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AREA of STUDY 2015-2018:

STANDARD AND ADVANCED


Discovery Teacher Resource:
The Motorcycle Diaries
By Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara

created by

Pamela Cohen B.A. Hons. Dip.Ed


Publication Details and Copyright Information

First published in 2014

Copyright © Pamela Cohen: The Cohen Curricula

ISBN: 978-0-9925283-2-4

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

DIGITAL DOWNLOAD

This digital text is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be
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The digital work may be printed by the purchaser. The purchase allows for a single student or
teacher use and that of the class being taught. If multiple teachers wish to access the work then a
school license must be purchased.

The worksheets may be printed or photocopied for class use by the purchasing teacher with no
restraint. Modification by the purchasing teacher is acceptable under the terms of use.

Acknowledgement of the intellectual property on all worksheets must be maintained.

Extracts from The Motorcycle Diaries have been licensed via The Copyright Agency on behalf of
the Australian publisher Ocean Press

Cover image from The Motorcycle Diaries has been licensed via The Copyright Agency on behalf
of the Australian publisher Ocean Press

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Copyright © 2014 by Pamela Cohen

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 2


HOW TO USE THIS RESOURCE
Time is a critical factor for all of us who want to deliver the highest quality teaching resources to
our Higher School Certificate (HSC) English students. Whether you are an experienced or
beginning teacher, having an all encompassing resource with a syllabus aligned program, teaching
notes and worksheets allows you more time to focus on providing feedback on the work students
produce.

This study guide specifically focussing on The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara is
integrally aligned with the new HSC syllabus documentation. The intent is to provide you with a
teaching module that contains a scope and sequence for teaching the text, explicit teaching notes
and a wide range of text specific resources. A series of example and blank worksheet templates in
the resource will provide your students with opportunities to develop their own ideas and encourage
a personal response to their core and related texts.

BOSTES allocates 45 indicative hours to the AoS course. Depending on your school timetable this
accounts for about 50 lessons plus assessment allocation. This specific text study guide for The
Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara (2003) provides a series of workshops that can be
integrated into the teaching of your Discovery unit. Each activity is supported by the resources as
listed in the program. Home study, exam preparation and revision resources are included. Scaffolds
and checklists for peer-to-peer and teacher-student feedback are provided. The blank resources can
be photocopied as many times as you wish. Please respect the copyright notice on the resources.

Each resource is explained in terms of how it can be applied in the classroom and how to explain its
purpose and value to your students. A series of summaries and study questions specific to The
Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara are provided as a separate booklet. Each diary entry
has been broken down to determine which aspects relate to the concept of Discovery. The questions
help students focus on a conceptual understanding of the text and embed language analysis that will
assist them to understand how composers present their ideas about discovery either explicitly or
implicitly. The specific requirements of the rubric have been addressed by adding glossaries to
assist in developing student knowledge and familiarity with techniques that can be used for writing
about the text. The explicit scaffolds and sentence starters will assist in developing vocabulary and
structure.

As a teacher of the Standard and Advanced English HSC courses I have used resources such as
these every day in my classroom. As a life long learner I actively seek feedback from my students
on how to create or develop resources that are useful, practical and effective. The systematic
process of teaching the unit - of deconstructing text and developing analytical skills - has resulted in
greater engagement, greater confidence and improved work output. The resources have been tested
and refined and work.

I look forward to your feedback as a colleague. Please send me an email or add questions and
comments to the blog if you would like clarification on how to use or apply any aspects of the study
guide.

Pamela Cohen

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 3


SUGGESTED TEACHING PROGRAM

4 Lesson 1: Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara: Introduction and tone of Discovery syllabus
the text. description and worksheets
13
Introductory lessons prior to the explicit teaching of the text would cover: The Motorcycle Diaries
summary and questions
school assessment documentation booklet
outcomes relevant to the Standard or Advanced course
Discovery description from the syllabus Purpose bookmarks
an overview of Paper 1 in terms of the HSC examination requirements
Exemplar papers for students to create goals and plan for success Technique bookmarks

At this stage there would be the assumption that students:

have read the text( if not, a reading scope and sequence could be handed out) HOME STUDY
have read through the discovery description from the syllabus
Students to finalise their
have copies of syllabus outcomes
syllabus description sheets
have been provided with the discovery dot point worksheet and the purpose and non-fiction
and begin annotating with
techniques bookmarks
passages from the diary
have been provided with the booklet of home study questions and had the home study expectations entries they have read to
explained to them date.
Provide an overview of the text to orient students in the Discovery objective. Work on study questions
in the question booklet
For example:

Pre revolutionary ‘Che’; Powerful insight into the man who would discover and construct an agenda that
resulted in his revolutionary stance. Text aligns with similar narratives of daring and adventure
recognisable in other coming of age texts, both fiction and non-fiction. Discovery: physical, spiritual,
emotional and philosophical is evident in his highly descriptive writing including:
his description, discussion and evaluation of places he visits for the first time
his willingness to share personal insights into his emotional reaction to events and people
the tolerance, respect and affection in his relationship with Alberto Granado , his travelling
companion
his naïve love for Chichina and deep love for family and more importantly, his growing love and
admiration for Latin America, its people and its hardships
his developing political awareness – his discussion of the extent of poverty and inequity that he
witnesses would impact on the later ‘Che’, the revolutionary
insight and appreciation of social customs and cultural awareness of others – tolerance, respect,
compassion, community - allows reader to discover a world beyond their own experience
Self awareness – a growing sense of self actualisation and knowing of his purpose

Begin the study of the text by reading the opening diary entry to students.

