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PATHOLOGY - EXAM QUESTIONS FOR STUDENTS OF DENTISTRY

I. General Pathology
1. Necropsy; surgical pathology (methods; principles)

2. Etiology; pathogenesis; causes of cell injury

3. Death and postmortal changes

4. Necrosis; gangrene; apoptosis

5. Atrophy

6. Disorders of protein metabolism; amyloidosis

7. Disorders of lipid metabolism; fatty change (steatosis)

8. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism; diabetes mellitus; glycogen storage diseases

9. Edema; dehydration

10. Calcification; crystals; lithiasis

11. Pigments (exogenous, endogenous, hematogenous)

12. Jaundice

13. Repair (regeneration; reparation)

14. Adaptation (hypertrophy; hyperplasia, metaplasia)

15. Inflammation (definition; classification; clinical manifestations)

16. Inflammation (microscopic features – review)

17. Acute and chronic inflammation

18. Serous (catarrhal) and fibrinous inflammation

19. Suppurative and gangrenous inflammation

20. Specific (granulomatous) inflammation

21. Disorders of the immune system (review); hypersensitivity; graft rejection

22. Autoimmune diseases; immunodeficiency diseases

23. Congestive heart failure

24. Hypertrophy, dilatation and decompensation of the heart


25. Local disorders of blood flow (review)

26. Thrombosis; embolism; DIC syndrome

27. Hyperemia; ischemia; infarction

28. Hemorrhage; hemorrhagic diathesis

29. Shock

30. Genetic diseases – autosomal dominant

31. Genetic diseases – autosomal recessive

32. Genetic diseases – gonosomal and cytogenetic

33. Environmental diseases (review)

34. Adverse effects of smoking; pneumoconioses

35. Injury by therapeutic agents and alcohol

36. Nutritional diseases; obesity; malnutrition; vitamin deficiencies

37. Bacterial infections (review); toxemia; bacteremia; sepsis; pyemia

38. Bacterial infections: streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci

39. Bacterial infections: meningococci, gonococci, Corynebacterium

40. Bacterial infections: Hemophilus, Klebsiella, Legionella, Bordetella.

41. Bacterial infections: Escherichia coli, Yersinia, Helicobacter, Pseudomonas.

42. Bacterial infections: Salmonella. Shigella. Vibrio.

43. Bacterial infections: Clostridium infections. Tularemia. Cat scratch disease.

44. Bacterial infections: Leptospira. Borrelia. Treponematoses.

45. Bacterial infections: Mycobacterioses (tuberculosis, leprosy).

46. Bacterial infections: Actinomycosis. Rickettsiosis. Chlamydiosis.

47. Viral infections: Herpes simplex. Varicella-zoster virus.

48. Viral infections: Epstein-Barr virus. Cytomegalovirus.

49. Viral infections: Papillomaviruses.

50. Viral infections: Paramyxoviruses (measles, mumps). Togavirus (rubeola).


51. Viral infections: Orthomyxoviruses. Rhabdoviruses. Arboviruses. Polioviruses.

52. Viral infections: Acute and chronic viral hepatitis.

53. Viral infections: HIV/AIDS.

54. Mycotic infections.

55. Parasitic infections.

56. Sexually transmitted diseases.

57. Pseudotumors (cyst; hamartoma; hyperplasia)

58. Dysplasia; precancerous lesions

59. Tumors (definition; classification)

60. Carcinogenesis (etiology of cancer)

61. Characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms; paraneoplastic syndromes

62. Tumor metastasis

63. Grading and staging of cancer

64. Benign mesenchymal tumors

65. Malignant mesenchymal tumors

66. Benign epithelial tumors

67. Malignant epithelial tumors

68. Neuroectodermal tumors.

69. Germ cell tumors; mixed tumors; tumor multiplicity

II. Organ Pathology


1. Atherosclerosis

2. Vasculitis (review)

3. Arterial aneurysms (review)

4. Aortic aneurysms, aortic dissection

5. Venous disorders; lymphatic disorders


6. Tumors of vessels and heart

7. Congestive heart failure

8. Ischemic heart disease (review)

9. Myocardial infarction

10. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

