T h e tone i s th i ck , and i f al l the s t o p s were coupl ed ,

i t wou l d sound l i ke a th understorm . I t h as three m an u a l s , more t h an

one h u ndred regi sters , and a tremendou s ped al . The decorat i on s o f

The K ape l l me i ster Moz art ( t h e f ather ) h as p ut mu s i c r i gh t i n


scu l pture thereon are m agn i f i cent and i n good t aste.

step . He h i mse l f i s honorab l y k n own as a composer and wr i te r . His

styl e i s s omewh at o l d-f as h i oned but wel l -fo unded and f u l l of contra­

punt a l u nder st and i n g . H i s church mus i c i s of greater worth t h an h i s

c h amber p i eces . By means of h i s V i o l i n schu l e [ 1756 ] , wh i ch i s wr i tten

i n very good German and w i t h deep i ns i g ht , he h as e arned h i ms e l f a

g re at honor . The e x amp l es are admi r ab l y s e l ected , and h i s f i nger i ng i s

noth i ng l es s t h an pedant i c . He i s tru l y i nc l i ned t o t h e Tart i n i

schoo l , but a l l ow s more f reedom i n bow control t o h i s student t h an

the l atter .

209
H i s son h as become even more famo us th an the f ather . He
bel ongs t o the c l as s i f i c at i on of a mu s i c a l prod i gy for already i n h i s
e l eventh year h e set an opera, whi ch was wel l recei ved by a l l experts .
Th i s son r anks among our best c l av i er p l ayers . He p l ays wi th mag i cal
s k i l l and reads so acc urately from the p age t h at h i s equal i s found
on l y with great d i ff i cu l ty.
The cho i rs i n Sal zburg are sp l end i d ly prepared , but the styl e
i n the church for some t i me beg i ns to degenerate i nto the theatri ca l - ­
a d i se ase wh i ch al re ady h as poi soned more t h an one church . The
S a l zburgers sh i ne espec i al ly i n wi nd i nstruments . One f i nd s the most
exce l l ent trumpet ers and horni sts , but c l av i er and organ p l ayers are
al l the r arer. The spi r i t of the Sal zburgers i s prej udi ced exceed i ng l y
to b ase comedy. The i r fo l k songs are so amu s i ng and b u r l esque t h at one
cannot l i sten to them wi thout appal l i ng l aughter. The Hanswurst sp i ri t
i s v i s i b l e everywhere, and the mel od i es are most ly sp l end i d and of
matchl ess beauty. 1

1 schubart wrote a g l ow i n g report of mus i c i n S al zburg i n h i s


Deut sch e Chron i k ( 26 J une 177 5 ) :408 , b ut hi s enthusi asm h as apparent ly
l essene d .

210
XII. BRUNSW I CK

The dowag er duchess [ Char l otte P h i l i pp i ne] , a P russ i an pr i n­

cess , has tr an s p l anted the mus i c a l s p i r i t of Ber l i n t o th i s p l ace. For

forty ye ars mu s i c h as been i n b l oom there. H as se • s and Graun • s operas


are performed w i t h good t aste and correct execut i on . The greatest

s i ngers , a C arest i n i , Sal i mbeni , and others , s an g at t h i s theater . A

N ardi n i , Ferrar i and sever al v i rtuosos of the f i rst r an k adorned the

orchestr a .

Schwaneberger was K ape l l me i ster [from 176 2 to 1802] . 1 His

operas are composed wi t h much profund i ty but are not me l od i c enough to

m a i ntai n t h em for l on g . Schwaneberger i s out o f t h e Berl i n s choo l .

Too much s p i ri t d i s appeared because of t h e cerebra l proce s s ; accord -

i ng l y , h i s operas are a l most forgotten . A l so , h i s c h amber p i eces are


of l i tt l e i mport ance.

Fr i edr i ch Gott l ob F l ei s h er , a f i rst-rate c l av i er p l ayer and

f amou s composer . The fami l i ar and t h e d i ff i cu l t are a pri n c i pal

feat ure i n h i s mu s i cal char acter . The greatest d i ff i c u l t i es h e s ur-

mounts eas i l y , but the adag i o does not s ucceed near l y as wel l as the

presto . H i s c l av i er p i eces and songs for the c l av i er are f i rst-rat e

1 B urney regrets that h e was n o t abl e t o v i s i t Brunsw i ck , b u t


h e does pra i se t h e wor k s o f bot h Schwanberger a n d F l e i sche r , the f i rst
w i t h s i x l i nes o f text and the l atter wi t h but t hree . B urney G ,
p . 237 .

211
and set wi th much t aste; he succeed s q u i te master l y wi th the comi c
p l aces . H i s Podagr i st i s magn i f i cent . 2
Hur l ebu sch . A son of the f amous org an i st of H amb urg [ Conrad
Fr i edri ch Hurl ebus ch ] and one of the best German c l av i er p l ayers . His
accentu ati o n i s new and deep ly penetrat i ng ; for that reason he espe­
c i al ly shi nes on the c l av i chord , wh i ch he man i pu l ates l i ke a master.
H i s adag i o and l argo are of matchl ess beauty. He h as exact ly what
F l ei scher does not h ave. [ It i s ] too b ad that h e composes s o l i tt l e.
Zachar i a (the poet ) p l ayed the c l av i er very be aut i fu l ly [ and]
a l so publ i shed v ar i ous col l ect i on s for the c l av i er , wh i ch g i ve evi dence
of good t aste . Th i s i s so much more to adm i re s i nce Zach ar i a only
beg an to study mus i c when he was twenty-f i ve years o l d .
The now re i gn i ng Duke of Brunswi ck [ Ch ar l es Lou i s M aucourt]
p l ays the v i o l i n s p l end i d l y and supports one of the best orchestras .
He was not as much i nterested i n the theater as i n ch amber mus i c. He
usual l y is i n the h ab i t of p l ayi ng i n the concerts . H i s sol os are
admi red by conno i sseur s ; he p l ays the most d i ff icu l t p i eces of Lol l i
w i th express i on and s k i l l .

2oden und L i eder mi t Mel od i en nebst e i ner C antat a : Der


Pod agr i st (Brau nschwe l g-A1 1de shel m : Ludwig Schroeders Er6e n ; Lei pz i g :
Johann Gott l o b Brei tkopf , 1756 ) .

21 2
XI II . ANSBACH

Mus i c b l oomed i n t h i s court o n l y s i nce the r u l e of the

present m argr av e . The former [margrave] , except for t h e f a l con hunt ,

h ad a l most no [other] pass i on , but t h e present o n e found ed an orchestra


twenty years ago where i n a f ew good m i nds d i st i n gu i s h t h ems e l ves

gre at l y . ! [ I t i s ] t oo b ad t h at vocal mus i c i s comp l et e l y l ac k i n g ,

but i nstrument a l mu s i c i s so much t h e better.

The l eader o f the orchestra i s K l ei nknech t , str i ct l y speak i ng

o n l y a transverse f l u t i st , 2 but as profound a composer as we h ave i n

Germ any. I ndeed, he pursued o n l y the ch amber s tyl e , but h i s chamber


p i eces are mode l s i n t h i s genre. H i s mel od i c p as s ages are g eneral l y

we l l chose n , and the b as se s are composed s o s p l end i d ly t h at t h e com­

poser must study them i n order to l e arn about compo s i n g t h e b as s .


K l ei n knecht ' s s pi r i t i s not fu l l of f i r e , b ut contai ns a f i rm and

regu l ar step . He h as wri tten v ar i o u s tr i os , so l os , symphon i es , and

other p i eces wh i ch g i ve ev i dence of a mature knowl edge of h armony.

Not s o l on g ago he p u b l i shed h i s b i ogr aphy, wh i ch was w r i tten so

l see Deutsche Chron i k ( 18 September 177 5 ) : 597-98 , where


Sch ubart l i st s K l e i n k nec ht , L i ebesk i nd , Schwarz , S artor i , U l ri ch , and
J ager, respect i v e l y , as the l ead i ng mu s i c i an s of Ansb ach .
2J akob F r i edr i ch K l e i n knecht appears as a f l ut i st i n B ayreuth
i n 1743 . I n 1747 h e beg an to s t u dy v i o l i n and became Kape l l me i ster
there i n 1 76 1 . The court w as moved to Ansb ach i n 1 769 , and h e
con t i nued a s d i rector . Grove 6 , 1 0 : 103 .

213
sp l e nd i d l y , honest l y , and thorough l y that the German man comes forth
at a l l t i mes . 3
Schwarz . A p u p i l of the WUrttemberg chape l and unquest i onab l y
t h e best b assoon i st o f o ur t ime. H i s l arge phys i cal body c auses h i m to
p l ay somewhat asthmat i cal ly, but he compensates for i t by thousandfo l d
ref i nements . H i s tone i s f u l l and beaut i fu l . He h as mag i cal accuracy
i n sound . I n the tenor [ r ange] h e i s extremel y p l eas ant , and i n the
l ow [range] he i s angry. He bri n gs out the vol u b l e p as s ages with
penetrat i ng force , and no one p l ays the adag i o better th an he. Hence
he uni tes i n h i msel f qual i t i es that few v i rtuosos know h ow to do. The
Bri t i s h h ave g azed at thi s master, and i n Germany h i s b anner h as l ong
w aved . [ It i s ] too b ad that he u nderstands too l i ttl e t o be abl e to
compose a concerto h i msel f . Yet he choos es v ery wel l and knows how to
arrange pi eces of v ar i ou s compos i t i ons to s ati sfy h i s s pi r i t .
Joh ann J ager . 4 Perh aps the most energeti c v i o l oncel l i st that
we h ave. I say " perh aps11 because he h as a s i gn if i c ant r i va l in the
great Legrand of Ber l i n , who i s sai d to surpass h i m i n s peed , accord i ng
to the adm i s s i on of a ser i ous conno i s seur. One observat i on a l one g i ves
J ager the edge : Legrand does not p l ay J ager ' s most d iff i c u l t

3 There seems to b e a prob l em here wi th Schubart • s i nforma­


t i on . J akob K l ei nknecht was the 11 l eader" of the orchestra and the
composer , but J oh ann Stephen K l ei n knecht (b. 1731 ; d . after 1791 ) ,
f l ut i st and J akob ' s you nger brother , wrote the autob i ography wh i ch
appeared i n Meuse l ' s M i scel l aneen art i st i schen I nnhal ts ( 1782) and
was repri nted i n Cramer ' s Magaz1 n der Mus i k , I (1783) :733 . Grove 6 ,
1 0 : 1 03 .
4 Among the greatest of the trave l i ng v i rtuosos that Schubart
heard wh i l e he was i n U l m ( 1 775- 77 ) , 11J ager recei ved the pal ms . "
GS , 1 : 26 1 ( L & G, 1 ) .
214
i concertos as strongl y as hi s own . J�ger i s qui te ori g i nal ; hi s bow
control i s ori gi nal , unrestri cted , and fi ery to t he poi nt of turbu­
l ence . Al l masters of the cel l o p l ace thei r thumbs on the D stri n g and
by th i s means br i ng out the h i gh passages . But Jager departs from thi s
method as proof that hi s geni us has more than one way to reach i ts
goal . He goes upwards wi th l i ghtn i ng fast s ki l l to the 0 and A stri ngs
in the hi ghest regi ster and performs del i cate phrases wi th the greatest
tenderness and sweetness. He i s cri t i c i zed that he p l ays the l ower
notes too heav i l y , cuts them off too qui ckl y, and proceeds to the
second tone even before t he fi rst has faded out . P reci se l y, thi s
causes l ack of cl ari ty i n the performance as a cl av i er wi thou t good
tun i ng. Thi s cri ti c i sm i s not wi thout basi s : the fi ery sp i r i t of
Jager al one brou ght h i m to t h i s di sadvantag e ; now i n asmuch as he has
cool ed down , he has certa i nl y r i d h i mse l f of th i s . Jager i s at t he
same ti me a great s i ght-reader, vi z . , he pl ays the most di ffi cu l t
p i eces arti sti cal l y, d i rectl y from the page . He wr i tes compos i t i ons
not accord i ng to ru l es but onl y accordi ng to the ear . H i s concertos and
sonatas cons i st most l y of sel f- i nvented phrases wh i ch are great , nob l e ,
sui ted t o the i n strument , an d fu l l of di ffi cu l ti es . Jager has had hi s
p i eces rev i sed by good composers whereby they a l so rece i ved a correct
form . However , one must surely confess that the p l ent i fu l branches,
put forth by an often unrestrai ned i mprov i sati on , are sti l l not al l
cut off . H i s son fo l l owed i n h i s father • s footsteps wi th the greatest

21
honor and was appo i nted v i o l oncel l i st w i th t h i s orchestra a l re ady i n
h i s e l eventh year [ c a . 1 787 ] , 5 u nd er h i s f ather.

U l r i ch . 6 A better r i p i en i st t h an obo i st . S i nce h e p l ays


mos t l y w i th a mut e i n order to stop t h e goose honks of the oboe i n the

l ow r ange, [ and ] s i nce he cau sed a t u rmo i l over t h i s w i th a few con­

certos and son at as and thereby exposed h i ms e l f t o the repr o ach of

poverty , it i s no wonder t h at h e p l ayed no great r o l e as a s o l o i st .

O n the other h and h e accompani ed very wel l wi th the v i o l i n an d was an

accurat e bower . H e d i ed , even before h i s mu s i c a l t as t e was comp l etely


l ai d out , as ch amber v i rt uoso i n th e Ansb ach serv i ce .

The rema i n i ng members of t h e Ansb ach orchestra are s u i ted v ery

we l l as a h armo n i ou s body , yet other t h an those al re ady ment i oned there

are no v i rtuosos . A l s o , the i ncred i b l e d i s reg ard of s ong i n Ans b ach

c au se s the i nstrument al i st s th emse l ves to dri ft away more and more from

the c antab i l e .

Graf , 7 i n E r l angen , i s an extreme l y good c l av i er p l ayer . His

p i eces , of wh i ch m any are i n the gre at N uremberg col l ect i on engr aved i n

copper, are very wel l proport i oned , wr i tten w i th s k i l l , [ an d ] even

5 schubart wrote an art i c l e about J ager i n h i s


V at er l andschron i k ( 1 789 ) , p ag e 1 17 ( see Ho l zer , p . 1 3 4 ) but the art i c l e
was not av ai l abl e .
6 u l ri c h performed i n U l m o n F r i d ay , 1 1 August 1 77 5 .
( Schubart so l d the t i c kets to the concer t . ) The rev i ew on the
fo l l ow i ng Thur s d ay i s not p art i c u l ar l y enthu s i ast i c , con s i der i ng t h at
Schu b art apparent l y u nderwrote the concer t . See Teutsche Chron i k
( 10 Augu st 1 77 5 ) : 5 1 2 and ( 17 August 1 77 5 ) : 5 28 .
7 T h i s i s pos s i b l y t h e s ame G raf-- s pe l l ed 11Graf "- -ment i oned
i n Schubart • s Deut sche Chro n i k ( 1 5 September 1 7 7 5 ) : 5 99 .

216
often wi th gen i u s . Certai n l y , he does not compose accordi ng to modern
t ast e ; but h i s phrases are so pract i c a l , so strengtheni ng of the h and
for the cl av i eri st that I must r i gh t l y recommend them before many of
the newer ones wh i c h often are real ly ephemeral .
When B ayreuth ear l i er bu i l t a spec i al court , a speci al orches­
tra was al so i n that p l ace . The margr av i ne [Wi l he lm i ne] , a s i ster of
F rederi ck the Great , s ang very wel l herse l f and composed many Ital i an
ar i as wi th taste and i ns i gh t . Chamber mus i c at th at t i me was very
good . The best s i ngers from a l l p arts were heard i n t h at very p l ace .
The k i ng g ave h i s s i ster 30 ,000 thal ers each year for the mai ntenance
of an orchestra, [ and ] bec au se the margrav i ne i ncl i ned more to the
I t al i an than the German taste , her orchestra consi sted mos t l y of
I tal i an s . When th i s house d i ed , the orchestra a l so fel l ap art
[ staubte au s e i n ander] .

21
XIV. WALLERSTE I N-OETT INGEN

E ver s i nce th i s anc i ent nob l e house was r a i sed to p r i ncely rank
[ 1774 ] . mu s i c h as b l oomed there to a very h i gh degree. l The pre-
v ai l i ng sound there has somethi ng a l together or i g i n a l . a certai n some-
th i ng wh i ch i s comb i ned from I tal i an and German t aste and s p i ced wi th
capr i ce.
Herr von Beecke 2 i s the l e ader of th i s orchestra [from ca.
1 76 3] . He bel ongs not on ly among the best of harps i chord i st s but al so
among the most s u per i or and most o r i g i nal of composers . H i s h and i s
sma l l and bri l l i an t ; h i s executi on . i ntel l i g i b l e and p l ump; h i s i mpro-
v i s at i on . r i ch and sparkl i ng , and--what honors h i m the most--h i s whol e

l schubart v i s i ted Wal l erste i n about 1 775 . I n h i s auto­


b i ography (page 273 ) he refers the reader to an art i c l e by Sch ad , i n
wh i ch Schad d i scussed the mus i c i n W al l erste i n i n more detai l than what
Schubart cou l d h ave sai d . Th i s art i c l e was pub l i shed i n W i e l and ' s -Der
neue Teutsche Merkur. There i s al so a b r i ef menti on of Wal l erstei n rfn
p articul ar. Beecke and Jan it sch ) i n the Deut sch e Chro n i k ( 18 September
1 7 7 5 ) : 598 .
2schu bart reg arded B eecke very h i gh l y . H e ded i c ated a poem
and a vo l ume of h i s Mus i k a l i sche Rhapsod i en to Beecke , and he menti oned
Beecke several t i mes in his autobiography. GS , 1 : 50 . 5 1 , 273 ( L & G ,
1 ) . The paragraph i n GS , 1 : 27 3 ( L & G . 2 ) i s-concerned with Beecke 1 s
composi t i on a l sk i l l s aruf ment i ons in p art i cu l ar h i s Re 9u i em . The
word i ng of th i s pas s age, however. matches the descr i pt1 on of Rosett i ' s
Requ i em d i scussed on page 220 of th i s tran s l at i on . Thi s fact becomes
even more suspi c i ou s when one cons i ders t h at Sch ubart does not menti on
B eecke ' s Requ i em i n the �sthet i k . Cou l d thi s poss i b l e error be an
examp l e of what ludwi g was faced with i n attempt i ng to reconstruct
C hr i sti an ' s Xsthet i k from " strewed p aper s " ?

218
styl e of p l ayi n g was created by h i mse l f . He h as bui l t a schoo l i n
c l avi er p l ayi ng known as the B eeck i sh schoo l . The characteri st i c of
t h i s s choo l i s proper f i nger i n g , short , somewhat affected movement of
the hand , i ntel l i g i b l e performance, p l ayi n g wi t h common sense in pas ­
s ages , and an espec i al l y magni f i cent compact t r i l l [Pral l tr i l l er . ]
B eecke ' s c l av i er p i eces are al so wri tten i n th i s styl e . He s t i l l has
t hi s d i st i nct i on , that al l of h i s works represent a c ertai n p i cture of
fee l i ngs whose character i s not eas i ly mi sunderstood . One knows com­
p l etely i n what mood B eeck e was when he composed t h i s or t h at product ,
as he remai n s so true to the govern i ng feel i ng. H i s concertos are not
espec i a l l y d i ff i cu l t but are p art i cu l ar l y l ovely and f l at t er i n g to the
ear . H i s cl av i er sonat as bel ong to the best of t h i s type that we pos­
sess : t hey are r i ch i n stri k i n g , most ly ent i rely new phrase s . His
mod u l at i ons are not ex act l y d ar i ng but are very often surpr i s i ng . He
g u ards h i msel f wi t h anx i ous consc i ent i ousness ag ai n st ros al i a; thus h i s
nuances are so agreeab l e. H i s compos i t i on s for other i nstruments h ave
q u i te an ori g i na l co l or i ng . The contour i s stat ed most prec i sely , and
the i nstruments bri ng forth such a powerful carnat i on and l ov e l y col or
comb i nat i on that one cannot hear them w i t hout a del i ghtfu l sensat i on .
Beecke has al so wr i tten much for vo i ce, yet he does not d i st i n­
gu i sh h i mse l f as much i n t h i s as i n i nstrument a l p i eces . He e l aborates
on the fee l i n gs wi th i n the song, but p l aces more or l ess i n them than
i s real l y there.
Roset t i . One of the most bel oved composers of our t i me . One
now sees Rosett i p i eces on al l c l av i er s ; h i s songs resound from al l
mai denl y throat s . And to be sure, one c an h ardly i mag i ne somet h i ng
219
l i ghter , more i l l umi n at i ng , or more me l l i f l uous than the p i eces of th i s
man . N ai vety i s espec i al ly h i s mai n feat ure. B ut as easy as h i s works
appear to be, they are so d i ff i c u l t to p erform i f one does not h ave any
i nd i v i du a l symp ath et i c fee l i ng . The mere mus i cal t umb l er , who tri es t o
f i nd h i s fame only i n a break-neck l eap , w i l l f a i l i f h e shou l d perform
a Roset t i work . Grace and beauty are of so i nfi n i te , del i c ate a nat ure
t h at only a q u i ver of the h and destroys i ts frag i l e o ut l i ne and the
portrait of Venus becomes a car i cature. Thi s fundamental i dea app l i es
to a h i gh degree i n the performance of a R osett i compos i t i o n : on a
h arpsi chord they work o n ly poor l y ; on a Stei n pi ano , better ; [ and ] best
of al l on a S i l bermann c l av i chord .
Rosetti a l so composed much for the church . H i s Requ i em [ 1776 ]
o n the death of the pri ncess of Tax i s i s part i cu l ar ly beaut i f u l but
does not h ave the s o l emn i ty , the mystery of death , or the consol at i on
of resurrect i on as i n the J ommel l i Requ i em [ 1764] . 3 He tri f l es too
much with the wind i nstrument s . The n asal sound o f the muted tr umpet
a l most descend s to the comi c l evel and d estroys the i mpres s i on of
mournful devot i on . Al s o , he does not u nderstand counterpoi nt wel l
enough to work through a fugue wi th energy and v i gor. Rosetti i s the
f i rst Ital i an who mus i cal ly ad apted German poetry. S i nce he h ad
studied the German l angu age thorough l y these works h ave succeeded

3 •sei n [ Beecke] [ i t al i cs added ] Requ i em auf den Tod der


d as i gen FUrsti n i st der Pendent zu Jomel l i s Req u i em, und eben so schon
und rUhrend , al s Werkme i sters Lobrede auf d i ese fromme P r i n zess i n . "
�, 1 : 27 3 ( L & G , 2 ) . See p age 218 , note 2 of th i s trans l at i on .
extraord i n ar i l y wel l . Songs o f l ove and g ent l e f l ow i ng s en s at i on s

s ucceed the bes t .

Anton J an i t sch . A very good , t horo u gh , and p l eas ant v i o l i n i st

H i s so l o i s stro n g , r i ch i n d i ff i cu l t p as s ages , and h i s execut i on

above al l h as comp l ete c l earness . I n the storm of i mprov i s at i on h e i s

not forced onto t h e shore of the beat . No one performs Beecke ' s com­

p os i t i on s more powerf u l l y t h an J an i tsch . H i s bow i ng i s p i erc i ng, and

h i s d i s po s i t i on i s f asc i nat i ng and beaut i fu l . There are f ew v i o l i n i st s

who mi ght be equal l y strong i n s o l o and accomp an i ment as J an i tsch .

Frau von Schaden. Certa i n ly mus i c h i story i s not a d i l et ­

t ant e ' s h i story , but o n l y i f mere d i l ett antes rai se t h ems e l ves t o s uch
h e i ghts as Frau von Sch aden , they deserve not on l y to be not i ced but

a l s o to be pr ai sed . S he i s , st ri ct l y s peak i ng , a s t udent o f B eecke ,

but pl ays f ar more qu i ck ly t h an h e r master and i n more styl e s . H er

touch i s s p l end i d and g i ves f l i gh t to t h e c l av i er . S he read s wi th

i ndescri b ab l e s k i l l , yet she shows h er f em i n i n i ty . S h e s peeds u p the

beat , gri maces at t i mes , and embel l i shes the ad ag i o . H er own h e art
does not swe l l when s h e expresses feel i n gs , but i s a l ways i n the m anner

of the master . W h at ever c an be performed by means of mech an i cs , those

she executes m aster l y ; but where gen i u s i s t o b e con s i der e d , there


ru l es woman l y weakness--then s h e strugg l es on t h e k eys l i k e a wounded

dove and her l i fe ext i ngui shes .

221
To the honor of the Wal l erstei n orchestra , thi s shou l d be
added : that here the mu s i cal col or has certa i n l y become more di st i nc­
tive than i n nearl y any ot her orchestra . Here the most refi ned an d
i mpercept i b l e b l endi ngs of tone are often perce i ved , espec i al ly wi th
Rosett i , wi th pedanti c consci ent i ou snes s .

222
XV . OURLACH

For a l on g t i me th i s court d i d not set i t s eyes to mu s i c ,


al though church musi c under t h e prev i ou s margr ave was a l ways tol erab l e.
B ut the tol erab l e and the med i ocre never attract att ent i on i n the h i s-
tory of mus i c . On ly under the present margrave d i d Germany beg i n to
p ay attent i on to the mu s i c at the court . T he deceased K apel l me i ster
Sch i att i was tru ly a med iocre composer, but h e understood wel l the art
of d i rect i ng an orchestra and l ead i ng i ts members wi th v i gor. Yet the
honor of bri ng i ng th i s orchestra i nto f avor was reserved for a German ,
and t h i s German i s the present K apel l mei ster :
Schmi tt b aur [ K ape l l mei ster from 1777 u nt i l 1804] . He be l ongs
among the choi cest composers of our f ather l and , and o n l y now does one
see wh at the wor l d l ong h ad i n h i m. 1 H i s church pi eces , performed i n
Co l ogne , are f u l l o f u nderst andi ng and art ly i ns i gh t . He man i pu l ates
the fugue profound l y , but he e l aborates h i s modu l at i ons too much. H i s
German cantatas are i n p art s p l end i d . The poetry o f Herr von Drai s ,
wh i c h was based on a pai nt i ng by van der Werff , h e set master l y to

1 A s i mi l ar eval u at i on of Schmi ttbaur may be fo und i n


Schubart ' s Deutsch e Chron i k ( 10 November 1774} : 5 18 n .

223
mu s i c , 2 espec i al l y "Ad am ' s feel i ngs at t h e f i rst t h understorm . " The

approach i ng t h understorm i s e xpressed t hrou gh muted kettl edrums up t o

t h e decept i o n , and i t s outburst r ages i n fu l l i nstrument a l storm. The


sent i ment s of our f i rst parents [ Ad am and Eve ] , at t h i s u n u s u a l occa-

s i on , are expressed by means of the most n atural song. H i s rec i t at i ves


are not comp l ete l y a s profound as those of other German masters but are

s t i l l p l easant by t h e i nterspersed accomp an i ment s . H i s ar i as are

f i rst-rat e for voc a l exerc i se becau se they are d i ff i cu l t and are fu l l

of new modu l at i on s . Th i s master h as al so wr i tten a g re at deal i n the

ch amber styl e , a l w ays good and l i sten ab l e , and i n the styl e of

Jomme l l i , h i s t e acher , t hough n ever p art i cu l ar l y out st and i ng . P erh aps


t he reason , among other s , i s t h at he i s no master on any i nstrument ,

o n l y touch i ng t h em s uperf i c i al l y , or as Rou s se au s ays , " H e o n l y p l ucked

the t i ps of note s . "

Woegge l . 3 A man who espec i al ly h and l ed t h e t r ump et as a

master . S i nce h e was r i ch i n breat h , h ad a strong chest , and l i ved

d i et et i c a l l y , t h i s g i ant t as k was a l l t h e easi er for h i m. H e c ame


f i rst to the h appy i dea of bend i ng t h e t r umpet i n order to reach i nto

2 o i e Ur-E l tern i m ersten G ewi tter ( n . d . ) . There seems to be


some confus i on about the author of th e t ext . Sch ubart and Grove 6
i dent i fy Den i s as the author , but L udwi g Sch ubart , i n t h e addend a t o
t h e 1806 ed i t i o n o f h i s father ' s treat i s e , corrects the " erro r" and
attr i butes the text to Drai s . See Den i s i n Append i x .
3 schu b art i dent i f i es Woegge l as one of t h e many vi rtuosos he
h ad heard i n Aug s burg ( on 20 Apr i l 1 7 7 4 ) as " e i n eben so gros ser , nur
etwas b i zarrer Theori st , der d amal i ge st arke Trompeter Wei g e l • • • • "
GS 1 : 234 ( L & G , 2 ) . See al so Deut sche Chron i k ( 25 Apr i l 1 7 7 4 ) : 63-64 .

2 24
the bel l and to be ab l e to mod i fy the sound s . 4 Trumpet s w i t h k eys
seemed to h i m to h ave l ost too much of the i r nature. He therefore came
upon th i s d i s covery, w i thout t ak i ng away f rom the resound i ng of the
trumpet .
H i s tongue i s fi rst-rate i n doub l e-tongu i ng as i n s i ng l e , and
h i s h i gh r ange not on ly i s exceed i ng l y pure but al so so l ove ly that i t
seems t o b e more l i ke the h uman vo i ce t h an a trumpet p l ayi ng . The con­
certos for h i s i nstrument are most l y by Schmi ttbaur and are wr i tten
w i th good t aste and s u i t ab l e profund i ty . 5 But s i nce he h as speci al­
i zed most l y to the h i gh r ange, he l oses not i ceab ly i n the l ow tones .
The margrave a l so possesses i n Geyer of Durl ach one of the most
noteworthy organ i sts , whom even a Vog l er respected. He h as f i re, pow­
erfu l h and s , know l edge of the ped al s , and underst and i ng i n the reg i s­
trat i on . But he e l aborates too much on the organ and seems to h ave
stud i ed the adag i o , l argo , and ant e , and ar i oso mu ch too l i tt l e . 6

,
4The I nv ent i onstrom ete , or h and-sto pped trumpet , was
Woeggel •s i n vention c a . 177 See Grove 6 , 19 : 220.

5 schmi ttbaur wrote seven trumpet concertos dur i ng the years


1773-74 , but wh i ch are now apparent l y l ost. See Grove 6 , 16 :679.
6 cf. 11GEYER . Org an i st i n D ur l ach , ei n Mann ohne a l l e
Kenntni sse und Geschmak ; ste i f wi e der Stok , der a l l Abende sei nen
Korper im G l ei chgew i cht erh a lten mu s s , wenn er i l l umi n i rt i st ; und
sei n Kopf l eer, wi e d i e Wi nd l ade sei ner Orge l , den We i nge i st
aus genommen , der d ari nnen verdu nstet . " MAadJ 1 784 , p . 5 5 .

225
Sandmai r . A good so l o i st on the v i o l i n , though even a more
exce l l ent r i pi en i st . 7 He deve l oped at t h i s court and travel ed
wor l d-wi de wi th Vog l er .
The song h as been unti l n ow exceed i ng l y negl ected , doi ng
i rreparab l e h arm to the i nstrumental i sts , for wi thout song no
i nstrument al i st wi l l be mature.

l cf. ••Al s Sp i el er i s er fast g anz u nbrauch b ar ; besonders


spi e l t er a l s Ri p i en i st sei ne V i o l i ne ohne al l en Ausdruck und
Punkt l i ch ke i t i n der ewi gen monot i schen L eyer. u MAadJ 1 7 8 2 , p . 1 2 .

226
XV I . HAMBURG

Th i s c i ty above ot her German ci t i es h as done great and vener­

ab l e serv i ce to mus i c . Al re ady at the t i me of church reform, cho i rs

were mai nt ai ned , wh i ch , after the church song w as brought i n , came i nto

exceed i n g f avor an d worth . I be l i eve that th i s c i ty h ad the f i rst


org an i n Germany, at l e ast one f i nd s i n t he i r h i story e ar l i er accounts

of organ s than i n the records of other c i t i es . Bec au se of t h at t here

were great org an i st s much e ar l i er t h an e l sewhere i n Germany . C antors


or cho i r d i rectors were pa i d , cornett i st s and trombo n i sts ret a i ned, and

t hey were comb i ned wi th pu b l i c s i ng i n g . Therefore, the chor a l e s i ng i ng

i s i n no other Germ an c i ty so f i rst -rat e , thunderi ng so m aj est i c a l l y ,

f i l l i ng u p the temp l e h al l s s o comp l et e l y , and accomp an i ed s o pro­

found l y by the org an than i n H ambur g . The peop l e of H amburg were the

f i rst Protestants who brought f i gu r al mu s i c i nto the ch urch , at f i rst


desp i te great oppos i t i on from the c l ergy . The wea l t h of t h i s c i ty,

wh i c h , as i s we l l known , was brought about by the i r extended trade, was

very adv ant ageo u s to mu s i c . The l ocal author i t i es al l owed con s i derab l e

p ayments for the mu s i c i an s , and wea l t hy i nd i v i du al s augmented the s ame

by mean s of con s i derab l e bequest s . At the beg i nn i n g of th i s cent ury the

peop l e of H ambu rg ag ai n were the f i rst who brought German songs to the

theater. Al though the poetry in the beg i nn i n g was most l y b as e , the

mu s i c for t h at t i me was composed very we l l .

227
Mattheson was the r u l er of these mu s i c a l dram as and the fore-
mos t mus i c i an i n H amb urg. True , h i s own compo s i t i o n s were r ather st i ff

and pedant i c s but h e i mproved t h i s by t r an s cr i b i ng f i rst-rat e p i eces

from I t a l y an d France and sett i ng German texts to t h em . Al so , the best


s i n gers i n Germany were en 1 i sted for. these dram as .

Schubart , rny forebear , a f i r st -r at e t en o r , who s an g w i t h

u n us u a l grace and h ad stud i ed mus i c as a master , w a s f o r many years

the pri de of h i s t heater .

Mattheson p l ayed the organ v i gorou s l y , but h i s m athemat i cal

prec i s i on made h i m somewh at t i mi d . But h i s greatest mer i t i s that h e

became o n e of t h e foremost German t eachers t hrough h i s many mu s i c al

wr i t i ngs . H i s Organ i stenprobe, l h i s V o l l kommene C ape l l me i s t�r s 2

and other of h i s wr i t i n gs cont a i n a treasure of rare mus i c al i ns i gh t .

S i nce he u nderstood L at i n , Gree k , E ng l i sh , F rench s and I t a l i an , h e

cou l d read and study everyt h i n g t h at was wri tten about mu s i c i n these

l an gu ag es . I f one wanted t o exami n e an organ i st o r K apel l mei ster today

accord i ng t o h i s s tr i ct requ i r ement s , exceed i n g ly f ew wou l d b e qual i ­

f i ed for these post s . M attheson h i ms e l f was more thorough and sound

t h an me l od i c , [ and ] for that reason are h i s compo s i t i on s n ow f as h i on­

ab l e . H e often forced ped antry to t h e r i d i c u l ous--h e wanted t o wri te

[mah l en ] not on l y for the e ar but al so for the eyes . Once he composed

l Joh ann M attheson , E xemp l ar i sches Organ i sten-Probe i m


Art i kel vom Gener al -B ass . ( H amburg : Sch l l l er- u nd K 1 ssner1 scher
S uch - L ade n , 1719) .
2Joh an n Mat th eson , D er vo l l kommene C ape l l mei ster . ( H ambur g :
Chri s t i an Hero l d , 1 7 39 ) .

228
a c antat a, t i t l ed Noah , wh i ch was su pposed to express a rai nbow; he
wrote the notes i n a h a l f -c i rc l e and used red, yel l ow, b l u e , and other
c o l ored i n k-- an i de a wh i ch K l opstock , i n h i s Gel ehrten Repu b l i k [ 1774] ,
made fun o f . W i th al l these cos t l y arrangements , Hamburg ' s mus i c sti l l
h ad very mu ch that was h arsh and near l y b arb ar i c . B ut s u ddenl y a man
stepped out of the c l ouds--c l araque l uce refu l s i t 3 - - and t h i s man
was :
Tel emann . He stu d i ed theol ogy, but h i s mus i c al ori g i nal i ty
stood h i gher than theol ogy. From nat ure endowed wi th gen i us , he cul ­
t i v ated mu s i c under the best masters . He travel ed through I ta l y and
France, took nouri shment everywhere for h i s spi r i t wi thout l os i ng h i s
own manner i sms . When he c ame back to G ermany , he became K ape l l me i ster
i n H amb urg [ 1 7 21] , and here began the per i od of hi s greatnes s . H e soon
rose to one of the foremost E uropean composers . Espec i a l l y i n the
church styl e , he h ad no equ al ; thoughtfu l ness , Psal mod i c sp i r i t , l oft ­
i nes s , d ig n i ty, and maj esty were compat i b l e w i th a heart that was
f i l l ed with re l i g i on . H i s many church cyc l es are a p r i ce l ess treasure
for mus i c . I n h i s mi dd l e age h e i nc l i ned , enti ced by L u l ly ' s ex amp l e ,
to somethi ng of t h e French phras e , yet h e soon t urned b ack ag ai n , for
the aberrat i on of g en i us does not l ast l ong. In h i s l ater works he was
a comp l etel y German man . No one cou l d h ave wri tten more correct ly t h an
Tel emann , yet correctness d i d not eat i nto the del i c ate sprout of

3 cf. Vergi l , Aene i d , I , 588 and I I , 590 : "Aeneas c l ara i n


l uce refu l s i t . " Schubart made reference to thi s pass age from the
Aenei d i n a l etter , d ated 16 J u l y 1 766 , to h i s brother- i n - l aw . See
Strauss , 1 : 7 1 .

I 229
me l ody. F ew masters were r i cher i n me l od i c mot i on t h an h e . His
rec i tat i ves are mode l s wh i ch the art i s t mus t study. H i s ari as , mos t l y

s et wi th few i nstrument s , h ave the greatest effect . The b asses are s o

maste r l y prepared and s o regu l ar l y f i gured th at i n th i s he was not

s u rp as sed by anyone . Tel emann was the greatest i n c horuses . One h as


Al l e l u i as and Amen s from h i m whi ch i m i t at e the shout for j oy and the

rej o i c i ng of the h e aven l y cho i rs such t h at the most frozen s o u l thaws


thereby and mus t overf l ow i n fee l i n g . H ow he set and accomp an i ed the
c hor a l es , how f u l l were h i s h armon i es , how s uccessfu l h i s modu l at i ons

cou l d o n l y be j ud ged by those who were j udges of or i g i n a l work s . He

h as composed v ar i o u s orator i os , c an t at as , and so forth , wh i ch are

col l ected n ow l i k e gems from the t i me of O i oscor i de s . H i s c h amber

p i eces are not of th i s v a l u e by f ar , for even i f he h ad worked out al l


of them with the utmost profun d i ty , the products of th i s sort are too
s ubj ect to fash i on to be ab l e to l ast for l on g . Tel emann was desti ned

for church mu s i c , and there i n h as he become the foremos t German

teacher . Where there i s church mu s i c , there resound h i s d i s cover i es .

H i s sp i r i t remai ned always great and l i ve l y t o a most venerab l e age .

H e even p l ayed a p as s i on-orator i o i n h i s e i ght i eth ye ar , wherei n the

fu l l v i gor of h i s gen i u s f l ared . The great est poet s of h i s t i me ,


R i chey, Brock es , and H ag edorn , worked for h i m. H e f e l t the power of

the poetry so deep l y th at he wept wh i l e read i ng the f i rst songs of


[ ?K l o pstock ' s ] Mes s i ah , that such a poet h ad not worked for h i m .

Shor t l y before h i s end he s t i l l dec i ded t o set a hymn from Mes s i ah t o

mu s i c . B ut he d i ed and now l i stens to t h e chorus of t h e ange l s .