Identify the aspects that relate to ‘Discovery’ using the syllabus description
Have students develop a dot point breakdown of the discovery description. A worksheet for this
purpose is provided in the package
Have students complete a verb activity. Have students go through this first (or a diary entry of their
choice) and highlight the verbs, noting them down in the order they occur. Students should
verbally discuss and evaluate the cumulative value of the verbs to determine the tone of the diary
entry. Discussion would take place relating to what we can learn about Guevara’s vernacular, his
education, his mood in relation to the events he is describing and his love of language. Look for
personification and tone. Identify if the verbs shift in tone throughout the entry; this will provide
students with an introductory feel for Guevara’s purpose and agenda in sharing his experience.
What can we discover about Guevara and Alberto, about courage, determination, persistence,
creativity, self discovery and grasping hold of opportunities as they arise?

Encourage students to write up a paragraph using their material. Create a thesis focus by providing
the question:
‘Discovery is only relevant if it changes the world beyond the individual experience’

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 5


4 Lesson 2: Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : Elements of a non- TEPA worksheets
fiction text workshop
5 Purpose bookmarks
Provide students with the worksheets of structural and figurative techniques relevant to a non-fiction text.
6 Go through the worksheet on the board modelling by using an example diary entry from the text. Have
students select a diary entry and have them fill out the worksheets identifying the structural elements they
should be looking for. Once completed you can use your summary sheet for the diary entry to prompt
students to add further detail in terms of the techniques and the links to the Discovery concept. The
previous lesson on grammatical structures within a diary entry can be revisited in terms of how non-fiction
texts such as diaries and memoirs use language to emphasise personal views and responses to experience.
Refer here to first person, anaphora, cumulation of phrases and the more complex ideas such as irony and HOME STUDY
paradox.
Work on study questions
Use the quote: ‘Then I realized one fundamental thing: to be a revolutionary doctor, or to be a in the question booklet
revolutionary, there must first be a revolution. The isolated effort, the individual effort, the purity of
ideals, the desire to sacrifice a lifetime to the noblest of ideals means naught if that effort is made alone,
solitary…’ (page 168)

Encourage students to explore the fact that self realisation (personal discovery) inherently presents the
idea that it is the responsibility of the individual to act in such a way as to edify rather than impact
negatively on others. You could raise discussion on how and why non-fiction texts are more effective than
fiction texts at presenting these moral lessons? Guevara’s need to share his experience can be discussed
here. Pose questions that challenge a range of perspectives , for example:

is it hubristic to think we should be influenced, manipulated or persuaded to accept Che’s journey


as a didactic on how we should understand our world?
is this journey of discovery more important than that of the spiritual awakening of Ghandi or
Krishna?
is it beneficial to read such inspiring journeys to develop our own spirit of adventure and daring?
Does spiritual awareness such as that which evolved in this text reflect on the need for young
people to expand their understanding of a world beyond their own comfort zones?

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4 Lesson 3: TEPA workshop and
worksheets
5 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara :TEPA

6 Example sheet is provided.

Provide students with a TEPA lesson. Explain how the structure works and model an example on
the board. Hand out TEPA sheets and explain how students can use to record their identification of
techniques, evidence, purpose and analysis. A workshop for you as a teacher is provided in this
resource. Use the video lesson from the blog if required. HOME STUDY
Explicitly teach the concept of purpose. Use the purpose word bookmark or list and apply it to a
diary entry. Have students use a range of sentence starters to assist them to write sentences on Work on study questions
purpose. in the question booklet
Allocate questions for a specific diary entry and have students discuss how language shapes a
response to the Discovery concept
Create and model a teacher sample TEPA sheet for this diary entry to assist students with
developing purpose and analysis
Have students develop their TEPA sheets in terms of analysis. As analysis is the most difficult
aspect for students to work through, explain that it simple means that after determining how the
language chosen has been constructed for a specific purpose, discuss the most significant lesson
that can be learned when related to the ‘Discovery’ concept. If you have completed earlier
discussion on Discovery as suggested in the Discovery Teacher Resource and students have
created dot points drawn from the syllabus description they should be able to make quite insightful
connections here.

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1 Lesson 4: Context workshop and
worksheets
3 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : Context

4 After the initial lessons on the text students should be able to recognise structural elements of a non-fiction
text and some understanding of how the grammatical and figurative techniques convey the concept of
5 ‘Discovery’.