11. Infective endocarditis, nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis

12. Myocarditis; cardiomyopathy

13. Systemic hypertension

14. Pulmonary hypertension; cor pulmonale

15. Pericardial diseases

16. Anemias – general features, classification

17. Myeloproliferative disorders

18. Leukemias (review)

19. Plasma cell disorders; Langerhans cell histiocytoses

20. Bleeding disorders

21. Lymph node pathology (review)

22. Non-Hodgkin‘s lymphomas

23. Hodgkin‘s disease

24. Spleen pathology (review)

25. Lesions of the upper respiratory tract, pharynx, and larynx (review)

26. Tumors of the respiratory system - review

27. Bronchitis, emphysema, bronchiectasis

28. Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD/ARDS)

29. Bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia

30. Tuberculosis

31. Sarcoidosis

32. Bronchogenic carcinoma


33. Pleural lesions - review, mesothelioma

34. Esophageal lesions – review

35. Gastritis and peptic ulcer

36. Small bowel lesions (review)

37. Malabsorption syndrome

38. Tumors of esophagus, stomach and small bowel

39. Enterocolitis

40. Bowel obstruction

41. Crohn‘s disease, ulcerative colitis

42. Large bowel lesions (review)

43. Lesions of the appendix

44. Hirschprung‘s disease; diverticulosis

45. Large bowel tumors

46. Lesions of liver (review)

47. Hepatic failure; jaundice

48. Alcoholic liver disease

49. Liver cirrhosis

50. Hemochromatosis. Wilson´s disease.

51. Tumors of liver and biliary tract

52. Lesions of the gallbladder and bile ducts (review)

53. Lesions of the pancreas (review)

54. Pancreatic tumors (exocrine, endocrine)

55. Lesions of the peritoneum (review)

56. Malformations and cysts of the kidney

57. Glomerulonephritis (review)

58. Pyelonephritis

59. Vascular lesions of the kidney; acute tubular necrosis


60. Nephrotic and nephritic syndrome

61. Renal failure; uremia

62. Urolithiasis; kidney in diabetes mellitus

63. Tumors of kidney and urinary collecting system

64. Lesions of male genital system (review)

65. Testicular tumors. Prostate cancer.

66. Lesions of the vulva and vagina

67. Lesions of the cervix

68. Lesions of the uterine body

69. Lesions of fallopian tube and ovary

70. Tumors of vulva and vagina

71. Tumors of cervix

72. Tumors of uterine body

73. Tumors of ovary and fallopian tube

74. Diseases of pregnancy; trophoblastic disease

75. Lesions of the breast (review)

76. Breast cancer

77. Vascular disease of the brain

78. Cerebral trauma

79. Meningitis, encephalitis

80. Degenerative and demyelinating diseases of the brain

81. Brain tumors; tumors of peripheral nerves

82. Diseases of the skin (inflammatory lesions, tumors)

83. Pigmented nevi; malignant melanoma

84. Lesions of bones (review)

85. Tumors of bone

86. Lesions of joints (review). Rheumatoid arthritis


87. Osteoarthrosis

88. Soft tissue tumors (review)

89. Systemic lupus erythematosus; Systemic sclerosis; polymyositis

90. Lesions of the pituitary gland

91. Lesions of the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands

92. Lesions of the adrenals

93. Diabetes mellitus

III. Orofacial Pathology


1. Lesions of the oral cavity (review)

2. Inflammations of oral mucosa

3. Premalignant lesions of oral mucosa

4. Tumors of the oral cavity and pharynx

5. Non-neoplastic salivary gland disorders

6. Benign salivary gland tumors

7. Malignant salivary gland tumors

8. Odontogenic tumors

9. Non-odontogenic tumors of the jaws

10. Developmental anomalies in the head and neck region

11. Caries

12. Pulpal disorders

13. Periodontal lesions

14. Odontogenic cysts

15. Non-odontogenic cysts

16. Diseases of the jaws (review)

17. Diseases of the maxillary sinus

18. Systemic disorders and syndromes with orofacial manifestation


19. Lymphoreticular diseases in the head and neck region