230
The l uck of the peopl e of H amburg i s envi ab l e; after th i s
enormous bereavement they rece i ved a:
C ar l P h i l i pp Emanuel B ac h , who i n many p i eces even surpassed
Tel eman n . 4 He was K ape l l mei ster i n H amburg [ 1768-88] for Pri ncess
[ Ann a] Ama l i a of Pruss i a and h ad th i s t i t l e from var i ous courts as
wel l . He i s the son of the great [ Johann ] Sebast i an B ach and stud i ed
h arpsi chord and organ wi th h i m wi th such admi rab l e s uccess that he,
even i n h i s e l eventh year , p l ayed through the mag i ca l p i eces of h i s
f ather [wh i l e ] l ook i ng over h i s shoul der as he composed them . Soon ,
howev er , he l et the organ go and devoted h i msel f comp l etely to the
c l av i er and compos i t i on . Al ready i n h i s ei ghteenth yea r , he became the
h arpsi chord p l ayer for Frederi ck the Great and always accomp an i ed the
k i ng • s f l ute concertos and so l os a l one. Here he rose i n every respect
to the wor l d • s best c l av i er p l ayer. No one h as ever penetrated the
n ature of h arsi chor d , p i an o, pantal eo n , and c l avi chord wi th such a pro-
found v i ew as th i s i mmorta l man . I n p art i cu l ar he w as the f i rst who
brought co l or to the c l av i chor d , who found the suspen s i on and v i brat i on
of the tone , the port amento ( a styl e of mezzot i nto ) , t he fermata, the
compact tri l l , al so the tri l l w i th turned end i n g , together wi th count­
l es s other c l av i chord ornament s . He p l ays very heav i ly yet be aut i ­
f u l ly. H i s l eg ato sty l e , h i s orn amentati on , h i s mod u l at i ons , h i s
h armonic dev i ces are i ncomp arabl e. H e h as stud i ed mu s i c i n i ts
w i dest doma i n . A s great a s h e i s a s o l o p l ayer , s o creat i ve are h i s

4The verb i s i n the p ast tense, mean i ng that there h as been


some ed i ti ng by ei ther Chri st i an or Ludwi g s i nce the d i ct at i on of the
Xsthet i k i n 1 784/85 .
231
i mprov i s at i ons; as great and stately i s h i s i mag i n at i on , so great i s
he i n the accompan imen t. Who accomp an i es 1 1 k e B ach? uNo one ! " al l of
E urope wi l l answer . Frederi ck the Great , who h ad studi ed Horace ' s N i l
admi rari 5 to such a h i gh degree , stood more than once behi nd the
great man when he cast a spe l l on a tone from the c l av i chord [ and ] then
struck the ground w i th h i s wal k i ng st i ck and c r i ed o ut , "On l y � Bach !
On l y � B ach ! "
One h as count l ess c l av i er p i eces from th i s master whi ch al l
bear the stamp of the most extraord i n ary geni us . So ri ch i n i nvent i on ,
s o i nexh aust i b l e i n new modu l at i ons , s o fu l l o f h armo ny i s none as he.
Wh at R aphae l as pai nter and K l opstock as poet [ are] , t h at i s near l y
B ach as h armon i st and composer . W h at i s cri t i c i zed i n h i s p i eces i s
capr i c i ous t aste, frequent odd i t i es , farfetched d i ff i cu l ty , c apr i ci ous
p l acement of the mus i c , when , for examp l e , he always g i v es the mi dd l e
f i ngers an odd domai n , and stubborness ag ai nst f ash i on ab l e t aste. 6
If there i s some truth i n these accus at i ons , i t i s even truer that the
real l y great man of course bends but c an never degrade h imsel f to the
dwarf i shnes s of h i s contemporar i es . B ach u sed t o s ay, " If my contem­
porar i es fal l , so i t i s my duty to p i ck them u p , but i t i s not to l i e
wi th them i n the muck. " Thus one not i ces i n h i s newest p i eces a lways
some conces s i on to the spi r i t of the t i mes , but never descend i ng to

5 Horace , fpi s t l e s , I :6 .
6 cf. B urney G , p . 218 . Schubart commented on B ach ' s Six
senates pour le cl avic i n, � l ' u s age des d ames (Amsterdam, 1 7 70;rpt
R 1 g a , 177 3 ) not 1 n a condescena 1 ng way as he had done with Wol f , for
ex amp l e , but i n a very pos i t i ve way. See D eutsche C hron i k ( 15 Augu st
1774} : 3 18-19 and ( 13 March 1775 ) : 168. Th i s was not the case as wi th
Johann C hri sti an B ach. See p age 257 of th i s tr an s l at i on .
232
the re i gn i n g s p i r i t of pett i ness . A l l tr i f l es o n the c l av i chord , a l l
sweet , sp i r i tu al l y enervated essence , a l l j ang l i ng tri n kets of tod ay ' s

composer are abomi n at i on s to h i s i mmense s p i r i t . H e remai n s i n s p i te

of t h e f ash i on wh at he i s : B ach !

As great as he appears h ere as c l av i eri s t , h e i s j u st as

i mport ant as a t e acher of the c l av i e r . N o o n e u nderst ands t h e art of

trai n i ng a master better t h an h e . H i s greater s p i r i t h as formed a

s pec i a l schoo l : t h at of B ach ! Whoever i s from t h i s schoo l wi l l be

recei ved i n a l l o f E urope wi t h o pen arms . H i s f i nger i n g i s t h e most

s p l end i d t h at ever a c l av i eri st wi l l d i scover ; h i s h an d and phys i c a l

post ure, outstan d i ng ; and h i s execut i on , so uncon strai ned t h at one


i m ag i nes sorcery wi thout not i c i ng a s i ng l e mag i cal i nc i t ement . Yes ,

h e h as become t h e t e acher o f t h e wor l d i n t h e c l av i chord. H i s [Versuch


U ber d i e] wahre Ar� das C l av i er zu s p i e l en [ 17 5 3 ] i s as c l as s i c as ever

a work was wri tten . H i s styl e i s ser i ou s , prec i se, and c l e ar . His

ru l e s are extracted from the most profou nd exper i ence . He i s theor i st

and aesthet i c i an at t h e s ame t i me t o an u n u s u a l degree. E veryt h i ng

that l i e s i n the are a of the c l av i e r , he seems to h ave exh austed ; for

i n the forty ye ars where he prev ai l ed , cert a i n l y many a sp i red to h i s

co l os s a l l i keness , but they d i d not even beg i n t o meas ure up .

He was j u st a s d i st i ngu i shed as a d i rector of a chorus . He

knows h ow to b l end hundreds o f v o i ces and str i n ged i nstruments as one ,

how to conduct as i n the pu l se of n ature, [ and ] h ow to accommodate gen­


i u s i t sel f wi th i n the bounds of order ; i n these t h i n gs he i s scarce l y

t o be equ al ed . Aco u st i c s , the orch estral order i ng, and many s ecret s o f

t h e Kapel l me i ster ' s art h e under stood from the i r foundat i on s . Even as
233
a composer o f s ongs he showed h i msel f w i th l ustre. H i s c an t at as , h i s
choral es , for wh i ch h e sel ected text s from Gel l ert , Crame r , and

K lo pstock , are f u l l of p at ho s , fu l l o f newnes s i n me l od i c mot i on ,


u n i que i n modu l at i on s , i n short , a true h armony of t h e s pheres . ? As

great i s h i s sp i r i t , so great i s h i s d i l i gence. No gen i us h as ever

wri tten as much as h e , and everyth i ng , wh ether the l e ast i mportant


l i tt l e song or l i tt l e m i nuet , bears h i s or i g i n a l s t amp . Because of

th i s extraord i n ary man , i t i s u nderstood t h at mu s i c i n H ambu rg mu st

h av e been i ntense l y b u i l t . Ther e , everyt h i ng i s song and sound ; the


g re at est v i rtuosos appear there and are p r i nce l y rewarded ; the

d i l ettantes rai se t hemse l ves to mastery. *

Theat er mu s i c i n H amburg i s one of the most cho i ce i n Germany.


Though not heav i l y orchest rated , i t i s j u st r i ght i n performance so

*The counse l l o r Sch ub ak , a u n i versa l t h i nker, p l ays not o n l y

t h e c l av i er as a master , but a l so composes q u i te s p l end i d l y . A man who

c an s ay, 11 I know o n l y two teacher s : K l opstock and B ac h , " d eserves to

be not i ced by h i story, even i f he al so decl ares h i ms e l f to be o n l y a


d i l et t ant e . B

7 schubart c a l l ed atten t i o n t o B ac h ' s sett i ng of Cr amer ' s

Mel od i en , 1 7 58 ) . S e e Deutsche Chron i k { 28 Ju l y 1774) : 279-80.


P s a l ms ( [4 2] U berset zt e Ps a l men mi t Mel od i e n , 1 7 7 4 ) and t o the s ucces s
h e h ad h ad wi t h Ge l l ert ' s l i eder ([55] Ge i st l i ch e Oden und L i eder m i t

B i n a l etter ( 3 J u l y 1 783 ) t o h i s son L udwi g , Schubart


wri tes : 11 S ag i hm [ Joh ann Chri stoph L u dwi g Abei l l e ] er sol l j a B achs
wahre Art , d as K l av i er z u s p i e l en s i ch e i l i gst K auffen u n d stud i ere n .
B ach i s t m i r i n der Mus i k w a s m i r K l opstock i n d e r Poes i e i s t . 11
Strau s s , 2 : 56 .

234
that concertmasters shou l d travel there to l earn h ow t o d i rect an
orchestra. S i nce the best products of the wor l d are performed ther e ,

i t i s e asy t o con s i der what a great mu s i c s choo l H amburg h as become for

o ur f ather l an d .

A theater , i n wh i ch the poet i c and mu s i c perfect i on o f Les s i ng ,

K l ops�ock , B ac h , Bode, Schr oder, and others h ave worked for many years ,

must neces s ar i l y rai s e i t se l f to a s umm i t wh i ch proj ects o ver a l l other

t heaters . Thu s noth i ng makes more sens at i on i n Hamburg t h an what i s

extraord i nar i l y great . A cel ebrated E n g l i s hman as serted p u b l i cl y not

l ong ago t h at , i n gener a l , mus i cal t aste i n H amb urg i s f ar greater than

t h at i n London .

235
XVI I . MAI NZ , TR I ER , AND COLOGN E

When one speak s of the courts of the ho l y e l ectors , when one


th i n k s about the i r enthu s i asm for the preservat i on of the i r rel i g i on ,
noth i ng el se can be expected than f l ower i ng mu s i c--at l east i n the
ch urch s tyl e .
I n Mai nz t h e e l ector ' s court mu s i c has been composed a lways by
f i rst -r ate mi nds . The prev i ous el ector [ Emmer i c h Joseph ] was so
enth us i ast i c for mus i c that he was awakened each morn i ng to a so-cal l ed
mu s i cal mat i ns [ and ] an even i n g song wi th unspeak abl e fee l i ng crad l ed
h i m to s l eep . Not often h as a great man i nterwoven mu s i c so i n h i s
l i fe as th i s one. Mus i c woke h i m, mus i c accompan i ed him to the tab l e,
mu s i c sounded on h i s hunt s , mus i c urged on h i s prayers i n church , mu s i c
rocked h i m i n sooth i ng s l eep , and mus i c h as certai n ly wel comed th i s
t ru l y good pr i nce i n heaven .
Punta [ i n Mai n z from 1 769 to 1774] . Certai n l y the best horni st
i n the worl d. To be sure he i s d i st i n gu i shed more i n the second [part]
t h an i n the f i rst , he has studi ed the comp ass of horn such as no other,
[ and ] h i s comp l etely v i gorous sou l b l ows out the be l l of the horn . To
hear an adag i o p l ayed by h i m i n the hour for l overs i s the u l t i mate of
art . He sol ves d i ffi cu l t i es with i ndescr i b ab l e ease . Thu nder i n g , he
att acks the contra C and soars through the most u nnot i ceab l e curve to
h i gh C. He knows , wi th the h an d i n the be l l , how to bri n g out so
pure l y the mi s s i ng tones i n the scal e of the horn that he accomp an i es
p i eces i n a l l keys w i th h i s D horn w i thout t ak i ng refuge i n a
t i me-was t i n g mech ani c al horn [ i . e . , u s i ng crooks ] . H i s composi t i ons
are even as f i rst-rate as h i s performance, but they always presume a
master : they are not wr i tten for d i l ett antes .
The church mu s i c i n M ai nz h as for a l ong t i me preserved i tsel f
i n the o l d sol emn styl e. The ant i phons are executed wi th d i g n i ty, and
the M asses h av e greatne ss , devot i on , and depth of feel i ng . The fugal
styl e i s more pop u l ar here than anywhere , and the org an s are al l
staffed w i t h experts .

237
XVI I I . C OLOGNE

In the many churches of th i s great c i ty , the most excel l ent


motets , Masses , and ant i phons resound more from ecc l es i ast i cs than from
s a l ar i ed mu s i c i ans . The choi rboys there s i ng beaut i fu l l y , even to the
poi nt of de l i ght , and among the many ecc l es i ast i cs one f i nd s tenor and
bass voi ces of the f i rst rank . I ns trumental accompan iment i s , as one
can e as i ly guess , not exactly the most exce l l ent but is eng aged suf­
f i c i ent ly wel l . The styl e i n C o l ogne i s a l most as i n M a i nz , only i t
h as a somewhat more modern mi en . Among the cho i r regents there are
comp l etely exce l l ent organ i sts . F ather B auer and a nun n amed Agatha
are true organ v i rtuosos . Al so one often fi nds heaven ly voi ces i n the
convent.
The e l ector has on ly moderately st affed court mu s i c , wh i ch the
c e l ebrated Schmi ttb aur former ly d i rected [from 1775 to 1 7 77] . I n th i s
orchestra no member h as d i st i ngu i shed h i msel f u p to v i rtuoso stock .
One of the mai n reasons i s th i s : t h at the mus i ci ans of that p l ace on ly
enjoy a very poor s a l ary. So much greater i s the zeal for mus i c i n
p r i v ate fami l i es . One fi nds there a c av a l i er or a l ady who h as pushed
mus i c to mastery. A l though Col ogne p l ays no speci al ro l e i n mu s i c at
present , to i t s honor i t deserves to be noted that the fi rst Chr i st i an
c hurch song was heard there i n the year 855 . From thi s t i me on the
enthusi asm of the peop l e of Col ogne for church mus i c has cont i nued
strong , and i n th i s great styl e they sh i ne even today.
238
XIX. TR I ER

As for church mu s i c here i t i s about as we l l est ab l i s hed as i n

�1 ai nz an d Co l ogn e ; on l y here i s was mod i f i ed i n such a way t h at the

present e l ector [ C l emens Wenzes l au s ] , one of t he most p i o us r u l ers , was


ag ai nst the prev ai l i ng i nsol ence i n ch urch styl e and preferred the o l d

Masses and urged h i s compo sers t o work i n t h i s sty l e .

The mu s i c a l post s were brought forward nowhere i n al l of

Germany w i th such heart softened devot i on as i n Tri er and Kob l enz . 1

Too bad t h at the org an s are not the best and that no org an i st h as

d i st i ngu i s hed h i mse l f as a master t here for a l ong t i me .


Al so the court mus i c t here i s st affed very we l l . The Kapel l ­

mei ster S al es [ K apel l mei ster from 1768 t o 1797 ] , a thorough and p l eas-

ant composer and a man of the most en g ag i ng ch ar acter, h as emerged i n

dramat i c and chamber styl e w i th honor . A l though the e l ector does not

h ave a theater, th i s master composed v ar i ou s operas fo r Man n h e i m ,

l�un i ch , an d for several I t a l i an c i t i es , and l ater on f o r London where

t hey were rece i ved very wel l . H i s s p i ri t i s not great but pl eas ant .

L i ghter d i rect i on s of thought , easy , p l e as i ng me l odi es , warmth of the

heart , good preparat i on of son g , n atural i n strumental phr ases , even

i ns i nu at i ng h armo n i es and modu l at i ons d i s p l ay h i s mu s i c a l character .

1 The Tri er court moved permanent l y to Kobl enz i n 1 786 , b ut


Kob l enz was al so act i ve mu s i cal l y before t h i s d at e .

239
Much beauty , but not mu ch greatne s s , l i es i n h i s p i ece s ; for t h at
reason h i s Masses , Te Deums , and other ch urch compos i t i ons do not h ave

much to s ay. W i thout the promi n ence of the s p i r i t no one ventures to

th i s styl e ! H i s wi f e i s an admi rab l e contral t o . Sh e former ly s ang as


a pr i ma don n a i n one of S al e ' s operas , 2 but the contral to sti l l c an ,

by i t s n atur e , n ever sh i ne as the l ead i ng voi ce. As soon as on ly a

med i ocre descant or t enor i s set on the p age ag ai nst i t , i t a l ready


st ands i n the s h ad ow : for they are , by compari son , masters i n song ;

thus , the contral to--mal e or femal e--s i n k s comp l et e l y under. Thi s was

the fate of an otherwi se adm i r ab l e f l owe r , the present wi fe of Sal es .

She was heard wi th admi rat i on and compas s i on whenever s h e s an g i n

concerts , but cou l d n ever create a sen s at i on whenever she appeared i n

the theater .
Among t h e i n s trumental i sts of the Tr i er court , Voc i k a

[ ?Wosch i tk a ] i s espec i al l y d i st i n gu i shed. He was former l y ch amber

v i rtuoso at the W urttemberg co urt , but h i s cyn i cal ch ar acter took h i m


away from th i s co urt t o K ob l en z . 3 He i s wi thout contrad i ct i on the

2Ach i l l es i n , Sci ro ( e ar l y 1 7 74 } . Schubart ment i on s S a l es •


new oper a , wi th ou t tit l e , i n GS 1 : 184 ( L & G , 1 ) , b u t he d i d wr i te an
art i c l e abo ut Ach i l l e s i n Sc � i n h i s D eut sche C hron i k ( 1 2 May 1 774 } :
100-104 .
3 s urney passed through Kob l en z i n 1 7 7 2 and men t i oned t h at
there was " a most extraord i n ary performer on the doub l e bass at th i s
court , who p l ays s o l o s on i t , even worth heari ng. " Burne¥ G , p . 26 .
I n the sect i on t h at fol l ows , i t i s obv i o u s t h at Schubart 1 s di scus s i ng
the s ame mu s i c i an .

240
greatest doub l e b as s i st of our t i me . 4 He h i t u pon t h e i de a o f

p l ayi n g concerto s a n d s o l os o n h i s g i ant i nstrument . He even put

. these not i on s i nto pract i ce , to the general amazement of h i s l i steners .

The l ow r ange was bel l owi n g , gruesom e , noti ceab l y p i erc i ng--sound i ng as

the howl of a s torm i n the tops of o ak s . The h i gher tones brought

forth the most l ov e l y tenor vo i ce , wh i ch was n o l onger as a stri ng

ton e , but s ounded as a t enor trombone.


He even composed d o ub l e bass concertos ; and s i nce the i dea i s

s o comp l ete l y or i g i n a l , t hey brought h i m so much more honor . On ly one

must cons i der t h at such an e normo u s b as s i n strument was not made to be

4 whi l e i n U lm , Sch u b art h ad t h e o pportun i ty to attend a


concert to be g i ve n by the b as s i s t Kempfer ( Deutsche Chro n i k [ 1 June
1 77 5 ] : 35 2) . I n h i s rev i ew of the performance , h e c l a i med t h at "Herr
Kempfer i s t , me i ne s W i s sens , der E i n z i ge i n Europa, der d i es s i n stru­
ment Sol o und m i t d i e sem N ac hdruc k e sp i e l t ;• • "• ( see Deutsche Chron i k

[ 1 2 J un e 1 7 7 5 ] : 3 7 3 ) . But Kempfer i s not ment i oned i n the �sthet ik der


Ton kunst . I n add i t i on , there seems t o be a prob l em concern i n g f actua l
1 nformati on wi th i n t h i s par agraph . Schubart i dent i f i e s Voc i k a as a
doub l e bass i st [ V i o l on i st and one who p l ays t h i s R i esen i nstrument] .
However , i n chec k i ng the personne l l i st i ng of the Tr i er court- -where
Schubart s ays t h at V oc i k a i s now emp l oyed--o n l y an I gn az Woz sch i tk a , a
cel l i st , i s the o n l y member of the orchestra t h at approx i mates the n ame
V oc i k a ( s ee MAfD 1 78 2 , p . 1 5 3 ) . I n the s ame al man ac Voci k a ' s n ame i s
not amon g the o utstand i ng cel l i st s nor the one b as s i st men t i oned ( see
p ages 1 04 and 1 1 2 ) ; h i s n ame does not appear i n the art i c l e o n b as s i st s

1768 u nt il 1773 i n Lu dw i gsburg, the seat of the W U rttemberg court , and


i n the MAadJ 1 7 8 2 , p p . 95-97 , n o r i s h e n amed amon g the e i ght b as s i sts
i n the MAadJ 1784, pp . [ 15 , 1 9 , and 21 ] . Schubart was emp l oyed from

he was f ami l i ar wi th the mus i c i an s of the co urt . T h u s i t i s qu i te ·

pos s i b l e th at he k new Voc i k a person al l y . A n expl anat i on o f t h i s


app arent d i screpancy ( i . e . , t h at V oc i k a i s a c e l l i st and not real l y a
bass i st , a s Schub art c l a i ms ) m i gh t be th i s : i nstrument al i st s of the
e i ghteenth century were expected to p l ay more t h an j u s t one i n strument ,
as c an be seen i n personnel l i st i ngs of the per i o d . I t may h ave been
t h at I gn az Woz sch i tk a [ ? =Voc i k a] was as s i gned to p l ay t h e doub l e bass ,
an i n strument whose primary funct i o n was t h at of an accomp any i n g
f un d ament i n strument . The cel l o certai n l y h ad more so l o l i terature
av ai l ab l e , and i t may h ave been that I gn az began p l ayi ng th i s

241
a so l o i st . I t sounds l i ke mock ery and f a l l s dur i ng i t s grumb l i n g
phrases often i nto urs i ne and com i c al sound s . Yet , s i nce i t i s

d i ff i c u l t for man a l w ays to be on l y an accomp an i st and not to be now


and then al s o an outstan d i ng so l o i st , one mu st excuse the not i on of

V oc i k a. As an accomp an i st h e h as doubt l es s l y att a i ned the max i mum.

He c arr i e s the ent i re storm of the orchestra o n h i s b as s . H i s very

short bow b r i ngs t h e tones out so powerf u l l y t h at t h ey roar and r age

through everyth i n g . H i s exce l l ent eyes i g h t , by wh i ch h e not i ced t he

sma l l est appogg i at uras s i x steps away , g ave h i s performance s uch

freenes s and t horoughness t h at no one i m i t ates i t .

Great d i l ett antes h ave al so been c al l ed to t h i s co urt , among


"
wh i ch L aroch e , the f amous author of the book Uber das Monch swesen ,

towers above a l l others . He p l ayed the c l av i er as a master , w i th

d e l i c acy and thoroughness , and composed very wel l for h i s i n strument .

E veryth i ng t h at t h i s great man d i d h ad t h e s t amp of h i s i nd i v i du a l i ty .

l i t erature on the d o ub l e b as s , a not i on wh i ch m i ght h av e attracted


Sch u b art • s attent i on . Another c u r i o u s fact wh i ch m ay a l so l i n k th i s
Wozsch i t k a w i th F r an z X av i er Wosch i tk a, a l so a cel l i st , i s t h at
Schub art i nd i c ates t h at I gn az • s beh av i or got h i m i nt o some sort of
d i ff i c u l t i es . F ranz , l i k ewi se , was i nvol ved i n a d i spute , i n t h i s
c as e w i t h Ado l ph Carl Kunze n , concertmaster of t h e Schwer i n court ,
who , bec ause of th i s d i s pute , l eft Schwer i n i n 1 75 3 ( see G rove 6 ,
20 : 535 and 1 0 : 31 1 ) . But th i s i s c i rcums t ant i al ev i dence at be s t .

242
XX . TAX I S

Th i s g l eami ng German court h as c aused a sens at i on i n recent


t i mes through mus i c . 1 E veryth i ng here h as become mu s i c al . The
pri n ces ses pl ayed on the c 1 avi chord as an gel s , es pec i al l y Pri ncess
X aver i a , who brought i t to mastery . Her speed i s u n be l i ev ab l e , but i n
exc h ange for i t she l oses d e l i c acy . Regu l ar d i s pos i t i on of an or�hes­
tra one must not expect i n such a court where entert ai nment i s v i ewed
as an u l t i mate goa l . If there had been a choi r at Lampsacus among the
pri ests of P r i apus , they wou l d for the most p art h ave been enjoyed by
the Tax i s court . 2 The coo i ng dove on the shoul der of Venus­
Anadyomene, the mel t i ng Endymi on i n the arms of D i an a, the drugged
c l i max of every hour of f l i rt at i on , ev eryt h i n g that coos , l angu i shes ,
and i s rel axed wi th d e l ight bel ong to the mus i cal character of th i s
court . Sure l y , accord i ng to th i s descri pt i on , no great man cou l d stand
up i n th i s reg i on . Yet sever al mi nds , who were not compl ete ly u nworthy
to be pri ests i n the s anctuary of l ove, d i st i ngui shed themsel ves .
Touchemou l i n h as been for many ye ars the s ame as a Kape l l ­
mei ster [from 1761 to 1801 ) . H i s t aste i s comp l etely F rench : p l eas-
ant and s oft . He p l ays the v i ol i n w i t h v i gor, yet i n a manner wh i ch

1 The T ax i s court res i ded at Regen s burg .


2A s i mi l ar anal ogy, but descri b i ng L udwi g sburg, i s found i n
§., 1 : 1 18 lL & G , 1 ) •

243
cannot p l ease everyone. H i s son , when he was twe l ve years o l d , d i s­
p l ayed great t a l ent for the v i o l i n on wh i ch he performed the most

d i ff i c u l t concertos w i th great dexter i ty [mi t f l i ege�der F ert i gk e i t ] ,

but the i nd u l gent b r i ng i ng u p of h i s f ather was not adv ant ageo us to

h im. 3

The c l av i er at t h i s co urt was treas ured and cu l t i v ated exceed­

i n g l y. Si nce i t i s the f avori te i nstrument of al l t h e p r i n cesses , one

c an e as i l y con s i der t h at i t wou l d not l ack i n v i rtuoso s who p l ay th i s


s p l end i d i nstrument wi th f i re .

K i efer . An u n u s u a l l y t horo u gh c l av i eri st , of course more

a t heoret i c i an t h an a gen i u s , but cert a i n l y a master i n the under­

s t and i ng of f i nger i ng , i n l i gh t and h e avy performance , [ and ] i n t he

art of read i ng and accompanyi n g. He i s the cre ator of c l av i er t aste

wh i ch now prev ai l s at the T ax i s court . H i s son , c l av i er i s t for t h e new


Pri nce P al m, p l ays the p i eces of the best c l av i er masters wi t h much

prec i s i on . 4 But he i s g i ddy before the depths of a B ac h : from th i s

ocean h as he j us t t aken a s i p as a mart i n i n f l i g h t . I n a wor d ,

nei ther h e nor h i s f ather are i ntel l ects o f s i gn i f i c ance , but they are

st i l l good mus i c a l art i s an s . Former l y t he t aste of th i s co urt was com-

p l et e l y I tal i an [ 1774-78 ; 1784-86 ] o r F rench [ 1760-74] ; now- - I write


t h i s i n 1784 , for it cou l d perh aps h ap pe n t h at the t aste here i n 1 799

m i ght be Rus s i an or C h i nese--the t aste i s comp l et e l y German [ 17 78-84]

3 schub art h e ard a concert by t h e Touchemou l i ns i n Augs burg i n


1 774 . See Deut sche Chron i k ( 23 May 1 7 7 4 ) : 1 28 .

�' 1 : 1 9 1 ( L & G , 1 ) .
4Apparent l y Schubart met K i efer ( the son ) i n Mu n i c h . See

244
and often v ery f unny operett as appear t here wh i ch are s up posed l y from
remar k ab ly good m i n d s . A Span i sh c av a l i er h as n ow composed s ome p i eces

t here i n the German l anguage t h at man i fest a f e at ure of g en i us ; al so

the German h as t urned out we l l , even to adm i r at i o n . Yet one can expect

l i ghtness from such a court t h at i t mi ght f i nd more p l eas ure i n the

comi c than the ser i ou s . A cert ai n fr i vo l i ty h as even crept i nto the

church sty l e wh i ch scatters every g l i mmer i n g r ay of devot i on .

The mu s i c of Regensburg i s very wretched . They h ave n ever h ad

a good or g an i st , and the i r cho i rs shout and howl w i thout effect . For­

mer l y Sch l i mb ach , a t horough org an p l ayer and a very u sefu l composer,

w as there , but n ow P o l yhymn i a p asses over Regen sburg , and no i ncense


smo l ders on the al t ars of the Protest ant s .

The P r i nce von Furstenberg r i des mus i c as Y or i ck does h i s

hobbyhors e . S W i thout be i ng a mu s i c i an h i mse l f , h e l i stens t o t h e

5 Yor i ck i s a f i ct i on al ch ar acter created b y L au rence Sterne


and 11 re l ate d 11 to Sh akespeare ' s ch aracter found i n H am l et , Act V . For
an exp l an at i on of t h e rel at i on sh i p of these two Yor i c k s see t h e s econd
of 11The P as s port . Versai l l es . " ser i es i n vo l ume two o f L aurence
Sterne ' s A Sent i mental Journey Through Fr ance and I t aly by Mr . Yor i c k ,
4 vo l s . ( London : Pn nted for T . Becket and P . A . D e Hond t , 1768 ) , pp .
69- 7 2 . The s i g n i f i c ance of t h e hobbyhorse seems to be a reference to
a h arm l ess p ast i me , an escape from rea l i ty to a c h i l d l i ke wor l d , or a '
moment for p l ay i n g t h e ro l e of a co urt j ester , r at her t h an a s i gn of
ser i ou s mental def i c i ency . One part i c u l ar reference to hobbyhorses h as
a d i rect bear i n g on Schubart • s st atement : 11 • • •
h av e not the w i sest
of men i n al l ages , not except i ng So l omon h i msel f , - -h ave they not h ad
t he i r Hobby- Hors e s ; --the i r runn i ng horses ,--the i r co i n s and thei r
cock l e-shel l s , the i r drums and the i r tr umpets , the i r f i dd l es , the i r
p al l et s ,--the i r maggots and the i r b utterf l i es?--and s o l ong a s a man
r i des h i s Hobby- Horse peaceab l y an d qu i et l y al ong the K i ng ' s h i ghway ,
and n e i ther compel s you o r me t o get up beh i nd h i m, --pray, S i r , wh at
h ave e i ther you or I to do wi th i t ? " Laurence Sterne , Th e L i fe and
O p i n i on s o f Tr i st am S h an dy, Gent l eman , 9 vo l s . ( [ n . p . ] , 1766-67) ,
1 : 23- 24. �1 tho u g h I h ave not been abl e to l oc ate a spec i f i c p as s ag e ,
I presume t h ere are p ass ages i n Sterne ' s wri t i ngs where Y or i ck h i ms e l f
245
s i ng i ng , wh i st l i ng , f i dd l i ng , b l ow i n g , and p l ays the b agp i pe s an hour
a d ay year after year. He p ays the v i rtuosos who c an be h e ard at h i s

court s p l end i d l y , but h e h as , by t h e w ay , n e i ther a g re at K ape l l me i ster

nor great s i ngers nor outstand i ng i nstrumen t a l i st s . Whenever the

pr i nce i s petty , everyth i ng around h i m s h r i v e l s up i n the s ame s p i r i t

o f pett i ness . I n the meant i me one mu s t s ay , to the cred i t of t h i s man ,

t h at h e v al ues good mu s i c i ans exceed i n g l y , draws them to h i s t ab l e , and

reward s them as any of h i s co l l e agu es .

r i des h i s own hobbyhorse , for t h i s i de a i s cert ai n l y i n Y or i ck ' s mi n d .


See , i n p art i c u l ar, L aurence Sterne , "Med i t at i on u po n Hob by-Horses , "
Yor i ck ' s Med i t at i on s U po n V ar i o u s I nterest i ng and I mportant S u bj ect s
{ London : R . Steven s , 1 760 1 , pp . 5 1 -55 . Schubart was a l ready f am1 1 1 ar
w i t h Yor i ck ' s t r ave l s by 1 7 7 3 , for h e speak s of F uger , whom Schubart
honors as the art i st of the draw i ngs o f Yor i ck ' s trave l s and w ho l i ves
i n Hei l bronn i n 1 7 7 3 . See GS , 1 : 1 3 1 ( L & G , 1 ) . Later , i n h i s
Teut sche C hro n i k ( 13 J an uar3'1 7 76 ) : 31 , Sc h ub art commented on t h e f act
t h at Chod owi ec ki h ad recen t l y comp l eted twel ve engr av i ngs fo r Stern e ' s

Tri s tam Shand . And f i n a l l y , Shubart wrote : " One of my f r i end s
recen t l y as k e me i n a very powerfu l l etter to l e ave the art i c l e
' Mus i c ' out o f my Chron i k . And ten others b eg me even a s ur gent l y to
make use of i t more oft en . W h at am I to do? Shou l d I be al l owed to
r i de my f avor i te h obbyhorse?" Teutsche C hron i k ( 1 2 Augu st 1 776 } : 5 1 2 .

246
XX I . NASSAU-WE I LBURG

The now re i gn i ng pri ncess of th i s house h as acq u i red a great


reput at i on as a conno i s seur and patron of mu s i c . Former ly she sang
s p l endi d ly, but she h as a cert ai n phys i c al cond i t i on of shak i ng ; thi s
moved her to drop s i ng i n g , and now she d evotes hersel f ent i re ly to the
c l av i er. She p l ays through d i ff i c u l t concertos of Sch obert , B ach ,
Vogl er, Beecke , and others w i th unusual f aci l i ty . Her al l egros and
prestos always succeed , but the adag ios and l argos never do s i nce she
h as a d i sgust for everyth i ng sad bec ause of extreme sens i t i veness of
nerves . Her orchestra i s very wel l staffed .
Rothf i scher was the concertm aster there for a l ong t ime. No
one is more c apabal e of occ upy i ng th i s post t h an h e . He p l ays the
v i o l i n , even as a so l oi st , w i t h much t aste. Yet h i s real strength
con s i sts i n regu l at i on , jud gment , and congr u i ty of an orchest�a and the
master l y d i rect i on to a common goa l . H i s stroke r i ps through , and he
k nows how to d i rect h i s arm wh i l e p l ayi ng so th at he command s i t . His
symphon i es are stro n g , abundant i n spl end i d i de as , and fu l l of profound
i ns i ght i n the secret s of phrases . I t i s true of h i m what P l i n i us
somewhere s ai d : " M any are famous and some deserve to be, " l for he

l nrhose who are actuated by the des i re of fame and g l ory are
amazi ng ly grat i f i ed by approbat i on and prai se even though i t comes from
thei r i nfer i ors . " P l i ni us , P l i n� Letter s , tran s . W i l l i am M e l moth , rev .
W . M . L . Hutch i nskon , 2 vo l s . , T e Loeb Cl ass i c a l Li br ary ( New York :
247
i s by n o me ans as we l l k nown i n Germ any as h i s i ntel l ect deserves . 2
Few v i rt uosos are so free of boast as th i s master. He val ues modest

and thorough cr i t i c i sm above a l l . H e i s now i n V i enna, and l e ad s the

orchestra of the German theater ther e . The Wei l b urg court feel s the

l o s s of h i m a l l the more , the more d i ff i c u l t i t i s s oon to repl ace

h i m. Th e remai n i n g members of th i s orchestra cert ai n l y do not s h i ne

mu ch , but so mu ch better are they acc ustomed to t h e mu s i c a l concord .

Vi rtuosos of the f i rst rank , who are heard there , are amazed at the

acc uratenes s of execut i on and the prec i se h armony of mu s i cal co l ori ng

wh i c h i s observed here better th an at many of the much greater courts .

Operett as , wh i ch are g i ven h ere now and ag ai n , are most l y

F rench and , for t h at reason , d o not h ave mu ch t o s ay.

The Macmi l l an Co. , 1 9 1 5 ) , 1 : 310- 1 1 . Schubart h as made s i mi l ar


stat emen t s i n h i s autob i ography . For examp l e , he commented that
" S p i e l l eute s i nd recht l os , " and then exp l a i ned t h at i n former t i mes
th e terms " v 1 rtuoso , " "concertmaste r , " and s o forth , were u n k nown .

[ i . e . , S p i e l mann] . " GS , 1 : 113 ( L & G , 1 ) . Another examp l e i s the


W hoever "f i dd l ed , b l ew , or p l ucked " w as cal l ed a S p i e l mann . "M any
of today ' s v i rtuosos [Kraftmannern ] deserve no other n ame t h an th i s

fo l l owi n g : "Airiong the many v i rt uosos whom I heard i n Au gsburg were


some who deserved th i s t i t l e . " GS , 1 : 234 ( L & G , 2 ) .
2 " Dass er n i cht bek an nter i st--s i ch sel bst noch n i cht
bek annter gemacht h at , i sts Besche i denhei t , d i e an Ubertri ebenes
Mi strauen und N i chtkenntn i s s sei ner s e l bst gr�nzt?--oder was i st s ? ? "
MAadJ 1 7 8 2 , p p . 43-44 .

248
XXI I . CASSEL , DARMSTADT , HANAU

The court at Cassel was always bri l l i ant , yet I wou l d not have
remembered that i t h ad ever attracted attent i on i n mus i c . Nei ther a
composer nor a f i rst-rate performer h as d i st i ngu i s hed h i ms e l f there.
The pri nces of th i s court were never much for mus i c ; consequent ly, the
deat h l y s i l ence wh i c h exi sts there i n mus i c . T he counts l oved o n l y the
noi sy, war l i ke , bo l d , and d ance-i nspi r i ng el ements i n the i r mus i c ; true
s i ng i ng and p l ayi ng meant l i tt l e to them. There were i ndeed some
organ i sts of tol erab l e s i gn i f i cance former ly at th i s court , but what
i s a mol eh i l l next to mount a i n s and the A l ps ?
The court mus i c now i s cert a i n l y i n tol erab l e stand i n g there,
but i t p a l es i n comp ar i son to the best reg arded court s . Trav el i ng
v i rtuosos , who are heard there from t i me to t i m e , al one sustai n th i s
court .

249
XXI I I . DARMSTADT

Th i s co urt deserves to become noti ced on acco unt of i t s q u i te


spl end i d ly prep ared m� l i tary mus i c . No march i n the wor l d i s executed
as here. The w i nd i nstruments are al l excel l ent ly st affed . The spi rit
of the marches i s great and war l i ke ; and the performance s burst after
burst . The dr�ms wh i ch here i s con s i dered mus i cal s i s forced to i ts
h i ghest summi t s from the wh i sper of p i an i ss i mo to the thunderstorm of
the fort i ssimo . The surge and f l ood o f sound s , t h e bo i l i ng and cook i n g
under the h and o f the master , t h e l an gu i s h i n g away t o noth i n g , the
soari ng to everyth i ng--drums are heard to d o t h i s al l here.
Ender l e i s the Kape l l me i ster of th i s orchestra, born i n N urem­
berg , the son of a very famous s deceased b assooni st , who , bec ause he
h ad the mi sfortune of stabbi ng one of h i s comr ades to death wh i l e under
the i nf l uence of dri n k , commi tted s u i c i de . Ender l e p l ays the v i o l i n i n
a q u i te speci al manner . He knows how to bri ng out sounds and t urns
wh i ch sti l l do not h ave any n ames . However, he i nc l i nes more to the
f acet i ous th an to the seri ous . In h i s youth he had great speed and
general l y attracted attent i on . S i nce h e i s at the s ame t i me a s p l endi d
c l av i er pl ayer and h as composed many exce l l ent p i eces for th i s i nstru­
ment , he thereby acq u i red no l ow regard i n mus i cal composi t i on . Th i s
master h as mad e much l ess of a sens at i on bec ause of h i s b i zarre charac­
ter than he m i g h t otherw i se h ave made . Except for h i m, on l y a certai n
Merke l , wh o knew how to h and l e the c l avi er as a master, d i sti n gu i shed
h i msel f .
250
XX I V . H ANAU

h as mai ntai ned r ather good mu s i c i n recent t i mes , yet no master h as

d i st i n gu i s hed h i msel f . One t astes the tol erab l e p i eces of fore i gners

there , and t h i s i s i ts greatest , near l y i t s o n l y worth . Yet one


d i l ettante deserves to become not i ced , wh o , throughout Germany, h as

e l i c i ted attent i on . T h i s d i l et t ante i s n amed Andr e . 1

He was s o bo l d as t o i nterpret mus i cal l y the best poet s .

L ack of t horough i ns i ght i s v i s i b l e everywhere i n h i s p i eces . Mean­

wh i l e , h i s operettas were performed throu gh al l of Germany wi th general

approv al . I t i s true. They do penetrate i nto the s p i r i t of t h e author

not wi thout s ucces s ; he does h ave an abu n d ance of p l easan t mel od i e s .

H i s adapt at i on of f as h i on ab l e t aste and t h e f ac i l i ty of h i s sty l e h ave

e arned h i m t h at cons i derab l e sensat i o n , b u t And r� does not compose for

the t h i n ker. H e i s vo i d o f modu l at i ons and great h armo n i e s t h at he

m i ght be ab l e to penetrat e u p t o the m ark of a true conno i s seur. He

s u cceeds very we l l i n song nonet hel es s . H e sei zed u pon real fo l k


sounds i n v ar i o u s of h i s songs and thereby strug g l ed to g a i n general

approv al . S i nce h e h as s ome ab i l i ty for poetry, th i s h e l ped h i m

exceed i ng l y w i t h h i s mu s i ca l es s ays .

zart l i che L i eder ( Offenbach : Johann Andre ; Mann hei m : J . R: Gotz ,


1 schubart rev i ewed Johann Andre ' s Auser l esene scherzhafte u n d

!774) i n t he Deutsche Chron i k i9 J an u ary 1 7 75 ) : 22- 24 and h i s Erw i n und

( 19 September 1776 ) : 599-600 .