6 Before students continue they need to gain an understanding of context and how it provides depth to their
analysis.

Provide the context sheets to students. HOME STUDY

Explicitly teach the seven contexts. Have relevant examples from across the text. There is a video on our Work on study questions
website that has a brief general description but more specific descriptions are provided below. Discuss in the booklet
from the outset that the contexts do not work in isolation; they can interrelate and show for example, how
social and cultural aspects are linked inherently to history or to politics.

Social – aspects of work, education, relationships, leisure: You could discuss Guevara’s family
relationships and expectations – interrelates with the cultural heritage; discuss the political implications-
family investment in education, social class; his friendship with Alberto and the changing nature of that
friendship during the journey.

Cultural – rituals, traditions, heritage; cultural markers such as language, food and customs: You could
explore Guevara’s discussion of the different foods they were able to experience during their journey that
had cultural significance to play and celebration; examine ways of celebrating; marital expectations; use of
language; relationship between identity and language.

Political – balance of power roles in the text: discuss government and governance and its influence on
groups and individuals; examine the power relationships between individuals in terms of knowledge,
experience, age, social hierarchy or gender; explore the political aspirations drawn from experience;
explore the economic and social deprivation raised as issues that have affected Guevara.

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Historical – specific historical references, either implicitly or explicitly stated: discussion of places and
spaces inhabited by groups; historical resonance of South America; historical artefacts

Gender – masculinity and/or femininity rather than sexual determinant – masculine traits and the need to
pursue expectations, feminine traits and how these construct views and perspectives; how specific gender
expectations are placed on individuals or are challenged by individuals; how gender relates to political
notions of self; shifts between Alberto’s macho behaviour and the less intimidating behaviour of Guevara.

Religious – any spiritual dimension – references to specific religions and their impact on how individuals
or groups can exist or are constrained or benefited in their experience of discovering self or ideas;
metaphysical dimensions of the individual and their response to circumstances that results in spiritual
growth or change as they discover their identity or their moral and values proximity: examine the role of
the nuns in the leper colonies; explore the concept of a growing spiritual awareness in Guevara as he
learns of his own capacity to empathise with those less fortunate than himself.

Intellectual – reading positions that are evident in the text – communism versus capitalism as a discourse
that limits or attracts opportunities to discover aspects of human behaviour; dominant versus resistant
responses to social constructs that impact on an individual’s ability to discover more about the world, a
specific event, themselves or insight into others. Binary opposition theory – ethical debates on whether
discovery is a valid interpretation of right and wrong, good and evil, happiness or despair, understanding
or ignorance ranging across the perspectives of those who have the power to discover and those who suffer
disenfranchisement through birth or socio-political/economic deficit.

Students will see examples of some or all of these contexts in each diary entry. Those diary entries that are
chosen to analyse should have the context analysis sheets applied. Extra descriptions of a more generic
nature are provided in the context workshop which will assist students to locate context in their own
choice of related material.

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1 Lesson 5:

3 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara: Close study of a passage of the core
text.
4
Select a passage that incorporates strong technical evidence and a range of contextual material.
5
Deconstruct the diary entry or passage with students – teacher directed. You could use one of the
6 summaries provided to model ways of engaging with the concept.

If possible, place the passage on the white board using a data projector or hand out photocopy passage for HOME STUDY
students to annotate (if copyright allows).
Work on study questions
Brainstorm with students identifying and annotating the techniques and the contextual material. Have a in the booklet
class discussion testing opinions and validating how the contexts are revealed through the language.
Examine the implications of the passage in terms of gaining a deeper insight into the Discovery concept.

Have students begin writing up their context sheets.

Have students fill out TEPA sheets for the passage incorporating context into their analysis.

Question focus:

‘How does context shape our understanding of personal discovery?’

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1 Lesson 6: TEPA workshop and
worksheets
3 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara
Paragraph Scaffold
4 Students, either individually or in pairs, are to select a passage of text and deconstruct for context,
techniques and links to the ‘Discovery’ concept. Fill out appropriate analysis sheets. Once completed Peer-to-peer checklist
5 provide students with the relevant summary worksheet and questions and have them add further to their
own writing. Students could use the sentence starters to assist them to develop more sophistication in their
6 phrasing.

Students should develop a paragraph using the question from the previous lesson. Students can use the
paragraph scaffold and the checklist to assist them to develop a detailed response. HOME STUDY

Once the paragraph has been written students can use the checklist to identify areas of improvement in Work on study questions
terms of structure and language. If students are working ahead of the class they can be working on the in the booklet
questions from the study guide. Have students discuss their interpretations of the question with a peer
before writing their responses. All responses should use the TEPA paragraph process:

Topic sentence: restate the question and direct the reader to the argument/thesis being asserted
Context sentence: state the passage discussed and the concept of discovery it addresses
TEP: The chosen technique and evidence that defends the thesis; explain the authorial purpose in
choosing the specific language.
A: what is the most insightful idea that is revealed from the textual reference; what is the most
significant lesson we can learn.
Connecting word: TEP: The chosen technique and evidence that defends the thesis; explain the
authorial purpose in choosing the specific language.
A: what is the most insightful idea that is revealed from the textual reference; what is the most
significant lesson we can learn.
Final sentence: begin with an evaluative adverb or evaluative phrase: Significantly, Purposefully,
Insightfully, Cleverly, The extent to which… and state how effective the text is in presenting
insight into the thesis argued.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 11


1 Lesson 7: Values workshop and
worksheet
3 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : Values

4 A key aspect of ‘Discovery’ is responsibility. Whether the discovery is literal – scientific or medical for
example, or a personal discovery – a spiritual or moral awakening - there is an inherent need for
5 responsibility. The discovery of Australia which resulted in the dispossession of First Nations sovereignty
could be argued as being morally irresponsible. Discovery of a roll of money on a bus may be exciting but
6 the finder has a moral responsibility to hand the money in and find the owner. By studying then testing the
values that become evident through the world of text, students become more aware and self discover the
8 impact they can have on society. Values are those things we adhere to, that we know and understand to be
real and true for ourselves. For example, we know it is wrong to lie, steal, deceive, cheat, abuse, HOME STUDY
9 discriminate or have prejudice against others. What we do not always understand, however, is that these
things happen everyday, by individuals, groups and governments. When we ‘discover’ how this occurs in Work on study questions
our own lives or more globally, to others, we begin to realise how values are an important part of in the booklet
establishing our personal ethical position. Students should access the list of values in the resource and
select a range of values that apply to a specific diary entry, for example, when Ernesto and Alberto are
forced to steal or lie or manipulate to get food.

Have students complete a close reading of a range of diary entries from the text and evaluate the extent to
which the author’s language choice reveal his own values and as such, exposes how these values are not
upheld for all individuals. The diary entries that highlight the less than appropriate behaviour enacted by
Alberto or the values that demonstrate Ernesto’s admiration for the miners as well as the actions in the
leper colony are appropriate for examples. Using the worksheet, students should identify at least four
values evident in their chosen diary entries and then identify the relevant techniques and evidence used to
convey the values. Students should develop a paragraph on values that uses the following statement as a
focus:

‘It is easy to become disillusioned when we discover others do not share our values.’

Students should use their values TEPAs to write the paragraph. Purpose should focus on what exactly the
author wants us, as his reader to discover about the world and our place in it. Analysis should focus on the
lessons we should learn and how we have the ability to change and shift the perspectives of others.

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1 Lesson 8: ‘ LIMP workshop and
worksheets
3 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : LIMP

4 Literal
Inferential
5 Metaphysical
Philosophical
6
Explicitly teach the LIMP workshop. Provide the limp questions and assist students to develop their
8 understanding of each of the concepts in relation to ‘Discovery’. This workshop is very intense but fulfils
the syllabus concept of taking students beyond literal interpretations. A video workshop is available for HOME STUDY
9 this concept. Definitions are provided below.
Work on study questions
13 Literal: obvious, explicit in the booklet

Example: direct references to discovery: the third diary entry of Guevara’s text entitled ‘discovery of the
ocean’ (translation) (page 34). Literal references to discoveries: objects found; places found; personal
experiences of locating something for the first time. Page 42, discovering or realising the damage to the
bike and then links to inferential with the realisation of the challenges that would impact on future
experiences or discoveries.

Inferential: inferred meaning, metaphorical notions or suggestions, euphemistic connotations.

Examples: Diary Entry Two: ‘…lovesick pause’ (translation) (page37). References to explorers,
expeditions. Page 38 the realisation of the friend’s wife not being happy to see them infers self realisation;
Page 40 suggests freedom, imagination and anticipation all suggest how the aspects of discovery benefit
an individual providing hope and sustains intention. Page 44, the use of italics around the verb discovered
inferring negative connotations relating to tourism’s influence on San Martin de los Andes.

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Metaphysical: the spiritual experiences of humanity; the connection between man and nature at a spiritual
level. Experience as lessons that enrich or educate or challenge the soul.

Examples: Page 49, the realisation or discovery of the power of nature when the stag runs across their
path, the realisation and appreciation of the power of nature; page 54, Guevara’s realisation that his
relationship would not endure and the consequences this held for his future; page 59, recognitions of the
responsibility and privilege placed upon when the newspaper story is released. Pages 66-68, shifting
fortunes and discovery of relationships and reception and how it changed after their loss of the bike.

Philosophical: questions raised by the text and how these questions suggest issues that resonate across
time with both mythical and factual interrelationships.

Examples include: the caption for the final image which reveals the philosophical underpinnings of the
‘Che’ that would evolve as a result of the discoveries of self and nature of the poverty and medical need
throughout South America; Page 85, the discovery that individuals make as a result of experience that
helps them to empathise and understand the nature of revolution and its impact on mankind- and extends
across history; Page 86, the revisiting of the past and reviewing of experience as a means of reflectively
questioning our response to experience; page 103, the discourse surrounding history as a means of
connecting past, present and future.

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1 Lesson 9: LIMP worksheets

3 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : LIMP (continued)

4 Have students expand and locate examples of the metaphysical and philosophical aspects of discovery
developed in the text. These aspects are higher order and will provide a shift from the literal and add
5 insight to their responses.