E l m i re ( Offen b ach : Joh ann And re , 17 7 6 ) i n the Teutsch e Chro n i k

251
The rema i n i ng German courts h ave done so l i tt l e real service to !
mus i c that the styl u s of hi story shou l d not be preoccu p i ed wi th them.
Wurzburg h as produced somewhat i n song ; the Meck l enburg courts
are content with servants ' mus i c ; and wh atever appears to be note-
worthy to the rema i n i ng pri nces and counts merel y b e l ongs i n an al pha­
bet i ca l reg i ster of German mus i c and not i n the pai nt i ng of a great
tot a l i ty. I now wi sh to concl ude the h i story of German mu s i c i n such
a way that I m i ght des i gnate some masters who h ave d i st i n gu i shed
thems e l ves i n mus i c .
Adl ung , from E rfurt, a truly good mus i cal theor i st . His
method for p l ay i n g t h e organ 2 h as much essence [ S aft] and s trength.
He u nderst and s not on l y the mechan i cs of organ b u i l d i ng ; that i s , not
as an ord i nary mec h an i c, i n wh i ch he h as noted very profound l y a l l the
i mperfect i ons of the prevai l i ng org an b u i l d i n g , but al so spec i f i es
pr i nc i p l es , wh i ch must be a true amu l et to mu s i c i ans of the profess i on ,
espec i al l y org an i sts.
Abel p l ayed a great ro l e i n London. He was rea l l y on l y a
r i p i en i st on the v i o l i n , but soon he devoted h i msel f to compos i t i on
w i th great success and produced admi rab l e works , espec i al l y i n the
chamber styl e . H i s symphon i es are f u l l and beaut i fu l ; h i s c l av i er
p i eces , u sefu l for d i l ettantes ; and whatever he otherw i se composed,
em i tted rays of a very h appy m i n d . He worked h i s way up to a con­
certmaster i n L ondon [ an d ] reveal ed i n everyt h i n g t h at he d i d more

2 J akob Adl u n g , Musi ca mechan i c a orf anoed i , ed . Joh ann Lorenz


A l brecht ( Berl i n : Fr i edr1 ch W1 lhe l m B1 rns iel , 1768 ) .

252
sk i l l ed d i l i gence t h an geni u s . He h as many work s engr aved , but h i s

arn e wi l l not l ast l ong because of the frag i l i ty of h i s i n ner

s tren gth .

A l bert i made no i s e i n V i enna. He was , dur i ng h i s l i fet i me ,

ne of the most bel oved c l av i er p l ayers . The broken chords , whi ch he

i nvented , h av e , for a l ong t i me, occ upi ed and t i red the h and s . His

hosen mot i ve s were certai n ly more oft en tu nefu l and covered many

i st akes of accomp an i ment . B ut s i n ce he h ad stud i ed the n atu re of the


l av i er much too l i t t l e [ and ] s i nce he chattered, so to speak , more

h an the l i mi t of so und s warranted , h i s approval d i d not l ast l ong.

he g i d dy pub l i c h ad to stand up and not i ce the defect s wh i ch h i s fal se

i n ger i ngs to true c l av i er p l ayi n g c au sed . A broken chord bri ngs three

i ngers to movement and p aral yzes two . Whoever does not p ut the who l e

h and i nto act i on , a s B ach , never deserves t o become an epoch maker i n

c l av i er p l ayi n g .

Buxtehude , one of the greatest fugue p l ayers o f the wor l d . The

s k i n of a present org an i st wou l d sh i ver i f he heard an al l a breve or a

fugue performed by a B uxtehude. He wor ked out the s i mp l est theme w i th

s uch ex actnes s , we av i n g as a l aybyr i nth through one anoth er , and a l ways

found a way out of th i s l abyr i nth so correct l y t h at one mu st be aston­


i s hed on t h at po i nt . Profund i ty i s the ch ar acter of h i s compos i t i ons .

H i s m anner of wri t i n g i s c apr i c i ous . He g i ves each f i nger of i ts own

sphere. Th e l i ttl e f i n gers of both h ands a l ways as s ume the peri pher i es

of h i s mus i c al i n vent i ons , and the remai n i n g e i ght f i n gers retai n thei r
own d ance most ex act i ng l y. He notes , by mean s of the most un i mport ant

appogg i at uras [d i e ger i ngsten Vorsch l age] , the stab i l i ty and


253
!d evel opment o f mezzot i nt s , and t hereby b r i ngs forth u tmos t prec i s i on-­
and al so some d i ff i cu l ty for the p l aye r . For examp l e , wh at o n e tod ay
lexpresses through a s i mp l e arpegg i o , h e expres ses through al l exact i ng

eterm i n at i on wi th p auses and f u l l stop s :

Today ' s Styl e :

� & ! arpe io I

Accord i ng to Buxtehud e :

1�& 1p {!L ��!l_)f f3 [•i•] �

E x amp l e 5 . An Arpegg i ated C hord and The S ame


Arpegg i at ed Chord Accord i ng t o Buxtehude

254
Georg B ach [ recte Joh an n Chr i st i an B ach ] , K apel l mei ster i n
Engl an d , and , because of h i s l ong res i dence there, h e i s known on l y as
the " Eng l i sh B ach , " a son of the i mmort al [ Johann] Seb ast i an B ac h .
So much f l ex i b i l i ty o f s pi r i t , s o much accommodat i on to the
g en i us of the century, so much s ubj u gat i on of profound theory to the
trans i ent mel opoet i c s of the t i me- -no one has h ad these ab i l i t i es as
th i s Bac h . H e seems t o h ave set before h ims el f out-and-o ut t h e p l an to
prove to h i s brother i n Hamburg t h at one can be great and sti l l submi t
h i msel f to the tri v i al spi r i t of the masses . The resu l t proves that
th i s B ach was mi s t ak e n , for h i s spi r i t suffers from the c h ai n s of
accommodat i on . T h e nob l e theory wh i ch h e drew from t h e r i b s o f h i s
great father he surrounded wi th s i l ver gauze of modern taste--a g i ant
wrapped i n nett i ng ! For a l on g t i me the I tal i ans admi red h i m u nt i l he
was fi n a l l y cal l ed as Kapel l mei ster i n London . He was a master in al l
mus i cal styl e s . I t was l i teral l y true what a n E ng l i sh poet s ang about
him:
" B ach stood o n O l ymp i a • s peak
And Po lyhymn i a came towards h i m .
She spread her s i l v er arms
To h i m and sai d :
' You are comp l et e ly mi ne . • ••
H i s church pi eces h av e much profundi ty, but with a cert ai n
wor l d l y mi en wh i ch betrays the odor of dec ay. H i s operas , whi ch he
composed i n En g l an d , Italy, and Germany , reveal a command i ng s p i r i t
i n the area o f mus i c .

255
Thi s B ac h cou l d be whatever he wanted , and one compared h i m
r i ght ly to the fab l ed Proteu s : now h e b ubb l ed l i ke water ; n ow he
f l ared l i ke f i re . I n the m i d st o f fr i vo l i ty of fash i onab l e taste the
g i ant s p i r i t of h i s father sh i mmers through . Thus , the prod i gal son
w i th ragged g arments c ame home. The fat her threw h i s arms around h i s
neck and sobbed , 11You are my son ! "
H i s brother i n Hamburg wrote h i m repeate d l y : " Don • t become
l i ke a chi l d l 11 B ut he always an swered : " I must stammer i n order that
the chi l dren u nderstand me . ••
B ut that th i s extraord i nary man cou l d work i n the thou ghtfu l
styl e of h i s brother i n H amb urg and h i s father i s d emonstrated by var­
i ous c l av i er sonat as wh i ch he pub l i shed i n London . Espec i a l ly known
i s a sonata by h i m i n f mi nor wh i ch competes with the most p rofound
and best p i eces of th i s k i nd .
B ach has proved h i mse l f i n a l l k i nd s of mu s i cal sty l es , al most
wi th equal success . He worked for the ch urch , theate r , and chamber.
He made trag i c and comi c opera [ an d ] earnest and j ocose b a l l et s . Nat­
ural f l ow of thoughts , l ove ly mel od i es , amp l e knowl edge of i nstruments ,
unexpected modu l at i on s , sp l end i d arr angements of duet s , fest i v e choirs ,
and master ly rec i tat i ves ch aracteri ze h i s best oper as . He wrote many
of them i n I ta l y , Eng l and, and Germany , and even today they are per­
formed with the most dec i s i ve approv a l .
One of course searches i n v a i n for J ommel l i ' s f i re and the
harmoni c thoughtfu l ness of h i s broth er i n Hamburg i n h i s operas , but
n ature and s i mp l i c i ty compensate so much more abund ant ly for these

256
def i c i enc i es . He s ucceed s better w i t h t h e affect i o n ate and bel oved
t h an the nob l e t r agedy.

H i s j e st i ng mu s e has many h appy not i ons . She i s more wi tty


t h an moody . For t h at reason h i s com i c o per as i n London n ever l asted

very l on g . H i s b a l l et s i n both types are exce l l ent and i nterpret the

who l e sen s e of the p antom i me .

H i s church p i eces l ack not h i n g i n d i gn i ty and d e vot i on . He h as

composed some Masses for Rome and N ap l es wh i ch c aused general admi ra­

t i on t here. E ven for L ondon he wrot e some P s a l ms i n the true , anci ent
t as t e . H i s Te Deum l au d amu s i s one o f t h e most beaut i fu l t h at w e

possess i n E urope . The fugues and choruses h e arr an ged w i t h great art

w i thout fal l i n g i nt o ped antry . H i s c l av i er concertos , s o n at as , etc . ,

w i t h and wi thout accompaniment , s t i l l bel ong among t he f avor i te p i eces

of the p u b l i c . B ach h i mse l f p l ayed the c l av i er l i k e a maste r , of

course not w i th t h e mag i c al power of h i s f ather or brother i n H ambu rg ,

but even so that n o one i n Eng l and s urpas sed h i m . Bec ause h e was of an

amorous n at ure , he l onged for the appro v al of women . Thi s f act c l ears

up much of h i s mu s i c a l char acter. H i s adopt i on of the f as h i on ab l e

t aste , h i s often too great comp l ai s ance , h i s p l eas i ng condescens i on to

the peop l e ' s t a st e , h i s t r i f l i n g wh i ch so i l l s u i ted h i s great mi n d ,

f ac i l i ty i n h i s compo s i t i on de s p i t e h i s n atural i nc l i n at i on to s ever­

i ty- -a l l t hese th i n g s or i g i n ated from h i s al l too great l ove for the

f emal e sex . H e was the d ar l i ng of Eng l i sh women . H i s symphon i es are

great and m ag n i fi cent- -perfec t l y s u i t ab l e for t h i s wr i t i ng s ty l e- - an d

are far more appropri ate for pr i v at e concerts t h an those of J ommel l i .

257
B ach w as one of t h e most i nd u st r i o us composers who h as ever

l i ve d . H i s p i eces are i ncred i b l y n umerou s and thei r performance i s

extremel y i rregu l ar . S i nce B ach f o l l owed h i s own t aste very s e l dom and

i t appeared as though a l ways another o n e wrote r ather than he h i mse l f ,

o n l y a few of h i s p i eces h ave i nd i v i du al i ty and o r i g i n a l i ty. He h i m­

se l f was n ever content wi t h h i s p i eces for t h at r e as o n , a n d whenever h e

h ad p l ayed t h e h arps i chord f o r a l on g t i me , h e a l w ays u sed t o e n d w i th

a pens i ve i mprov i s at i o n , and at t h e e n d wou l d s ay , "Th u s wo u l d B ach

h ave p l ayed if h e were perm i tted ! " Th i s great man d i ed i n 1 78 2 as t h e

best Kape l l me i s t e r i n Londo n , perh aps e v e n before t h e f u l l r i peness of

h i s s p i r i t , for he h ad h ard l y att a i ned forty ye ars of ag e . A l l of

Eng l and l amented h i m, and h i s father l an d sent gre at con d o l ences to h i s

gre at s p i r i t .

P ache l be l , a great organ i st i n N uremberg [ an d a] master i n true

o r g an taste. 3 He composed co l os s a l p i eces for the o rg an , w i th t wo or

three manu a l s , wh i ch he brought i nto f u l l moti on togeth er w i t h t h e

pedal . H i s styl e i s o l d b u t mas s i ve a n d fu l l of t ho ughtfu l ness . His

strength i n t h e peda l was except i on al . He understood to a h i gh degree

the s u st ai ned s ty l e or t h e l eg at o . P ache l be l composed f u gues to b e

3 when h e v i s i ted N uremberg i n 1 756 , Schub art was i mpressed


wi th the mu s i c and mu s i c tans of th at c i ty . 11Amon g t h e c i ty mus i c I
meet wi th near v i rtuosos , and i n the c hurches I he ard stu dents of the
Germ an Ar i o n , the i mmortal [ Joh an n ] Sebast i an B ach , who made me feel
for the f i rst t i me wh at k i nd of a r are man a good o r g an p l ayer s hou l d
b e . The n ames Drexe l , Pache l be l , Leff l oth , [ and] Agre l l cert ai n l y
d e serve more t h an k s and reco gn i t i on t h an w h at they h ave real l y rece i ved
i n t h e h i story of mu s i c . " GS , 1 : 3 1 ( L & G , 1 ) . W i t h i n the next few
p ag e s of th i s t r an s l at i on , "SC'h u b art menb ons these org an i sts w ho h ave
been neg l ected by h i story. Obv i ou s l y , the autob i ography served as the
i n s p i r at i on for t h e i r i nc l u s i on h ere .

258
di ffi cu l t an d wi th thorou g h l y German power . He p l ayed the choral e
! s i mply and vari ed i t wi th much energy.
The remark bel ongs here that Nu remberg bel ongs to the best
German c i t i es wh i ch h ave done great serv i ce to the i r fatherl and • s
mus i c . I n th i s ci ty there are spl end i d i n st i tuti on s from the o l d en
t i mes whi ch awak en and reward mus i cal t a l ent . I t ma i ntains i ts own
Kapel l mei ster and about thi rty ci ty mus i ci ans often i n cl ud i n g peop l e
whom the worl d l ooked u p to . The chorus i s very wel l staffed , and even
thou gh ordi nary peop l e prevai l , there i s so much natural taste i n mus i c
that the sen s i t i ve forei gner l i ngers wi th s i l ent admi rat i on . Al l the
streets of thi s ci ty resound wi th song on Sundays and hol i d ays .
Nowhere are there so many house org ans as i n N uremberg because nowhere
i s fami ly worshi p so at home . Thi s mus i c al taste has ex i sted for
centur i e s . Each church h as a paid organ i st and a cantor. T h e ri ch
donati ons of thi s ci ty mai nt a i n choi rboys from wh i ch sometimes great
masters h ave stepped forth . Wi th th an kfu l joy the author recol l ects
that he was i ndebted to thi s i n st i tu t i on for hi s mu s i cal knowl ed ge.
The greatest honor th i s venerab l e ci ty h as earned for i tsel f i
that i t nouri shed arti sts wh o not onl y con structed the mo st cho i c e
i nstruments but al so i nvented new th i n gs. The fi rst excel l ent
harpsi chord was made here by the unforgett ab l e Gl i s . For the i n vent i o
of the pedal , one h as to thank N uremberg .
Stai ner , the best vi ol i n mak er i n the worl d , i s a Nuremberger ,
and even today N uremberg vi ol i n s are counted among the l e ad i ng and the
best . I n the mak i ng of wi nd i n struments thi s ci ty has not been
surpased by anyone. The Denner fl utes are wor l d famou s . Trumpets ,
25
trombones , cornet t s , c l ar i nets , and b as soons made t here h ave durab i l i ty

and cutt i ng ton e . P arti c u l ar l y organs wh i ch were m ade i n Nuremberg at

t h at t i me , became mod e l s for al l of E u rope. In the S eb a l der , Lorenzer ,

Fraue n , and other churches stan d s pl end i d l y b u i l t org an s wi t h fu l l

met al l i c tone and e l egant qual i ty , p art i cu l ar l y i n t h e ped a l . In

s hort , one c an r i ght l y c a l l Nuremberg a mu s i c a l Germ an c i ty .

The great masters i n mu s i c , wh i ch t h i s c i ty brought forth ,

are the fo l l owi n g :


F i scher , one o f the most f amou s v i o l i ni st s o f h i s t i me . His

strength was i n u n u s u a l p as s ages , wh i ch h e performed fran k l y an d w i th ­

o u t mi s t akes i n t h e shortest pos s i b l e t i me . H i s s p i r i t l e an ed more t o

the com i c a l . He k new h ow t o i m i t ate every b i rd and i nd eed wi t h s uch

d ecept i on t h at one never knew i f a n i g h t i ngal e c l uc k ed , a l ar k twit­

tere d , and c an ary warb l ed , a quai l sung, or a cri c ket ch i rped . Hi s

compo si t i on s do not s ay much bec au s e i t i s d i ff i c u l t to g u e s s the mood

of s uch an ori g i n a l mi n d .

Drexe l , a s tu dent o f t h e great [ Joh ann ] Seb ast i an B ac h , and

i ndeed one of h i s best . He pl ayed the organ w i t h much author i ty ,


understood t h e reg i sters except i on a l l y we l l , and composed wi th s p i ri t

for th i s h i s i n str ument . H i s fugal styl e was not pen s i ve b ut r ather


l i ght and i nt e l l i g i b l e . H e s e l ected for h i s fugues m os t l y a s on gfu l
t h eme and made them g r acefu l , a feature wh i ch , as yo u k n ow , i s m i s s i ng

i n most fu gues . Cou n terpoi nt he understood s o l i d l y , but h e weak ened

h i s h an d too soon wi t h the t umu l t of modu l at i on . We st i l l pos se s s m any

p i eces of th i s master wh i ch are fu l l of s i gn s of an exce l l ent mi nd.

H i s motets and ch urch p i eces are for the thorough mus i ci an perh aps

260
more v al u ab l e than a pai nt i ng recovered from Herc u l aneum, for the
d i st i ngu i shed man wrote on ly a few , but wh at h e wrote produced a great
i mpres s i on .
Leff l oth , the tenderest org an and c l av i er p l ayer t h at one c an
th i nk of . H i s me l ancho l i c ch ar acter i nc l i ned h i s heart to the ad ag i o ,
and th i s he p l ayed w i th heart-penetrat i ng force . He was a gen i u s and
adhered to no schoo l . F avored wi th fortune, he cou l d tr avel through
a l l of Europe and hear everyth i ng great , but he remai ned Leff l ot h . His
composi n g , as h i s pl ayi ng, was so or i g i nal t h at i t i s i mpos s i b l e to
make a descr i pt i on of i t . Res entment of approachi ng death , tears wh i ch
f a l l as dew on a funeral wreath , and tremb l i n g ant i c i p at i on of fut ure
repri eve--th i s i s wh at h i s compos i t i on speak s . Hecti c fever robbed the
worl d of th i s r are geni us i n the twenty-s i xth year of h i s l i fe . Before
h i s deathbed stood a G l i s c l av i chor d . A few mi n utes before h i s end , he
stretched h i s wit hered arms from the bed, spread h i s h ands over h i s
c l avi er , and p l ayed "Ach Gott und Herr , wi e gross and schwer , etc . "
wi th i nexpres s i b l e grace . W i th tears s h i mmer i n g, he s an k to h i s
bed--and d i ed .
Th i s man wou l d not o n l y h ave s urpassed every N uremberg mu s i c i an
by some di stance , but wou l d h ave been an e poch maker i f i t were possi ­
b l e to prol ong h i s l i fe i n sp i te of h i s f a l l en fortune. Two d ays after
h i s death he recei ved a cal l as Kape l l mei ster i n Russ i a, but h i s h igher
c a l l was in heaven .
Agre l l , K ape l lme i ster of th i s c i ty [ 1 746-65 ] , born a Swede. A
true arti st , but of col d n ature: he p l ayed col d ly but regu l ar l y; he
composed co l d l y but regu l ar ly. Sti ff was hi s behav i or [ an d ] st i ff was
261
h i s p l ayi n g ; b u t for every note h e wrote down , h e k n ew prec i s e l y h ow

t o account for i t . He u sed t o s ay : 11Mu s i c i s c amoufl aged ar i thmet i c .

I f I t ake away notes and do not see t h e framework of t h e most ref i ned

ar i thmet i c , then my compo s i t i o n i s fal s e . 11 H i s c l av i er p i eces trai n

the h and exceed i n g l y ; h i s motet s and church p i eces are adapted most
s tr i c t l y accord i ng to the n ature of t h e vo i ce. We poss e s s a ri ch s up­

p l y of h i s product s wh i ch mus t a lw ays remai n v al u ab l e t o conno i s seurs

becau s e t hey move about wi th i n the fundament a l s [ Ach s e ] of the most

artfu l t heori es .

Gruber , 4 a s p l end i d v i o l i n i st and presen t l y K ape l l me i ster

i n Nuremberg [ 1765-96 ] . H i s compo s i t i on i s thorough , f i ery , but too

i ntr i c at e . He g i ve s the vo i ce s much to do and gener al l y pres u pposes

m asters . H i s bow i n g i s l i ght and ag i l e. He k nows h ow to d i s po s e of

the h armon i cs so del i c atel y t h at on l y a F r i ede l o utdoes h i m i n t h i s .


H i s church styl e borders very much on the s t ate l y , b ut i t i s over­

l o aded wi th ornament s . The strong p l ayer general l y h as t h e f au l t t h at

he g l ad l y d i s p l ays and composes too d i ff i cu l t ly for h i s f avor i te

i nstrument . One m i ght a l mo st c l a i m t h at a g re at composer sho u l d

i ndeed underst and al l i nstruments , b ut p l ay none l i ke m asters because

h e p l aces too mu ch i n the performance of t hese out of p art i al i ty and


prej u d i ce to another.

Graf , an admi rab l e trump eter , rescued from t h e r u i n s of

L i s bo n . Perh aps n o o n e h as exh austed the n ature o f th i s i nstrument

so comp l et e l y as G raf . W i thout bend i ng t h e trumpet as Woegge l , h e

4 see a l so Deut sche C hron i k ( 18 September 1775 ) : 59 9 .

262
brought forth everyth i ng t h at only the ear and heart cou l d expect . He
p l ayed a s i l ver trumpet ; and i ts penet rat i on as wel l as i ts u nspeakab l e
purity was equ al ly fami l i ar to h i m. H i s trumpet p i eces bel ong to the
best in the wor l d , but h ave become more r are bec au se he on ly composed a
few . He d i ed as a n offeri n g t o h i s art i n the mi dd l e o f a concerto
from a hemorrhage cau sed by the excess i ve strai n on h i s l un gs .
B i schoff , a del i ghtful v i o l i n i st , and H umme l , a powerfu l
b ass s i nger, deserve not to be pas sed over i n th i s h i story. In
gener al , Nuremberg i s ri ch i n be aut i fu l vo i ces , and s i nce i t i s a
beer [ -dri nki ng ] country , i t produces more bass s i ngers th an one i s
accustomed to hear i n wi ne [-dr i n k i n g] countr i e s .
Mus i c p ub l i sh i ng and t h e excel l ent engrav i ng t here g i ve th i s
German c i ty a new mer i t i n mu s i c a l art as i t h as earned for i tse l f
immort al honor general l y i n a l most al l the arts and sci ences .

263
XXV . AUGSBURG

S i nce t h i s c i ty became an ep i s copal see � espec i al l y s i nce

ch urch mus i c beg an to f l ouri sh t here- -of course u nder the shower of

change� but ev en so-- i t g av e honor to t h e b i shops .


Augsburg was the th i rd pl ace wh i ch i ntroduced the choral e.

For several centuri es the vespers serv i ces and cho i rs h ave been excel ­
l ent ly st affe d . Even today pi eces from t h at venerab l e � fearf u l t i me

are performed t here wh i ch comp l et e l y f i l l the e ar and h e art of the con­

n o i s seur . Heaven l y upl i ft i ng devot i on g l ows i n these choi r s ; t he song

i s most l y f i tt i ng ; but the organ � or a R uckpos i t i v p l aced i n the c ho i r�


g i ve s the song vari ety and f u l l nes s .

The R eformat i on s p l i t t h i s c i ty� as i s k nown � i nto two p arts


and brought forth the so-cal l ed par i ty. Th e Lutheran s i ntroduce d � as

d i d the i r fel l ow bel i evers , t h e G erman choral e wi th s uch e agerness

t h at i t c an be compared wi th the best German c i t i es . In the B arfus s er

C hurch � t hese s on gs are h eard even tod ay i n t he i r or i g i n al p u r i ty. A

we l l -pai d mu s i c d i rector� u nder whom are c antors and c i ty mus i c i an s ,

cond uct s the c hor al and f i gural mus i c of the P rotest ant s . To these
d i rectorsh i p s t h e Aug sburgers h ave al ways sel ected very ab l e men .

Seytert bel ongs i nd i sput ab l y amon g the f i rst-r ate mus i c i an s

o f our cent ury . He devel oped i n the school of the great H amburg
[ C . P . E . ] B ach and of the Ber l i n orchestra u nder the eyes of Grau n .
T hereu pon , he proceeded to Ven i ce , earned for h i ms e l f general approval
through h i s w i de-re achi n g h armon i c knowl edge , and came back to h i s
f ather l and wi th t h i s thorough trai n i ng , where h e d i ed at 3 3 [rect e 4 1 ]
years o f age a s mus i c d i rector . He was not only one of the most
thorough German c l av i er p l ayers--Bach h i ms e l f n umbered h i m among h i s
best student s- -but he al so devoted h i mse l f to compos i t i on with such
ausp i c i ous resu l ts t h at , i n the short t ime of h i s l i fe , the n ame
Seyfert resounded through a l l of Europe .
H e was a born mus i c i an . Wherever h e went , h e w h i st l ed and
searched for me l od i es . Consequen t l y , he became extraord i n ar i ly r i ch
i n me l od i e s . He wrote mu ch but never repe ated h i mse l f; i n stead , he
remai ned a l ways new. Seyfert comb i ned thoroughness and gracef u l ness
to a h i gh degree. He was equ a l to every sty l e , for h e u sed to s ay,
"Whoever cannot do everyth i ng can do noth i ng . .. H i s masterpi eces are :
1. An I t�l i an opera wh i ch he composed i n Ven i ce and wh i ch i s s t i l l
performed there once a year. Th e modest me l ody of th i s oper a, the
l ovel y i nstrument al accomp an i ment , the novel ty of i t s me l od i c
mot i o n , the correctness of h armony , and the s urpri s i ng modu l at i ons
h ave earned g eneral approv al for th i s o pera i n I ta l y . Seyfert gav e
ev i dence a t that ti me o f much preference for t h e comi c ; t h e trag i c ,
howev er , l ater g ai ned a very not i ceab l e heav i ness i n h i s mu s i cal
ch ar acter .

265
• 2. A P as s i on-Orator i o [ Jesu Chr i stus t der auferstanden i st von den
Toten , 1 754] on Krause ' s poetry. 1 Th i s orator i o i s f i l l ed w i t h
traits o f gen i u s . Wh at a not i on when H e , i n despai r , al l ows Judas
to rush H i m to H i s deat h . T he c horus " D as Herze b l utet mi r, etc. , "
bel on gs amon g the most adm i r ab l e mus i cal choruses wh i ch we h ave
produced . E very exper i ence of the l i stener , every r i se and f a l l of
the streami n g b l oo d , every de l i cat e , i nt imate feel i ng of devot i on
i s not i ced here w i th i ndescr i bab l e art and underst and i ng . Hardl y
any mus i c i an h as s ucceeded better than he wi th t h e percept i on
[ Be l auschen] of the most secret fee l i ngs . Out of eagerness to be
new , he neverth e l ess fe l l occ as i onal ly to t r i f l i n g . He al l owed ,
for ex amp l e , i n th i s oratori o for C hr i st to be accomp an i ed to the
grave with muted trumpets , but he wi ped away th i s s pot and
corrected i t wi th the d arkness of the grave represented i n the
chorus . The voi ces moan and s i ng no more; the i n strumental
accomp an i ment i s prepared w i th profound u nderst and i ng . But
occ as i onal ly he sl i ps b ack to the b i zarre i n h i s choi ce. He even
beg an a certai n ari a w i th a tri angl e, but he no s ooner percei ved
that i t was r i d i c u l ou s th an he removed the nui s ance.
3. R aml er ' s I no [a cantat a wr i tten ca. 1 770] . Undoubted l y , Seyfert
h as captured the s p i r i t of th i s poet i cal masterpi ece the best
among al l mus i ci ans . The go l den scal e of cr i t i c i sm, wh i ch wou l d

1 schubart attended a performance o f thi s work i n 1 774 i n


Augsburg . See GS , 1 : 233 { L &_ G , 2 ) and Deutsche Chroni k { 14 Apr i l
1774 ) : 38-39 . AlSo ment i oned i n Schubart 1 s autobiography i s
Raml er ' s I n o , the next compos i t ion to be d i scussed .

266
l i ke to wei gh poet and composer , wou l d certai n ly be su spended i n
equ i l i br i um here . Seyfert u nderstood h i s poet o n l y as wel l as one
can understand h i m [ i . e. , the poet ] . R aml er h imse l f , and even the
great [ ?C . P . E . ] B ach , number th i s p i ece among the best products of
mus i c . How unequal ed i s the scene of I nc ' s f a l l i nto the seal How
d i v i ne [ are ] the best senti ments of i ts Godhood ! How s i mp l e and
great i s everyth i ng ! The dec l am at i ons and rec i t at i ves h ave noth i ng
above them, and h i s b asses are so exce l l ent l y f i gured th at the
young mus i c i an shou l d accord i ng l y "draw" from them as a p ai nter
draws from the anc i ents . H i s song h as a beauty for wh i ch we h ave
no word i n our l angu age . S i ncer i ty i s truly the pri nci pal char­
acter, yet h i s mel od i es beaut i fy a cert ai n g l ory wh i ch i s l ost on
every descri pti on . I f Seyfert wou l d h ave h ad command o f a great
orchestra, he woul d h ave certai n ly been epoch mak i ng i n mus i c . He
defeated armi es w i th batt a l i on s . What more wou l d h e h ave done i f
h e commanded armi es? Just a s the squ i nt i ng g l ance, wh i ch i n
Augsburg the Catho l i cs throw to t h e Protest ants , s o th i s Seyfert
l ured respect and adm i rat i on from them . They confessed unan i mous ly
t h at he d i d not h ave h i s equal among them, and they pai d a great
dea l of money [mi t schwerem Ge l d ] fo r :
4. The Masses , a s he composed them. These Masses are wri tten i n a
great l y pen s i ve styl e , but here and there they h av e a fash i onab l e
craze on account of comp l ai sance for h i s contemporari es .
5. The c l av i er pi eces of th i s master bel ong among the best of th i s
k i nd . They were wri tten w i th great underst and i ng o f the i n stru­
ment , fu l l of work for both hands , r i ch i n new modu l at i on s , and
267
i n the l ov e l i e st mel od i e s . [ I t i s ] too b ad t h at h i s c l av i er p i eces
s t i l l h av e not a l l bee n pri nted ! He h i mse l f p l ayed i n t h e m an ner

of B ach and was one of t h e best c l av i er v i rtuosos of h i s t i me .

6. H i s SYmphon i es t ak e thei r l e av e of thousands of others t hrou gh

me an s of nove l ty and h armo n i c f u l l ness . There i s a symphony by

h i m known as "Rei s s , Teufe l , Re i s s " wh i ch , v i ewed as a symphony ,

h ard l y h a s i t s equa l i n the wor l d . I f one were t o p l ay [the rol e

of ] Docto r F aust , i t [ i . e. , t h e symphony ] wou l d h av e a tremendou s

effect a t t h e moment when t he dev i l comes for t h e doctor .

I n short , Seyfert be l on gs among the pri nc i p a l s o f German mus i c

accord i ng t o g ener a l e v i dence , but h i s s phere for h i s great s p i r i t was

much too l i mi te d .

Giu l ini . A f i rst-r at e m i nd , t h e best composer among t h e C ath­

o l i c s i n Augsbur g . H i s M as ses are st i l l performed i n th i s c i ty, i n

N ap l e s , and e l sewhere w i t h ench ant i ng approv al . P adre Mart i n i n umbers

t hem among the best i n the wor l d . The adm i r ab l e ch aracter of t h i s

nob l e man s h i mmers forth from a l l of h i s phr ases . H i s songs breathe

warmt h of the h e art and l ove for God and h i s son . He by no means

reaches the p s a l ms ' f l i gh t [ P s a l menfl ug] o f a Seyfert , but h i s h umb l e ,

heartfe l t speec h ; h i s gent l e , adori ng feel i ng for re l i g i on ; h i s calm

h armon i es wh i ch are as c l e ar as s p ar k l i n g w ater rush i ng over gol den

s an d - -these th i n gs m ak e h i s ch urch mus i c exceed i ng ly v a l u ab l e to al l

sen s i t i ve s ou l s . Sketch i ng the weep i n g M ary u nder t h e cros s , exp res­

s i ng the pal p i t at i ng l i f e of h er h e art from a h ard j o l t , the drawi ng

of H i s p i ous s o u l to h e aven , the c a l mness o f the dead who d i e i n the

268
Lord-- a l l of these sent iments l i e i n the sphere of h i s gen i u s . In a
wor d , he bel ongs to the c l ass of the most sens i t i ve composers who ever
l i ved .
Demml er , a mu s i cal drifter [ Luftpassag i er] , but who possesses
true tal ent for compos i t i on . H e p l ays t he org an and c l av i er wi th t aste
and h as composed several Masses and pri nci pal p i eces of i mportance
wh i ch reveal h i s mi nd. But he sec l udes h i mse l f i n the I mper i al D i et ' s
comfort and i s dead to the wor l d . H e can be what h e want s , but wi l l
not b e wh at he c a n .
Stei n , 2 an excel l ent mu s i cal mi nd respected for h i s i n ven­
t i ons and h i s i mag i nat i on . 3 H i s t aste i s s p l end i d . He h i ms e l f p l ays
by necess i ty not b ad ly and knows everyth i ng great , especi a l l y wh atever
concerns c l av i er and org an p l ayi ng . B ut as an i nstrument maker
[Mechan i ker] , he h ard ly h as h i s equ al i n E urope . H i s org an.s , h arps i ­
chords , pi anos , and c l av i chord s are the best that one knows . Strength
pai red with del i c acy, ser i ousness w i t h grandeur, [and] durab i l i ty with
beauty- -he i mpr i nts a l l of h i s i nstruments wi th th i s s t amp . Thi s i s
st i l l , however , the l east [of what h e does] . Stei n i s a l so the

2 stei n was one of Schubart ' s dearest friend s . I n Schubart ' s


autob i ography h e prai ses Ste i n ' s i nstrument s , espec i al ly the organ i n
the B arfUsser Church (wh i ch Schubart h as p l ayed occas i onal l y ) 11 bec ause
of the beauti fu l sounds wh i ch undoubted ly must h ave even been heard i n
heaven. 11 Schub art and Stei n attended a performance o f Al l egri ' s
Mi serere i n t h e Dome Church wh i ch sent them i nto spi ri tual ecst asy .
GS, 1 : 230-3 2 ( L & G , 2 ) . Schub art h ad a Stei n c l av i chord i n h i s
apartment . �� 1 : 248 ( L & G , 2 ) .
3 " St ai n [ s i c] , e i n vorzUg l i cher mu s i k al i scher Kopf ,
mech an i sch und p sycho l og i sh betrachtet . ''

269
i nventor of the d i v i ne i nstrument k nown as the Mel o d i k a
[ c a . 1 7 58-72] . 4 B y i t h e puts the performer i n t h e pos i t i on t o

expre s s most prec i se l y the s u s pens i on o f the tones , the mezzot i nt o ,

o r ev en more, t h e r i se and fal l o f e ach tone. W hen t h e s ecret of th i s


s p l ended i ns trument i s one d ay u n i vers a l . the c l av i er i s t wi l l border

c l ose to s i ngers and w i l l make t h e trees d ance, as Orph eu s [d i d ] .

4 schubart h as s ever a l references to Stei n ' s mel o d i k a.


See , for examp l e , h i s Teutsche Chron i k ( 1 Febru ary 1 7 7 6 ) : 1 5 and
( 8 Apr i l 1776 ) : 23 2 .

270
X XV I . F RANKFURT

Th i s c i ty h as never d i st i ngu i s hed i tsel f w i t h great , mu s i cal

i ns t i t ut i on s and h as h ard l y produced any mu s i ca l m i nds of s i g n i f i cance .

I ndeed , good org ans and wel l -prepared church mu s i c are t h ere, but there

are nei ther org an i st s of gen i us nor , moreover , outstand i ng mu s i c i ans i n


the cho i r . Yet , the admi rab l e concerts , wh ich are f requent l y g i ven at

the so-cal l ed "Red Hou s e , " make up for a l l of these we akne s ses . There

are few great masters who are not h eard by and by , and , except for

H amb urg, there are no pri vate concert s as prof i t ab l e as Frankfurt ' s .

L o l l i once took from a s i ng l e concert 3 ,000 f l or i ns . Not o n l y t he

d i l ett ant i sm of the c i ty , b ut a l so the gre at confl uence of fore i gners ,

espec i al l y at f a i r t i me, make these concerts s o prof i t ab l e and enti ces

t h e greatest masters to t h at p l ac e . B y th i s mean s , t h e mus i c a l t aste

of the c i ty i s great l y i mproved . Nowhere i s mus i c a l edu c at i on s o u n i ­


vers al a s h ere . Even c i t i zens of t h e m i dd l e c l as s al l ow th e i r chi l ­

d ren , a l mo st wi thout except i o n , t o be i n st ructed i n s i ng i n g and

p l ayi n g . But t as t e h as n ow become i ns i p i d . Greatnes s , profund i ty,

and l oft i ness were not s o demanded there as t h e g ent l e, mod i sh , comi c ,

and tri f l i ng ; a s ad res u l t o f the l ong presence o f t h e French i n t h i s

c i ty.

271
Otto , a med i ocre org an i st and an even more med i ocre performer . !
Hel feri ch , a modi sh c l av i eri st . He tri f l e s with f l ower s wh i ch

b l oom tod ay and wi ther tomorrow .

K ayser , the best mu s i cal mi nd t h at Frankfurt h as produced . He


expatri ated h i mse l f [ 1 7 7 5 ] and now l i ves i n Zu r i ch . Th e o r i g i nal i ty of

h i s character expresses i tsel f i n a l l of h i s compo s i t i on s as i n h i s

p l ayi n g . H i s h and i s q u i ck and g l i mmeri ng ; t h e contour o f h i s pas s ages

i s strong l y mark ed ; h i s grace notes are f at and beaut i f u l ; and h i s

tr i l l s are powerfu l . He h as wri tten many t h i n gs for the voi ce and the

c l av i er , and i mpresses the stamp of h i s or i g i n al s p i r i t on every

product . H i s phrase i s thorough and man l y , ful l of s i mpl i c i ty , and

i mp i ng i ng on great nes s . G l uc k i s h i s ex amp l ar [ Mann] . 2 He seems to

h ave composed from th i s model wi thout h i mse l f be i ng robbed of h i s

i nd i v i du a l i ty . H e h as compo sed v ar i ous l i eder by Gel l �rt , together

w i t h some by Cr amer and Kl opstock , very beaut i fu l ly for the ch urch and

for pri v ate concert s . He h as al so succeeded admi rab l y w i t h some l i eder

by h i s bosom fri end Goethe. 3 And yet t h i s mu s i c i an h as produced

l schu bart • s subt l et i es are often too v ague. Conj ect ure then
becomes the on l y poss i b l e so l ut i on . Here i s a good ex amp l e . Perhaps
Schu bart i s s ay i n g t h at Otto i s adequ ate at the organ dur i n g a church
serv i ce , but i n so l o performance he i s l e s s th an adeq u at e . Or perh aps
he i s s ayi ng t h at Otto h as adequate trai n i ng for b e i n g an org an i st
accord i n g to s t an d ard s est ab l i shed by e i ghteenth -century theori st s ,
but t h at h e j u st does not l i ve u p t o expect at i on s .
2cf. "Sei n Mann i st G l uck ; • • • • " MAadJ 1782, p . 35 .
3 rhe reference may be to e i ther or both o f the fo l l ow i n g :
Ph i l l i pp Chri stoph K ayser [ 25 ] Verm i schte Li eder mi t Me l od i en aufs
C l av i er ( W i ntert h u r : Hei n r i ch Ste i ner , 1 775 ) or i dem , [ 19 ] Ges Snge
m1 t Beg l e i tun des Cl av i ers ( Le i pzi g und W i nterthur : He i n ri c h Ste 1 ner ,
A
1777) . See M fD 1782 , p . 68 and R I SM A/ I/5 : 14 .