6 Students should use the TEPA sheets


Students should incorporate contextual insights
8 Students should incorporate their understanding of values HOME STUDY
Students may use the paragraph scaffold and checklist
9 Work on study questions
Use the quote: ‘And then, for the last time, I heard the ocean’s warning. Its vast and jarring rhythm in the booklet
13 hammered at the fortress within me and threatened its imposing serenity.’ (Page 37) and three other
references from other diary entries throughout the text.

Write two paragraphs that resolve the question:

‘To what extent is spiritual discovery reliant on the individual being open to learning from experience?

Have students complete the peer to peer checklist after writing their paragraphs.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 15


10 Lesson 10:

11 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara: collation and evaluation of
paragraphs and notes taken to date.
14 HOME STUDY
Use checklists to ensure paragraphs have structural integrity, accurate quotation and technique
identification, explore sophisticated ideas and use vocabulary appropriate to audience, purpose and Students to bring in a
context. All work should link to ideas and conceptual underpinnings of the ‘Discovery’ description. Use related text to the next
the summaries to ensure students are locating the discovery concept and the interesting or significant lesson
aspects of the text. Provide the sentence starters to assist them with developing stronger sentence
beginnings and synthesis. Work on study questions
in the booklet
Students should complete their notes, complete and re-evaluate their paragraphs in light of the checklists
and attend to details to ensure they have a strong bank of resources that can be adapted to a range of essay
questions and text types.

1 Lesson 11: Related Text


analysis sheets
8 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : Related Text One LIMP worksheets
Context worksheet
11 Students are to bring in the first of two related texts they have chosen, annotating it for aspects of the text Values worksheets
that correlates or contrasts with the ideas about discovery in the core text. A list of related material is
available on our blog. HOME STUDY

Students should spend this lesson: Complete analysis sheets


for Related Text one
developing the related text analysis sheet relevant to their text type.
beginning a detailed conceptual and technical deconstruction of the text using the context, values Work on study questions
and LIMP worksheets. in the booklet
ensuring the selections of the text for analysis present opportunities to link to their core text.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 16


1 Lesson 12: Comparative worksheets

8 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : Related Texts (continued from Paragraph scaffolds
previous lesson)
11
Develop a comparative worksheet for Related Text One and The Motorcycle Diaries
Begin writing a series of conceptual paragraphs for these two texts HOME STUDY

Focus your arguments on the statement: Work on study questions


in the booklet
‘The discovery is only the beginning; what comes next is what really matters.’

To what extent is this statement true of the texts you have studied?

1 Lesson 13: Related Text Analysis


sheets
8 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : Related Text Two

11 Students are to bring in the second related text they have chosen, annotating it for aspects of the text that
correlates or contrasts with the ideas about discovery in the core text. HOME STUDY

Students should spend this lesson: Work on study questions


in the booklet
developing the related text analysis sheet relevant to their text type.
beginning a detailed conceptual and technical deconstruction of the text using the context, values
and LIMP worksheets.
ensuring the selections of the text for analysis present opportunities to link to their core text

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1 Lesson 14: Blank TEPA worksheets

8 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : Related Text Two (continued from
previous lesson)
9
Develop a comparative worksheet for Related Text One and The Motorcycle Diaries
11 Begin writing a series of conceptual paragraphs for these two texts HOME STUDY

Focus your arguments on the statement: Work on study questions


in the booklet
‘To discover is to learn.’

To what extent is this statement true of the texts you have studied?

1 Lesson 15:

8 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : Drafting an introduction

9 Model how an effective introduction is written. Use the question from Lesson 14.

11 Sentence 1: Topic sentence: restate the question, reworded or restated with the addition of a thesis HOME STUDY
Sentence 2: State the titles of the texts, correctly formatted ( which texts should be underlined,
13 which in inverted commas, dates in brackets etc) Work on study questions
Sentence 3: Present a sentence that identifies three to four clear conceptual argument that will be in the booklet
explored across your range of texts
Sentence 4: Write a concluding sentence that restates the thesis and makes a link to the key concept
to be discussed in the first paragraph topic sentence.

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4 Lesson 16:

5 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : Introductions HOME STUDY

6 Students will use this lesson to write their introduction, peer mark and use the checklist in the large essay Work on study questions
rubric. Students should use the scaffolds provided and the TEPA sheets they have developed to date. in the booklet

4 Lesson 17:

5 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : Drafting a conclusion HOME STUDY

6 The conclusion is the most significant part of the essay in terms of leaving the marker with the sense that Work on study questions
the student has grasped, developed deep understanding and located insights and truths from their study of in the booklet
their chosen texts.

Model the writing of an effective conclusion. Use the question from Lesson 14. Provide an exemplar if
available. Make a scaffold from the exemplar. If unavailable provide a sample scaffold as below:

Sentence 1: Restate the question in assertive language and use an evaluative adverb or phrase
Sentence2: present the greatest insight or lesson that can be drawn from the first conceptual
argument
Sentence 3: present the greatest insight or lesson that can be drawn from the second conceptual
argument
Sentence 4: present the greatest insight or lesson that can be drawn from the third conceptual
argument
Final sentence: use an evaluative adverb or phrase and nail home the greatest lesson that can be
learned from the studied texts.