27 2
l i tt l e sens at i on i n Germany. Gracefu l nes s , comp l ai s ance , and t h e
l i ghtnes s o f the me l od i es are want i n g . H i s phras e i s often s u l l en and

morose as i f he wanted to s ay to h i s contempor ar i es , " Yo u are foo l s


t h at yo u do not choose me. n We a l so pos sess from th i s man many b e au­

t i fu l es s ays on mu s i c . H i s styl e i s ori g i n al , f l ami n g i n strong

fee l i ngs , fu l l of gre at and correct thought s , but too one-s i ded i n
t aste . H e i s a l so not a b ad poet , but a s p i r i t wh i ch wants t o affect

or i g i na l i ty g l i mmers from a l l of h i s product s , strai n i ng after n ew

not i on s and always att ai n i ng on l y h a l f o f i ts go a l . H e l i v es i n

assoc i at i o n w i t h t h e best m i nds i n Germany , and , i n t h i s l um i nous

s phere , i t i s e asy for h i m to b e l i eve t h at h e i s greater t h an h e real l y

i s. When Gu l l i ver came home from Brobd i ngnag, h e stooped u nder the
door becau se h e be l i eved h e h ad become t a l l er among the g i ant s by two

head s . 4

4 see the penu l t i m ate p ar agr aph of "A Voyage t o Brobd i ngnag"


i n Swi ft ' s Gu l l i ver ' s Tr ave l s . Joh at h a n Swi ft , Gul l i ver ' s Trave l s and
Other Wr i t i n s , ed . Lou i s A. Landa (Boston : Houghton Miff l i n Co . ,
1960 ) , pp . 1 0 -21 . '

273
XXV I I . ULM

Th i s c i ty h as mai ntai ned c i ty mu s i c s i nce the Reformat i on wi th


con s i derab l e expen s e , where good peop l e h ave often d i st i n gu i s hed them-

s e l v es . The choi r i s st affed very we l l , and a s o l i d t aste prev ai l s i n

f i gural mu s i c . The organ i n the st ate l y Munster [cathedral ] , perh aps

the most beaut i fu l church i n Germany , h as t hree manu a l s and s i xty

reg i ster s ; i t s tone i s t h i ck and storms through al l of the temp l e ' s

v au l t s . At t he beg i n n i n g o f th i s century , the org an was p l ayed by a


very f amou s organ i st by the n ame of Schne i de r , whose s uccessors yet

b l ossom as very good mu s i c i ans i n Germany. H i s p i eces were composed

wi th except i on a l thoroughness and cou l d tod ay be pl ayed on every organ

w i th approv al . H e h i ms e l f p l ayed v i gorous l y and was e spec i al l y a mas-

ter of the ped a l . Hi s s uccessor , Wal ther , h as been depi cted as pre-

v i ou s l y h i g h i n the S axon schoo l . After h i m c ame the present organ i st ,

Mart i n , l who h as t o be t h ankfu l for a l l o f h i s st u d i es but v ery

l i tt l e for n ature.

! Johann C hr i stoph W a l ther l eft U l m i n 1 7 70 , l e av i n g the


organ i st pos i t i o n v ac ant . It may be t h at Mart i n as s umed the pos i t i on
at t h at t i me . At any rat e , i n 1 77 2 Burney stated , a l though not
ment i on i ng a spec i f i c n ame, t h at "The present org an i st i s not reckoned
a great p l ayer; and I cou l d not f i nd , u pon enqu i ry , t h at th i s c i ty i s
n ow i n pos ses s i o n of one cap i t a l performer upon any i n strumen t . H
B urney G , p . [ 4 1 ] . But Schu bart does n ame Mart i n as mu s i c d i rector i n
0 1 m. In the Deutsche Chton i k ( 18 Sept ember 1 7 7 5 ) : 5 99, he cri t i c i zed
B urney ' s remar k s but added no new b i ogr aph i c al i nformat i on . Another of
Schubart • s references t o Mart i n i s found i n h i s autobi ography . Aft er

274
P r i v at e concerts , wh i ch were i nst i tuted now and then i n U l m , do
not h av e much t o s ay , for a l though one often chooses very good p i eces ,

the performance most l y f a i l s . The f o l l owers of the above ment i oned

Sch nei der are i dent i f i ed n ow , perh aps because i t shou l d sound f as h i on ­
ab l e . S artor i us , who i s a very thorough v i o l i n i st , was educ at ed i n t he

M annh e i m schoo l and i s heard before the greates t court s and c i t i es of

Germany w i th approv al . H i s stro k e i s g i g ant i c , and h i s tone i s cutt i ng

and t h i ck . Too b ad t h at h e h as no tri l l , b ut , i nstead of t h i s , he

tr i f l es o n l y w i t h mordents . The s p l end i d K l ei n k nech t , whose ch aracter

was s ketched above u nder the art i c l e on Ansbach , i s l i kewi s e an U l mer;

and N i ss l e , one o f our greatest h orn i st s , or i g i n ated f rom the U l mi s h

town of Gei s l i nge n .

s t at i ng t h at U l m does not h ave mu ch t o o ffer i n t h e w ay o f mu s i c , h e


cont i nue s : •Th e mus i c d i rector M art i n possessed a p as s i on and a g i ft
for mus i c . H e performed the best and n ewest p i eces a s wel l a s h e mi ght
be ab l e to do i n h i s l i m i ted c i rcums t ance s . " GS , 1 : 26 1 ( L & G , 2) .
Schubart t h en men t i oned the sty l e o f compo s i t i on i n U l m , the s uccess of
s acred mus i c , and the org an at the Munster c athedra l . Next ,
c hrono l og i c a l l y , i s t h e st atement f rom the �sthet i k der Ton k u n st .
Schub art • s l as t reference t o M art i n occurred i n 1787 . Dur i n g October
of t h at year , Schubart v i s i ted fri end s i n Ge i s l i n gen , U l m , and Aal en.
In a l etter to h i s son , d ated 18 November 1787 , he ment i o ne d , among
others , "Mart i n ( mu s i c d i rector i n U l m ) , whose heart r i n gs
h armo n i ou s l y l i ke h i s l yre . " Str au ss , 2 : 245 . Of the t hree pos i t i ve
s t atement s about Mart i n , why i s the one i n the � sthet i k s o n e g at i ve?

275
XXV I I I . THE CHARACTERS OF FAMOU S MU S I C I ANS

Ehrenberg , co urt mu s i c i an i n D es s au . We h ave some sets of

l i eder l by h i m wh i ch he h as sel ected from the best poets and h as set

t o mus i c with t aste . He s ucceeds espec i al l y we l l w i t h mournfu l pi eces ,

and no one wou l d be more capab l e of ad apt i n g Hol ty ' s s p i r i t to mu s i c

t h an th i s Ehrenber g . Thoughts o f the grave, forebod i n gs o f death ,

v i s i on s of s p i r i t s , i n a word , Oss i an ' s manner transferred to mu s i c i s

h i s ch ar acter.

Fri ede l . There are these two brothers who h ave both d i st i n­

gu i shed themse l ve s f amou s l y as v i o l i n i s ts . They h ave ve l oc i ty and

be auty of performance and espec i al l y p l ay the h armon i cs w i t h excep­

t i on a l strength . Sever al v i o l i n i st s h ave devel oped i n the manner of

these Fri edel s to the extent t h at they a l �ost estab l i s h a schoo l . [ It

i s ] too b ad th at these exce l l ent mi nds s an k so deep l y i nto deb auchery

th at one cannot i ntroduce them to good soci ety wi th honor . Both com­

posed exceed i n g l y beaut i fu l pi eces for the v i o l i n . The i r compos i t i ons

are fu l l of attr act i v eness and are so comp l et e l y made for t h i s

i n strument .

F r i ck from Durl ach , present l y c l av i cemb al i st for the P r i nce of

L i chtenste i n . H e not o n l y p l ays the c l av i er master l y and thorough l y ,

l see � A/ I/ 2 : 534- 35 and R I SM B / I I/pp . 342, 347 , 348 .

276
but al so brought the h armoni ca, i nvented by Frank l i n , to perfect i on .
He p l ays th i s profound l y cal mi ng, mel ancho l i c i nstrument wi th unbe l i ev­
ab l e tenderness and perhaps as wel l as i t c an be p l ayed . H i s p i eces
for the h armoni c a are st i l l the o n l y ones at the moment , bec ause wh at
Frank l i n composed for i t h as no mu s i c al v al ue. Frank l i n was more a
mech an i c than a mus i c i an , but Fri ck i s bot h .
G l uck . A man , admi red by a l l three great schoo l s of Europe ,
who rose to the pos i t i on of a mus i cal e poch maker. I n the beg i nni ng he
composed s i mp l e c l avi er p i eces wh i ch only made l i tt l e sen s at i on . Then
al l of a sudden he ventured upon an opera and compl ete ly aston i s hed
I t al y. H i s Alceste [ s i c] was f i rst performed i n F l orenc e , then i n
V en i ce and N ap l es w i th exces s i ve approv al whi ch bordered on man i a. 2
Always the s ame b l azi ng f i re throughout the who l e oper a ; d ar i ng and
u ncommon phrases; d i thyramb i c fant asy f l i ghts; strong modu l at i on s ;
beaut i fu l b u t not a lways correct harmo n i es ; profound u nderst andi ng of
w i nd i nstruments wh i ch he knew how to use more frequent l y and more
effecti ve l y than any other composer- -these are G l uck ' s ch aracter i st i c
trai ts i n the f i rst per i od of h i s l i fe . Sudden ly h e o verthrew h i s
exi st i ng system and pondered about the great thought s i n h i s sou l :
to reform the who l e of musi c . 3 He found that today • s mu s i c al art
i s over l aden w i th many u nnecessary embel l i shments . He wanted ,

2A lceste was f i rst performed i n 1 767 i n V i enna. Was Schubart


perh aps th 1 nk 1 ng of G l uck ' s fi rst oper a, Artaserse, of 1741 , wh i ch was
prem i ered i n M i l an ? In ei ther c ase, some of Schubart • s i nformat i on
wi l l b e i ncorrec t .
3 G l u ck ' s reform o f o pera beg i ns w i th h i s sett i ng of Orfeo ed
Eyr i di ce i n 1 7 6 2 .
277
therefore , to t ake out i t s t awdry f i nery and dress i t anew i n the
g arments of n ature. To great l y s i mp l i fy the mus i c, as i t i s at al l
poss i b l e , was the pri nc i pal though t of the new G l uck system. I n thi s
new t aste h e wrote the f amous opera I ph i g�ni e [ Ip h i g�n i e e n Au l i de,
1 774] . 4 Never before h as an o per a attracted so much attent i on as
th i s one. The French and German c r i t i cs prai sed and censured them-
sel v es hoarse, and prai s e and censure was overdone. A l l of P ari s
d i v i ded i tse l f i nto two f act i on s : G l uck ' s and P i cc i n i ' s . G l u ck ' s
opera was g i ven twe l ve t i mes , one r i ght after the other, w i th i nde-
scri b ab l e approval . The choruses bordered very c l ose to our choral es .
T he ar i as are wi thout al l the embe l l i shments , wi thout c o l orat u ra ,
wi thout fermatas , and wi thout cadenzas . It i s as thou gh there i s
more dec l amat i on than mus i c .
I t g i ves mu ch honor to the F rench that they cou l d hear s uch
s i mp l i fi ed mus i c e i ghty t i mes i n [on ly] a few ye ars . Thus , the ques-
t i on i s , h as G l uck not gone too far i n h i s system? H as he not mi xed
dec l amat i o n w i t h ar i oso? Has he not robbed mu s i c of i ts necessary
d ecorat i ons? P o lyhymn i a shou l d not by any means stro l l al ong i n
t awdry f i nery, but nei ther shou l d she go s t ark n aked . Forkel in h i s
Mus i k al i s che B i b l i othek h as s o s p l end i d l y c l eared up th i s extremely
i mportant quarre l w i t h reasons and obj ect i on s , that I refer the


. 4 "And now he has performed h i s I ph i �n i e i n P ar i s w i th an
approva l whi ch mat ches the worth of the wor 'Or i g i n a l , new , stron g ,

c l ever was h i s compo s i t i on , ' o n e person h as wri tten f rom Par i s . And
t h at i s s ayi ng a gre at deal from a Frenchman , whose mus i c possesses the
l east of these att r i butes . �• Deutsche Chron i k ( 7 Apri l 1774) : 23 ;
Iph ig�n i e e n Au l i de recei ved 1 ts prem1 ere on 19 Apr i l 17741

278
reader to t h i s recen s i on of G l uc k ' s I ph i g �n i e , but w i th the warn i n g ,

v i ewi n g Forke l as an anx i ous s upporter of t h e Ber l i n schoo l , t h at t h i s

anx i ety i nduces h i m to do too l i tt l e j u st i ce to the great G l uc k . 5


Gl uck i s undoubted l y one of the greatest mus i c i an s t h at the

wor l d h as ever produced . H i s i deas a l l reach t o the great , to the


comprehen s i v e . K l opstock i s s o comp l ete l y t h e poet for th i s exal ted

spi r i t . H i s H erman n s sch l acht i s so s p l e nd i d l y set to mu s i c by G l uck

that the German s h ard l y possess a more state l y theater p i ece as

thi s . 6 Whoever h as h e ard G l uck h i ms e l f p l ay and s i ng [t h i s wor k ]

went i nto rapt urous wonder . ?

At the s ame t i me t h i s master h e l d a comp l et e l y u n i que s k i l l


of coach i ng s i ngers . H i s n i ece wou l d n ow be the best s i n ger i n Europe

if an angel h ad not p l ucked h er o ff and c arr i ed h er i n h i s arms to

heaven . B G l u ck ' s sp i r i t i s so great i n the trag i c , but w i t h equ a l

succes s he al so u sed i t now and t h e n i n the comi c s ty l e . B ut h i s

6 Hermannssch l acht appear ed i n 1 76 7 as "Tragod i e m i t


B ardenges angen . " By 1769 G l uck h ad set some of the b ard i c songs i n
chorus . The mu s i c h as s i nce been l os t . Cf. Fork e l , Mu s i k al i s ch­
k ri t i sche B i b l i othek , 1 : 5 9 .
7 schubart h ad heard t h i s work and h ad seen t h e s core by 1 77 4 .
See Deut sche Chro n i k ( 7 Apr i l 1 7 7 4 ) : 22- 23 .

27
g i ant soul cou l d not endure H ar l equ i n ' s coat for l ong. T h i s rare man
h as al so wri tten v ari ous treat i ses on mus i c i n Frenc h , It al i an , and
German wh i ch generate from th i s f i ery s p i ri t and h i s profound mu s i cal
knowl edge . One compares wh at h as been said here with wh at R i edel h as
wri tten about G l uck ' s ch ar acter . 9
H aydn . A composer of great gen i us , who , next to Mozart , h as
i n most recent t i mes been an epoch maker. He is the Kapel l mei ster for
Pri nce E sterh azy and a f avor i te of al l of Germany. H i s Masses breathe
a l ofty s p i r i t , a thorough i ns i ght of the l aw of mu s i c , and a depth of
feel i ng . H i s symphon i es are admi red , and r i ghtl y so, through al l of
Europe , for they are set i n the true symphoni c styl e , are eas i ly prac­
t i c ab l e , often w i t h i nstrument al f i re , and wri tten w i th comp l etely
or i g i nal moods . By means of h i s c l av i er p i eces , h e h as f i n a l l y become
the d ar l i ng of a l l conno i s seurs . T hey are not on l y thorou gh and s u i ted
for the i nstrument , but they d i st i n gu i sh themsel ves before al l others
through the unusual · be auty of the i r mel od i c movements . H i s ad ag i os ,
l argos , andantes , c antab i l es , rondos , and vari ati ons seem to h ave been
g i ven to h im by the goddess H armoni a herse l f . So i nstr uct i ve for the
p l ayer and so p l e asant and entertai n i ng for the l i stener t h at few
p i eces l i k e them h av e been composed i n Germ any. Gen i us shouts

[recte Beeck e ] ( Augsburg : Stage, 1 776 ) i n h i s Teutsche Chron i k


g
(12 Au gust 1776) :510-1 2 . The sett i ng by Beecke 1 s tor sopran o ,
str i ngs , and keyboard . A l ater work by B eecke, Absch i ed s em f i nd u ng
an M ari ane (Mai n z : Bernh ard Schott , ?c a . 1783 ) for vo1 ce an p1 ano ,
may al so 6e ded i c ated to the memory of Mar i a Anna Hed l er .
9 see note 5 on p age 279 .

280
approval to h i m and the temperate mi nd swal l ows hi s tones wi th del i ght
( u nti l 1784 ) . 10
H i mrnel bauer . A respectab l e and except i onal l y pl easant v i ol on -
cel l i st wi thout the mu s i ci an ' s arroganc e; a man of the mo st di rect and
ki nd heart . No one di rects hi s bow so ca l mly and unrestri ctedl y as
thi s master. He performs the most d i ff i cu l t p assages wi th the most
ex cepti onal ea se; hi s heart especi al l y ov erfl ows in the cantab i l e .
H i s sweet expres si on , h i s l ovely fermatas , and , part i cu l arly, h i s great
strength i n the mez zoti nts [Mi ttel ti nten ] hav e been admi red by al l con­
noi sseu rs and l i stener s . 11 He has composed [very] l i tt l e for hi s
i n strument , but there few [works] h ave so much the more i ntri n s i c
va l ue . He i s from V i enna and now resi d es i n Bern .
Hofman n , an al re ady somewhat aged sympho n i c compos er , who was
general l y l i k ed twenty years previ ou s l y but tod ay i s nearl y forgotten .
H i s sp i r i t does not deserve thi s desti ny, for one often fi nds spl end i d
phrases and great thou ght i n hi s symphoni es; but unfortu nate l y , fashi on
does not tyr ann i ze more ov er an arti st than over the mus i ci an .
Hoffmei ster, one of t h e most recent composers wh ose ga l ant
pi eces recei ved much approval because of thei r mod i s h , el egant dress .
Hi s symphoni es hav e a fl owi ng song and emi t sparks of real mus i cal

10 schubart i s apparently of the op i n i on that Hayd n i s a


great composer at the t i me that he d i ctated the Astheti k . But by
i nd i cati ng the date, he al so i nti mates that he has some dou bt that
Haydn ' s greatness wi l l cont i nue.
1 1 schubart heard H i mme l b auer perform i n U l m . See Deu t sche
Chron i k ( 13 November 1775 ) : 728 , where Schubart states essenti al ly
the same thi ng stated here .

281
remai n i n esteem for l on g .

G i ornov i ch i , a Bohem i an and , for a l ong t i me , t h e g reatest


v i o l i n i st i n P ar i s . H i s ve l oc i ty i s u n b e l i ev ab l e ; h i s stroke , free;

and h i s tone , cryst a l l i n e . He i s a born gen i u s for the v i o l i n and

competes wi t h Lo l l i and Cramer . He compos ed much for h i s i nstrument

w i th profound i ns i ght and correct t aste. A l l of E u ro pe h a s recogn i zed

the worth of th i s great mus i c i an .

K orber , 1 2 a v ery good h orn i st a s s econd h orn . He performs


correct l y and p l e as ant l y h i s own p i eces as wel l as those of ot hers .

H i s phrase i s not exact l y profound but s t i l l i n the s p i r i t o f the

i n strument .
L ang, a gener a l l y l i ked and rea l l y s p l end i d mu s i c i an . H e has

emerged with honor i n more t h an one spec i a l ty. Espec i a l l y are h i s

c l av i er p i eces e ag er l y sough t through a l l o f Germany and performed

h ere and there a l w ays wi th i ncreas i n g approv a1 . 13 H i s concertos

and sonat as are not exact l y extr aord i n ar i l y d i ff i cu l t nor composed with

thou gh tfu l ness , but they d o d i st i ngu i s h t h ems e l ves by mean s of

1 2schubart s h ared a concert perf ormance i n U l m on


1 4 Febru ary and 18 Febr u ary with Korber . See Teut sche Chron i k

{ 12 F ebru ary 1 7 76 } : 104 and { 15 Febru ary 1 776 } : 112 .
beau t i f u l me l od i es and g l i tter i n g c l av i er p as s ages . I t i s amazi ng

, how Lang cou l d compose s uc h beaut i f u l c l av i er pi eces when he h i msel f

on l y p l ays t h e c l av i er moderately.

Mys l i ve��k , a Bohemi an and a very famous composer . H e l i v ed

most l y i n I t a l y and composed great operas wh i ch recei ved much approval

i n F l orence , 14 Tu r i n , and G enoa. H i s s ong i s s i mp l e and penetrat-

i n g ; h i s ari as and c av at i n as are ri c h i n new mot i ve s ; h i s rec i t at i ves ,

thorough ; and h i s chor u ses , strong and h e aven- asp i r i n g . H e under­


stands , to a h i gh degree , the art of treat i ng the i nstruments so that

they do not i nt erfere wi th the song. A l so , h i s c h amber pi eces were

sought and performed i n al l t h e E urope an orchestras as masterpi eces .


Thi s admi rab l e composer d i ed i n 1 7 22 , i n F l orence, i n the t h i rty­

e i ghth ye ar of h i s l i fe . 1 5 S i nce he was v ery i ndustri ous , the

worl d possesses a r i ch store of h i s s p i r i tu a l product s .

�opi tssh , mu s i c d i rector and org an i st i n t h e i mp er i al c i ty

Nord l i ngen [ 1 78 1 ] . A person of great e xpect at i on . H e pl ays the organ

and cl av i er master l y and h as a very f i ery performance . H i s l i eder and


c l av i er pi ec�s reveal a magn i f i cent t a l ent for mu s i c. H i s phrase i s

1 4 schubart ment i oned the recent performance s of D i e zwe i


Grafi nnen [ s i c ; t h i s i s not amo n g Mys l i ve��k ' s works l i sted in Grove 6]
and Adr 1 ano� S i r i a ( 1776} i n F l orence i n the Teutsche C hron i K
( 30 September 1716) :622.
15 There seems to be a d i s crep an cy w i th t h i s p art i cul ar
sentence . ( Schub art • s spel l i ng i s "Mi s k� i zek . " ) Perhaps a pri nti ng
error c h anged Schubart • s d ate of Mys l i vec�k ' s death from 1 78 2 to 1722,
and the error was n ever detected. If Sch ubart h ad i ndeed i ntended
1 782, then Mys l i ve��k i s t h e composer , and the sentence shou l d h av e
read t h at h e " d i ed i n 1781 , i n Rome , i n t h e forty-th i rd year o f h i s
l i fe. ••

283
not on l y thorough but al so new and r i ses through br i l l i ant i deas . He

1 modu l ates d ari n g ly and h app i ly and u nderstands s i mp l e and doub l e


counterpo i nt .
R hei nek , a very d i st i ngu i shed mus i cal mi nd . A nat i ve of
Memmi ngen. He composed a comi c oper a at Par i s , wh i c h Rousseau h i msel f
transcri bed and w h i ch h e honored w i th approv al . H e p l ays [ b l ast] the
c l ar i net charmi n g l y . Al so, he u nderstands t h e c l av i er exceed i ng ly we l l
and h as l i stened to the n ature of h uman song preci sel y . H i s two vol ­
umes of pub l i sh ed l i eder bel ong to the most beaut i fu l and sh i mmer e spe­
c i al l y i n the c l av i er desks of the fai r sex. S i mp l i c i ty and pur i ty i s
the pr i nc i pal char acter of h i s songs , but a l ittl e mi schi evousness
sel dom escapes h i m. H i s c l av i �r pi ece s , on t h e other h and , are
recommended on ly to average pl ayers .
Schobert , an extraord i n ari l y f i ery h arps i chord p l ayer. He has
for many years set the fash i on i n France , and even n ow h i s concertos
and sonatas spark l e i n the best mus i c al c i rc l es i n P ar i s . He u nder-
stood the n ature of the harpsi chord comp l etely and posses sed unusual
strength in the a l l egro and presto. B ut he d i d not succeed wi th the
ad agi o , because he d i d not study the c l av i chord enough , and [he]
st i f l ed the fee l i n g w i th r uns and over l oaded orn ament s . He rose by
h i s extr aord i n ary tal ent to the i mportant pos i t i on of organ i st at
Versai l l es , 16 and d i ed of mushroom po i son i ng b efore he was q u i te
d i st i ngu i shed . H i s unt i r i ng d i l i gence h as afforded us a quanti ty

16 schobert was emp l oyed as a c l av i ercemb al i st ca. 1 760/ 6 1


by t h e Pri nce o f Cond�.

284
of pi eces , but among wh i ch one mu st make a sel ect i on , for he composed
much for students of a moderate capac i ty . A tr ag i c c i rcumst ance wh i ch
cau ses many a great master to s i nk further under h i s sphere ! Whatever
he composed for h i mse l f was a lways wr i tten i n the best styl e and
repeated ly gave ev i dence of traces of a f i ery sou l .
H i s broth er , Schobert , l i ves i n Par i s [ and i s ] now the best
bassooni st [there ] . 1 7
Spandau , i n the fi rst horn [ Pr i mhorn] , the best horni st of
our t i me . He bri ngs out the most d el i cate and pur i st tones on h i s
i nstrument , but i t seems t h at h i s l i ps often c au se the tone to f l ut­
ter for the horn general l y n ever sounds good i n the extreme l y h i gh
r ange. 18 I n a f l eet i ng run the horn can certai n l y chal l enge the
h i ghest tones , but never stays on them for a l ong t ime wi thout h urt i ng
the trai ned ear. Spandau composed very we l l and accord i ng to the
nature of h i s i nstrument . 19
Spath , the teacher of the great Lol l i . 20 I f th i s man h ad
not exposed h i mse l f to a far too cyn i cal l i fe and [ i f he] had l i ved a
l itt l e more ref i ned l i fe , he wou l d h ave p l ayed a great ro l e among us .
H i s stroke i s admi r ab l e, d ar i ng , and dec i s i ve , and h i s performance ,

1 7 see pages 1 6-17 of t h i s trans l at i on .


18 " Der Ton sei nes Horns s o l l i n dem k l ei nsten Z i mmer eben
so angenehm al s e i ne Menschenst i mme zu horen seyn . " Gerber L , 2 :5 36 .
1 9 " I n MS . s i nd urn 1 783 versch i edene Hornsachen von s e i ner
Arbei t bekannt geworden. " Gerber L , 2 : 537 .
20 spath v i s i ted Schubart i n U lm ( earl y 1 775 ) . See
�, 1 : 9 5 ( L & G , 1 ) and Deut sche Chroni k ( 2 Febru ary 177 5 ) : 78 .

285
espec i al l y i n the ad ag i o, i s f u l l o f power and beauty. I n h i s youth
he p l ayed the al l egro n i mb l y and f l eet i ng l y, but over the ye ar s h i s

arms became st i ff . H i s own phrases h ave a somewhat o l d -fash i oned m i en

for our t i me , and con s eq uent l y , are not part i cu l ar l y tr i ed any l onger .
Schwi nd l , a popu l ar and f amous c omposer for t h e v i o l i n through-

out al l of Germany . He does not compos e sever l y , but so muc h more

al l ur i ng for d i l et t ante s . H i s performance i s f l u ent , and h i s spi r i t


t uned to sweet mel anch o l y . Accord i ng l y , h e became a f avor i t e composer

for the sect of sent i ment al i st s [= E mpf i nd s amke i t ] .


Schonfe l d , a song composer who most recent l y h as begun to

attract attent i on . H e sel ect s poems f rom our best poet s and f i nd s

the i r sen se often w i t h much l uc k ; but h i s t aste i s too h ars h ; h i s


co l or, too g l ow i ng ; and the expres s i o n o f h i s feel i ngs , often too

art i f i c i a l . One f i nds h i s l i eder scattered i n var i ous mu s i c a l

co l l ect i on s .

S i mon , former l y a f amous composer i n Nord l i ngen [ 1 73 1 - 50] . He


wrot e much for the org an, c l av i e r , and ch urch , and h e understood the

phrase thorough l y . Now he decays and l i es i n the d u s t . A great l eg acy

snat ched h i m away f rom mu s i c too ear l y . 21

Taube, one of the f i rst mu s i c a l cr i t i cs ! He wants t o extr act

ev erythi n g and percei ve not h i n g . H i s newspap�r and other mu s i c al p eri ­

od i c al s reveal much i n s i ght i n h armony . But the i r ped ant i c m i en and

the school - l i ke t heor i es wi th wh i ch they are covered weak en the i mp res­

s i on t h at they sho ul d h ave for our f at her l and .

21 s i mon i n heri ted a drapery bu s i ness i n 1 750 wh en h i s


brother- i n - l aw d i e d .
286
V an h a l i s among the most recent compo sers [ and ] d o ubt l es s l y

one o f the nob l est and best . He h as stud i ed the phr ase thorough l y ,

possesses h i s i nd i v i du a l manner , and h as a t aste wh i ch recommend s

i tse l f t o every l i stener . Si nce h e k now s how to m i x respect ab l e h ar­

mon i es and l ov e l y me l od i es wi th so much i n s i ght and c l everness , i t i s

no wonder th at h e i s favorab ly rece i ved by Germans an d I t a l i an s a l i ke.

H e h as wr i tten a great deal --much of it in the g al ant styl e--and

al ways the approval of connoi ss eurs fo l l owed h i m. He d i ed i n

madnes s . 22

E sser , 23 a famous v i o l i n i st of comp l etely i nd i v i du al

expres s i o n . H e p l ays the ad ag i o and a l l egro equ al l y strong and pos­

sesses var i o u s arti st i c s k i l l s wher eby h e mod i f i es the tones to the

mos t c apt i v at i ng k i n d . One c an hear noth i ng more l ov e l y , as when he

touches the str i n g w i th a l i tt l e p i ece o f wood i nstead of h i s bow and

with i t draws the tenderest h armo n i es from h i s v i o l i n . He c omposes

very beaut i fu l l y for h i s i n strument , and h i s phras e h as m any pecu l i ­

ar i t i e s . W i th the attri butes of a v i rtu o so h e u n i tes a l l c apri ce s of

the s ame . H e never touches h i s f i dd l e i f he does not feel the i nt imate

atmosphere of the hour for l overs of gen i u s , for he as s ert s t h at a

v i rtuoso who i s not i ns p i red i s a mere mech an i c . E sser i s a n at i ve of

Zwei brUck en . 24

22cou l d Schubart h ave come t o t h i s conc l u s i on f rom B urney?


See Burney G, p . 1 21 .
23 schubart announced a " recent " p erformance of E sser i n
Genoa i n the De utsche Chron i k ( 30 October 1 7 7 5 ) : 691 .
24see E sser i n the Append i x .

287
B aron von D a l berg , a d i l et t ante, as few as there are , who t akes

mus i c u p wi t h the masters . He not on l y p l ays the c l av i er s p l end i d l y

and po ssesses espec i a l l y mu ch strength i n extempor i z i n g f antas i as , but


a l so composes thorough l y and n ew l y .

H i s c l av i er s on at as are very d i ff i c u l t and fu l l o f t houghtfu l ­

ness , and h i s Gebet der E v a , 25 from the e i ghth song of Me ss i ah [ by

K l opstock ] , wh i ch he pub l i shed wi t h mu s i cal d ec l amat i o n , i s ev i dence of

h i s beaut i f u l s p i r i t . K l opstock i s h i s f avor i t e poet . Accord i n g l y , he

set many of h i s [ poems ] to mu s i c and mos t l y s ucceeded s p l end i d ly.

D i ttersdorf , 26 a S i l es i an and bel oved symphony composer.

He h as a compl ete l y i nd i v i du a l manner wh i ch degenerates on l y too often

i n burl esque and vu l g ar comedy . One mu st often burst out l au gh i ng

l oud l y i n the mi d st of a stream of sent i ments bec ause h e b l ends i nto

h i s p i ct u res such checkered p as s age s . Not e as i l y may a compo ser suc­


ceed better i n comi c oper a th an th i s one , for the ri d i c u l ous never

f ai l s h i m.

F orke l , one of the greatest t h eor i sts of our t i me and a s p l en­


d i d mu s i cal wr i te r . H i s Mus i k al i sche B i l b l i othek [ 1 778-79 ] cont ai n s

sp ark s of the most str i k i n g ob serv at i on s , b u t h i s c r i t i c i sm seems more

often to become co l d and st i ff . S i nce h e t akes up t h e Ber l i n schoo l

25 Joh an n Fri edr i ch H u go D al ber g , E v a ' s k l agen bei dem


Anb l i ck des sterbenden Mes s i as . E i n e Dek l amaz i on m i t m� s i k a l i scher
Beg l e i tung . A us Kl op stock s Mes s 1 ade Bn . Ges ang. l Speyer : Boss i er ,
[c a . 1783-84] } .
26 A somewhat more comp l i ment ary art i c l e concern i n g
D i tter sdorf by Sch ubart may be found i n the Deutsche Chron i k
( 16 February 1 7 7 5 } : 1 08-9 .

288
as the best and the prevai l i ng one, he h as been l ed astray by th i s
means to i nj u st i ce t owards other s choo l s . We h ave to wai t for a
h i story of mus i c [ 1788- 1801] from h i m , and he wi l l certai n l y not d i s-
1
appoi nt our expectat i on s . H i s rare mu s i cal schol ars h i p , the r i ch ai ds
wh i ch he has at the famous Gotti ngen Uni v er s i t�t s-Bi b l i othek , and h i s
powerf u l German styl e m ake h i m the mos t c ap abl e before many other
authors for such an i mportant wor k .
Forkel i s at t h e s ame t i me one o f o ur best c l av i er p l ayers ,
trai ned compl et e l y accordi ng to the B ach schoo l , but h i s compos i t i ons
for vo i ce and i nstrument do not have much i n p art i cu l ar to s ay . He has
too l i ttl e f i re , h i s song i s not f l owi ng enough , and h i s modu l at i on s
and h armoni es are often sought anx i ou s l y .
Von Eschstruth , o n e of the mos t p l eas ant song composer s . His
song h as l ot s of nobi l i ty, l ots of true express i on , and h i s h armoni es
are pure and bol d . The d i st i nct i nstrument al accompan i ment , by ch ange
to doub l e cou nterpo i nt h av i ng a s i mp l e me l ody for the vo i ces , enhances
h i s songs exceed i ng l y . H i s youth and enthus i asm for mus i c promi sed u s
yet many products o f h i s beauti f u l s p i ri t .
Eckar d , a n at i ve of Augsburg. A great c l av i er i st who h as
resi ded i n P ar i s many years [ 1758- 1809] and who h as acqu i red money and
respect . He p l ays strong ly and extraord i nar i l y heavy . I n v ar i at i ons
he has no equal because he know s how to a l ter a g i ven phrase on the
spur of the moment as often as one desires and i n al l key s. H i s h and
h as l ustre and f l i ght , and h i s f i nger i ng i s fau l t l es s . H i s fermat as
and c adenzas are comp l ete ly new , and no one wi l l i m i t ate them so
eas i ly.
289
H e h as the doubl ed tri l l comp l et e l y i n h i s power. H i s nervo u s
system i s stro n g , w i thout l os i ng s ome o f h i s sens i t i venes s . Th i s

e n ab l es h i m to p l ay several concertos and son at as , o n e r i gh t after the

other , wi thout stoppi n g and wi thout h i s h and becom i n g t i red or even


weak . T h i s c i rcums t an ce deserves t o become quoted even more , for today

there are more v i rtuosos who t i re , from a weakness of nerves , even

dur i ng the f i rst concerto. E xcesses i n sensual p l easure , i nt emperence


i n dri nk i n g , even anger , want of emot i o n , too l ong a s l eep , coffee ,

[ an d ] strong l y s p i ced food s--these t h i ngs h av e produced s uch a h i gh

detriment al state i n v i rt uosos . Eck ard ' s d i et s aves h i m from t h at .

Accord i ng l y , he wi l l be ab l e to p l ay s t i l l wi th a cert a i n youthfu l

power i n h i s s i xt i eth year when other l i cent i ou s v i rt uosos a l ready pi ne

away i n t he i r th i rt i eth and fort i eth ye ars . Eck ard h as composed a l ot


for the c l av i er : concertos , fugues , [ an d ] son at as , w i t h an d w i t hout

accomp an i ment . He u nders t ands the n at ure o f the c l av i er s p l end i d l y;

therefore , h i s p i eces deserve the most exce l l ent recommendat i o n . The


phrases i n h i s concertos are often so ench ant i ng l y d i ff i c u l t t h at on l y

the most s k i l l ed h an d can br i ng them out . Eck ard i s as stro n g w i t h

t h e l eft h and a s h e i s w i t h t h e r i gh t , and , for t h at reaso n , h e often

g i ve s the l eft too much wor k i n h i s compo s i t i on s . Even h i s me l od i es

are c apt i v at i n g w i thout t hem mi mi c k i n g the j ang l i ng o f t h e mode. His

modu l at i ons an d h armo n i e s are , of cours e , not as fresh and profound as


B ach ' s , but [they] are thorough and n at ural . Contrary to the pr act i ce

290
o f h i s contempo r ar i es , E ck ard al so u nd e r stood t h e art o f master l y

work i ng out a f ugue . *

Eck ard wr i t e s not w i t h t h e f i re o f a Schobert , but [ h e ] c om­

pen s ates for i t by profound thorough nes s . Rous seau , th i s profou n d l y

mu s i c a l watchman , p l aces an Eck ard on t h e t o p o f t h e wor l d ' s b e s t h arp­

s i chord i st s . The man n e r , a s Eck ard brought i t to perfect i o n , d eserves

to become more not i ced . He chose at f i r s t a qu i l l ed h ar p s i ch ord i n

order t o p r ac t i c e i n s i mp l e out l i ne and t o make. h i s h an d s t r o n g , s i nce

the h an d t i re s mu c h e ar l i er on a p i an o or c l av i chord . After sever a l

ye ar s , Eck ard p l ayed o n the p i ano f o r the f i r s t t i me a n d f i n a l l y on the

c l av i chord i n order to br i n g f l e s h , c o l or , and l i fe to h i s p a i nt i ng .

Th at i s why Eck ar d h a s b ecome a great man [ and ] i s admi red i n F r ance

and Germany .

T h i s master i s at the s ame t i me the best p a i nter o f mi n i atures

i n Par i s , but p r act i c es o n l y r are l y th i s art wh i ch i s s o h az ard o u s for

h i s eye s .

R i epe l , a f amo u s mu s i c a l ped agogue and a v ery thorough

church scri b e . Th e C atho l i c s h o l d h i s Masses i n h i gh hono r , an d h i s

A nwe i s u ng zum S at ze [ ?Anf angsgrUnd e , 1 7 5 2-68 ] , pu b l i s hed i n f o l i o , h as

r a i sed h i m amo n g compo sers to c l ass i c es teem. The pr i n c i pl es there i n

are f au l t l e s s l y good , and h i s d i scourse i s e asy and d i st i n ct , as a l s o

are the examp l e s chosen wi th i n s i ght and t aste.

* I h ave seen a f u gue i n manuscr i pt by h i m wh i ch b e l o n g s to the

best and f o remo st p i eces of th i s now s o m i s u nderstood manner of

wr i t i n g .

29 1
Thi s sketched h i story of German mu s i c must al so man i fest to
the aver age person the thought t h at mus i cal spi ri t bel ongs to the
pr i nc i p a l features of the German character. However , one accuses us of
imitat i ons , and as true as it i s th at no soul i s i ncl i ned more i n al l
forms as the German , thus the great German mu s i c s choo l s h ave preserved
the i r pecu l i ar i ty . Th i s pecu l i ar i ty con s i st s i n the most profound
study of h armony, i n the natural f l ow of the key, or modu l at i on , and
i n s i mp l e r , wi th al l hearts sympath i z i ng , mel od i es . German song i s
appreci ated wherever there are h uman e ars . The foot of a s av age
twi tches , as do the l egs of honorab l e Schwab i an s , whenever he hears a
German s l i d i ng d ance [ Sch l e i fer] . I n the tone of c h armi ng fol k song,
Germany i s s urpassed by no other peop l e ; the greates t Ital i an masters
often l ·i sten to o ur travel i ng art i s ans i n order to steal c h armi n g
mel od i es from them. Nature i tse l f seems to s i ng from German throats ,
and th i s nature h as g i ven a course for the ph i l osoph i cal s p i rt of our
nat i o n , wh i ch must i nev i tab ly fas h i on every great schoo l . Wh i ch peop l e
have choral es as we h ave? Whi ch peopl e h ave ever s urpassed u s i n
i nstrumental mus i c ? Wh i ch peopl e h ave produced s uch general ly good
voi ces as ours? F i n a l l y , whi ch peopl e h armo n i ze i n the s i mp l e concert
of nature so correct ly as the Germans? Al l of Europe has recogni zed
our worth ; al l Europe an orchestras are staffed wi th German K apel l ­
mei sters; and the word "tedesco11 l ong ago fl owed al ong as one with
the I t a l i an word " v i rtuoso . "

29 2
XXI X . SWEDEN AND DENMARK

Both of these nort h ern k i ngdoms h ave n ever b een epoch mak i ng

i n mus i c : i n mus i c . t hey go al o n g wi t h t h e t aste of other n at i ons .

he i r enth u s i ast i c envy for t h e German s . espec i al l y . i s s o v i s i b l e

h at for sever a l centur i es none other t h an German K ape l l me i sters were

i n t h is realm.

Sweden h as at l e ast i nd i genous s i n g i ng . Y et t h i s s i n g i ng i s

so i ns i gn i f i c ant . It i s so d i sson ant w i t h t h e sound of n at ure t h at i t

i gh t bore t h e re ader i f I were to show h i m but one s i n g l e Swed i sh

xamp l e . I t i s eno u gh i f I s ay t h at t h e who l e r ange of t h e Swed i s h

f o l k song 1 i es w i t h i n a fo urth . for examp l e :

1 Al l eg retto
� _l I

I :�el
6 Yl , _l_ I •

..
I
I I
... v A __l I I I ..ol � I'
ll .,

Di r , 0 tapf- res Schwe - den - l and !


j

I
....... - tl
"� ..., I" I I
... I
_, 1ft A -" __._ ..& ""
-
... I I
y

r.. I.
I
I , u \ _l_
... ..._ -� -"

�,
II'� ... Jl r

., - he
b i eth ' i ch d i e - se rau Hand .

I
I

......
_._.. , � � •
.. . u r ...

Jl I
��- v I

_J
E x amp l e 6 . Swed i s h Fo l k Song
Accord i ng to t h i s sty l e are near l y a l l o f the pri mal fo l k

mel od i es o f Sweden mode l ed . But here German s p i r i t breathes so

i nten s e l y i n t h i s rea l m, our fo l k s on g s , dances , s i ng i ng , and me l od i c

forms force t he i r way t o the Dal ecar l i an and Norweg i an peasant s . Wh at

was the mus i c al f as h i on amon g the German s at the beg i nn i ng of the cen­

tury i s today a f ad i n the co l d zones of th i s k i ngdom i n f u l l swi n g .

The Dess au M arch [ c a . 1 705 ] 1 h as bee n , even i n 1 776 , a f avor i te march

throughout al l of Sweden . As s p l end i d and u n i que as t h i s m arch i s , i t

bec ame s o agon i z i n g among the Germans after more t h an f i fty years that

i t o n l y haunts beer c i rc l es anymore . But i n Sweden and Denmark t h i s

march i s not the on l y one, but a l so ot h er prev i ou s l y German p i eces

[ ExstUcke] are sti l l d i s pl ayed as new wares .


G ustav Ado l ph was the f i rst i n S tock ho l m who comb i ned f i gured

mu s i c wi t h the chora l e . H i s K ape l l me i ste r , Eri chsen , a l so made war

songs for t h i s k i n g wh i ch are not w i thout s p i r i t . B ut t h e best comp a­

ri son wi t h o ur mu s i c n u l l i f i es a l l of h i s attempts . The p ar adox i c al

Q ueen Chri s t i n a was a ped ant i c admi rer o f mus i c . S he h ad an odd not i on

t h at she wanted t o h e ar a concert i n the Greek t aste. M i z l er , a Ger­

man , worked i t out to t h e most exact i ng det a i l , h ad t he v i rtuosos study

i t thoroug h l y , and t h e i mportant resu l t of i t was t h at i t was h i s sed

off the stage. F rom th i s t i me on , mu s i c i n Sweden h as s uffered v ar i ou s

tran sform at i on s and depended most u n i qu e l y on t h e mood o f t h e cour t .

A t the t i me o f C ar l X I I , who cou l d endure noth i ng but drums and

trumpets , mu s i c s ank s o much i n Sweden t h at--Be l i eve i t , posteri ty !

l see Schi l l i n g , 2 : 394-95 for more i nformat i on about t h i s


p art i cu l ar m arch .
294
[ Cred i te poster i l ] -- i n 1 7 15 o n l y two peop l e i n Stockho l m were ab l e to

read mus i c . The l at e Q ueen of Sweden , 2 a s i ster of the great

Freder i ck , commanded mus i c to l i ve- -and i t l i ved ! From th i s t i me ,

part i cu l ar l y from the pros perous era of sovere i g nty i n Sweden , one

f i nds i n Stockho l m a we l l -staffed orchestr a , and even a Swed i sh opera,

of wh i ch Cora i s a master l y ex amp l e . 3

I n the me ant i me i t remai n s true t h at not o n e s i ng l e Swede h as

d i s t i n g u i shed i n t h e who l e o f mu s i c h i story.

Denmark e arned a s omewhat greater mer i t i n mu s i c . W i thout

goi n g to the t i me of the anc i ent b ards [ Sk al den ] , whose mus i c was rough

and war l i ke , we f i nd from the t i me of the Reform at i on o n t h at t h e O anes

h av e a l w ays been exce l l ent p atrons of mus i c . Thei r k i n g s h ave even

m ade l aws to pract i ce mus i c thro u ghout t h e who l e country. They

m ai ntai ned not o n l y a s t at e orchest r a , but al s o commande d , accord i ng to

German c ustom, c an tors and c i ty mus i c i an s [ St adtz i n ken i sten] to be

appo i nted throughout the who l e rea l m. The fo l k songs of the Danes are

thorough l y German . O n l y the I ce l anders h ave an a l together or i g i n al

2see U l r i k e i n the �ppend i x .

3 cora och A l onzo by J oh an n Gott l i eb N auman n . The o pera was


compl eted i n 1779 and a score i n German was p ub l i shed i n 1780 , two
years before i ts f i rs t performance i n Stockho l m . A l fred L oewenberg,
Ann a l s o f Oper a , 1597 - 1 940 , 2 vo l s . ( Genev a : Soc i et as B i b l i ograph i c a ,
l�!> t> } , 1 : 4UU-4Ul .

295
me l ody i n thei r fo l k s ongs . They ci rcumscr i be near l y s i x or s even
tones , beg i nn i n g most l y i n mi nor and end i ng i n m aj o r . For ex amp l e :

,_.....-,
-.. 6 -
,...
7 • 'r • ......

II
1'.4 ... I LJ .,
" 7 .UoO'
., . I ..
"'

.J .___, �-

�� f. ... .:..
Wa 1 - 1e

I -
� Mond - g l anz - s tra h1 her - a b
*'
I
� -&"
'- 11"
,. .- •
I .,.
I

I

I ,

"�����. I •

L i e b - chens Gra b !
� ...r '- •

<
t •
.,

Sche i n •
..

auf mei -
,.

nes
I • •

..... -r ""'
"' � •

'
\
-
r
'
I I I
.-
• •
I

Examp l e 7 . I ce l and i c Fo l k Song

A l s o , thei r s acred s ongs are steeped i n th i s t aste. Yet

Germany • s surg i n g stream i n more recent t i mes h as carri ed away every-

th i n g and Denmar k h as become , i n mu s i cal a i ms , a s u bj u g ated prov i nce

of us . The great Count Bernstorf promoted Schei be- -a l ready ment i oned

above--to K ape l l me i ster , s upported [ s t i mmte] the k i n g i n the mai nte-

n ance of a f i r st -rate orchestr a, h ad oper a performed i n the I t a l i an

and German tast e , and thus d i s semi n at ed good s i n g i n g through a l l of

Denmark . What the i mmort a l Ho l berg wi s hed--who h i mse l f was a

296
fi rst-r ate mu s i c i an and p l ayed the v i o l i n as a master--was real i zed
u nder Chr i st i an V I I ! Po lyhymn i a herse l f rece i ved a chair and voi ce i n
the D an i sh counci l [ S anhedr i n] [ s i c] , and s i nce then Dan i sh mu s i c
hovers a l most i n equ a l hei ght t o the Germans . Yet , too, Denmark
h as--an aston i sh i n g observat i on ! [mi rum v i su ! ]- -brought forth not one
s i ng l e great mus i c i an . Whoever was , or s t i l l i s , outstand i ng there,
i s ei ther I tal i an or German !

297
XXX . RUSS I A

The R u s s i an n at i on a l mu s i c h as , a s one c an e as i l y i mag i ne , very

much wi l dness and ro ughne s s . One not i ces i t mo st l y i n thei r fo l k songs

t h at they i mi t ate the shr i ek s of cert a i n b i rd s wh i ch h av e , i n form and

p art s , many s i m i l ar i t i es w i t h our w i l d ducks [ Aenten ] . A peop l e i n

k azan , Astr ak h an , K amc h at k a , and S i ber i a , who are s o v ery c l ose to

l i vestock and so add i cted to the h u n t , mus t e as i l y b e i n duced by such

an i mi t at i o n . A l so , t h i s i s u n i que i n t h e i r fo l k s i n g i n g t h at they

Langsam
"' • • •

I
I ..... ' -• • -
_.. !' -.
, .., ... ... I
\. ll I

Low - n a komm , herz- l i ch l i eb 1 i c h d i ch ,

I
I '
... .. -, -r '
,. .. I -, -:.J. I
� • I •
• � ..
.. ...

"' •
I I • • I
-� I I •
'" ...
' I .. l
I •
Low - na komm , komm und kus - se mich !

It
•• Ill ...
" .. .... --.
,. • "II I -� \

I

Examp l e 8 . R u s s i an F o l k Song l

l sch u b art i nd i c ates a treb l e c l ef b ut probab l y i nt en d s a


Fren ch v i o l i n c l ef . Otherw i s e , the h armo n i es are wrong .

298
almost al l beg i n i n major and end i n m i nor . One c annot even s ay t h at
i t m akes a b ad effect , especi al l y i f the song was performed correc t l y;

howev er , the me l ody o f n at ure i s not a l ways appropri ate for i t .

I t c an e as i l y be i m agi ned wh at mus i c sung by a pu l k of Cos s ac k s

must h ave done f o r a greyi sh effect . I t i s h ard ly comprehen s i bl e how


the Russi an g i r l s c an f i nd someth i n g s uch as t h at beaut i fu l .

P eter t h e Great was the f i rst one who , o n h i s t r avel s , recei ved

a t aste for fore i g n mu s i c. He brought a number of wi nd i n strumen­


t a l i sts to Russ i a and i ntroduced G erman and Turk i sh mu s i c to most of

h i s reg iment s . But i t was l eft to K athar i n a I to tr anspl ant even f i ner

mus i c to R u s s i a. She comb i ned f i gural mu s i c wi t h voc al mu s i c i n her


churches f i rst and mai ntai ned a very good orchestr a t h at con s i sted

most l y of German s .

U nder Empress E l i z abeth mus i c rose even h i gher. An o per a house


was bui l t and the best operas were h e ard at that t i me i n t h e Russ i an

and I tal i an l an g u age s . Yet al l of th i s was on l y t h e d awn ag ai n st the

fu l l d ay wh i ch , for mu s i c, broke under K at h ari n a I I . Th e R u s s i an


orchestra now con s i sted of more t h an two h undred person s , amo ng whom

P ai s i el l o [ 17 76-83] and Lol l i [ 17 74-83] 2 were promi nent . The

i mmort al Gal upp i h as al so worked for t h e Russi an theater [ 1 765-68] .


The queen h erse l f p l ays the h arpsi chord and i s an ecstat i c

patron o f mu s i c . The R u s s i an s sho u l d h ave b egu n s ome t i me i n t h e

2schubart per i od i cal l y reported on Lol l i and h i s


act i v i t i es . See Deutsche Chron i k ( 28 November 1774) : 55 6 and
( 2 J an u ary 1 775 ) :8; Teutsche CHron i k ( 4 March 1 776 ) : 1 50-51 and
( 1 5 Apr i l 1 7 7 6 ) : 246 .

299
past to devote t h ems e l ves t o the study of mu s i c wi th moderate resu l t .
Yet at th i s t i me st i l l no master among them h as shown h i mse l f .

Wh atever s h i nes i n R u s s i a i s e i ther I t a l i an o r German . The queen p ays

the mus i ci an s extraord i n ar i l y : the s a l ar i es i n the orchestra c l i mb

from 1 .000 to 10 .000 ru b l es . *

*One shou l d read i n H i l l er • s mu s i c al n ews 3 the s p l end i d

art i c l e " Uber den Zu st and der Mu s i k i n R u s s l an d . ••

3 see p age 1 5 7 . note 1 1 of t h i s t r ans l at i on.

300
XXX I . POLAND

The fo l k me l od i es of t h i ? n at i on are so m aj est i c and at the

same t i me so ch arm i n g that they were i m i t ated by al l of E urope. Who

does not know the s er i ou s , s o l emn l y s t at e l y movement of the so-ca l l ed

po l on ai se? Who doe s not know the s l i g h t l y n as a l b agpi pe song of the

Po l es ? The i r l i eder , as thei r d an ce , be l ongs among the most beau t i fu l

and most charmi ng of al l peop l es .

The P o l e i s especi al l y s trong i n the s h awm , tr umpet , and horn.

But they ho l d so obst i n ate l y t o the i r t aste that i t i s very d i ff i cu l t

to i ntroduce them to r un n i ng pass ages o f a popu l ar orch estra. I n no

re alm except En g l and are there more l arger and smal l er orch estras than

i n P o l an d . A t W ar s aw i n t h e 1 7 70 s a cred i b l e travel er h as made the

observat i on that more th an 1 ,500 s a l ari ed mus i c i an s res i de d there .

Th i s i s eas i l y understandab l e when one remembers t h at W ars aw i s the

confl uence of al l Po l i sh grandees who endeavor , out of p r i de an d

n at i on a l taste , to o utdo one another i n the l ov e for mu s i c . The k i ng

h i msel f , as a great conno i ss eur of mus i c , mai ntai n s an orchestra of

approx i mately seventy persons , wh i ch Schroter , a f i rst-r ate mus i c al

mi n d , l e ads . The oper as themsel ves are as magn i fi cent as i n perh aps

any pri nce l y c i ty of E urope. In more th an one opera the orchestra

con s i sted of between 500 to 600 persons , bec au se the grandee s used to

l end a l l o f the i r mu s i c i an s to i t .

301
A l l o f W ars aw repe at ed l y resounds year after year w i th concerts
and house mu s i c . Al l b acchan al i a were crowned wi t h mus i c , and even the

brandy d r i n k i ng bout s of the l ow l y commo n peo pl e were i ns p i red by means


of song and p l ay . Even t h e u n i ver s a l poverty that oppressed th i s nob l e

peo p l e before many other n at i ons cou l d not d ampen t h e s p i r i t of mu s i c .

Si nce the Pol e s n ow devote themse l ves to the theoret i c a l part of mu s i c ,

the mus i cal wor l d m ay undoubted l y expect i mportant benef i t s from them.

302
XXXI I . SW I TZERLAND

T h i s fort u n ate st ate , s i nce the t i me of i t s peace , 1 has done


great serv i ce to the arts and sc i ences . Theosoph i st s , l awyers , doc­

tors , ph i l osophers , mathemat i c i an s , po l i t i cal and s p i r i tu a l orators ,

great poet s and art i sts h ave d i st i n gu i shed themsel ves here . Accord­
i ng l y , i t i s i nconce i v ab l e exact ly why th i s repub l i c remai ned so f ar

beh i nd i n mu si c . Hi story h ard l y knows a cou p l e o f Swi ss n ames who

deserve to be not ated i n the annal s of mu s i c . Yet mu s i c does b l oom i n


the C atho l i c c anton s f ar more t h an i n C al v i n i st , from whose churches

f i gural mu s i c--even the org an--i s comp l et e l y ban i shed . T he C athol i c

Masses , whi ch are composed i n Swi t zer l an d , h ave much d i gn i ty and an

unmi stak ab l e s i mp l i c i ty. The mod i s h t aste h as not c au s ed so mu ch

dev ast at i on in the church styl e here as el sewhere. Th e C al v i n i sts mak e

d o wi th ps alms al one, whereupon s ome are wr i tten w i t h the most stately


devot i o n and i n the most proper p s al m tones . At B asel they were

pri nted together and h ave been l a i d before the wor l d as model s of th i s

art . I n Zuri ch the mus i cal spi r i t h as become very u n i vers al i n recent
t i mes . There are d i l et t antes there who rose to mastery. A l s o , year

after year , concerts are g i ven there where the greatest fore i gn

1 secause of i t s pos i t i on i n E u ro pe , Swi t zer l and h as been


subj ect to a n umber of wars . I n Schu b art • s t i me , the Peace of Aargau
( 1712) , wh i ch centered on Swi s s neutral i ty , remai ned i n effect u n t i l
1798 .

303
vi rtuosos often c ome forward and thereby tra i n the ear of t h e Swi s s
even more. F i rst -rate mus i c masters often res i d e i n Swi t zer l an d for

several years and g i ve p ub l i c i nstruct i on . B ut thei r own compos i t i ons

do not espec i al l y want to s ay muc h . Schm i d l i n s e t L av ater ' s Schwei zer­


l i eder to mu s i c [ 1769] , amon g wh i ch s ome were d i st i ngu i shed very mu ch

thro u gh the i r popu l ar i ty t h at they were s u n g wi th del i ght by al l peo-

ple. A l so th i s Schmi d l i n h as even s et s ome s acred songs of K l opstock


and Lav ater so exq u i s i te l y that h i s me l od i es h ave been t aken up here

and there i n the P rotestant church .

T he mer i t of Junk er i n the format i on of mus i cal t aste i n


Swi t zer l and i s rea l l y not smal l . He h as proved h i mse l f w i th benef i t

i n the theoret i c al and pract i c al f i e l d s , but i n the aesthet i c al mu s i c

h e does not h ave remark abl e strength . H i s V i er und zwan z i g Componi sten
[ recte Zwan z i g C ompo n i sten] where i n many a mat ure opi n i on ru l es over

the greatest m asters , h i s mu s i cal al man acs [ 1782 , 1783 , and 1 784] , and

h i s e s s ay " Von den Pfl i chten ,des C ape l l mei sters" 2 h ave e arned h i m a
l as t i n g n ame i n mus i ca l h i story. He h i mse l f pl ays the cl av i er and

f l ute wi th t aste, and h i s art i c l e in the WUrttemberg Repertor i um3

proves that he h as s t ud i ed mu s i c as one sho u l d .


I n Bern much i s re l ated t o mu s i c . M asters i n al l o f the

i nstrument s were emp l oyed here who h ave remar k ab l y modern i zed the

2c arl Ludwi g Junker , E i n i ge der vornenmsten Pfl i chten e i nes


K ape l lmei sters pder Mu s i k d i rektors ( W l ntert hur: He1 nr 1 ch �te1 ner und
Comp . , 1782) .
3 c ar l L u dwi g Junker , "Mus i c al i sche Lebengeschi chte K ar l
L u dw i g Junkers , von i hm sel bst beschri eben , 11 Wi rtembergi sches
Repertor i um der L i t terat ure , 3 ( 1783 ) : 442-6 2 , cited i n MGG, 7 : 388 .

304
taste of thei r mus i c . At W i nterthur many a beaut i f u l work h as been
l ai d before the wor l d through Stei ner ' s prai seworthy zeal for mu s i c . 4

Wei s s , from Muh l h ausen , n ow res i de s i n London and i s one of the best

f l au t i sts of our t i me . 5 On h i s f l ute , accord i ng to T acet ' s recent

i nvent i on , 6 he a l so bri ngs out the cr i t i c al tones of h i s i nstrument

w i t h extreme c l ar i ty . Hi s strength i n t h e l ow ran g e i s except i on al ;

h i s l ow 0 [ d ' ] r ages and cut s through e ar and heart.

Si nce l uxury al so begi n s to gai n groun d i n Swi t zer l and , one

c an sti l l expect many benef i t s for mu s i c there . F or P o l yhymn i a hears ,


before other Muses , the sound of s i l ver wi th pl easur e , and noth i ng

c h ases h er off e as i er t h an want and poverty .

4 sev eral o f Stei ner ' s col l ect i on s , s uch as V ermi s chte L i eder
mi t Me l od i en auf s K l av i er [ 1 77 6 ] an d Wern h ammer ' s G . F . Ge1 1 er�s
gei sl, i che �den' u nd Lieder , Erste H a l fte ( 17 7 7 ) [ rect e 1776J , were
announced 1 n Schubart ' s Teutsche Chron i k ( 30 M ay 1776) : 350 ,
( 19 Augu st 1 7 76 ) : 5 26 - 28 , and ( 3 October 1776 ) : 631 .
5 schubart heard Wei s s i n a concert g i v en i n Augs burg .
Deutsche Chron i k ( 6 October 1774) : 4 39-40 .
6 sy add i n g a sma l l key to Qu ant z ' s al ready i mproved f l ute,
the weak soun ds o f g ' s h arp , f ' s h arp , b ' fl at , and c ' ' became more
d i sti nct , and a l ong k ey, when added , made the l ow c ' s h arp and c ' f u l l
and pure. Deut sche Chron i k ( 6 October 1774) : 440 ( = Gerber L , 2 : 6 1 3 ) .

305
I

XXXI I I . HOLLAND

I n th i s f ree st ate mu s i c b l ooms f ar greater t h an i n Swi t zer­

l an d . I ndeed, the s p i r i t of act i o n c au se s t h e Dutch peop l e never to

d i st i ngu i sh thems e l ves p art i c u l ar l y as mu s i c i ans , yet t hey p at ron i ze

great mus i c i an s . I n Amsterdam t h e greatest vi rtuosos a l ways res i de ,

and concert s are stron g l y attended , even when i t cos t s a ducat t o

enter. Lol l i , who w a s very much admi red there , rece i ved once for a

s i ng l e concert over 1 , 000 ducat s after expenses were deducted .

Mus i c pub l i sh i ng i n Amsterdam i s as strong perh ap s i n pub­

l i sh i ng as anywhere i n the wor l d , and the good compo s i t i on s of d i st i n­

gui shed masters are bought wi th B r i t i sh c urrency and are s n at ched up

very f ast .

The go vernor of H o l l and always mai nt ai ned a v ery wel l organ­

i zed orchestr a wh i ch consi sted of between t h i rty and forty peop l e ,

and somet i mes more. M any a great master , among whom the prev i ou s l y

sketched Spandau a l so V anhal , K amme l , l and other s , decorated th i s

orchestra and m ade i t i nto a s choo l of ar t .

I n The H ague very spar k l i n g w i nter concerts are g i ven , to

wh i ch powerfu l men of the f i rst r ank p art i c i p ate and rece i ve pri nce l y

p ayment . I n other respects the sp i r i t of the D utch i s s omewhat t oo

co l d for mu s i c . C onsequent l y , the i r i nvent i on s are not s o i mportant .

l schubart ' s spe l l i ng i s '' K ampe l . "


306
et t he i r i nvent i on of the so-c a l l ed H o l l ando i s h as g i v en t h em ,

art i cu l ar l y, muc h h o no r . Th i s n at i on a l me l o dy h as some s i m i l ar i ty

i n form w i t h t h e rond o , except t h at t h e two-four meter i s gener a l l y

accustomed t o al tern at e wi t h t h e s i x -e i gh t meter. P i eces of such a

k i nd bri ng forth a p ec u l i ar effect : o n e bel i eves t o be s t and i ng on t h e

shore o f the o p e n sea a n d to be watch i n g the gent ly g l i di ng bo at i n t h e

orni ng d awn , e v e n i f the morn i ng ai r fee l s somewhat co l d ; t h u s i t i s a

agn i f i cent s i ght to watch t h e g l i d i ng boat i n the b l us h i n g , cri mson

c o l ored waters .

; f

307
XXX I V . E N GLAND

On th i s fortunate i s l and , great i n men of a l l k i nd s , where

r i ches from al l p arts of the wor l d f l ow together an d , consequent ly art

c an a l so be rewarded , mu s i c , s i nce the t i me of Queen E l i z abeth , was

a l w ays val ued remark ab l y h i gh ly. Par l i ament appropri ated 10 ,000 pounds

for the mai nten ance of a roya l orchestra, wh i ch was a l ways st affed wi th

fi rst -rat e Kape l l me i sters , good s i ngers , and di st i ng u i shed v i rtuosos on

a l l i nstrument s . And yet , Eng l and h as--i ncred i b l e as i t mi ght seem ! -­

never bro ught forth a mus i c al schoo l , never a great cqmpo s e r , never a

s i nger of i mport ance , nor h as i t even h ad a d i st i ngu i shed v i rtuoso.

Accord i ng ly, Kl opstock rec i ted the tri u i mph song before thei r e ar s :

Whom d o you h ave, o f bo l d f l i g hts ,

As H ande l ' s m ag i c resounds?

That exa l t s u s over thee !

Yet E n g l and does not ent i re ly l ack an i nd i geno u s son g. The i r

b a l l ad s and fo l k songs , wh i ch now , for the most p art , h av e been col ­

l ected and p ub l i shed w i t h mus i c , h ave s i mpl i c i ty and d i gn i ty , but they

border , by no me an s , on I ta l i an grace of German s i ncer i ty. The me l o dy

of the soc i a l d ance i n two-four met e r , known i n al l the wor l d under

t he n ame angl a i s e , i s a n i nvent i on o f th i s great n at i on. The st i mu l u s

o f the beat not o n l y cau ses the feet t o swi n g , but i t u n i te s a l l of

soc i ety and the l i ve l y c i rc l e of the most v ar i et i es of c h ar acters to

one purpose.
308
S acred mu s i c i n London i s m ag n i f i cent l y st affed , as one c an not
otherwi se e xpect from the stream i n g ri ches of these peop l e . The org an

i n St . P au l • s C athedral i s one of t h e mos t magn i f i cent i n the wor l d

an d , s i nce i t s const ruct i on [ 1697] , i s a l ways p l ayed by f amo u s masters .

The B r i t i s h are great connoi s seurs o f counterpo i nt , pred i s posed for


every beaut i f u l me l ody, wi thout themsel ve s be i n g ab l e to br i ng forth

s uch a k i nd . S i nce they are , as i s wel l known, the most profound seek­

ers of truth , they h ave more theoret i c i ans of mus i c t h an pract i t i oners .

They d i ss ect too mu ch and seek the l umi no u s concept of perfect i on more

t h an the obscure concept of beauty.

These peop l e are the second i n h i story who recogn i zed the

i mportance of mus i c so much that t hey emp l oyed profes sors of mus i c i n

the i r u n i v ers i t i es and cre ated doctors i n t h i s art .

By me an s of th i s arrangement among them, the pri nc i p l e s of

mu s i c h ave been emph at i c al l y exami ned , and only Germany h as s u rp assed

the Bri t i sh here i n .

N ewto n , t h i s conf i dant o f t h e Creator , h as p enet r ated i nto

h armony as deep l y as i nto other sci ences . Hi s sys tem i s i ndeed d i ffi ­

cu l t to comprehend , but [ i s ] gre at and true. N oth i ng i s more pen s i ve

than h i s researches on the chor d , from wh i ch h e deri ved the most f ar­
reac h i n g res u l t s . Thus he s ays , for examp l e , •• J take C as the purest

tone to the fundame nt al . A s i mp l e s tr i k i n g . Al re ady the fi fth and

th i rd l i e i n i t s osci l l at i ons and vi br at i ons . I f the f i fth and th i rd ,

especi al l y , were struc k , thus further d i scl osures o f t h e fundament a l

are uncovered , and wi th th i s they form tr i ad s , wh i ch ref l ect t hrough

the who l e u n i verse i n thousandfo l d cop i es and resound i n a myr i ad of


309
sound s . The u n i son [ 1] always generates the oct ave [ 8] , t h e octave [ 8 ]
a l ways t h e m ajor tenth [ 1 0 ] and t h e perfect twe l ft h [ 1 2] , a n d t h u s

a l mo st ad i nf i n i t um. The octave [8] s u bmi t s t o t h e mi nor seventh [ 7 ] ;


the m i nor seventh b r i n gs forth muff l ed d i ssonances f l owi ng through one

another; sweeps i n four, two, s i x , n i ne , and e l even [ 4 , 2 , 6 , 9 , 1 1 ]

i n h a l f and who l e step s . F i nal l y , the storm settl es when everythi ng

agai n i s resol v ed i n the b as i c chord . " 1

1 Th i s part i cu l ar pas s age i s n ot i n t h e s t andard s econd ary


sources as a c i t at i o n . De V i l l ami l c l a i ms that Newto n app aren t l y was
not t h at i nterested i n mu s i c . H e d i d not p l ay any i nstrument , nor d i d
he s i n g , and he h ad o n l y one book on mus i c , a book o n the v i brat i on s of
str i ngs . Gro v e 6 , 1 3 : 1 7 0 , s t ates t h at h e d i d copy tech n i c a l detai l s
from Chri st opher Si mpson ' s D i v i s i o n V i o l i st ( 1659 ) , but t h i s was not
the mu s i c book i n h i s persona l l i brary. I t seems t h at the mu s i c book
;o
was Fr i ed r i c h Ado l ph L ampe ' s De c b a l i s veter�m l i b r i tres • . •

( Utrecht : W i l he l m v an P oo l sen , 1 3) . See R i c h ard D e Vi l l ami l ,

mus i c ( see Grove 6, 13 : 1 70 - 71 and 1 4 : 666 ) . Of Mu s i c i s an e ar l y work


Newton : The Man ( New York : Johnson Repr i n t Corp . , [ 19 3 1 ] , 197 2 ) ,
p p . 1 2 an d 83 . Grove 6 c i tes th ree of N ewton ' s work s t h at deal wi th

( c a. 1 665 ) and was not known outs i de a c i rc l e o f c l ose f r i end s . Some


of Newton ' s ear l y papers on opt i c s ( p ub l i shed i n 1 704 ; 2d e d . , 1 7 1 7 ;
3d ed . , 1 7 21 ) cont ai n f i ve references t o mu s i c ( see B oo k 1 , P art 2 ,
Propos i t i on 3 , Prob l em 1 , E xperi ment 7 = [ H awk i n s H , p . 788 ] ; Book 1 ,
P art 2 , P ro pos i t i on 6 , Prob l em 2 ; Book 2 , Part 1 , Obser v at i on 1 4 ;

Observat i on 5 ) . Gerber L c i tes L aborde ' s E s s a i s u r l a mu s i �u e , whi ch


Book 2 , P art 2 ; Book 2 , P art 3 , Propos i t i o n 1 6 ; a n d Book 2 , P art 4 ,
contai n s co l or descr 1 pt 1 on s o f notes reported ly t aken from eWton • s
book on o pt i cs . B ut the quoted passage ( v o l . 3 , pp . 3 60-61 ) ment i on s


Dortou s de Mai ran , w h o s uccessfu l ly repeated Newto n ' s experi ments on
opt i cs i n 1 7 16 and 1717 at Bezi ers ( see The Corres ond ence of I saac
Newton , 7 vol s . [ C amb r i dge : C ambr i dg e Un i vers i ty res s , 1959-1977] ,
vo l . 7 : 1 7 18-1747 , ed . A . R uppert H a l l and L aura T i l l i ng , p . 1 17 ,
n . 6 ) . Th u s th e L aborde p as s age h a s to be t aken from a l ater ed i t i on
and , based o n t h e j u st men t i oned reference and s i nce L abord e ' s quote
i s i n the t h i rd person , probab l y from the Pref ace to S i r I s sac Newton ,
Tra i t� d ' opt i g u e s u r l es ref l ex i on s , refract i on s , i nf l ex i ons , et
cou l eur s de l a 1 um 1 ere. P ar m . Le c h ev . Newton. Trad u i t d e
1 ang l o l s p ar m . l P l errej _!;_o st e , s u r l a s econde ed 1 t 1 o n , augment�e
ear I auteur l Ams tera am : fl . H Umbert , c a . ! f lU ) . t nere 1 S a p a s s age
1 n Rous seau ' s d i ct i on ary ( s . v . " sound " ) wh i ch d i scu sses soun d s der i ved
from the h armon i c s and t h e f act t h at as t h e h armon i cs cont i nu e to r i ng
they gradu a l l y d i s ap pear . The concept i s s i mi l ar t o Sch u b art • s , but

310
Th i s thoughtfu l ob s ervati on contai n s the who l e teachi n g of

mus i c i n i ndescr i b ab l e brevi ty and opens , at the same t i me , wonderfu l

prospects i n everyth i ng [ 't O rrav] .

Avi son devoted h i ms e l f to the aesthet i c s of mu s i c an d pu b­

l i s hed a masterl y book on the joi n i n g of pai n t i n g wi th musi c . 2 He

h as extracted h i s ob servat i on s from t he greatest mas terp i eces and

l i s tened to the beau ty, as i t were , i n i t s creat i on [ auf der That] .

He proves wi th t he most concl u s i ve reasons t h at t h e mu s i c i an h as to

hav e , as the pai n ter , h i s Contur or ou t l i n e , h i s C o l ori t or col ori n g ,

h i s Gi aro obscuro or s h ad i n g , h i s Mezzot i nto or mezzot i n t , h i s C ar­

nat i on or fl esh ton e , h i s Per spect i v e or H a l tung. H i s reasons are

i t i s not an ex act statement . Al so men t i oned are P i etro Mengo l i


( 1625-86 ) , an I t al i an mat h emat i c i an who wrote a tract ( 1649) and a book
( 1690 ) on acou s ti cs ( see R I SM B/V I /2 : 570 ) and Mai ran ! See J ean Jacq ues
Rousseau , A Comp l ete D i c tTOnary of Mu s i c , tran s . Wi l l i am War i n g ,
2 d ed . ( L ondon : pri nted for J . Murray, 1779; repri nt ed . , N ew Y ork :
AMS Press , 1975 ) , pp . 366-67. The l ast source menti oned i n Grove 6 i s
Pri n c i pi a ( 1687: 2d rev . ed , 1 7 1 3 ; 3d ed . , 1726 ) , but I fou nd onl y one
pass age re l ated to mu s i c : Book 2 , Sect i on 7, Scho l i um. See Si r I saac
Newton , Mathemat i c al P r i n c i p l es of N at u r a l P h i l osophy, tran s . Andrew
Motte , rev . Fl ori an Cajori , Opti c s , and Chri sti a an H u ygen s , Treat i se on
L i gh t , tran s . Si l v an u s P . Thomp son , Great Book s of the Wes tern wor r a ,
vol . 34 ( C h i c ag o : E n cycl opedi a Bri t an n i ca , 1 952 ) , [ P r i n c i p l es] ,
p . 258; [Opt i c s ] , p p . 428- 2 9 , 440 , 46 5 , 470 , 494, an d 498 . Grove 6 , i n
the b i b l i ography, ci tes E. Bernard Coh en ( ed . ) , I s aac N ewton ' s P apers
and L etters on N atural P h i l osophy and R e l ated Documen ts (Cambridge:
Cambr i d ge U ni v ersi ty Pres s , 1958) , but the referenc e s to mu s i c do not
paral l e l Schu bart ' s descri pt i on . Burney H ci tes John Hari n gton ' s Nugae
Anti q uae ( 1 792 ) , wi th whom Newton corresponded , and Newton ' s The
Chronol ogy of Anci ent K i ngdoms Ammended ( F rench ed i t i on , 17 25;-!0g l i sh
edi ti on , 1728) , but none of these p ass ages approx i mates Sc hu bart • s
statemen t . To whom does the passage i n q ue s t i on real l y bel ong?
2 c h ar l es Av i s on , An E s say on Mu s i ca l Expre s s i on ( London :
C . D av i s , 1 7 52 ) . Th i s e s s ay was tr an sl ated i nto German and pu b l i shed
in L e i pzi g by Schwi ck ert i n 1775 . See Joh an n N i k o l au s Forkel ,
Musi k a l i sch-kr i t i sche Bi b l i othek , 3 vo l s . ( Goth a : Carl Wi l h e l m
Etti n g er , 1778-79) , 3: 142-65 .

311
unquest i onab l e and , after the manner of h i s peopl e , real i zed i n a
master ly styl e . Hi s compari sons of great mus i c i ans wi th great p a i nters
i n thei r own way can be set on the p ages alongs i de the comp ar i sons of
the i mmort al P l u t arch . Th i s spl end i d book h as been tran s l ated so
beaut i fu l l y i n Swi tzerl and t h at one c an read i t as an or i g i nal [ 1 7 75 ] .
Burney, Doctor of Mus i c , h as made a name for h i mse l f in al l of
Europe by means of h i s mus ic a l journeys [ 17 7 1 and 1773] and , p art i c u­
l ar ly , through h i s h i story of mu si c [ 4 vol s . , 2 i n 1 7 76 , 1 i n 178 2 ,
and 1 i n 1 789 ] . I ndeed , h i s journeys contai n an abund ance of correct
and true observ at i ons and reve a l , i n p art i cu l ar , much mus i c al knowl ­
edge. B ut h i s opi n i on s are much too Bri t i sh , i . e. , too bo l d and often
total l y i ncorrect . �be l i ng, the tran s l ator of these j ourneys , and
Rei chardt h av e demonstrated th i s to h i m most emp h at i c a l l y and w i th
German courage, h ave reported h i s errors and h i s l i be l s of great men .
Burney travel ed much too q u i ck l y and hurr i ed l y t o h ave been ab l e to
make observat i on s w i t h phi l osoph i ca l co l dnes s . He does not d o su i t­
abl e just i ce to u s German s by any mean s . H e concedes t o u s on l y
art i st i c s k i l l and d i l i gence, but refuses us mus i cal gen i us , a l i be l ,
wh i ch , through the who l e h i story of mu s i c , i s refuted to the honor of
our n at i on .
H i s mu s i c al h i story, on wh i ch he col l ected and wrote for twenty
years , i ndeed contai ns an i nd u l g i n g d i spl ay of schol arsh i p , for such
can eas i ly be obtai ned by whomever has enough money. B ut the work i s
fi l l ed wi th errors , h i s op i n i on i s not or i g i nal but most l y French , and
h i s aesthet i c senti ment does not s ay much .

312
I n the meanti me, Eschenburg ' s tran s l at i on of th i s work h as
wi ped away many of these conspi cuous mi stakes .
H awk i ns , one of the greatest erofessors of mus i c now l i v i ng.
He wrote for more than twenty years on h i s h i story of mus i c [pub l i shed
i n 1776 ] , wh i c h came out of Oxford i n four qu arto vo l umes and i s
a l re ady trans l ated i nto German , 3 cert ai n l y the most i mport ant work
th at h as ever been wri tten on th i s subject . The extens i ve l e arn i ng of
t h i s man , hi s i ndescr i bab l e abundance of mater i al s i n wh i ch he brought
together, throughout h i s who l e l i f e , a store of mus i ca l wr i t i ngs and
i nstruments that was val ued at more t h an 100 ,000 Rei chst h al er , h i s
penetrat i ng spi r i t , h i s cryst al l i ne sty l e of wri t i n g , and above al l ,
h i s i mp art i a l i ty make h i m a c l ass i c author of the f i rst rank i n the
h i story of mus i c .
The concerts i n London are more common than i n any other c i ty
of the wor l d . One can d i v i de them i nto pub l i c and pri vate concerts .
The publ i c ones are l arge and the p arts are ski l l fu l l y ass i gned ; who­
ever i s mus i cal l y endowed c an be heard there. If one remembers how
H andel and [ J . C . ] !!.!E!. stood out at those concerts , one h as s ai d
enough to the i r honor . The sovere i gn orchestra cons i sts of about
seventy to e i ghty persons , among whom are very i mportant masters .

3 None of the stand ard secondary sources ment i ons a German


transl at i on of Hawk i n s ' h i story of mus i c , nor c an i t be found i n: ta.
Ohio Col l ege L i brary Center ( OCLC ) i ndex , nor i n the N at i on al Uni� ::.
1 Cat a l og ( NUC ) . Sect i ons of the h i story may h ave been trans l atei'�""'
may have appeared i n per i od i cal s or antho l og i es , but i t does noti ap,..r
that i t was pub l i shed as a s i ng l e wor k . ..

313
There are i nn umerab l e sma l l er orch estras i n London i t s e l f as

wel l as in the prov i nces . Every mi l ord and every great merch ant ho l d s

h i s mus i c al court t o such a degree by the B r i t i s h t h at our v i rtuosos

h ave expatri ated themsel ves hu ndredfo l d i n order to m ake thei r fortunes

there . The oper a t heater i n London i s one of the r i chest and w i th the

l argest s t aff i n the wor l d . The best composers , s i ngers , and v i rt uosos

i n a l l i nstruments are heard i n the g l or i f i ed rooms of the B r i t i sh

oper a. G abr i e l l i e arned 30 ,000 f l or i n s of German money for herse l f

d ur i ng t h e wi nter o f 1 7 8 2 where s h e appe ared o n t h i s s t age . Here one

wou l d l i ke to l ook toward heaven and s i gn over the p art i s an scal es wi th

wh i ch h uman mer i t i s wei ghed . A l ready i n Engl and many a w i se man h as

rui ned h i s l i fe4 by wast i ng thousan d s through l i cent i ou s l i v i ng. So

profound i s i t that even the Bri to n , t h at so h i gh ly f amed European

t h i n ker , has s u n k i n the muck of sensu a l i ty !

Mus i c pub l i sh i ng i n Eng l and i s extraord i n ar i ly stron g . Al l

masters of the wor l d h av e occas i on h ere t o step before t h e p u b l i c under

the most attr act i ve advant ages and e i ther d r i n k up the sun • s r ays wi th

Jupi ter ' s b i rd S or sh i ne l i k e a phos phoru s s aturated g l owworm.

4 The or i g i n a l phrase reads " s e i n ei genes L eben , .. but L u dwi g


Schubart corrected the pri nter ' s error s wi th an addend a p age and
subst i t uted 11S e i n s i eches Leben" for the prev i ous p age .
5 The anc i ent R omans bel i e ved t h at J up i ter contro l l ed the
future of human s , and t h at he reveal ed the fut ure to man by s i gn s i n
the heavens and by the f l i ght of b i rd s , wh i ch are cal l ed the messen gers
of Jupi ter. Th u s , Schubart sugges t s t h at one who i s f r i en d ly w i t h
Jupi ter • s messengers wi l l undoubted l y enjoy Jupi ter ' s f avors . W i l l i am
Smi th , ed. , A D i ct i onar o f Greek and Roman B i o r a h an d M t ho l o ,
3 v o l s . ( New or : res s , , ere are s ev er a
references t o Jupi ter • s bi rds i n other wr i t i ngs . See , f o r examp l e ,
W i e l and ' s l etter t o S chubart , 1 8 June 1 766 , ( Strau s s , 1 : 6 6 ) or
Deut sch e Chron i k ( 19 Janu ary 1 7 7 5 } : 43 .
314
XXXV . FRANCE

Th i s s t at e i s , with [ i t s ] i ntent i on s to mu s i c , far more

i mportant t h an En g l and becaus


'
e i t d eve l op eQ a schoo l . Al re ady i n

anc i ent t i mes t h e G au l s h ad a c haracter i st i c mu s i c d i ffer i ng from a l l

peop l es . The prev ai l i ng mel o dy was i nd eed war l i ke , yet they d i ffered

g re at l y from the k ey of a l l remai n i ng peopl e i n the p u rpose of the

i n strument s and the accompanyi n g son g . It i s a great observat i on that

the F rench from the earl i est t i mes on were the f i rst who ventured to
make the m i nor key the p rev ai l i ng o n e . Because o f th i s , i t i s beyo nd

a l l d i spute t h at th i s n at i on has l owered to t h at weak ness wh i ch a l l

peop l e , as wel l as t h e French t hems e l ves , h ave been resent i ng i n t h i s

g re at n at i on . Genera l l y , an estab l i shed m i nor key s oftens man ' s

strength to p u l p and al l ows v a l ets [ To i l ettenp u ppen ] to g i ve the

k eynote.