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1 Lesson 18: Essay Scaffold

2 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : Writing a comparative concept
essay
4 HOME STUDY
Students will use this lesson to draft an essay using the work prepared over the past weeks.
5 Students should complete
The focus is on the idea of adapting the analysis and arguments developed throughout the writing process their draft essay at home
6 to a more generic question. and type up.

9 Question Focus: Use checklists to refine


your essay.
11 ‘To what extent have the texts you have studied provided you with insight into to concept of discovery?’

Students should access the conceptual essay scaffold and develop as detailed a draft as possible.

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As Above Lesson 19: Stopwatch
HSC style writing
Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara: Timed writing. booklets
Question
Students will be learning about the challenges of writing a timed essay in this lesson and having to adapt
prepared ideas to a new question. .

Question Focus:

‘The most significant discovery is that which reveals the possibilities for change and growth’

Teacher will need a stopwatch (maybe two).

Explain process to students and place the following times as visible reminders.

Introduction: 6 minutes
Paragraph one: 5 minutes
Paragraph Two: 5 minutes
Paragraph Three: 5 minutes
Paragraph Four: 5 minutes
Paragraph Five: 5 minutes
Paragraph Six: 5 minutes
Conclusion: 4 minutes

Try to keep up momentum, stop students with a countdown from ten seconds at the end of each time
period. Give students 30 seconds break between paragraphs. Collect essays.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 21


13 Lesson 20:

14 Focus: Core text: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara : Feedback

Hand essays back out to students. Students are to use the checklist and mark the first dot point. Essay
should then be passed on the student sitting next to them to mark the next dot point. Continue in this
fashion until all dot points have been completed. HOME STUDY

Comments can be made if they are constructive and supportive. Work on study questions
Work to be handed back to the student to be revised. in the booklet
Students should identify three areas in need of improvement.

Discuss the benefits of this type of group activity and gain feedback on what students can learn from each
other.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 22


‘STANDARD’ SYLLABUS OUTCOMES – RELATE TO YOUR STUDY OF CORE AND RELATED TEXTS

Outcome ( insert key words or outcomes here) Link to study of core and related texts
1. Hint: Look for aspects of the text that we can agree or disagree with, can empathise with or realise
similar reactions to the author; examine how we engage with the content and setting; examine how the
context/s create parallels or contrasts with our own experiences.
2. Hint: the correlatives between the core and related texts - use related text analysis sheets to develop
insights then link to the core text through concepts and contexts.
3. Hint: evidence of metalanguage including grammatical and figurative language, structural features,
analytical phrasing, sophisticated vocabulary relevant to the ‘Discovery’ concept. Sentence starters
may be useful here.
4.. Hint: the specific language analysis that takes place in relation to your core and related text material.
TEPA process will develop this aspect of the syllabus
5. Hint: ability to recognise the specific aspects of technology for example, in film or websites or
multimedia texts; medium as representational quality of a text or text type; medium as in artwork, or in
terms of text type including play scripts; ways of delivering the material – radio program, transcript,
blog etc.
6. Hint: close study of the text; detailed, concise textual references relevant to the argument and concept;
personal response, avoid use of commonly available study summaries and engage with the text itself.
Use of TEPA and LIMP worksheets will enhance close engagement.
7. Hint: synthesis is the links made between the core and related text material. You need to find close
links in terms of the concepts or contexts, link similar ways the texts reveal ideas about discovery; use
the worksheets for values; use TEPA; use purpose bookmarks and context worksheets.
8. Hint: independent ideas are significant here, what insights can you bring to your study of the text; you
need to be interpretive in terms of understanding and locating insights in texts; you need to write and
think about your texts in imaginative ways allowing yourself to experience the text by reflecting on
how the ideas have been experienced from your own perspective. TEPA, LIMP, CONTEXT,
VALUES
9. Hint: the ways in which you have used scaffolds or other processes to deconstruct and then write about
texts – TEPA sheets, comparative sheets, using LIMP etc.
10. Hint: writing in a synthesised manner using specific scaffolds that allow for the development of
arguments; for example, essays, speeches, blog discussions, debates, feature articles; developing
conceptual arguments. Use the relevant worksheets in the resource package.
11. Hint: writing imaginative texts - narratives, drama scripts; internal monologues and the use of relevant
stylistic features; original ideas; developed use of figurative language; use of personification, setting,
plot structures, thematic concerns.
12. Hint: use of editing and peer checklists and rubrics

13. Hint: works through drafts and revises work taking into account the feedback received.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 23


‘ADVANCED’ SYLLABUS OUTCOMES: LINKS TO CORE AND RELATED TEXTS

Outcome( insert key words or outcomes here) Link to study of core and related texts
1. Hint: Can we make value judgements about the effect of authorial context and align this or contrast
with that of our own. Examine how context creates parallels or contrasts that negate or authenticate
our response.
2. Hint: the correlatives between the core and related texts - use related text analysis sheets to develop
insights then link to core texts through concepts and contexts.
2A. Hint: texts are valued for their historical survival; for their literary value, for their longevity, for the
universal nature of the experience they present and for the insights they allow us to access.
3. Hint: evidence of metalanguage including grammatical and figurative language, structural language,
analytical phrasing, sophisticated vocabulary. Sentence starters may be useful here. Register is
sustained in writing of analytical and interpretive texts.
4. Hint: Verbs are ‘explain and ‘analyse’ -‘ be detailed, how has the technique itself assisted in
developing insight into the concept; analyse – clear ability to deconstruct the text for relevance and
effect.
5. Hint: make value judgements; discuss nuances of text form and structures; film, websites or
multimedia texts; medium as representational quality of visual or written text.
6. Hint: critical, concise textual references; personal response, high level of engagement with the text
itself. Use TEPA and LIMP worksheets to enhance close engagement.
7. Hint: synthesis is the act of making links made between the core and related text material. Link
concepts or contexts, link similar ways the texts reveal ideas about discovery; use the worksheets for
values; use TEPA; use purpose bookmarks and context worksheets
8. Hint: independent, insightful, interpretive, imaginative, experience the text by reflecting on how the
ideas have been experienced from your own perspective. TEPA, LIMP, CONTEXT, VALUES
9. Hint: the ways in which you have used scaffolds or other processes to deconstruct and then write about
texts – TEPA sheets, comparative sheets, using LIMP, CONTEXT and VALUES.
10. Hint: writing in a synthesised manner using specific scaffolds that allow for the development of
arguments; for example, essays, speeches, blog discussions, debates, feature articles; developing
conceptual arguments. Use the relevant worksheets in the resource package
11. Hint: writing imaginative texts - narratives, drama scripts; internal monologues and the use of stylistic
features; original ideas; developed use of figurative language; use of personification, setting, plot
structures, thematic concerns.
12. Hint: use of editing and peer checklists and rubrics

12A. Hint: reflect on drafts and make value judgments about alternate ways of writing or reading the text;
alternate text types and transferability of writing across a range of textual forms.
13. Hint: works through drafts and revises work taking into account the feedback received.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 24


‘DISCOVERY’ DESCRIPTION WORKSHOP
IDEAS RELATING TO DISCOVERY DRAWN FROM Examples from The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara
SYLLABUS DESCRIPTION (fill in using the separate
sentences from the Discovery description)
Finding something

Serendipitous or planned

Relate to the human experience

Can cause stress

Reveal or expose values

Speculative

Perspectives

Contexts

Life –changing

Re-evaluated

Equates with discoveries we have experienced


ourselves

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 25


Discovery as a result of learning something new from
the text

Dealing with those aspects of discovery that are


assumed or taken for granted

How we can use text to find out more about


ourselves and the world

How the language in the text can be challenging in


some ways and lead us to discover new meanings and
interpretations
How new words can provide us with a greater
understanding of the society’s we adopt and try to
understand
How new language provides us with a
vocabulary to assists us to explore new ideas
and access new places
How some things we encounter in our
experiences will provoke us to question our own
or other’s values
How we can provoke others with our new ideas
and discoveries challenging them to explore new
ways of engaging with the world
Being open to experiences that might lead to a
change in our understanding of our identity

Becoming excited by new concepts and ideas


that would previously have been unavailable to
us
Realising our own potential for growth when
engaging in new and exciting discoveries

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 26


Discovery in The Motorcycle Diaries
Begin your analysis by grounding yourself in the Discovery concept. Read the BOSTES Discovery rubric carefully and identify those aspects that reflect
ideas you have observed in your initial reading of the text. Fill out the table below using the vocabulary drawn from the syllabus as stimuli to express your
understanding of ‘Discovery’. Provide your definition or explanation of the word in terms of how it applies to the concept and then provide evidence from the
film that associates with the vocabulary and the definition you have produced.

Discovery vocabulary – locate Quote from the text Example from The Motorcycle Diaries- what are you
definitions looking for?
Look for examples of truth, spiritual awakening, realisation, new worlds,
discovering new ideas, religious awareness

God, life, a sense of self, knowledge of the power of nature, values


rediscovering

Leaving university, giving away money


impulsive

Death of La Ponderosa
unforeseen

Process of survival
planned

Getting lifts, finding food


serendipitous

Finding shelter
fortuitous

Money
essential

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 27


Learning about leprosy
inquisitiveness

Medicine, leprosy
desire to learn

Landscapes, poverty
evocative

Landscapes, kindness, humility


awesome

Loss of Chichina
emotional

self awareness, vulnerability of man in nature


spiritual

Rationalisation of education and science


intellectual

Potential futures
imagined

Hunger, climate
challenging

Getting into trouble


uncomfortable

Extent of poverty
disturbing

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 28


Arguments over money
inflammatory

How to find food


innovative

Making money
ingenious

Potential impact of the journey


speculative

Self awareness
insightful

Realisation of need
thought provoking

For South America


responsibility

Rationale of experience through reflective narration


self realisation

Learning how to respect others and self


values

New ideas and realisations as a result of time spent in the leprosy clinic
transform

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 29


Considerations for Discovery: apply to core and related texts
Consider the following as you progress through the workshops and worksheets in this resource. Apply
these ideas and questions to every reference you select in an attempt to locate the deepest insights
possible.