Meanwh i l e , great honor i s due t h e F rench t h at they comb i ned

mu s i c w i t h re l i g i on ear l i er than a l l other E uropeans and i mp roved the

church sty l e remark ab l y .


A l ready C h a r l �magne col l ected the d i v i ne songs of the Greek s

and tran sformed them to the t aste of h i s peop l e . Hi s successor t o the

t hrone fo l l owed t h i s l u strous p at h and adv anced the choral e and f l or i d

counterpo i nt t o thei r i rnmmo rtal g l ory.

315
The French were even the f i rst who arr anged the feast of
St. Cec i l i a to the honor of mus i c . Th i s sai nt was e l ev ated to
patro ness because of her l ove for mu s i c , and s i nce th i s t i me , th i s
fest i v al i s cel ebrated with great d i s p l ay througho u t Europe , even by
P rotest ant Eng l and , ev ery ye ar i n Nov ember. On th i s d ay one sees i n
Par i s the goddess Harmon i a march i n her fest i ve pomp , and al l ch urches
and concert h al l s reso und anew the l ov e of mus i c i n sol emn hymns .
I n al l mus i cal styl es of wri t i n g , Gaul h as d i st i ngu i shed i t sel f
and each [ sty l e ] h as i ts own c haracter i st i c .
The sacred styl e i s strong ly contrapunt a l , s i mp l e i n the cho­
ruses , but not fu l l enough i n the fugues . The ar i oso h as a certai n
offens i ve , wor l d ly mi e n , wh i ch adverse ly affects the devot i on . The
basses are most l y very wel l fi gu red , and the i nstruments f i l l out the
son g wi th power . But the i r choral s i ngi n g , i n compar i son with the Ger-
man, i s empty and weak ; i t often approaches total l y the secul ar song.
The opera styl e of the French beg i n s from the t i me of the great
Lu l l y and Qui n au l t . The l atter was the best l i brett i st i n F rance. He
u nderstood the need s of mu si c an d, consequen t l y , wrote very fl owi ng ly
and h armon i c al l y for the composer. One must not search for greatness
of i deas i n h i m, but [th ere i s ] so much more gent l eness i n thoughts and
i mages [ an d ] so much more h armony i n express i on .
L u l ly, l the Orpheus of the French , the true cre ator and
reformer of thei r n at i onal taste. He was ori g i nal ly an I t a l i an but

l i n h i s D eutsche Chroni k ( 9 Febru ary 1 7 75 ) : 90 , Schubart i s


qui te comp l i mentary i n discussing Lu l ly. Espec i al ly noteworthy are h i s
harmony, choruses , and overtures , but not ar i as or songs .
316
came to P ari s at such an ear l y age t h at the s p i r i t of h i s n at i on ev ap­
orated wi th i n h i m. He studi ed h armony wi t h unusual thoughtfu l hess and

d i l i gence , but t h i s study d i d not make h i m pedant i c , for h i s great g en­


i u s soon convi nced h i m that harmony wi thout me l o dy was no more or l es s

t h an a corpse wi thout l i fe . For t h at re ason he travel ed t hrough a l l o f

France, l i stened to t h e pr i m i t i ve sounds o f these peop l e , and trans­

ferred i t , after i mprovement , to h i s o peras . Therefore , the effect of

h i s pi eces was a l l -powerfu l , and no composer i n the wor l d can even

bo ast of h av i n g affected a great peo pl e so q u i ck l y and u n i vers al l y as


Lul ly. Hi s ar i as and son gs were sung at co urt , i n the most g l i tter i ng

soc i et i es , and f i n a l l y i n the co untry at dri nki ng bo ut s . H i s choruses


are fest i ve l y grand but are too s acred for the theate r . I n the rec i ­
t at i ve stJ[l e he was such a great master t h at most of the E u ro pean com­

posers d evel oped accord i ng to h i m and st i l l tod ay deve l op accord i n g to

h i m. H i s ari as , of cours e , h ave become somewhat o l d-f a s h i oned for o ur


t i m e , but woe t o h i m who even to day does not fee l the power of the i r

s i mp l e express i on deep l y i n the pu l se o f h i s heart ! E ven today i f a

Lu l l y ar i a i s decorated wi th the t as s l es [ Franzen ] of fash i o n , as some

cunn i ng compo sers h ave real l y done , i t w i l l s t i l l g l i sten as a master­

pi ece i n a l l ode ums of conno i s seurs .

L u l l y understood the song exceed i n g l y . He fe l t and ro used

fee l i n g . I ndee d, h i s s o n g was extreme l y s i mp l e--st i l l unfami l i ar w i t h

our runs and ornament s , o u r fermat as and c adenzas--but trut h , n ature,

an d unsoph i st i cated express i on compensated by far for al l of these

shortcomi ngs . L i kewi se i n the chamber styl e , Lu l l y exce l l ed as a

317
master. H i s overt ures , sonat as , and d ance p i eces test i fy to an
i nexhausti b l e mus i c a l gen i us .
He i s the i nventor of the mi nuet . The movement of th i s d ance
i s so p l easant- -carryi ng thi ther gent l y on waves , urg i ng the feet on to
c a l � , del i c ate muted doub l e d ance--th at l u l l y was epoch mak i ng throu gh­
out Europe with the mi nuet al one. The comb of mus i c wou l d h ave h ad a
not i ceab l e g ap i f there were no mi nuet .
The f i rst m i nyet ( i n German f l yi ng dane� [ F l ugtanz ] or sus­
pended d ance [ Schwebetanz] ) was d anced in 1663 at Ver s ai l l es by Loui s
X I V wi th one of h i s mi stresses . I t i s adm i r ab l e that the mot i ve of
the f i rst mi nuet was submerged i n the mi nor key. Here i t i s :

. .
.
;, ...... .,..
. .
..
,.,


• ,
, .. , r ,
.. 'I" ____._ __x:


_...&_ l
'\: Ll .., L _L
-

-�

I
"� • .. -
.., ...
-" __L
'
l

,., + .lL • .,..


.....
I ·r. .. r r II

I
I� I
.r� �lVI

I
_L
eJ '

lt
.. •
_..._
" W' • .. . _I .I __._ , , L"" .... ..

/ , ... ,.. _L _r L
.
l-
I
" "" \

318
� -
• ""
,...- l l 1 ......- 1
I '•· ... - . IV .. ' "' ..

I
• •
• • . •

I I

I
'
., \

I .
,.- ·
'!"
.

I
...
,... , .. I'" • • •
• •
,r • ' n
.. . I () · q.

, ,. --ll ;,
""
� . ..:.
. ... .. I y ... ., I

I
.. -
...... I ll' "l • ... •
I I
., -
c
t:"'\ I
I
" I

� llo!IJ
!V " I "'
_ .,
q· +

� + + - ..
r l".l .... .

I
.. . ...1 •

" Jt. -

I


Jf:
t ..
7
-

t�l

- •

\ •
.. .
l

Examp l e 9 . M i nuet After t h e Manner o f L u l l y 2

2Th i s i s not a m i nuet by L u l l y a s Schubart s u ggests ,


bec aus e i t i s not amon g the i nc i p i ts o f L u l l y ' s m i nuets l i sted i n
H e l en Mered i th E l l i s , "The D ances o f J . B . L u l l y ( 163 2- 1687 ) , "
( P h .D . d i s sert at i o n , Stanford Un i vers i ty , 1967 ) , p p . 166-74 , nor
i s i t among the i nc i p i ts of other d ance types l i sted 1 n the E l l i s
d i s sert at i o n .

319
For more t h an f i fty ye ars the mi nuet , th i s most s i gn i f i c ant
movement , was cast i n th i s p l i ant form u nt i l our great German f at her­

l and ch anced upon the i dea of a l so mak i n g mi nuets i n the major key.

Si nce t hen the Germ ans , part i cu l ar l y the Bohemi an s , make the best

mi nuet s i n the wor l d .


Lu l l y made t h i rteen op er as , many magn i f i cent s acred p i eces , and

a number of gal ant t�i ngs . Hi s n ame i s undoubt ed ly one of the best and

most i mport ant i n the h i story of mu s i c . After t h e deat h of th i s great


man , French mu s i c made a l ong p au s e . Many a composer of st and i ng

i ndeed stepped forwar d , but as soon as the g i g ant i c s p i r i t of Lu l l y

appeared ag ai n at the theater, t hey al l d i s appe ared l i ke meteor s . When


the sp i r i t of t h e F rench s an k ever deeper to pett i ness at t h e end of

the i r k i ngs 3 and the abort i on of comi c o per a h ad been concocted , at

that t i me one began to dec l are the g i g ant i c form o f Lu l l y to be a

monster . The creators , or much c l oser , the creators of t h i s f a l se

t aste were Gr�try an d P h i l i dor .

P h i l i dor d r i vel s i n mu s i c as much as a Frenchman h as ever


dri vel ed i n soci ety. H i s phr ases are extreme l y wanto n , wi thout energy

or b ackbone. At most a l i tt l e F rench song succeed s wi t h h i m. His

symphon i es are d i l ut ed ; no drops of burgundy or champ agne effervesce

wi th i n . H i s ar i as hop on the toes of fr i vo l ous d ance. H i s rec i t at i ves

are chi l d i sh , he art l es s st ammeri n g , d i sf i gured by i nnumer ab l e b l unders

agai nst the rhythm; h i s choruses are d i l uted v i s i ons t hrough wh i ch the

3K i ng L ou i s XVI was executed 21 J an u ary 1 79 3 , thus end i ng t h e


re i gn o f France ' s k i ngs . Th i s h as to be a textu a l add i t i on b y Ludw i g ,
becau se Chri s t i an d i ed i n 1 79 1 .
320
moon sh i nes and they d i sso l ve i n the breath of the s l i ghtest breeze .
Some comi c tra i t s d o s ucceed , yet h e provokes on ly smi l es and n ever
l oud , appa l l i ng l au ghter . I n short , P h i l i dor deserves th i s more t h an
a composer at any t i me : Devour that sh ady monster , Ob l iv i on !
Gr�try, a f i rst-rate mi nd . I f he had appeared at a more
f avorab l e t i me , he wou l d h ave rea l l y become a great master . He has
stu d i ed mu s i c thorough l y; therefore , al l of h i s p i eces bear the mi en
of soundness . H i s operas h ave r i ght ly made great i mpres s i ons i n h i s
country. They are wri tten strongly and are crystal c l ear. The gol d
thread of the I t a l i an bl ends i t se l f with the col ored, s i l ken thread of
the French t aste w i th h i m. H i s open i ngs , or overt ures , are pregn ant
wi th the embryos of al l succeed i ng pi eces and represent the whol e
p i ct ure sketched o u t . H i s ar i as have mostly new and h appy mot i ves, are
magn i f i cent l y col ored, wr i tten with the u nderst andi ng of the song, and
sens i b l y accomp an i ed by i nstruments . Gr�try, i n p art i c u l ar , composes
for the v i o l i n w i th much i ns i ght i nto the nature of the i nstrument.
I n the phrase of the w i nd i n struments he i s not as fortu nate. On the
other h an d , h i s basses are ' fu l l of l i fe and spi ri t . He understands
the ebb and f l ow o f the tones , or the so-cal l ed contrary moti on [Motus
contrar i us ] . Hi s choruses h ave so l emn i ty , and hi s comi c performance
does not l ack s al t i n every p art . Al so, the Germans have done j u st i ce
to Gr�try , and h i s p i eces are performed wi th approval at the German
theaters .
Rousseau , th i s great odd i ty i n l i terary h i story, also p l ays
a very i mport ant ro l e i n mus i c. H i s mus i cal .d i ct i on ary h as r i gh t l y
attracted great attent i on i n the worl d . N o master before h i m h ad
3 21
pondered on mus i c wi th such ph i l osoph i ca l d i scernment as he. His
refl ect i on s about k eys , mot i o n , and beh av i or are profound ly created
and master ly expressed. He was a d am ag ai nst the shal l ow , f ash i on ab l e
t aste of h i s countrymen and at l east he l d back the i nundat i on of those
men for several years . He was a great admi rer of the I tal i an taste ,
yet h e was never o n thei r s ame l eve l . He was muc h more an ecl ect i c
and put together a secti on from I tal i an , French , and German forms ,
whi ch wou l d be spl end i d i f an art i st wou l d present them to us . About
the effect of mus i c on the heart of men , about mu s i c ' s c l ose associ ­
ati on wi th poetry and pai nt i n g, about the var i ety of mu s i ca l taste,
about the mai n per i od s of mus i c h i story , [ and ] about the n at ure of
every s i n g l e mu s i c a l compos i t i on--sti l l no other wri ter h as been so
resonant as Rou sseau . B ut h i s v i ews here , as i n other sci ent i f i c
matters , are often paradox i ca l , and he bel i eves we h ave a l ready done
enough whenever he d i gresses from the we l l -trod h i ghway and runs away
as a wanton steed over hedges and shrubs .
Rousseau s ang very wel l and wi th unusual fee l i ng. In the
accomp ani ment on the h arps i chord he was a master, but he p l ayed sol os
onl y to l erab l y . Even i n compos i t i on he emerged wi th adv an t age. His
Pygmal i on [ 17 7 0 ] i s a masterpi ece accord i ng to text and mus i c , but i t
i s unfortunate t h at he i s too mu ch a s l ave of h i s own , u nproven system.
Consequent ly, th i s p i ece was effect i ve i n France and Germany on l y for a
short t i me. One-s i dedness of taste and stubbornness to c l i ng to the
spi ri t of hi s peo pl e promi se no l asti ng permanence to al l art i st i c
product s , and th i s was Rou sseau ' s c as e .

322
D i derot , t h i s s p l end i d man of l etters and poet , p l ays the
h arps i chord not o n l y very we l l , but a l s o p ub l i shed a t heorl o n c l av i er

p l ali ng . 4 H e h as pondered on the s p i ri t of t h i s i n strument more pro­

found l y t h an a Frenchman at any t i me . The great [ C . P . E . ] B ac;h i s h i s

l eader . Out o f enth u s i asm h e v i s i t ed h i m i n H amburg , * s po k e a great


deal with h i m abou t the art , and thereby rect i f i ed h i s system. His

c l av i er theory i s , therefore , nothi ng more th an [ ?C . P . E . ] B ach ' s


C l av i ersch u l e French i f i ed . Di derot i s an ecstat i c adm i rer of the Ger­

mans and p l aces o u r peo p l e above a l l other peo p l e i n poetry and mu s i c .

March an d , t h e g reatest org an p l ayer o f t h e French . He, with

h i s n at i on , even con s i dered h i ms e l f to be a marve l . B ut w h e n h e trav­

e l ed to Ber l i n , heard [ C . P. E . ] B ach p l ay , the wiAgs of p r i d e l eft

h i m. F rom th i s t i me on he changed h i s t aste ent i re l y and p l ayed i n the


B ach i an man ner . H i s organ pi eces are thoughtfu l , unusue� l y d i f f i cu l t ,

often amb i t i ou s , but many t i mes too f i ery for the orgatusty l e. He

understood cou nterpo i nt master l y , but d i d not h ave . e10ggb·: p e d a 1

strength nor k n ow l edge of the stops .

*Di derot wore t h e s ab l e fur wh i ch he recehetLfrOII the Rus s i an

empres s . W i t h a respectfu l g l ance to h i s teacher , he took off h i s fur

coat and h ung i t u p next to B ac h . 11 The empress made a m i s t ak e . The

coat r i gh t l y bel o n gs to you . "

lS

3 23
, : t�asured them , a l though the g i ant d i d see way above Marc h and • s h ead.

Legrand, th i s great h arps i chord p l aye r , wh o was frequent l y

cal l ed the mus i c al mag i c i �n i n F rance i s , i nd eed , for h i s fatherl and a

col os s a l f i gure, but for Germany o n l y the u s u a l me asure. I t i s true

that h i s h and f l i es as the mart i n ( and t h at i s an adv antage of h i s

steady nerves ) , but wh at h as th i s i ntel l ectual power done?

H i s concertos and sonat as , wi th and wi thout accomp an iment , are

magn i f i cen t . Youthfu l powe r , e l as t i c i ty of sp i r i t , newness i n t urns of

expres s i on and f i ngeri ng ar i s i ng therefrom, and greatness i n modu l at i on

swi m i n h i s compos i t i on s . H e put s wi ngs o n t h e k eys of the c l av i er ,

had i ndescr i bab l e prec i s i on , and , w i th i t , a grace wh i ch one h as never

seen i n a Frenchman . Legrand wrote so l e l y i n the c h amber s tyl e , and

th i s a lw ays wi th much l uc k , because whatever he wrote was d i st i l l ed

from pract i ca l experi ence. He h ad th i rty concertos engr aved i n copper

i n P ari s ; an i nd u stry wh i ch i s wi thout equal i n the wor l d of geni u s .

Hi s s acred styl e , a s t h e French very much prai se h i m, i s neverthel es s

of l i tt l e v a l u e . He forces greatness , a n d forced greatness i s a

change l i ng i n the art .

The concerts i n P ar i s bel ong among t h e best o f t h e wor l d . T he

Concert s p i r i tuel i s a centra l po i nt of everyth i ng that mus i c has i n

greatness . A l l n at i on s may come here w i th the v ery co l orful d i ffer-

ences of t aste w i thout i t ever occurri ng to a Frenchman to comment on

th at po i nt . The p r i nces of the hou ses , espec i a l l y the pri nce of Conde ,
mai nt ai ned orchestras of p r i me i mport ance. Al l of Par i s abounds wi th

3 24
mus i c i an s , and G l uck and P i cc i n n i h av e jost l ed s o omn i potent l y i n t h e
mechan i sm [Masch i ne ] o f French t as t e , t h at a revo l ut i o n , or r at h er a n

approx i mat i on to t h e German t aste , mu st q u i te c ert ai n l y ensue.

The French ch anson i s i n the meant i me of such modest i mport ance


that i t seems i nconce i v ab l e to me h ow t h e theor i st s wou l d l i k e to po l ­

l ute who l e p ages wi th exami nat i ons of t h i s mot i v e . The two -four beat

i ndeed e l ev ates , yet n ever to the degree t h at t h e French i mag i ne i t i n


the stream of enth u s i asm. In add i t i on to t h at , t he str i ct German

Sch l ei fer [ s l i d i ng d ance ] a l ready h ad th i s tempo before i t was c arved

and defi ned by t heory .

And herew i th we con c l ude t h i s s hort h i story of mu s i c . But on

i ts s acred thresho l d are s t i l l the remai n i ng quest i o n s :

1. What h ave w e done?


2. What are we do i ng n ow?

3. W h at s ho u l d we s t i l l do?

The f i rst quest i on i s concerned w i th t h e f act t h at s o much h as

al re ady been done i n mus i c , as every t h i n ker s ure l y u nd erstands . Not

only h as the song been s h aped , emb ankments and precepts for t he stream

of sens at i on h ave been prescr i bed, the co l l apse [ E i nst urz] [ s i c ] or the

accomp an i ment , o f the i n struments reported , and the utmost d i rect i on to

t he accompan i ment w i t h the h arpsi chord been g i ve n , but a l so i nstruments

of wh i ch ant i qu i ty h eard no sound h ave been i ntrodu ced , n ew mot i ves i n


mi nor and major k eys h ave been d i scovered, and f i n a l l y a c an a l t hrou gh

wh i ch the l i fe ' s b l ood shou l d f l ow i nto another l i fe ' s b l ood h as been

found mech an i cal l y .

3 25
The org an i n F r ance h as been r at h er stron g l y cu l t i v ated, but
t wou l d be ungrat ef u l ever t o want t o put a French org an p l ayer

gai nst German s trength and art . T he F renchman [ Franzose] wh i mp er s i n

oman l y tones , t h e German s tr i de s accord i ng ly i n the m an l y ones; the

erman t h i n k s and n egot i at e s , the Frenchman [ Franzman n ] negot i ates a

· eat deal but does not t h i n k as muc h ; the German i s col d and pro­

ound l y c u nn i n g , the F renchman [ Franke] g l i de s over t h e s u rf ace are a

f the thi ng . France t astes , Germ any d i scover s , [ and ] It a l y ornament s .

h i s very o l d s ayi n g i s s t i l l true today and c asts l i ght o n a l l mus i cal

schoo l s .

The 1 ast two q ue st i on s , "W here are we? " and 11W h at d o we h av e to

xpect 1 " are of enormou s i mport anc e . We wou l d l i ke to throw l i ght on

hem :

1. W i t h reference to wh atever the c urrent mu s i c a l t aste i s i n E urope ,

i t i s real l y s t i l l great and r a i ses i tse l f beyond everyth i ng

thought or wr i tten about mu s i c at any t i me.

2. I f Ti motheus , who bewi tched Al exander , were t o appear today , he

wou l d h ave h ard l y been ·used other t h an a Col o phon i an boy . 5

Vel oci ty , const ancy , deep and exal t i ng feel i ng , art l y i ns i ght and

the gent l est mark on t h at wh i ch h e art and s p i r i t rouse h ave n ow

5 The Col o phon i an s , f rom Asi a M i nor , were c h ar acter i zed by


some anc i en t wri ters as bei ng effem i n at e and l u xur i ous , wh i ch does not
s eem to f i t Sch u b art ' s descr i pt i on . By other wri ters , however , the
Col ophoni an s were character i zed as be i ng v i ctor i ou s i n b att l e . Thu s , a
Col ophon i an boy , i n t h i s sense, wou l d represent s omeone who m i ght h ave
ab i l i ty for war (or i n t h i s c as e , the abi l i ty t o p l ay the f l ute ) but
not the mat ur i ty nor the experi ence. W h at Schub art i s s ayi n g i s t h at
al though T i motheus may h ave been a great f l ute p l ayer i n h i s own t i me ,
he wou l d i n no way me asure up to today • s i nstrumental i st s .
3 26
spread among us t h at the Greeks and R omans wou l d l ook u p h i gh i f
they were st and i ng before our o rchestras . The theory h as been so
mi n utely d i s sected i n al l i ts vei ns , vessel s , and arter i e s t h at the
art i st i s start l ed and can h ard ly stammer anyth i ng other than
s ayi n g , 0Wh at d i d P h i l i p l eave to A l ex ander?n 6
3 . There was once a t i me where o n e asserted very unashamed ly th at
mus i c h ad been brought to such a po i nt that there was noth i ng l eft
to do.
S i nce no art i s exhausted l ess t h an mu s i c , s i nce the domai n of
h armony i s the u n i verse, [ and ] s i nce i nnumerab ly many new compos i ­
t i on s , i n struments , and mot i ves are sti l l thought o f , one sees for
h i mse l f how unphi l osophi cal th i s c l a i m i s . Because the t aste
towards the comi c produces gre at dev astat i on among us , our best
effort h ad to go to l i mi t th i s taste as much as poss i b l e and to
make a p l ace anew for the s er i ous , hero i c , trag i c , p athos , and
state l y .
The s�cred styl e must ag ai n g i ve up the i nso l ent mi en to wh i ch
i t h as degenerated and revea l p as s i on of devot i on i n heaven l y-gaz i ng
eyes. On one hand the composer must not spend too mu ch t i me i n

6 schubart probabl y refers to a p ass age i n P l utarch ' s L i ves


( s. v. "Al exander " ) where Al exander comp l ai ns , u pon hear i ng that hi s
father Phi l i p h as conquered another c i ty , that noth i ng w i l l be l eft for
h i m to accomp l i s h . From h i story we know that Al exan der, even wi th h i s
early death at the age o f 3 2 , h ad become the wor l d 's greatest con­
queror. Schubart i s s ayi n g that there i s sti l l a great deal to be done
in mus i c . See P l utarch , The L i ves of the N ob l e Grec i an s and Roman s :
The Dryden Trans l at i on , Great Books o f the Western World, val . 14
(Chi c ag o : tncycl opedi a Bri tann i c a , 1 95 2 ) , p . 542 .

3 27
med i t at i on , but on the other h and he shou l d not mock al l theor i e s .
I t i s true th at mu s i c mu st be s i mp l i f i ed , but i t certai n l y mu st not
be turned out b are i nto the wor l d . I t w i l l be espec i al ly necess ary to
seek out a new rhythm i n wh i ch the ever present cesuras wi l l not make
our mu s i c monotonou s . F i na l ly, t h e composer mu st ref i ne new compo­
sit i ons , bri ng the o l d measure i nto mot i o n agai n , st u dy the fo l k
mel od i es more c l ose l y , and h e must compose and perform w i th a streak
of gen i u s i n h i s sou l . Thu s , mus i c wi l l not on ly h ave been l ed back
to i t s former d i gn i ty and subl imi ty but w i l l soon reach a hei ght
[Sonnenpu nct] to wh i ch it has never as cended .

Hymn

Holy art of mu s i c , of the d i v i ne race !


P l aymate of angel s , conf i dant of heaven ,
Over wh i ch fal l en man k i nd comp l ai ns .
The thorny p ath of l i fe i nj ured h i s so l e ,
A bl oody tear fel l u pon the burn i ng nett l e .
Then you , h e aven ly one, tread, i n swan • s dress before them
And i nsti l l ed i n them the spi r i t of song.
Now the stri n gs sounded u nder the drawn bow,
Now the gol den web of the h arp sounded ,
Now the s i l ver-webbed lyre sounded,
Now the trumpet sound b l ared ,
And the charger n e ighed here i n .
Now the b l az i ng horn resounded ,

3 28
N ow the d e l i c ate , l yd i an f l ute wh i spered
Now the d ance wh i rl ed ag ai n ,

N ow the young boy softened i n l o ve,


The t o i l i n g g i r l me l ted i n l ov e .

I n t h e t emp l e s ounded t h e prai se o f J eh ov ah ,

The echo i ng ram • s horns resounded there i n ,


And the asoor and the g 1 th i t and the crash i ng cymbal .

The thunder of the � rose to O lympus .

The P sa l m f l ed l i ght n i n g fast to t h e H o l y o f H o l i e s ;


And Jeho v ah smi l ed w i t h approv a l !

Let me v i s i t you , d i v i ne P o l yhymn i a !


For you a l s o v i s i ted me i n the hours of con sec r at i o n ;

You g ave me man l y song, and h arps i chord p l ayi n g ,

T h at I m i ght command the tears o f the l i steners t o f l ow ,

That I mi ght co l or the counten ance o f the feel i ng boy

W i t h the ent h u s i asm of p as s i on ;

That I mi ght e l i c i t s i gh s o f l ov e from the g i r l l y i n g i n wai t;

Th at through Wot an • s song I m i ght swel l the bosom of men .

O h , l et me never profane you , d i v i ne P o l yhymn i a,

Or your g i ft of he aven l y d i gni ty !

Let me s i ng , J ehov ah ,

Who i s , who was , and who come s !

To you , oh v i rtu e , to you , p i ous l ove,


To you , f ami l i ar p l e as antry at the unprofaned cup ,

And , al as to you , oh f ather l and , f ather l and ,

3 29
T h at I l ove, as a youth h i s f i anc e e .
To you , oh f at h er l an d , of heros a n d o f f i ery sou l s ,

I ded i c ated my h arpsi c hord p l ayi n g and my son g !

I f I shou l d somed ay s l umber after my l i fe o f toi l s ,

When t h e mound i s p i l ed u p o ver my bones ,

When I l e av e beh i nd my bonds of ch ai n s ,

At t h e s i te of t h e grav e :
Thus , i f a tender boy l i ngers a t my gr av e ,

Thus , i f a sen s i t i ve g i r l l i n gers a t my grave;

And they l ook heavenward and speak


W i th the s h i mmer i ng g l ance o f t h e most profound f ee l i ngs

of t he i r heart s :

"B l ow gent l y breeze , around t h i s ashen mound ;

Here rest s Po l yhymn i a ' s fr i end !

God g av e h i m s ong and h arp s i chord .


He never profaned the pr i ce l e s s g i ft .

H e h angs up t h e h arp i n t h e t emp l e

And h i s t e lyn i n Thu i skon • s grov e !

330
CHRI STIAN FR I EDR I C H DAN I EL SC HUBART ' S

I DEEN ZU E I NER � STH ET IK DER TONKUNST :

AN AN NOTATED TRAN SLAT I ON

( P art Two )

Ted Al an DuBoi s

A D i s sertat i on Presented to the

FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

UNI V ERSITY OF SOUTHERN CAL I FORN I A

I n Part i al F u l f i l l ment o f t he

Req u i remen t s for the Degree

DOCTOR OF P H I LOSOPHY

( Mu s i col ogy )

Augu st 1983
PART TWO
TH E PR I N C I PLES OF MUS I C

331
XXXV I . CONCERN I NG TH E MU S I CAL . I NSTRUMENTS

Concern i ng t h e Organ

The f i rst of a l l mu s i c a l i nstruments , th i s s uperb i nv ent i on

of the h uman spi r i t h as r i sen gr adu al l y t hrough many cent u r i es to that

perfect i on of wh i ch i t d i sp l ays now . Al l of Euro pe endeavored to


i rnprove s uc h a wo r k . W e h av e a l ready heard i n t h e h i story t h at the

Germans cont r i b uted t h e most to i ts p erfect i on .

Th i s d i v i ne i n strument h as v ar i ou s r ank s . From four stops i t


h as r i sen to more t h an s i xty-four , wh i ch are even doubl ed i n some l arge

work s and are t h u s of marve l l ou s effect . Some organs h ave on l y one

manua l , some two , others three. The p i pes , wh i ch are s et i n mot i on by

the stops and rece i ve breath and l i fe by means of the w i nd chest , are

made p art l y of t i n , p art l y of wood , somet i mes a l so of s i l ver . The mai n

stops are the P r i n z i p a l , Qu i nt e , Okt av e , Qu i nt ato n , Grobgedeckt , and

SUs s- or K l e i n gedeckt , and Sesqu i a l ter a ; the v ar i ous s h ad i n gs , the

f l ute stop; and for the d i ver se i m i t at i on s of a l l i n strument s , of the

trumpet , horn , v i o l a , v i o l i n , t i mpan i , cymba l , b i rd -s i ngi ng, and


f i nal l y of t h e echo and the h uman vo i ce . The l atter stop makes the

gre atest effect whenever a sen s i t i v e master h and l es i t . The coup l er

i s t h at stop wh i ch combi nes t h e who l e power of the org an i n one p l ace .


The peda l c arr i es the f l ood o f t h e g re atest s i n g i ng congregat i o n . It

i s c al c u l ated accord i ng to the measure of the foot , and the org an

332
makers h ave al re ady i ncreased i t from two feet to thi rty-t wo. The
p i pe of l ow C then h as a vo l ume i n wh i ch the l argest man c an stand
comfort abl y .
The tone of a good organ must be l arge, cutt i ng , and al l ­
penetrat i n g . Noth i ng i s more d i ff i cu l t than the pure voi c i ng of the
organ . I n the chords B major and E major there i s the so-cal l ed hi atu s
or wol f , wh ere t h e org an masters , who d i d not carefu l ly study the tem­
perament , try to conceal the i mperfect i on of the i r k i nd of voi c i ng .
But s i nce a true organ p l ayer as g l ad l y wal l ows i n t h e chromat i c notes
as the d i aton i c , the org an tuner must try carefu l l y to conceal the wol f
tone from al l keys . I t i s a p aradoxi ca l yet perfect l y founded pri nci ­
p l e that one may tune no key comp l et e ly pure l y i n the org an because
other notes thereby suffer . The greatest art , therefore, consi sts of
t h at wh i ch i s to d i stri bute the adherent i mperfect i on of th i s i nstru­
ment so wi se l y t h at every key h as the smal l est poss i b l e p art of [the
wo l f ] . The best and purest org an vo i c i ng i s that by f i fths accordi ng
to the fol l owi ng arrangemen t :
C major , G major
E mi nor , B mi nor
D major , A major
F-s h arp mi nor , C-sh arp mi nor
E major, B major
G-sh arp mi nor , D- sharp mi nor
F-sh arp major , C-sh arp major
B-f l at mi nor , F mi nor
A-fl at major, E-f l at major
333
C mi nor , G m i nor
B -f l at m aj o r , F m aj or

D m i nor , A mi nor

S i nce the keys are s t ated h ere accord i ng to thei r con s an­

g u i n i ty , or i nner n ature , th i s i s the best pos s i b l e vo i c i n g . Temper­

ame nt , or t he i mport ant t heory of equal and uneq u a l beat , on the

strength of wh i ch e ach note s hou l d move on to i ts rel ated notes i n a

curve, the t u ner must l earn p art l y from the mathemat i c al rel at i onsh i ps

b u t more through the most d e l i cate and most ref i ned e ar . The best

org an s i n Europe are found now i n Rome , F l orence, London , Antwerp ,

Sa l zburg, Mannh ei m , Ber l i n , and Fr ankfurt , and the most f amou s of al l

i n t h e Franci sc an mon astery at Hal b erst ad t .

About the mech an i sm of the org an and about t h e construct i on of

the best org ans i n a l l of E urope , Werckme i ster l and Ad l u ng 2 h av e

wri tten t h e best work s . *

Ad l u n g h as produ ced a thorough book about t h e n at ure of the

*The mer i to r i o u s c h an ce l l ery pub l i sher W agner i n U l m h as

comp l et ed an i nventory of a l l known organ s , wh i ch h e co l l ected over a

t h i rty-ye ar per i od , b ut th i s usefu l work st i l l h as not come out i n


pr i nt .

l Andreas Werckme i ster , Orgel -Probe, oder Kurtze Beschrei bung,


w i e u n d we l cher Gest al t m an d i e Orgel -Werke von den Orgelmachern

1681) .
annehmen , probi ren , u n ter s uchen , und den Ki rchen li efern k8nne und
so 1 1 e ll"rankfurt am Ma1 n und L 1 ep 2 1 g : Theodor Ph l l l pp Cal v f s f u s ,

Al brecht ( Ber l i n : Fr i edr1 ch W1 !He l m B1 rnst1 e l , 1768) .


2J akob Ad l u n g , Mus i c a mec h an i c a organoed i , ed . Joh ann Lorenz

334
stops , abo ut the adv ant ages and weak nesses of our org an s , and about
the best poss i b l e f urn i sh i ngs of the org an . Yet hours of observat i o n

at the s i de of a master i s more u s ef u l t h an years o f read i ng about th i s

s u bj ect .

I de a l of an Org an P l ayer

J ust as the organ i s the best i nstrument , so i s t h e organ i st

the best mu s i c i an . The man i pu l at i on of the organ i s extreme l y d i ff i ­

c u l t , and one must b e endowed w i th i nt e l l ectu a l and phys i c a l perfec­


tion. By the former I mean gen i u s and study. I f the embers of geni us

do not f l ame i n one ' s bosom , he wi l l never become a s i gn i f i c ant org an­

i st . And whoever re l i es sol e l y on h i s gen i us and doe s not c aref u l l y


st udy t h e n ature of t h i s d i ff i cu l t i n strument , he wi l l remai n a n atu­

ral i st forever : i so l ated sparks wi l l c ause adm i r at i o n , b ut the who l e

w i l l never b u i l d a f i re .

F i rst of a l l t h e org an i st mu st st u dy counterpo i nt most

mi nute ly , for counterpoi nt h as i t s true home at the org an .

A true organ i st mu st b e ab l e to re a l i ze t horo ugh l y on the spot

a g i ven theme to a f u gu e , and th i s accomp l i shment c annot be i magi ned

wi thout profound st u dy of counterpo i nt . How mu ch sk i l l does not b e l on g

t o l ead i ng t h e modu l at i on s prope r l y , str i k i ng t h e f u l l h armo n i es cor­


rect l y , i nvert i ng t h e pr i nc i pal phr ase , emp l oy i n g s i ng l e and doub l e

counterpoi nt , and do i ng a l l t h at w i th f i re !

Improv i s at i on [ph antas i e] i s a l most an i nd i v i du a l p roduct of


geni us . W i thout f i ery i mag i n at i on , wi thout creat i ve s p i r i t , w i thout

335
i nstantaneous i deas , no one wi l l produce exce l l ent i mprov i sat i o n . The
improv i sati on remarkab ly h as very many s imi l ar i t i es wi th the poet i c
d i thyramb : i t steps from the domai n of r u l es and me as ures , i t i rr i ­
gates and fert i l i zes wi thout ever be i n g i nundated , i t soars t o heaven ,
i t p l unges to hel l , and a l l types of mu s i c l i e i n i t s c i rc umference.
From thi s descr i pt i on i t becomes ev i dent , the n , that there cou l d be
few men who i mprov i se we l l ; for f i rst of al l , the creat i ve s p i r i t i s
extreme ly r are , and then , not every hour i s an hour when gen i us i s
evi dent . I mprov i s i ng c annot be l e arned at al l , for , a l though there
are some who commi t i mprov i s at i on to memory , there i s noth i ng e as i er
than to d i st i ngu i sh the pract i ced from the sel f-created . I mprovi s at i on
i s , therefore, the f i rst u nm i stak ab l e char acter i st i c of an exce l l ent
organ i st .
The pre l ude and i nter l u de are much eas i er , for one c an acqu i re
moderate strength through i m i t at i o n ; and because the notes move with i n
the boundar i es o f the measure, the performance i s s ubj ect to much fewer
diff i cu l t i es .
The n ature of pre l udes i s , i n short , th i s : they must be sui ted
prec i se ly to the theme of the chor a l e [ L i ed ] . For examp l e , the prel ud�
to the choral e "0 Ewi gkei t , du Donnerwort ! etc . , " must provoke fear and
terror , just as the pre l ude to the chor a l e "0 Jerus a l em du Sch6ne,
etc . .. must arouse yearni ng and l on g i ng after heaven . Whoever . deeply
feel s the text of a choral e wi l l n ever comm i t the i mpropr i ety of
pre l u d i ng i nsol ently to the song 11 0 Traur i gkei t , 0 Herzelei d l etc . , "
iilnd pour out a b 1 ack , 1 ethargi c s auce over the song "Nun danket al l e
Gott , etc . 11

336
D ur i ng t h e commu n i on , where t h e pre l udes must be most l y l on g ,

the andante, ad ag i o , l argo , affetuos o , amoro s o , and the c an t ab i l e are

very mu ch recommended . B ut one must be on h i s gu ard for profane i de as

and for though t l es s rhythms and mov ements so t h at the l i stener i s not

d i st urbed i n h i s prayers . O uts i de of the c hurch i t i s permi tted to


p l ay an a l l a breve or a l l egr� i n order t o , as i t were , rel ax the con­

greg at i on somewh at from the i r exert i on . Yet here o n e must be o n h i s

guar d , out of res pect for rel i g i o n , not to f a l l i nto the thought l es s

three-ei ght beat f o r fear th at the congregat i on wou l d b e ent i ced to

d ance outs i de of churc h . On the other h an d , s i x -e i ght and twe l ve­

e i ght-- i n the most moderate t emp i -- are to l er ab l e . I t i s best o f a l l


when one s e l ect s the a l l a breve beat wh i ch u n i tes l i ve l i ne s s and f i re

w i t h pur i ty.

The i nter l udes are more d i ff i c u l t and more i mport ant than many
bel i ev e . They shou l d , proper l y , a l ways i nterpret the next l i ne of the

chora l e. W hoev er chooses a profane though t at the preparat i on of a

ho l y thoug h t sows weeds amon g the wheat; and whoever p l ays a sad i nter­

l ud e , creep i ng a l on g i n sem i tone s , before a j oyou s t ho u ght does not


know wh at he i s s i ng i ng and does not know wh at he i s p l ayi n g . One must

l i kew i se be on g u ard for l u l l i ng , red u n d ant , ap i sh ly l e arned i nter­


l ud es , bec ause t hey bore the congregat i o n . Beaut i fu l runs by means of

f i nger i n gs , t h i rd s and s i xths , s i mp l e and , where pos s i b l e , doub l e

tr i l l s , p l easant wanderi ng h a l f -steps , the not-too-l i ve ly and qu i ck

tumb l e t hrough sev enth and s i x-f i v e c hord s , and a thousandfol d t r i c k s


whereby the l i stener i s entert ai ned are the most unmi s t ak ab l e formu l a

for these i nter l udes . One must be on gu ard so much t h e more ag ai nst
337
al l l uxur i ant abuses i n the choral e as they creep i nto t h e heart of
the l i stener l i ke a po i so n . A Mor av i an attended a d i v i ne serv i ce
sever al ye ars ago where a very good , but somet i mes pet u l ant org an i st
p l ayed . The organ i st commi tted the i mprudence of choosi ng a profane
phrase for the i nterl ude. After t h e serv i ce the Mor av i an sai d to the
organ i st , NYou h ave annoyed me tod ay , for I heard the run between the
choral e [verses ] twenty years ago i n a comedy. N As strong as thi s
ch al l enge i s , one must fo l l ow the i nstruc t i on of the apostl e Pau l wh i ch !
g i ves the tenet to al l superv i sors of congregat i ons , consequent l y al so I
to organ i sts , to treat the i r del i cate brothers w i t h con s i derat i on . One
shou l d read the beauti f u l and emph ati c t h i n gs the famou s K ape l l mei ster
Rei ch ardt i n Ber l i n has s a i d on the s ubject .
The strongest poi nt of the true org ani st mu st be present i n the
performance of t h e choral e. Th i s performance is threefo l d : one ei ther
prel u des the choral e of the congregat i on s i mp ly , o r a l ters i t art i s­
t i cal ly, or accomp an i es the congreg at i on wi th i t . I n t h e f i rst case,
s i mp l i c i ty and beauty are great l y to be recommended . One chooses , for
ex amp l e , the f l ute stop for the performance of the me l ody o r , where i t
i s av ai l ab l e, the d i v i ne vox h uman a , [ and ] p l ays the mel ody q u i te s i m­
p ly wi th extreme fee l i ng of the prev ai l i ng tone. For the accompani ment
on the other manu al , however , one shou l d t ake perh aps the v i o l a d a
gamb a and shou l d p l ay the ped al o n l y s i mp ly , so that the tender me l ody
w i l l not be destroyed . T h i s very d i ff i c u l t manner of p l ayi ng requ i res
much gen i us an d fee l i n g .
The art i st i c v ar i at i on c an b e l earned mech an i cal ly. O n e c an
real i ze i t fugal ly or wi th a runn i ng bass , wi th doubl ed or s i n g l e
338
ped a l , whereby the appropri ate and qu i c k a l ternat i on of stops b r i n gs
forth great effect . One mu st espec i al l y be on gu ard here for pro l i x i ty

and ped ant i c modu l at i on s ; a l so the me l od i es mu st never drown i n a


wh i rl poo l of strange ornaments . Dur i ng the s i ng i ng i t i s tot al l y out

of p l ac e to v ary the choral e . S i mp l i c i ty , tonal body , busy , promi nent

ped a l , u n affected mod u l at i on s , correct and beaut i fu l h armon i es are pre­

c i se l y wh at i s req u i red o f mus i c i an s i n t h i s s i t u at i o n . O n l y wretched

schoo lmasters and bung l ers search for honor when t h ey ent ang l e the con­

g reg at i on wi t h a l l too art i fi c i al modu l at i on s .


The k�ow l edge of the stops i s for an organ i st just wh at the

m i x i ng of co l ors i s to an art i st . B oth s i des of the organ are the v i r­

t uoso ' s pal ett e ; and the qu i c ker and more correct l y an org an i st knows

h ow to draw or repl ace the stops s u i t ab l y for t h e grad u a l i ncrease of


sound s , the better h e understands h i s i nstrument .

The peda l h as great d i ff i c u l t i es bec ause o f i t s enormous

strengt h as wel l as because of i t s d i verse n ature. One m ay sel dom

p ed a l wi th the r i g h t foot as he does w i t h t h e l eft because the r i ght

one act ua l l y be l on g s to the sphere of the obb l i g ato c e l l o , wh i l e the

l eft foot borders o n the n ature of the doub l e b as s and the b ass trom­

bon e . One mu st h ave spec i a l shoes wi t h v ery h i gh hee l s made s o t hat I

c an b r i n g forth t h e t h i rd and , by spr i ng i ng , even the fourth. In other


respects t he theory of the ped a l i s one wi t h the thoro u gh b as s .

To a l l o f these great q u a l i t i es o f the org an i st mu st st i l l

come , i n add i t i o n , i nd i spensab l e phys i c�l perfecti on . H i s h an d mu st be

stro n g and mu st possess great e l asti c i ty . Moreover , strong nerves

are requ i re d , a f ar-reach i ng h an d , and feet a l most endowed w i t h

339
d ancer ' s sk i l l . One sees f rom th i s how d i ff i cu l t i t i s to re ach such
an i deal and h ow h i gh a m an mu st be respected who measures u p to the

furthest po i nt on th i s scal e .

Concern i ng the H arps i chord or the C l avi er

T he c l av i er h as s ucceeded the most among al l the i nstruments


i n o ur t ime . Former l y , and i n the f i rst h al f of the present century ,

h ard l y one c l av i er i s t i n al l the prov i nces was fo und . N ow everyone

pl ays , stri kes , dr ums , and p i pe s ; the nob l e and i gnob l e ; the bung l er

and v i rtuoso [ Kraftmann] ; woman , man , boy, and g i r l . The c l av i er h as

even become one of the most i mport ant art i c l es i n styl i sh u pbr i ng i n g .

The i nstr ument owes i ts present great i mprovement to t h i s gener al


enth u s i asm.

In order t o def i n e the pr i nc i p l es o f the c l av i er prec i se l y , the

c l av i ers themsel ves mu st be d i st i n g u i shed beforeh an d from one another .

1. The h arps i chord [ F lUgel ] , wh i ch ascend s and p l uc k s the stri ngs w i th

e i ther r aven ' s q u i l l s or , st i l l better (but of course f ar more

expens i ve ) w i th g i l ted met a l . I t merel y h as s i mpl e contour, but so


c l ear l y marked and so sh arp l y drawn as the f i gure of a Knel l er or

C hodow i eck i wi thout c h ange of co l or . O n th i s i nstrument pure

execut i on must f i rs t be l earned, or, th at whi ch i s t he s ame th i ng ,


the h and i s exerc i sed i n t h e correct mus i c al des i gn . I f one even

waves wi th the h an d , the contour of the p i ece on th i s i nstrument

wi l l be d i storted . F or th i s reason the beg i nner shoul d pract i ce


f i rst on the h arps i chord , acq u i re a q u i ck , wel l -trai ned h and , and

340
strengthen h i ms e l f i n the most exacti ng and preci se performance of
compos i t i ons before he goes on to other c l av i er type s . l
Whoever h as l earned to perform a p i ece wel l on a Fri eder i zi ,
S i l bermann , or Stei n h arps i chord--for these are the best by f ar
among al l known unt i l now--wi l l progress on other c l avi ers so much
eas i er . But one mu st not t arry too l ong on the h arpsi chor d , for
th i s i nstrument i s more for the al l egro than the ad ag i o ; conse­
quent l y , [ i t i s ] more appropri ate to the art t h an to the perform­
ance of sensi t i ve p i eces .
2. Fortepi ano . Thi s sp l end i d i n strument--Hai l to u s ! --ag ai n an i nven­
t i on of the Germ ans . Si l bermann sensed the rudeness of the harp s i ­
c hord , whi ch ei ther cou l d not tot al l y express the col orat i on or
expressed i t by means of stops i n al l too strong contrasts , so
d eep ly that he thoght of a w ay to b r i ng col ors to the h arps i chord .
He and h i s successors came, therefore , u pon the great d i scovery of
br i ng i ng forth the forte and pi ano w i t hout stops--because stops
on ly cause del ay- -by mean s of the pres s i ng of the h an d wi th the
greatest poss i b l e vel oci ty . I f the mezzot i nto cou l d be brought to
the fortep i an o , no wi sh wou l d remai n for the h arps i chord i st . - Si nce
then th i s magn i f i cent i nstrument h as been brought to s uch a per­
fect i on that one can produce the fu l l m ag i c of mus i c, so much more
by the e l ast i c i ty of h i s f i n gers t h an by means of h i s knee, wi th
wh i ch one mod i fi es the strengths and weaknes ses of the sounds
wi thout gr i m ac i n g . There are fortepi anos of ten, twe l ve , [ and ] u p

l Burney makes a s i mi l ar observ at i on i n B urney G , p . 9 6 .

341
to twenty stops . A nob l eman i n M ai n z h as made one where the f l ute,
v i o l i n, bassoon , obo e , even horns and trumpets were conjured up i n
t h e fortep i ano . When the secret of b u i l d i ng i s m ade known by th i s
great i nventor t o the wor l d , one wi l l h ave an i nstrument th at
d evours al l other s .
Spath i n R egensburg , F r i ck i n B er l i n , S i l bermann i n Strasbourg,
Strouth i n London , and especi a l ly Ste i n i n Augsburg now make the
best fortep i anos k nown .
The way of man i pu l at i ng th i s i n strument i s very d i ff i cu i l t
from the qu i l l ed h arpsi chor d . The l atter [ i . e , the h arpsi chord]
r equ i re s on l y gent l e touch , but the fortep i ano requ i res a j erk i ng
or s l i pp i ng mot i on . The mus i c a l co l orat i on can be expres sed here
so s u i t ab l y , but by far not i n al l i ts n u ances.
3. C l av i chor d . Th i s l on e l y , mel ancho l i c, i nexpres s i b ly sweet i nstru­
ment , when i t i s made by a master , h as adv antages over the harpsi ­
chord and the fortep i ano. By means of the pressure of the f i nger,
by the v i br at i on and bebung of the str i ngs , by the strong or
gent l er touch of the h an d , not on ly can the natural musi cal colors
be determi ned , but a l so the me zzot i nto , the swel l i n g and fad i ng
away of sound s , the breathtak i ng tri l l mel t i ng away under the
f i ngers , the portamento or the Trager, in a word , a l l traits are
determi ned from wh i ch feel i ng i s composed . Whoever does not l i ke
to thunder , r age, and storm ; whose heart often and h app i l y bursts
i nto sweet fee l i ngs--l et h i m bypass the h arpsi chord and fortepi ano
p l ayers , but extremel y few c l av i chordi sts .

34 2
The c l av i chords tod ay h ave a l most reached the i r s ummi t : they
are of f i ve or s i x oct ave s ; are fretted or u nfretted ; wi t h and

w i thout l ut e stops ; and i t seems for the sens i t i ve p l ayer t h at

another perfect i on c an h ard l y b e i mp arted to t h i s i nstrument .

4. P antal eon . 2 A dwarf of the fortepai n o . S i nce i t sounds too


t i n ny [ b l eche l n ] , the i n strument i s cont i nual l y i nc ap ab l e of g i v i ng

the keynote i n the worl d of mus i c . The treat ment o f t h i s i nstru­

ment i s a gent l e touch . Si nce i t on l y h as t an gents , wh i ch consi st


of l i tt l e h ammers or touch p i eces [ Tocken] , they must be tossed

rather t h an pus hed thro ug h . The v i brato c an be expressed here most

perfect l y , but a l l f ee l i ngs founder because the n u ances , or mezzo­

t i ntos , are l ac k i ng . The cont i n u al b i rd - l i ke j ump i n g from one

sound to another w i thout f i l l i ng i n the g aps; the ro ar , no i se , and

ratt l e of th i s i nstr ument- - [t h i s] makes i t bearab l e for few g ath­

e r i n gs and prophes i es i ts near end .

5. Harmon i c a. Th e i nventor of th i s c l av i er type was Frank l i n , one of

the p i l l ars on wh i ch t he recent Ame r i c an greatness i s founded. The


Germans h ave perfected th i s i n strumen t . I t cons i st s of tun ed g l as s

p l ates , or be l l - s h aped pi eces o f g l as s , a l l t u ned accord i ng t o the

peri phery of ton e s . B y rubb i n g w i th wet f i n gers , t h e sound i s

brought forth from i ts f i rst beg i n n i n g to i t s fu l l maturi ty i n

utmost de l i c acy. The sen s i t i ve p l ayer i s made for th i s i nstrument .

I f the heart ' s b l ood d r i ps from the t i ps of h i s f i n gers , i f every

2 sch ubart ' s o ut l i ne of th i s sect i on ( " P anta l eon" thro u gh the


par agr aph on ''F r i ck" ) fo l l ows th at of the MAfD 1782, pp . 28-34 .

343
note of h i s performance i s a p u l se beat , i f he c an tr an sform
rubb i n g , s l i d i n g , and t i ck l i ng- -then l et h i m approach t h i s

i nstrument and p l ay.

F r i ck , a German , h as brough t i t t o the greatest perfect i on .


B u t i n t h e dom a i n o f mus i c, i t i s on l y prov i nc i,al and deserves no

further sphere of act i v i ty. The frag i l e bel l s ; the extraordi n ary

d i ff i cu l ty of tu n i ng ; the h o l l ow , extr eme l y me l ancho l y tune wh i ch

i nv i tes the deepest s adness ; the d i ff i c u l ty of progress from one

be l l to another ; the i mpo s s i b i l i ty of br i ng i ng out eve n a moderate

a l l egro ; the cont i n u a l l y how l i ng , p l ai nt i ve d i rge [ Graberto n ] -­

these t h i ngs make the i nstrument a b l ack t i nt , a great pai n t i ng

where i n ev ery group s adness bow s down o ver a deceased fri end .

6. Me l qdjk a. Th i s great i n vent i o n of Stei n [c a. 1 758-7 2] rect i f i es

[ au sfU l l en] a l l o f the i nd i cated def i c i enci es of the c l av i er . It

h as mezzot i ntos , l i qui fact i on o f sounds , wh i ch are brought about by

means of spri n g mec h an i sms [ St ah l feder] at the k eybo ard , i n a word ,

j ust those q u a l i t i es wh i ch m ak e i t a s l ave of the p l ayer wi thout

ever mak i ng the p l ayer the s l ave . The f i nger o f the p l ayer ru l es

as a sceptre. The t angent s are l i ke pu l p or may be k neaded as

dou gh . A s p r i ng mech an i sm, wh i ch obeys the gent l est t o uch , i s

added t o the k eybo ard of th i s i nst rument . Th i s i nstrument wou l d be

al most perfect i f i t were not tot al l y l i mi ted to p i pes . The best

performance re l i es u pon the best performance of the fl ute p l ayer-­

and then noth i ng further. I t i s , therefore , an i n strument w i th

344
wh i ch one c an on l y co l or , but c an never create n ew me l od i es-- a
mag n i f i cent f anfare wi thout regard to good d es i gn . *

The rema i n i ng v ar i at i on s o f t h e c l av i chords and c l av i ers ,


for examp l e , the n as a l reed org a n , the �ortat i ve -c l av i er , [ and ] the

pos i t i ve org an , basi c al l y d eserve l i tt l e comment , bec ause true conno i s­

seurs h av e n ever esteemed them. But whether a new c l av i er type i s

s t i l l poss i b l e i s a quest i on wh i ch a mus i c a l B acon must answer. 3 It

i s po ss i b l e . The need s of the p l ayi ng g en i u s must determ i ne th i s .

*The i nventor h i msel f h as made known a pri nted descr i pt i on

of i t . 4

3 sch u b art he l d B acon i n h i g h reg ard , espec i a l l y for h i s


i nduct i ve metho d , as for exampl e , " B ako ze i chnete d i e C h arte der
W i ssensc h aften . .. GS, 7 : 39 .

neuerf i ndenen C l av i er i nstruments (�ugsburg : J. J. Lotter , 1773) .


4 Joh ann Andreas Stei n , Beschre i bu ng mei ner Me l od i c a , e i nes

345
XXXV I I . CONCER N I NG F INGER I NG

The correct man i pu l at i on of t h i s f i rst i nstrument i s above

al l determ i ned by t h e App l i c at u r or f i nger i n g . Th i s [fi nger i ng ] c an­

not real l y b e ent i re l y d ef i n ed for the g en i u s , for he c an i nvent

phr ases wh i c h requ i re a n ew p l acement of t h e t h umb . But for t h e

al ready i nvented r u ns go i ng t hrough a l l keys , a [s i ng l e ] conce i v ab l e

h an d pos i t i on o r Ap p l i c at u r i s u n att a i n ab l e .

We s h a l l use i n a l l 24 keys : 1 for the th umb ; 2 , t h e i ndex

f i nger ; 3 , the m i dd l e f i n g e r ; 4 , the r i n g f i nger ; [ an d ] 5 , the l i tt l e

or e ar f i nger. 1 These proposed f i n ger i n gs are , as one sees , drawn

from n at u r e , but h av e l on g been i n suff i ci ent for a l l the req u i rements

of art . The art i st i s a god : i f h e c r e ates n ew t i r ades , h e must a l so

create new f i n geri n gs . Consequen t l y , a l l great composers shou l d notate

fi n g er i ngs , as h av e , for examp l e , B ac h , V ogl er , and oth ers . The

v ar i ous t r i cks of mus i c , s uch as t hey were observed by great col or i sts ,

must al so be heeded by c l av i er i sts . Here are s ome of t h e t i me l ess

stat utes wh i ch gu i de , and must cont i n u a l l y gu i de , the c l av i er p l ayer :

1 I n L udwi g Schub art • s correct i on s to the 1806 ed i t i on , h e


st ates that t h e app l i cat i o n o f t h i s f i n ger i ng system was m i s s i n g from
the manuscr i pt p ages , but t h at the 11B ach i an f i n er i ng11 w as not t o b e

used here . Perh aps t h i s refers to C. P . E . Bac ' s sectio n o n fi ngeri n g
i n ni s Vers uch ( C ar l P h i l i pp Eman u e l B ach , E s s a o n t h e True Art of
f
P l ayi n g Keyboard I n struments , tran s . and ed. Wi l i am J. Mitchel l CRew
York : Norton , 1 949J , p p . 4l-t8 ) , wh i ch cont a i ned c ert a i n concepts t h at
were ch al l enged l ater i n the century. See Grove 6 , 6 : 5 7 3 .

346
1. P up i l of the c l av i er ! � correct l y ! I f you c an d o t h i s , you
do everyth i n g .

But the art o f read i ng i s s o great [ an d ] h as s uch u nend i ng mod­

i f i c at i on s tht i t i s extreme l y d i ff i c u l t to stammer about i t . Yet I

want to attempt some gu i de l i nes and l end a l an g u age to t he aesthet i c


performance of t h e c l av i er .

2. F i rst , one must pract i ce i n grammat i cal performance and conform

to t h e mus i ca l p u l se most prec i se l y . O n e mu st reconstruct

[ umschrei be] the framework of the p i ece , determi ne a l l the border­

l i nes of the me l od i es most correc t l y , and m i mi c w i th p h i l osoph i c a l

co l d ness wh atever the composer pronou nced . Then , one mu st pract i ce

i n the performance i ts e l f . If i t i s comi c a l , one stops then and


l i ck s , as i t were , the keys w i th the f i n gers .

3. The h an d mu st a l ways be bri l l i an t ; the f i n gers must be c urved

h al f -round and rel axed . As soon as they stretch , a l l the nerves

are tense and no qui ck performance i n conce i vab l e . But i f the

performance i s s ad , noth i n g i s c l i pped off , r at h er e veryth i ng i s


ref i ned . The notes me l t u nder the f i ngers : they q u i v e r , tremb l e ,

l i ve , [ and ] d i e.

4. Col orat ure i n t h e ad ag i o are nonsense; however , much f ash i on


authori zes th i s non sen s e . One be l i eves rest i ng keys want to be

an i mated by me an s of embel l i shment s , but embel l i shment s n ever

an i mate ; they destroy the v i brance of the [ note ] wh i ch be ars them.

The mordent , the h al f and who l e t r i l l , the f ermat a , and t h e c adenz

must be perfo rme d wi th p l eas ant grac e . I n order to mai n t a i n the

bri l l i ance of the h and , the t humb mu st always p l ay i ts mag i c


347
p l ay. Th i s i mport ant f i n ger beg i n s i n v a l l eys or on the l ower k eys

and al l ows the other f i ngers to d ance on h i l l s . I n th i s o bser v a­

t i on l i es t h e who l e mag i c of f i nger i n g .

5. I n order to b e ab l e to p l ay i n a l l keys , one must pract i ce e ar l y

ar i a s t arts i n D m aj or ; how q u i ck l y i t i s trans p l anted to A maj or


o n i n upward and downward transpos i t i on . For examp l e , an I ta l i an

i f we remember the b as s c l ef t 2 Accord i n g l y , the i mport ance of

I f f, for examp l e, i s t h e k eynot e , and the


the c l ef i s so gre at that the true c l av i er i st c an never f ai l i f he
a l w ays has i t i n mi nd.

con greg at i on r i ses about a h a l f step , I e as i l y t h i nk of the

f i gurat i on of C s h arp ; but i f t h e congregat i on f al l s , thus I th i nk


of not h i ng b u t B f l at i n t h e mu s i c a l character i zat i o n . I n a word,

e very e l ev at i on or depress i on c an b e determi ned by the c l ef . For

t h at reason Vol g er i s qu i te mi st aken when he e l i m i n ates so many

2Th i s ent i re p aragraph present s prob l ems i n i ts t r an s l at i on


s i nce the author i s not c l e ar i n h i s expl an at i on . I f Sch u b art i s
s peak i ng about the pr act i ce of h armon i z i ng a me l ody w i thout t he benefi t
of a f i gured b as s , then t h i s examp l e i s pos s i b l e on l y i f the me l ody i s
not ated i n the s oprano c l ef . To tran s pose the me l ody from the key of D

).
m ajor to the key of A m ajor , one wou l d on l y h ave to add one s h arp and
s u b st i tute the b as s c l ef for the s opr ano c l ef ( i . e . ,
from to

348
c l efs from mu s i c through h i s syst em , and w i th i t wrests f rom the
h ands of a l l c l av i er and org an p l ayer s the m ag i c wand of ch an g e , or

of p as s ages to other k eys . 3

6. T he performan ce on the c l av i er gener a l l l y d i v i des i tsel f 1 nto t h e


so l o or accompan i ment.

3 r n h i s e ar l i er wr i t i ngs , such as the Tonw i ssensch aft und


Tonsetzkunst ( 1 77 6 } , Vog l er exp l ai ned how forty-fou r different
moau 1 at 1 on s were pos s i b l e f rom any ton i c note. However, i n h i s
M annhe i m wr i t i n gs , s uch as the Ku hrpfa l z i sche Tonsch u l e ( 17 78 } , the
more d i st ant rel at i on s h i ps were purged. Schubart probab l y refers to
th i s l atter pub l i c at i on . See Grove 6 , 20 :60 .

349
XXXV I I I . C ONCERN I NG SOLO PLAY I NG

I n real i ty on l y the true v i rtuoso or the mu s i cal g en i us c an

accomp l i sh t h i s . Al l so l os wh i ch are not p l ayed by those i n i t i ated i n

the secret s of the art are c h an ge l i ngs of mus i c and h av e g i ven c l av ier
performance a b ad reput at i on . The so l o p l ayer mu st perform e i ther h t s

own or unfam i l i ar i mprov i s at i ons . I n both c ases he must possess gen­


i us . I f I want to p l ay a sonat a by B ach , I mu st become absorbed so

thoro ugh l y i n the s p i r i t of th i s great man t h at my i nd i v i du al i ty

wi thers away and becomes the B ach i an i d i om. Al l mech an i c a l ski l l s--the

e ar , qu i ck h an d , f i nger i ng , stab i l i ty i n the heart , underst and i n g of

the i n strument , art of read i n g , and so forth-- [ are ] d i scounted : no

s o l o p l ayer ventures on the stage i f h e does not possess creat i ve

power , i f he does not know how to transform the notes i nto just as many

s p arks , i f he c annot petri fy the accomp anyi ng voi ces around h i m as wel l

as the l i steners , an d , al as , i f h e i s i nc ap ab l e of command i ng the

spi r i t to burn i n a l l ten f i ngers .

After sol o p l ayi ng comes the d i ff i c u l t art of accomp an i ment .

M any bel i ev e to h av e a l re ady f i n i shed the i r stud i es herei n , and t hey


are yet i n the r u d i ments of th i s art . To the true accomp an i st

b e l ongs , f i rst of a l l , perfect know l edge of the thorough b as s . It i s ,

of course, surer i f one f i gures the p i eces , but the accomp an i st mu st


a l so be c apab l e of accomp anyi ng w i th power and energy a compo s i t i on

350
wi thout f i gu res . W h atever concerns the t horough b as s b e l o ngs t o the
mathemat i cal and not to the aesthet i c al i n mus i c . The great B ach h as

g i ven such a s p l end i d metho d i c a l i ns truct i on regard i ng t h i s t h at an

add i t i on i s h ar d l y more feas i b l e . l V og l er i nvented a n ew system of

accompan i ment to p l e as e the l ad i es , but i t s eems to me al l too short

and too f l ex i b l e to be s uccessfu l . O n l y t he t ho ughtfu l mus i c i an , n ot

the l ady pl ayi ng mere l y to pass the t im e , i s c ap ab l e of accompanyi ng

each p i ece as i t s n at ure requ i res . One must h av e s tu d i ed and pract i ced

for a l ong t i me the teach i ng of contempor ary and progres s i ve h armony,

the extreme l y d i ff i cu l t i nstruct i on of modu l at i on of the prepared and

unprepared trans i t i on from one key to the othe r , the beauty of son g ,

and part i c u l ar ly t h e d i s cret i on a l ways t o keep i n equal step wi th the

s i nger s . Otherwi s e , one wi l l h ack and peck wi thout any fee l i ng but wi l l

never accomp any. Accord i ng l y , the accomp an i st i n a l l the E u ropean

orchestras i s of s uch great i mport ance t h at he h as the pos i t i on i mmedi ­

at e l y after the K ape l l me i ster . And , most K apel l me i sters undert ake th i s

extremel y i mport ant post themsel ves .

Viol i n

Th i s i nstrument i s one of the greatest i nvent i ons i n mu s i c ;

the more s p l end i d , the s i mp l er i t i s . I ts h i story i s l ost i n remote

ant i qu i ty, yet I d i d not want to as sert , as Burney, that the Jews and

l see the c hapters on thorough b as s and accomp animent i n C ar l


Ph i l i pp Emanue l B ach , Essay on the True Art of P l ayi n Keybo ard
I nstrument s , tran s . and ea: Wi l l i am J . Mitchell (New V ark : Nort o n ,
1949) , pp . 198-429 .
351
Greek s a l ready h ad h ad v i o l i ns , 2 for t h at s ame i nstrument wh i ch

Luther tran s l ated as • v i o l i n • was no v i o l i n , but a lyr e , as Pfei ffer

i n h i s treat i se on the Hebrew poetry r i gh t l y proved. 3 The uAov ,

hyl i n of the Greek s , was l i kewi se not a v i o l i n , but as one sees from

i ns i gn i a on gems and co i ns i nd i sputab l y a heptachord or l yre. B ut i t

i s beyond doubt that the v i o l i n sprang u p from the l yre , and i t i s

h i gh l y probab l e an i n v ent i on of the Span i ard s . The h i stori ographers of

th i s n at i on [ Spai n ] at l east made f i rst men t i on of our v i o l i n of today

and def i ne th i s i n st r ument thus : "We h ave come t o s pe ak of a l yre,

g u i t a r , or as one now c a l l s i t , a v i o l i n , strung wi th c at gut and

drawi ng out mag i c al tones wi th horsehai r smeared wi th ros i n . "

Mur atori c i te s t h i s author i ty. B ut whether t h e Span i sh are

a l so the i n ventors of t h e t un i ng of t h e v i ol i n , on t h at I doubt for the

most sound reason s . Th e Span i sh n ow s t i l l tune the v i o l i n frequen t l y

a s w e t une the v i o l a d ' amore o r c i tter n , f o r examp l e : 1. A

2. F sh arp

3. D
4. A

Our master l y tun i ng of the v i o l i n today accord i ng to f i fths i s

doubt l es s an i nvent i on of the I tal i an s , and as Mur ator i and Mart i n i

mai n t a i n , 4 the i nvent i on o f a mon k i n the countr i es where Romance

2 I f i nd no such st atement i n B urney H , the most l og i c a l


source for s u c h a comment .
3 see p ag e 5 8 o f th i s tran s l at i on .

4 B urney, M art i n i and Fork e l c i te references to M ur ator i , but


none rel ates spec i f i c a l l y t o the p as s ages here. Gerber L l i st s two

352
l angu ages are spoken [ Romanes i s hen] . Too bad t h at the n ame of th i s
great i nventor s l umbers i n u ndeservi ng neg l ect ! Th i s t un i ng i s so

s p l end i d and , at the s ame t i me , so perfect t h at noth i ng more perfect i s

pos s i b l e . Th i ngs h ave come to such a state t h at one c an bri ng out al l

p i eces--be t hey f rom the furtherst sphere--wi th ag i l i ty and beauty.

And s i nce the mezzot i nts , even the mos t refi ned n u an ces , l i e i n thi s

r ange and c an b e brought out through u n not i ceab l e s l i des on the f i nger­

boar d , the v i o l i n h as not i ceab l e super i or i ty over the c l av i chor d .

Moz art , a s h as a l ready been ment i oned , h as determi ned the theory o f t h e

v i o l i n the best , but h i s bowi ng techn i qu e i s too much l i k e Tarti n i ' s

and i s not su i t ab l e enough for t h e presto .

Spl end i d f i nger i n g ; an extreme l y f l exi b l e h and ; a bowi ng

s u i ted for e ach performance; a pure stroke; expres s i ve arpegg i o , i n a

wor d , f i re and correct t aste--these t h i n gs must b e found i n a true

v i o l i n i st . A great v i o l i n i st i s a great man . H e c an st i r up and add

to storms of p as s i on . The com i c s tyl e , as wel l as the tr ag i c styl e,

l i es i n h i s sphere. W i thout l on g study , and p art i c u l ar l y w i t hout

s p i ri t u a l g l ow , t here wi l l never be a great v i o l i n i st . A v i ol i ni st may

i ndeed not st udy compo s i t i on as s tr i ct l y as the c l av i er i st , but h e wi l l

n ever become great i n h i s art wi thout the stu dy of pure compo s i t i on .

The v i o l i n i st who c an compose h i s con certos and s o n atas h i msel f wi l l

works by Muratori wh i ch s upposed l y contai n i nformati on about mu s i c .


Of the more than s i x thous and co l umns o f L at i n text i n Mur ator i ' s
Ant i qu i t ates I t al i c ae Med i i Aevi , o n l y t h ree col umns contai n i nfor­
mati o n on mus 1 c , none of which is app l i c ab l e her e . ( Ludov i co Anto n i o
Muratori o , Ant i � u i t ates I tal i c ae Med i i Aevi , 6 vol s . [ Med i o l an i :
Soc i et at i s Pal a i n ae , 1738-42; repri nt ed. , Bol ogn a: Arn a l d o Forn i
Ed i tore , 1 965 ] , 2 : 356 , 358 ; 3 : 876 . ) The other source, Ama l i d ' i t al i a ,
was not av ai l ab l e .
353
al so do th i s f ar better than another who does not understand the art
of str i ct compos i t i o n . Even the v i o l i n i st confi rms the great truth
:that mere pract i ce w i thout c l ose study of fundamental s may never form
a great man .
The best v i o l i ns i n the wor l d are the Stai ner , the Cremonese-­
the new Cremon a mu st be c arefu l ly d i st i ngu i shed from the o l d , i n the
case of v i o l i ns--the V i ennese , the Prague, P ar i s i an , Nuremberg, and
Mun i ch v i o l i n s .
The v i o l i n , th i s sp l end i d i nstrument , h as e l abor ated i tsel f
i nto many types .

The V io l a

An anc i ent v i o l i n wh i ch affords great ser v i ce to mu s i c. In


more recent times i t has been empl oyed for so l o pl ayi n g wi th great
effect . Yet th i s i n strument h as someth i ng so s ad , someth i ng so i n
keep i n g with the gen t l e l ament that one cannot l i sten to i t al one at
l engt h . One today u ses even two v i o l as i n most o peras and s acred
pi eces , but the composer requ i res great care i f he does not want to
fal l i nto c acophony i n cros s i n g w i th other i n struments and i n the
i nfri ngement of h armony.
The [ aura l ] contour of the v i o l a i s accordi ng to the nature of
the i n strument , extreme ly sharp , a l mos t l i ke g l ass . Each new beat must
be so dec i s i ve that i t s l i ces through the whol e symphony 1 1 ke a r azor .
Very much i s l ack i ng i f one sets mere ly a mech an i cal or a medi ocre
mi nd on the v i o l a.

354
The t un i ng of the v i o l a i s : 1. A

2. 0

3. G
4. c

The v i o l a g en era l l y h as t h e r ema i n i ng pr i nc i p l es i n common w i th

the v i o l i n .

The V i o l once l l o

Act u a l l y a t enor v i o l i n , yet i t i s a l so used as a bass i nstru­

ment i n accompani ment . Th i s i nstrument compares mor e f avor ab l y to the

so l o v i o l i n t h an does the v i o l a , becau se i t h as a c ert a i n i mperi ous

sound [ Herrscherton] , wh i ch i s more approp r i at e for the so l o . The tone

of the v i o l oncel l o i s e xtremely p i erc i ng i n the h i gh r ange and , u nder


the h and of a mast e r , i s charm i n g and l ove l y . One c an i m i t ate the

voi c e of the best tenors to t h e po i nt of decept i on . B ut i t i s very

h ar d to p l ay , bec au se the phys i ca l power wh i ch the desc ant v i o l i n


requ i re s mu st be twi ce as strong w i th t h i s i nstrume nt . I t strai ns the

arm extraord i n ar i l y; the f i nger i ng a l most cuts through the t h umb of the

l eft h and , and t h e r i ght arm mu st be spre ad and moved l i k e the w i n g of


an e ag l e . For the v i o l oncel l o a l on ge r , somewhat t auter bow i s

requ i red . I n so l o the stroke i s most l y s hort , but i n accomp an i ment ,

T he f i nger i n g i s v ery d i st i nct from the ( d e scant ) v i o l i n and v i o l a i n


p art i cu l ar ly i n the rec i t at i v e , l on g and arpeggi ated [ h arpet sch i rend] .

that the stroke i s not i ceab l y d i fferent u nder the ch i n and between the

k nees . I n the h i gher pass ages t h e t h umb , as i t were, bu i l d s a n ew

355
bri dg e , o v er wh i ch t h e tone c l i mb s u pward t o t h e reg i on s o f t h e a l to ,

often c l i mb i ng u pward t o the reg i on o f the desc an t i tse l f . The accom­

p anyi n g v i o l oncel l i st mu st thorough l y u nderstand the thorou gh b as s so


that h e c an p l ay i nt e l l i g i b l y [ vo l l gr i ff ig ] , and th i s fact makes the

v i o l oncel l o f ar more d i ff i c u l t t h an t h e v i o l a.

The Doub l e B ass

The real bass v i o l i n of powerf u l , penetrat i ng sound . I t for­

mer l y h ad four to f i ve stri ngs , but n ow i t uses , for accomp an i ment , not
more th an three , wh i ch are so much more adequat e , as t h e d o ub l e b ass i s

n ever comp at i b l e wi th h i gh notes . The bow here i s extreme l y short and

t aut , whereby the tone profi ts i n t h i c k ness and e l ast i c i ty . A doub l e

bass of the l argest type i s so d i ff i c u l t t o p l ay t h at a g i g an t i c h and

i s n eeded ( fo r t h at } , and ev en t h i s g i g an t i c h and mu st be armed w i t h

bucksk i n . T h e pegs are moved w i th l arge t un i ng k eys . The bowi n g of

t h i s i nstrument for t h e most p art i s j er ky , for l eg at o bow i n g does not

a l ways h av e a good effect o n i t .

Whoever wan t s to p l ay th i s huge v i o l i n wi t h the force i n an


orchestr a must h av e u n u s u a l l y good eyes i ght a l o n g w i t h con s i derab l e

theory and pr ac t i ce; a myopi c eye i s total l y of no u se f or i t .

I n more recent t i mes , as we ment i oned above i n t h e h i s tory of

mus i c , some v i rtuosos h av e even p l ayed s o l os on th i s g i an t . I t goes

wi thout s ayi n g t h at i t mus t be strun g wi t h four or f i ve s tr i n gs i n th i s

c as e . But the effect was not great; one i ndeed admi red t h e n ot i on , but
at the s ame t i me fel t noth i ng . T h i s i nstrument was created for the

356
purpose of remai n i ng a pedestal and never becomi ng a s t at u e . One does
not bui l d the house from top to bottom, r ather from bottom to top .

V i o l a d a g amb a

An average[-s i zed ] v i o l i n wh i ch one p l ays between the knees .


I t h as s i x stri n gs and i s of except i onal grace. Nocturnes
[ NachtstUcke] c an be performed magn i f i cent ly on i t , and , i n general ,
everyth i ng that breathes grace and tendernes s . Th i s i n strument
req u i res much feel i ng and on ly few c an p l ay i t thus , as i t mu st be
h and l ed accor d i n g to i ts n ature. It does not endure strong
accomp an i ment , for i t accomp an i es mos t l y i tsel f . A ( descant ) v i o l i n ,
two horns , and a bassoon are the best accomp an i ment h ere .

V i o l a d ' amour

F ormer l y a l so k nown as the psal tery, i t i s p l ayed u nder the


ch i n and tuned a l most l i ke a c i ttern . I t was former l y stru n g with
brass str i n gs , but for many years i t ag ai n i s strung w i th c atgut . The
i nstrument i s extreme l y i mperfect , because the tun i ng i s so i mperfect .
Meanwh i l e , tender and amorous p i eces , part i c u l arly so-c a l l ed serenades
before the wi ndows of our D u l c i neas , c an be expressed wel l w i t h i t .
Thi s i ns trument i s s o except i on a l l y easy t h at a moderate m i nd c an
l earn i t i n fourteen d ays .

357
B aryton

A s p l end i d i nstrument , perfect by i tse l f and perfect w i th

accompan i ment . I t hovers between t enor and b ass , but ofte n c l i mbs

u pward to the reg i on of the de scant . I t i s strung on top wi t h c atgut


stri n gs and be l ow wi t h bass st ri ngs . On top it i s stroked wi th a bow

and be l ow [ i t i s ] sn apped w i th the t humb . The man i pu l at i on i s very

d i ff i cu l t because strok i ng , s n app i n g , and stri k i n g , as i t were , form


three contrary mov ements . l i d l not on l y i nvented t h i s i nstrument , but

a l so p l ayed i t to utmost perfect i on . 5

The lyre

or t h e �. c h e l �s , and t e lyn of ant i qu i ty cons i st s of seven, e i ght ,

or more str i n gs . I t i s sti l l common wi t h the North Amer i can peop l e ; i t

i s the f avor i te i nstrument of the Hottentots . These peopl e t ake a

goose qui l l or a f i sh bon e and go over the i r l yre, wh i ch i s tuned i n

c hord s , w i thout br i ng i ng forth , t hrough touc h , the notes l y i ng i n

between .
S i nce the l yre i s undo ubted l y the o l dest i nstrument o f the

wor l d , it c an thus be con s i dered the mot her of a l l stri nged i nstru­

ment s . F rom i t i s a l so der i ved , among ot hers , the

5 schubart n ames L i d l as one of the more i mport ant v i rtuosos


who performed i n Aug sb ur g wh i l e Schubart was i n res i dence • . GS , 1 : 234
{ l & G , 2 } . See a l so the Deut sche Chron i c ( 3 November 1774 }�03- 4 ,
( 12 June 1 7 75 } : 37 3 and ( 13 November 1775) : 7 28 .

358
wh i ch l i kew i se i s l o st i n remote ant i qu i ty . I t was i nvented by the

Jews , i m i t ated by the Pers i ans , Medes , and Greek s , and came thus i n

the mi sts of t i me to u s . The J ews u sed i t i n t h e beg i nn i n g sol ely for


the d i v i ne serv i c e . The i r templ e h arps were very l arge and h ad such a

sh arp tone t h at twenty to t h i rty h arp p l ayers penetrated the n umerous

congreg at i o n . I n i t f i rst des i gnat i on i t was devoted to the prai se and

g l ory of J ehov ah , as one sees from the P s a l ms , wh i ch were composed

q u i t e proper ly for the h arp . The Jews al so h ad house h arps and

travel i n g h arp s , wh i ch were for the most p art used for r e l i g i ous songs .

The tr ave l i ng h arps were made so l i ght and gracefu l t h at one cou l d t ake

them everywhere w i th h i m. Thus the s i n ger bemo an s so touch i n g l y at the

waters of B abyl on : "There we s at and wept , our h arps [we ] h an ged u pon

the w i l l ow s . " 6 The tu n i ng of the J ewi sh h arp i s no l on ger k nown .

But i t mu st h av e been very perfect i f one con s i ders the aston i sh i ng

effects wh i ch were attr i buted , for examp l e , to D av i d ' s h arp p l aying.


Tod ay the h arp is i ndeed pl ayed thro u gh al l of Europ e , but n ever used

i n churches and o n l y very r are l y i n pr i v ate concert s . The organ and

the h arps i chord h ave ousted i t from th i s assemb ly. Therefore, whoever

wants to p l ay t h e h arp does i t for h i ms e l f or c an be accomp an i ed w i th a

v i o l i n. One h as i n vented i n our d ays very beaut i fu l ped al h arps with

wh i ch one c an b r i n g forth semi tones most hurr i ed l y .


The n at ure of t h e h arp h as much sol emn i ty , devot i on , and

up l i ft i n g sp i r i t u a l i ty . B ut one mu st see to i t th at the cont i nu a l

6 p s a l m 137 : 1 - 2 .
359
pi zzi c ato i s so i mpercept i bl y done t h at i t never degenerates i nt o c at

scratc h i ng [ K at zengekral l ] , r ather rece i ves much more the so-c a l l ed

att ac k [ Angr i ff] u nder one ' s f i ngers . I n N uremberg a magni f i cent

i nstruct i on for the h arp h as been p ub l i s hed accor d i n g to wh i ch t h i s

i nstrument can be l e arned a l mo st ent i re l y a l one.

The L ute

seems to h ave been al together an i nvent i on of the S p an i sh . At l east i t

i s cert a i n th at the o l d German k n i ghts i n the wars w i t h t h e Moors h ad


f i rst brought t h e l ute to u s . Through t h e c enturi es i t w a s t h e f avor­

i te i nstrument of grandees , emperors , k i ngs , pri nces , and l ords . Even

the l e ad i ng l ad i es sough t an honor i n i t . I n the o l d G erman romances


of c h i v a l ry , where the costume i s observed so heart i ly and f a i t hfu l ly ,

o n e f i nd s n umerous vest i ges of t h i s ent hu s i asm f o r t h e l ute. Al l songs

of j oy and l ove were accomp an i ed wi th i t . As t h i s i n strument , accord­

i ng to the u s u a l r u n of th i ngs , s ank d own to the c l ergymen ' s d au ghters ,

young seamstres ses , and school masters , the ecst asy for the l ut e sl ack•

e ned wi th the g r andees . The n ature of t h i s i nstrument i s dej ected

l ove, hushed s i ghs exh a l ed i n s i l ent n i ght , [ and ] outbreak of pl ai nt i ve

fee l i ng of the heart to the po i nt of t e ars . Con sequent l y , i t i s made


for sen s i t i ve s ou l s . The l ute i s very d i ffi cu l t to p l ay because of the

spec i al t un i ng as wel l as bec au se of the cri t i c a l f i nger i ngs . The

Germans h ave brought t h i s i n strument the f urthest i n pr i nc i p l es as i n

pract i ce.

360
Wei s s , the f ather of the f amous poet � was one of the best
l uten i st s i n Europe. He a l so p ub l i shed an i nstruct i on for the l ut e ,

wh i ch i s perfect l y adequate t o s t u dy i t comp l etely. Tod ay good l ute

p l ayers are ext reme ly rare. They are s t i l l t o be found but o n l y i n

i mper i al c i t i es , i n c l o i ster s--part i cu l ar l y among t h e n u n s--and i n

sma l l court s . The h arps i chord and the v i o l i n h av e qu i t e suppl anted

t h i s mag n i f i cent i nstrument. The l ute stop h as been app l i ed to the

fortepi an o , and so i t i s be l i ev ed that the l ute i tsel f s t ands in need

of not h i n g more . B ut the l ut e stop on the h arps i chord s t i l l by f ar

does not h av e the d e l i c acy of the l ut e i tse l f . Mus i c wou l d , there­

fore , l ose a very mov i ng pecu l i ar i ty i f the l ute s ho u l d be total ly

supp l anted .

The Mando l i ne and Z i ther, or Gu i t ar

h av e been for centur i es the f avo r i te i n st r ume nts of t h e S p an i sh .

There are few men amon g them who cou l d not p l ay poo r l y o r we l l on them .

T hey br i ng w i th i t th e i r seren ades before the wi ndows of t h e i r bel oved ;

t h e Span i ard even t akes al ong h i s fami l i ar z i ther on promenades . The i r

i mprovi sers , or extempore poets , accomp any a l l of thei r not i on s w i th

th i s i nstr ument , wh i ch they pl ay wi th f i ngers or wh al ebone. A l though

the Span i sh i nvented th i s i n strument , the Germans i mpro ved i t under t h e

n ame Mando l i ne . The t u n i ng i s : 1. C

2. A

3. F

4. c

361
5. B f l at
6. A

7. G

8. F
The l atter str i ngs are covered w i th s i l ver. By means of th i s

i mport ant i mprovement the Germans h ave brought i t to the po i nt that one

c an now p l ay obb l i g ato and r ather d i ff i cu l t p i eces on i t . One h as a l so


made the z i t her where the f i rst stri n g i s a gut str i ng and by wh i ch the

performance of the h i g her p as s ages i s m ade remark ab l y e as i er . The

str i k i ng i mperfect i on of th i s i nstrument � s i nce i t c an be p l ayed on l y

i n fo ur� at t h e most f i v e � keys � h as great l y reduced t h e n umber of i ts

amateurs . On ly a few trave l i ng mu s i c i an s are to be found anywhere--i n

p art i cu l ar � Prague st udents or r ar i t i es [ Sonder l i nge] i n i mp er i al


c i t i es--who search out t h i s ant i qu ated i nstrument and who often pursue

i t to the po i nt of mastery. It i s so e asy [to p l ay] t h at e ach man of

aver age capab i l i ty c an become an autod i d act on i t . Whoever c annot

concern h i mse l f w i th mu s i c for a l on g t i me bec ause of other i mportant

deal i n gs and yet from t i me to t ime wou l d l i ke to accompany a choral e or

fo l k son g � for them we recommend t h i s i nstr ument above a l l ot hers .

362
X XX I X . CONCERN I NG W I ND I N STRUMENTS

After t h e i n st ruments wh i ch the a l l -powerfu l stroke or touch of

man commands fo l l ow those wh i ch h i s breat h an i mates . And these seem to

me to be o l der t h an the f i rs t bec ause man g eneral ly thought of b l ow i ng

eas i er than of strok i ng .

I t i s known f rom h i story t h at the anc i ents became prof i c i ent i n


wh i st l i n g w i t h pursed l i ps and tongue p u l l ed b ack , w i t h the a i d of one

or two f i ngers , or wi th a nut l eaf , and t h at t h i s h as g i ven r i se to the

i nvent i on of al l wi n d i nstruments .

The f i rst i nstrument of the k i nd was , accord i ng t o the test i ­

mon y of a l l n at i on s , the cow horn , and t h i s s i mp l e not i o n , perhaps of

a c att l e herd sman , h as brought forth al l t hose wi nd i nstruments to the


wor l d with wh i ch we are st i l l today ench anted . Through qu i te n at ural

syntheses one came to the syr i nx , or the seven-tubed p i pes s t uck

together wi th w a x , about wh i ch the an ci ent poets , p art i cu l ar l y the

l yr i c al and i dy l l i c poet s , speak ev erywhere wi th enth u s i asm. Our shep­

h erds on the � and Al buchs h ave st i l l today these actual herdsman

f l utes , wh i ch were made so venerab l e through the i r ages . The shawm ,


the penny wh i st l e [Markpfei ffe] , the l i t t l e fl ageo l et s are not the mos t

pr i mi t i v e p i pes , because mu ch k now l edge was requi red to bore holes so

t h at they cou l d produce d ef i n i te p i t ches . On the other h an d , the reed ­

p i pe , wh i ch i s b l own l ateral l y wi th the l i ps and i s vent i l ated

363
underneath w i t h t h e thumb o f the r i ght h and [ and] on wh i ch the Swab i an
shepherd s st i l l p l ay today , i s cert a i n ly an i nstrument wh i ch i s more
anc i ent than the syr i nx i tse l f . One f i nd s traces of i t i n the most
anci ent wri t i ngs .

The Trumpet

Thi s tot a l ly war l i ke i nstrument seems to h ave ex i sted even


among al l anci ent peo pl e , but i n a somewhat d ifferent form . The Jews
h ad curved and strai g ht trumpets wh i ch were supposed to h ave sounded so
sharp ly that a s i ng l e trumpeter cou l d summon an army of 20 ,000 men to
combat . The Pers i ans and Medes h ad o n l y curved trumpet s , but the
Greeks [had ] strai ght [ones ] by the name " s a l p i n x. " The Romans became
acquai nted w i th the trumpet from the C arthag i n i an s and then i ntroduced
i t to the i r arm i e s . The German s , who l earned to work metal somewhat
l ater , contented themsel ves w i th trump et s pai nstak i ngly fash i oned o ut
of stone and i n l a i d w i th wood- -many of wh i ch are st i l l exh i b i ted i n art
gal l er ies-- and w i th these they brought forth that powerfu l s o und wh i ch
so often l i fted the heart of our fathers and was so fr ightfu l to the i r
enem i e s .
The character o f the trumpet i s , a s everyone knows because of
i ts penetrat i n g , terr i fyi n g soun d , qu i te hero i c ; i t cal l s to battl e and
shouts for j oy. Its r ange goes from l ow tenor � [ g ] up to the extreme
descant � n atural [b ' ' ] ; the m i dd l e tones seem not be be s u i t ab l e,
al though through the curvature of the trumpet , whereby the art i st c an
put h i s h and i n the bel l and attempt to l ure out these mi dd l e tone s .

364
When th i s i nstrument does not remai n w i th i n i ts n ature, [or] when one
forces it by me ans of the v i rtuoso ' s art out of i ts l i m i t at i ons , i t s
pr i nc i pal char acter i s l ost. T h e trumpet , therefore, c an o n l y be used
by composers for great , sol emn , an d maj esti c occas i ons . Yet great
v i rtuosos h ave shown t h at one co u l d a l so use the muted trumpet for the
expres s i on of most profound sorrow and mo an i n g .
The method of b l owi ng the trumpet i s extreme l y d i ff i cu l t and
seems to requ i re near l y i ron l un gs [ stiihl erne Lungenf l.Ugel ] . The
tongue wi th al l of i ts s i mp l e , doub l e , tr i pl e, and quadru p l e v i bra­
t ions mus t h ave a s p l endi d effect i n thi s i nstrument . The tr umpet h as
been used not on l y i n recent t i mes for h ero i c and s o l emn process i ons
but even empl oyed i n so l o. We now possess trumpet concertos wh i ch
former ages cons i dered to be sorcery. A Dresden trumpeter even came
to the not i on of i nvent i ng trumpets wi th keys , but the trumpet tone
d i sappeared a l most comp l etely, and one heard o n ly here and there [the]
hyb r i d l oudness produced by trumpet and oboe sounds . R i ght l y one has
therefore rej ected th i s i nventi on , for changel i ngs make progress
nowhere l es s than i n mu s i c .
Process i ons w i th trumpets can be made i n two , three , four , or
more parts . And it is amaz i ng that the second part a lways orn aments
[ f i gu i rt ] more t h an t h e f i rs t . Perhaps tone i s sought i n the f i rst
p art [ Prim] , but i n the second [ i t ] i s f u l l ness and r ange for tone

365
:tnd tongue . l T he mu s i c al wor l d s t i l l h as few pr i nted i n struct i on s

lfbr t h e tr umpet , per h aps becau s e on l y t h e tr umpeter c an wri te for h i s

dnstrument . I n more recent t i me s one h as al so set t h i s i mportant

3nstrument to the mouth of even the heral d s of war and peace. A trum­

peter today i s a l most a holy man who i s exempted f rom the g ates of the
greatest fortress just as h e i s from t h e abysses of the most f r i ghtfu l

batter i e s . A l s o , o ne now u ses the trumpet i n the c hurches and .

accord i ng to genera l exper i ence, wi th the greatest effect . Yet i t


i s on l y whol l y app l i c ab l e o n feas t d ays .

The Horn

Th i s heaven l y i nstrument , wh i ch we G ermans u sed to c a l l t he


Wal dhor n , h as u ndergone except i on al met amorphoses u nt i l i t c ame to

tod ay • s pedest a l . F i rs t l y , i t was en l arged to [ a ] h uge s i ze , as i t i s

sti l l preserved today i n Rus s i a . But the i nconven i ence of c arryi ng

such an i nstrument h as brought men to the i de a of bend i ng it more and

more and g i v i ng i t , f i nal ly, the present -d ay co i l ed form.

The horn h as gre at qual i t i e s : i t i n f act n ever expresses true


greatness or p athos; rather gent l e , sweet , echo rou s i ng, tender l y

l ament i ng sounds , wh i ch f i l l the g aps o f the s tr i n g i nstrument , l i e i n

the comp ass of the h orn . The Germans h av e a l so brought th i s i nstrument

lThe d i s t i nct i on between P r i m and Secund c an h av e more t h an


one mean i ng . Pr i m can s i gn i fy the-:First part- -the me l ody or the mo s t
i mport ant p art--and i t c an al so be u sed to des i gn ate the h i ghest r ange ,
s ometh i ng compar ab l e to • c l ar i no . " Consequent l y , Secund r epresent s an
accomp anyi ng part wh i ch h as a range t h at d oes not require the extremel y
h i gh notes , b u t wh i ch might h ave a wi der r ange than t h e Pr i m.
366
to utmost perfect i on : they h ave g i ven i t keys ; [t hey] h ave d i scovered
the i ntermedi ate tones by reach i ng i nto the bel l ; yes , they even made
mechan ic a l horns where one c an i mmed i ately accomp any i n a l l keys of
mus i c by crook s . Al so, there h as n ever been stronger horn i st s among a
peo pl e than among t h e German s . Our nob l e n at i on used t hi s i nstrument
very ear l y at the hunt s ; thu s , i t rece i ved the name Wal dhorn . Al ready
dur i ng the heathen t i mes the n ame J agd horn [ h u nt i ng horn] appeared so
often in wr i t i ngs that one cannot doubt [that ] the Germans knew the
horn a l ready before the t i me of C h ar l emagne. One f i nd s , even i n the
Saxon annal s , drawi n gs of the horns of the Ol d Germans wh i ch agree per­
fect l y wi th ours today. Y es , the anc i ent Germans made horns out of
stone and i ndeed w i t h such art and such understand i ng of tone that i t
wou l d be h ard to t h i nk o f i mi t ati ng the s ame st i l l today.
The range of the horn i s much wi der than the r ange of the trum­
pet . Bec ause i t does not penetrate or r age as much , the i ntermedi ate
tones , B fl at , �, f, [ and ] Q, together wi th the l ower p i tches
[ Abst ufu ngen ] , do not come out as shri l l y as wi th the trumpet . Conse­
quent l y , these tones , wh i ch real l y do not l i e i n the r ange of the horn ,
are so i ndescr i b ab l y sweet and affect i ve for the heart of su scept i b l e
l i steners . The horn i s real ly not al together h ard to p l ay , and i t
requi res far l ess l ung power t h an the trumpet . B ut i t seems to me
� that ] the true horn i st must pos sess f ar more gen i u s t h an the
f r umpeter .
The tone of t h i s i nstrument , i t s r ange, and the c h arm wher eby
the horn espec i al l y fi l l s al l gaps of mu s i c h ave r i gh t ly recommended
i t through al l of Europe. The horn , if thought of as a h uman b e i n g ,
367
i s a good , honorab l e man who even t akes h i s l e ave of a l most al l
soc i et i es , not as a gen i us , b u t as a sens i t i v e s ou l . What i s mos t

admi rab l e [ i s t h at ] t h i s i nstrument , preemi nent l y before al l others ,

bri ngs forth the the greatest effect to the an imal wor l d . A forest

fu l l of an i mal s pr i c k up t he i r e ars and l i sten when the f u l l -toned horn

i s bl own upo n . The s t ags l i e down at the s pr i n g and doze , the frogs

g l i de upon t h e breeze, and the sow l i e s down c l os e by i n sweet sl eep


and l et s h er n i pp l es be s uc ked by h er young offspri n g [ Ferke i n ] to the

t hree-e i gh t meter . The me l od i es for the h u nt , wh i ch were d i scovered

throughou t Europe , t h u s h ave the i ndescri b abl e effect t h at they were


p l eas i ng not o n l y for every h uman fee l i ng at h u nt t i me but al so even

for the an i ma l temperament i n al l scenes of the hunt . H ow great i s the

sou l of h uman s ! A hor n b l ast command s the dogs to p l u nge i nto the

terr i b l e forest i n spite of the t u s k of the wi l d boar , the p i erc i ng

[ bohrenden] ant l er o f the s t ag , and the c u nn i ng of the fox . B ut even

th i s al l -command i ng h or n , i n the more gent l e tones , s ound i ng down from


the forest h i l l s , al so makes the s t ag l i e down at the mossy spri ng and

s eem to dri n k i n , as i t were , the sounds wi th ant l ers hel d h i gh .


T he hor n , therefore , i s an i nstrument o f pr i me s i gn i f i c ance

because h umans and an i mal s l i sten to i t . The reason for th i s i s i ts

f u l l ness of tone and moderate v i brato [Mi ttel schwebung] by wh i ch i t

[ sp i r i tual ly] approaches most creat ure s . But whatever h owl s c annot
tol erat e the horn , bec au se th i s l ament i ng i nstrument u sed to provoke

h ow l i n g .

368
The theory of today • s horn h as been c l ar i f i ed by the best

masters . One even h as a f i rst-rate book about the W a l d horn wh i ch was

publ i shed i n 1 764 i n Dresden w i t h the most magn i f i cent examp l es .

A f i rst -r ate mouthpi ece, qu i ck tongu i n g, correct i ntonat i on ,

l on g cont i nuous b reath , and sweet me l ancho l i c feel i ng mu st gu i de the


horn i st .

The h u nt i ng h or n i st makes no i ses and rouses h u nter and forest .

H i s styl e i s stac c at o and a lways hopp i n g i n unequ al beats . The horn i st

weeps i n the t emp l e , dr aws the notes from the fu l l s ou l , and endows

wi th a l i v i ng sou l throu gh i ts breath , as i t were , the who l e i nstru­

mental accomp an i ment . I n concert and opera rooms the horn i st i s to be

used i n i nn umerab l e express i ons . He i s effect i ve near and afar. Charm

and , i f one may s ay s o , cord i a l f am i l i ar i ty i s the k eynote o f th i s mag­

n i f i cent i n strument . Noth i ng i s more capab l e and ab l e t h an the horn

for the echo . Consequent l y , for a compo ser , the study of t h i s i nstru­

ment i s recommended to a h i gh degree. Agr i co l a, Jomme l l i , and p art i cu­

l ar l y G l uck u sed i t wi th penetrat i ng power and effect .

The Trombone

T h i s i n strument i s q u i t e ch urch l y and c i r c u l ates i n three

s i ze s : a l t o , tenor , and bass trombon e . I t i s real l y a trumpet but

w i t h the d i fference t h at [ i t ] c an br i n g forth a l l tones wh i ch are

l ack i ng [on the tr umpet ] by push i ng [the s l i de ] i n and out. The

i nstr ume nt i s very o l d and , as i t seems , an i nvent i on of the J ews .


For a l ready i n the O l d Testament ap pear not i ces of v ar i at i ons i n

369
sound i n w i nd i nstrume nt s , and these c annot be thought o f except for

the trombon e . Every wi n d i nstrument h as n o more and n o fewer notes

than the cow horn . W h atever goes beyond the comp l ete c hord i s outs i de

the l i m i t of i t s sphere of act i v i ty . The weaknesses of n ature must be

compen s ated by i nvent i on s of art . T h i s h appened w i th the trombone,

where a l l poss i b l e tones c an be brought forth thro u gh the draw i n g i n

and p u sh i ng out [ of t h e s l i de ] . The r i ght arm h as command over the

bre ath by mean s of t h e s l i de , and thus it d i rects the who l e h armoni c

storm of the trombo n e . Thi s i nstrument h as never b ee n profaned

throu gh the mi l l en n i a , but a l ways remai n e d , as i t wer e , as an i nher­

i t ance to t h e t emp l e of God . One h u n g t h e h o l y t rombone on the posts

of the temp l e , a l l owed them to sou nd o n l y o n feast d ays , or commanded

them to c arry t h e f l i ght of s acred s i ng i ng . B ut i n o u r d ays one h as

desecrated i t i n opera serv i c e , and t h e trombone i s n o l on ger a prop­

erty of the d i v i ne s erv i ce . One now a l so u se s i t w i th great effect i n

the choruses of great oper as .

The tone of the trombon e i s p i erc i ng and f ar t h i c k er t h an the

trumpet ton e ; s u s t a i ned notes [ l i eg�nd e Noten ] c an be s o expres sed on

no i nstrument of the wor l d as on t h i s o n e .

Sacred s o n gs h ave not o n l y b e e n composed f o r the trombone , b u t

a l so concerto s , s o n at as , so l o s , and these a l w ays w i t h admi rab l e effect .

Th e Catho l i cs i n Germany a l on e s t i l l f avor th i s i nstrument ; and i f

370
/ V i en n a h ad n o t s een to i t » * w e wou l d h av e h ad t o fear l os i ng i t by
degrees ent i re ly .

The theory of t h e trombone was a l re ady s e t t h i rty years ago by

Hai der at Dresden i n such a bri ght l i ght t h at one s t i l l c an h ard l y put

down any [more] p r i nc i p l es . S i nce i t i s so i mmense l y negl ected today

and one l e aves the pract i ce on l y to wretched cornett i sts , our mus i c

l e aders shou l d take t h at i nt o cons i derat i on t o rouse agai n th i s

d i v i ne ly s anct i oned i nstrument , to urge gen i uses for i t , and thereby

g i ve back the thunder i ng tone to the trombone wh i ch i t h ad dur i ng

Sol omon ' s t i me. In the meant i me , t here are sti l l f i rst-rate

trombon i sts , p art i c u l ar ly i n S axony and B ohemi a.

But i t i s set t l ed that the trombone tone i s set ent i re ly for

the rel i g i on and never for the prof ane.

The C o�net [ Z i n ke] 2

An extreme l y p i erci ng i nstrument , and l i k e a swor d , cuts

through the l argest congreg at i on s . B u t i t i s so d i ff i cu l t for the

*Al so h er e Mozart h as seen t o i t , and one s i nce f i nd s h i m

u s i ng trombones i n most of the newer o per as .

2 ••To a cornett i st wi th whom h e [ Schubart] l i ved and about


whom h i s n agg i n g wife often prophes i ed [ t h at ] h i s dri n k i n g wou l d l ead
h i m to h e l l » he wrote th i s comfort i ng v erse: W i e g l Uck l i ch i st der
Z i nkeni st/Der Herr und sei n Gesel l e ! /E r kommt » wen n er gestorben
i st /Gew i s s n i cht i n d i e Ho l l e : /Denn Gott h a l t oft e i n F reudenfest/M i t
auserwah l t en Ch r i sten ; /Und we i l m an d a Pos aunen b l ast , /So br aucht man
Z i n ken i sten . " GS , 2 : 16 3 ( L & G, 3 ) .

37 1
chest s i nce the breath i s u s ed on l y through a q u i te sma l l o pe n i ng , s o
t h at al ready more t h an o n e cornett i st h as contracted con s umpt i on and

d i ed . There i s h ard l y one who [ i s ] heal thy [w i t h ] s uch an exh au st i ng


i ns tr umen t as th i s . Th at may wel l be the reason why so f ew men d evote

thems e l ves to the mastery of i t .

T he cornett i s an i nstru.ent made o ut o f i vory o r o ut o f h ard

wood . I t h as s i x hol es and no keys ; al s o , i t i s c ur ved for conven­

i ence. Its s c a l e i s the fo l l ow i ng :

0, e, f, g, a , b f l at , b n atural , c, 0, e , f , g ,

a, b n at ur a l , c , d

Masters force i t s t i l l h i gher; al so i t h as a l l t h e aco u st i c al


p i t ches [ H a l l tone ] of t h i s scal e . The f i nger i ng i s very d i ff i cu l t and

d ev i ates who l l y from the f l ute and oboe . I n a word , there i s no wi nd

i ns tr ument wh i ch i s equ i val ent i n d i ff i cu l ty of b l ow i n g and f i nger i ng

as the cornet t .

T he ori g i n of t h e s ame we h av e w i t hout doubt the Jews to t h an k .

One s t i l l f i nds i n l arge art g a l l er i es many Jew i s h cornetts wh i ch cal ­


cu l at e the rough wor k i ng out to wh i ch o urs are q u i te s i mi l ar .

Al so t h e Greeks seem t o h av e known the cornett , a s one l earns

from a cred i b l e s k etch of P adre Mart i n i . F rom t i me . imem&rial one h as

u se d the cornett s o l e l y , or r ather for the most part , at the d iv i ne

s er v i ce . I t h as been accomp an i ed b y t rombones , horns , and t h e org an ,

whereby the l argest congregat i on s c an b e kept i n the key . G l uck h as

a l so tr i ed to emp l oy i t now i n the choruses of oper as and , i ndeed ,

372
wi t h great s uccess . 3 · Tod ay cornett i s ts are found on l y i n G ermany,

for on l y here i s there sti l l l un g power [ Lu ngen f lugel ] wh i ch i s ab l e

to sustai n th i s d i ff i c u l t i nstrument . They h ave even become a gu i l d

among u s and the i r duty i s to accomp any the chor al e s i ng i ng i n the

church as we l l as to rouse the devot i on o f a reg i on f rom the towers by

the soundi ng [Abb l as u ng] of s acred songs and short son at as . Among so

many cornetti sts one f i nds o f course some who deserve to be drawn from

the dus t . I n Rothenb urg ob der Tauber t here h ave been cornett i st s for
near l y a h al f a century , among wh i ch p art i c u l ar l y were the Z ahn broth­

ers , who were f amous throughout Germany as the best m asters i n cor-

net t s . M any f i rst-rat e cornett i st s h ave been educated i n th i s school .


Because of h i s strength on the cornet t , a descend ant of these Z ahns was

cal l ed to R us s i a where he acqu i red such r i ches at t h e court of the

u nfortun ate P eter I I t h at h e n ow l eads the most comfort ab l e l i fe on

an estate. 4

S i nce ev en our great n at i on unfortunately beg i n s to become

weak , I see no f avorab l e prospects before me for th i s d i ff i c u l t and

mag n i f i cent i nstrument .

3orfeo ed Euri d i ce , 1 76 2 .
4Apparent l y Schubart i s i n error , for t h i s p art i cu l ar Z ah n
w a s a b assoo n i s t . Cf . M u n d KAadJ 1783 , p . 7 7 : ZAHN . E i ner der
R otenburger B ru der , d i e, so viel wi r wi ss en , a l l e-rmiSi k al i sch s i nd .
E r was sehr l ange f agot i st [ i t a l i cs added ] bei der Petersburger
K apel l e , und s o l l s i ch d a e i n V ermogen v o n 1 0 , 000 fl . gesamml et h aben ,
w i e man s ag t , das er jetzt i n Ruhe i n sei nem Vater l and verzehren wi l l .
E r woh nt zu dem E nde sei t ei ni gen J ahren auf e i nem L andhau se , n ah e bei
sei ner Vat ers stad t .

373
Oboe

Th i s i nstrument i s qu i te a new i nvent i on , about e i ghty, at t h e

mo s t a hundred year s ol d . T h e French u sed i t f i rst wi t h thei r reg i ­


ment s , al though i n a very i mperfect form , accomp ani ed i t wi th horn or

trumpet , and thereby aroused the attent i on of al l Europe. Emperor

Peter the Great brou ght the oboe to Rus s i a al ong w i th many French and
German obo i sts and i ntroduced them to al l regu l ar reg i ment s .

T h e f amous art i s an [ KUn st l er ] Denner , i n N uremberg , i mproved

the i n strument to wh i ch he appl i ed k eys , whereby even more notes cou l d


be brought fort h . S i nce then i t h as been u sed i n a l l types of mus i c ,

and f i rst-rate gen i uses h ave brought i t t o s uch he i g ht and del i c acy

t h at i t h as now b ecome a f avori te of the mu s i c al wor l d .

Its r ange goes from al to � [ d ' ] , al so from f [ c ' ] u p to the

high £ [c ' ' ' ] . The most recent masters h ave st i l l added the three

l ed ger-l i ne Q, l• and f [d ' ' ' , e ' ' ' , f ' ' ' ] . The tone of the pure oboe
very much appro aches the h uman vo i ce i n the h i gh [ r ange] , but i n the

l ow [ range ] i t s t i l l has much of the honk i ng of a goose. Accord i ng ly ,

o n e h as tri ed to t ak e t h e goose sound f rom i t by me ans of mutes . But

i t i s be st when the master h as h i s breath under contro l so that he

wrests i t s unpl easantness from the l ow t ones . T he G ermans now h ave i n

the obo e , as general l y i n al l wi nd i n struments , the greatest masters .


Al so , the I t al i ans and F rench h ave st u d i ed the oboe extraordi n ar i l y

whereby they mu st h ave i nev i tab l y r i sen t o the ment i oned perfect i o n

i n a short per i od of t i me .

374
For th i s i n s trument mu ch feel i ng i s requi red and espec i al l y
the most ref i ned wi nd contro l . Whoever i s not a master of h i s breath

thro ughout sever a l measures or whoever s u st a i n s the s l i ghtest i nj ury to

h i s breast shou l d not venture u pon the oboe.

[The] C l ar i net

I s real l y an a l to oboe . T h i s i nstrument i s s t i l l much younger

than the oboe i ts e l f : i t was f i rst l earned i n Germ any forty years ago .

I t s ch aracter i s a romanti c feel i ng and a t horough sound o f sens i t i ve

hearts . W hoever p l ays the c l ar i net as Rhei nek5 seems t o make a

dec l arat i on of l ov e t o the whol e h uman r ac e . The r ange of the i nstru­

ment i s not great , but wh atever l i es i n i ts sphere , i t expresses wi th

i ndescr i bab l e grace . The sound i s so sweet , so l an gu i sh i n g , an d who­

ever i s ab l e to express the i ntermed i ate tones thereon may be cert ai n

of h i s v i ctory over the hearts .

Thi s i n strument today i s becomi ng more perfect . At N uremberg,

Mun i ch , Ber l i n , and V i en n a the best c l ari nets i n Europe are made. The

h arder the woo d , the stron ger the tone. Whoever h as an e ar for mus i c

and a sens i t i ve heart c an eas i l y l earn th i s i nstrument . I n i ts r ange

i t h as many s i mi l ar i t i es wi th the comp ass of the h orn .

5 schu b art v i s i ted R he i nek i n 1 776 and wrote a h i g h l y


comp l i mentary art i c l e abou t h i m (though spel l ed "Rei n i gg" ) i n the
Teutsche C hron i k { 13 June 1 7 76 ) : 384 .

375
The E ns l i s h Horn

A q u i t e new i nvent i on o f the E ng l i sh , s o much more i mportant

bec ause i t i s t h e o n l y i ns trument t h at the Bri t i s h i nvente d . Cert ai n l y

t h ey c ame upon th i s i nst rument by w ay o f the oboe. I t h as a great ,

w i d e c urvature, s i x hol e s , and v ar i ou s keys . The form h a s g i ven i t the

n ame h orn , but th i s appears to me very i mproper , becau s e , accordi ng to

the i di om of o ur l an gu age , one shou l d on l y cal l horn t h at wh i ch i s made


of horn.

The sound of th i s i n strume nt l i e s i n t h e s ph ere of the a l to and

tenor and often touches the border of the b ar i tone. For the expres s i on

of despondency and profound me l ancho l y , the E n g l i sh h orn i s exqu i s i te l y

s u i te d . One c an tel l i mmed i ate ly th at i t i s a Br i t i s h i nvent i o n . W i th

s uch a horn , accomp an i ed by a [ g l as s ] h armon i c a , s u i c i de i s s u i t ab l e ,

s ays B urney. 6

The p l ayi n g o f th i s i nstrument i s very d i ff i c u l t because the

m any k eys bri ng about d i ff i cu l t i es i n t he f i nger i n g . I t i s u sed on ly

l at e l y , and i ndeed w i th i mport an t resu l t s , i n o pera and s acred mu s i c.

I f the compos er c an u t i l i ze t h e En g l i sh horn accord i ng to h i s p urpose,

and if he never l en d s it a forei gn l angu age , then h e c an b r i ng forth

powerfu l effects w i t h i t . The compass o f th i s i nstrument i s now st i l l

not very gre at , but i t i s h oped t h at an i nvent i ve m i n d w i l l s hort l y

i mprove i t .

6 1 h ave not been ab l e to f i nd any such s t atement i n B urney ' s


work s .

376
The F l ute

Th i s i nstrument i s d iv i ded i nto several branches : the straight


f l ute and the transverse fl ute; i n the l arger and smal l er , under wh i ch
al l types are i nc l uded s uch as the penny wh i st l e, smal l and shri ek i ng,
ar1d the syr i nx , somewhat l arger and r ust i c .

The F l auto Dol ce [ Recorder]

A f l ute approx imately as l on g as an u l na [and] made of hard


wood . I t has s i x open i ngs and [p l ays i n ] the French c l ef . ? The
tone i s extreml y soft and me l ancho l i c . Its compass compri ses hard ly
two octaves . T h i s f l ute permi ts on l y a v ery subdu ed accomp an iment and ,
bec ause of i t s nature, can on l y be used for mourn i ng mus i c and sere­
nades or n i ght mus i c . The a l l -too-soft tone and the narrow range of
the i nstrument has brought it tod ay near ly out of fash i on ; one hears
i t nei ther i n the church nor at concerts any l onger. P rev i ou s l y ,
before t h e transverse f l ute came i nto fas i on , i t was remark ab ly pro-
moted , espec i al l y i n Germany; therew i th were two such "f l utes" p l ayed
and they were accompan i ed by a bas s f l ute [ i . e. , bas s recorder] , an
i nstrument that seems s i mi l ar a l most to a bassoon and [whi ch] was
breathed upon from above through a brass tube. Such a tri o d i d not
sound bad , but i t was too l u l l i ng and d i d not seem properly to su i t
the German s p i r i t .

? Trad i t i on a l l y , the French v i o l i n clef , when natated o n a


"fl auton part , des i gnated the fl auto dol ce ( i . e. , recorder ) r ather
than the transverse f l ute.
377
The L i tt l e F l ageo l et

i s a t i ny f l ute [ k l e i ne s F l otchen] w i th wh i ch one i mi tates the b i rd

song and trai n s the b i rd i t se l f . 8 The l ar ger one i s u sed more i n

appropri ate pl aces , for exampl e , i n oper as where these f l utes sound

remar k ab l y wel l . 9

The Transver s e F l ute

An extreme l y i mportant i nvent i on of recent t i mes , if one does

not want to cl a i m as s ome do [that ] Apol l o and Marsyas made the i r d i s­

pute upon these f l utes . l O F rom some i nd i c at i ons i t seems a l so true


t h at the Greeks h ave k n own a type of tran sverse f l ute. The d i storted

mouth , wh i ch th i s i nstrument produces and wh i c h the Gree k s so often


su s pected, c an not be imag i ned wi t h str a i ght fl utes as w i t h trans verse

f l utes . But ev en i f they shou l d h av e a l so h ad such a f l ute, i t was yet

f ar d i fferent from that of our s . They k new nothi ng o f t h e semi tone


[or ] of s i de k eys , and the comp ass of the i r f l ute h ad , accord i ng to the

testimony of P l utarch , l l perhap s seven to e i ght tones , [where ]

Bsee Grove 6 , 6 : 6 24 for a p art i a l l i st of 1 8t h -century books


deal i n g wi th the £r ai n i ng of b i rd s . . ·

9 H ande l , R i n a l do { 17 1 1 ) ; R ame au , P l atee { 1749 ) ; G l uc k , La


rencontre i mpre vue ( 1764) ; Mozart , D i e EntfUhrung aus dem Serai,-­
{ 1782) . Grove 6 , 6 :6 23 .

l O see M arsyas i n the Append i x .

l lH ere Schu bart presumab l y refers to P l ut arach ' s Be mus i c a ;


and al though there i s no spec i f i c p as s age wh i ch d i scusses the n arrow
r ange of the f l u t e , th i s f act i s i nferred . { Th i s f l ute , i n f act , i s
real ly the au l os . ) P l u t arch ' s treat i se recei ved renewed i nterest i n

378
ours , o n the ot h er h and , n umbers more t h an twenty . Our t r an s verse
f l ut e i s cert a i n l y a German i nvent i on . At the beg i nn i ng of th i s cen-

tury , a master i n N uremberg fi rst produced such an i nstrument . H i s two


sons , who were br i gh t mus i c al m i nd s , devoted themsel ves to it, t r av -

e l ed around i n E u ro pe wi th whol e chests o f such i nstruments , and

brought b ac k a prof i t of thousand s . * These brothers , n amed Denner , and

t he i r f l utes are famous i n a l l the wor l d . 1 2 They [ i . e , the f l utes]

forced t he i r way to Const anti nop l e and I sf ah an , even t o Chi n a, by means

of m i s s i on ar i es , al though the C h i nese passed thems e l ves off as the


i nventors of th i s i ns tr ument . Now s p l end i d transverse f l utes are even

made i n F ranc e , I t a l y , Eng l an d , and i n many German c i t i es , for the most

p art out of wood and i vory; then peopl e t r i ed to m ake them out of por­

c e l a i n and s i l ver , [ b ut they] d i d not s u i t the v i rtuosos .

The tone of th i s f l ute i s th i ck , ful l and pur e , [ and ] ful l of

t enderness and grace. R ust i c untai nted n at ure, arc ad i an s hepherd

*The i r prof i t was s o l arge t h at t hey e ach bought themsel ves a

manor and s t i l l h ad thousands remai n i ng.

the e i gh teenth cent ury because of the controversy about i ts authent i c­


i ty and the f act t h at i t prov i ded u sefu l i n format i on for the v ar i ou s
wr i ters o f mu s i c h i stor i es dur i ng t h at per i od , an e x amp l e of wh i ch m ay
be s een i n H awk i n s H , 1 : 76-81 . Her e , ag ai n , the au l os i s tran s l ate d as
f l ute.
1 2Joh ann Chr i s toph Denner , the f ather, i s not known t o h av e
made any f l utes . J acob, h i s son , h owever , d i d m ake transverse f l utes ,
and i t may be t h at Joh an n D av i d , another son , may h ave made s ome,
al though none ex i st s wh i ch bear h i s i n i t i al s . See Grove 6 , 5 : 374 . See
al so P h i l l i p T. Young , "Some F urther I nstruments by the Den ner s , " The
G a l p i n Soc i ety Journ a l , 35 (March 1 9 8 2) : 78-85 .

37 9
fee l i ng , i n a word , the mu s i c al eco l ogue and i dy l l appert a i n to t h e

to wh i ch some further add t h e l ow f [ c ' ] , up to the t hree- l i ned A


f l ut e . The comp ass o f t h i s i nstrument r anges from l ow desc ant � [d ' ] ,

[a' ' ' ]. I n th i s compass l i es a l l s em i tones , and the l ow , m i dd l e , and


h i gh er tones c an be brought forth equal l y c l e ar l y . By means of s i de

[ s c hwebende Tone] i n a cri t i c al r ange , i . e . , B f l at , f., and others ,


keys , wh i c h Tacet i nvent e d , one now a l so perfo rms the d i ff i cu l t p i tche

w i t h the utmost c l ar i ty . The greatest pri nces , a s Freder i ck t h e Great

and the E l ector K ar l T heodor of t h e P al at i n at e , h av e c hosen th i s

i nstr ument as the i r f avor i te an d h av e mai ntai ned the most excel l ent

f l ut e p l ayers at the i r courts . Quan t z h as put t h e f i n geri ng of t h i s

i nstr ument i n f u l l l i ght and h as wr i tten a m asterwor k about i t [ 175 2] .

The f l ut e h as now become i nd i spens i b l e i n a l l types of mu s i c .


One uses i t i n t h e church , w i t h S i ngspi e l s , concertos , and d ances; i n

so l o and i n accomp an i ment , and t h i s a l w ays w i th mag n i f i cent resu l t .

The c l e ar and g l assy-toned method o f b l owi n g t h i s i n strument i s more

d i ff i cu l t t h an one b e l i eves . A remark ab l y sound c hest i s needed

bec ause i t requ i re s sustai n i n g , steady , and ever-fl owi ng breat h . The

l ower tones must roar, the upper ones must de l i ghtfu l l y soar t h i t her.

The port amento , mezzot i nto, and other mus i c a l orn aments c an be

expressed master l y on the f l ute. S i nce one c an c arry i t arou nd much

e as i er than any other i nstrument , the i nnumer ab l e q u ant i ty of d i l et­

t antes of t h e f l ut e h av e thereby resu l ted today . B ut I a l on e mai nt a i n

t h at the abov e men t i oned d i ff i cu l t i es of b l owi n g wi l l soon coo l d own

t h i s enth u s i asm and wi l l make room for another i nstrument .

38
The F i fe

The i nstrument now becomi n g qu i te m i l i t ari st i c h ard l y deserves

to be brought up here bec aus e of i t s i mperfect i on . Th i s s hr i ek i n g ,

noi sy p i pe was created ent i re l y for t h e s o l d i ers and the i r Turk i sh

mu s i c . I t fort u n at e l y p i erces the r ag i n g drums , but on l y i n the h i ghe

tones , for i n the l ower [tones] i t i s swal l owed up by the drum rol l .

Al so the l ow tones of the f i fe are so uncl ear t h at one c an h ard ly stan

it. A good f i fer therefore a l w ays remai ns i n the h i gh [ r ange] i n orde

to avo i d the s i ck l y tones of the l ow [ r an ge] .

The Shawm

A c l ari net i n m i n i atu re and , i n most probab i l i ty , the mother o

our gentl e oboe . Prev i ous l y o n ly the s hepherds knew th i s i n strument ,


but i ts s p l end i d effect soon made i t s o popu l ar t h at i t was i ntroduced

i n the best soc i et i es . The tone of th i s h as so much i nterest , pecu l i ­

ar i ty , [ an d ] i nf i n i te p l e as antness t h at the who l e s c a l e of mu s i c wou l d


h ave a not i ce ab l e g ap i f th i s i nstrument were l ost . I t i s soc i ab l e,

l ovel y , i mpress i on ab l e for humans and an i mal s , and h as a tone wh i ch a l l

remai n i ng i nstr uments do not h av e . The great mu s i c i an s , for that rea­

son , soon admi tted th at the s h awm i s an i mport ant co l or i n the p a i nt i ng

of mu s i c .

Tel emann brought i t f i rst to the s o l emn cho i r of church mu s i c ,

and