The syllabus uses the word ‘assumption’. If we look at a thesaurus, synonyms such as ‘supposition’,
‘postulation’, ‘best guess’, ‘conjecture’, ‘hypothesis’, ‘theory’, ‘notions’ and ‘belief’ become evident. How
can we apply this vocabulary to the concept of discovery and to your text? We can consider why some
discoveries need to be revisited in terms of their value at the time they were made and how that has changed
as historical or social change has taken place or been acknowledged? We can, therefore, examine to what
extent our chosen text engages with a shift in perspectives or with historical revisionism in relation to
original expectations of the discovery.

What have you, in your own experiences, discovered in the literal sense? For example:

a secret place you went to with your friends


the wonders of a specific scientific understanding of something
a realisation about something that you did not have before
a deeper understanding of another person or concept that you can identify shifted your perspective
something wondrous or awesome that you did not know existed
a truth
an untruth
a reality that was confronting
the brilliance of another human being
devastation at betrayal and the capacity for another person to hurt you
reality over myth or fairy tale
your ability to do something you could not do before because you can master a skill you have newly
discovered and developed
a realisation of your own capacity to change the world through your actions and reactions
an ability to control your own emotional response
a revelation that has changed you or that you know has changed others
the blunt realities of experience
discoveries or inventions made because you were doing something you should not have been doing
surprises
unexpected events that have the capacity to change everything
discoveries that need to happen or that you become aware of as you are forced to acknowledge or
accept events or happenings around you
the discovery of the ability to create, construct or invent: art, music, cooking, sculpture, building a
toy or complex object, mastering the skills to make your creative venture a possibility, scientific
discovery, technological discovery
examining where the impetus for discovery begins – in dreams, imagined possibilities and futures,
from a need to break free from the mundane; to find self as well as others that might stimulate a new
passion, a new freedom. What do you do with this awareness of skill? How can you benefit yourself?
How can you benefit others? How can you contribute to the world? What happens to the discovery
when it is shared? How do we protect it? How do we negotiate? How do we deal with criticism?
How do we deal with rejection? How do we deal with praise and approbation? What are the
economic benefits? What are the social benefits? How do we provide access or restrict access?
Should all discoveries be shared?
secrets – are they, by default, meant to be discovered? Why do we keep them? When they become
known what are the merits or harms caused? How do we react if we are the benefactor? How do we
react if we are not? Once revealed a secret cannot be reclaimed? What is the implication here for all
discoveries – once it has occurred we are changed completely, nothing will be exactly the same
again. Why? What do we do from this point? What if someone reveals a secret that is damaging to
us? How do we react? What if the secret exposes us for our beliefs, our values? Do we have to
justify those and if we do, how do we explain? How do we excuse? How do we mete out retribution?
How do we submit to justice? How do we use the experience to learn some aspect of human
experience that we can then share later and advocate for others or prevent similar secrets dominating
and constraining others to a certain perspective? Do secrets, once revealed, change our perspective
of the teller or the keeper? How is this a deficit? What happens when we lose faith in someone we
trust? What do we have to rediscover or locate in ourselves in order to rationalise our perspective of
others and the world?
An emotional discovery, where the event impacts on you in such a way as you become aware of your
ability or inability to process the event and react joyfully, tearfully, sometimes both; experiences of
elation, excitement, affirmation or anger, resentment, bitterness, sadness, bittersweet etc.
Intellectual realisation; as we gain knowledge we have shifts in intellectual realisations, what do we
realise? When do we develop cognitive shifts that assist us to appreciate - or at times - regret the
discoveries or rethink our reactions to past discoveries, become nostalgic about those discoveries and
have to revise or re-enact or refute in the face of shifting cognitive relativity
Physical discoveries, visceral reactions that make us aware of the impact of the discovery: taste,
touch, see, hear, smell; sensory and real, tangible; how these visceral reactions can resonate over a
short or long period of time; enduring consequences of such experience
Spiritual discovery, sense of something bigger than ourselves has drawn us to this place or
realisation; what it means to know and understand and then to take responsibility; be aware of the
consequences on our psyche and our emotions and our identity; accept, or reject something that has a
significant impact on our lives.
Renewal of spirit and revisionism of original ideas, maturity and responses that shift our attitudes
towards our parents and siblings or friends and community
Inner revelations and awareness of our own prejudices and willingness to change as we undergo
transformative thought processes – if we didn’t know we would not have had to change, we often
wish we didn’t find out, why the regret? What can we do as we renew the spirit and find a new
perspective of self and of others? How can we empower ourselves and others with this information?
Is empowerment and enfranchising ourselves and others the key to survival or self realisation?
What happens when we discover something that makes us very uncomfortable? An awareness of
ourselves we did not have before. The fact that we are short, tall, nice, nasty, smart, not so smart,
savvy, naïve, likeable, unlikeable etc. What do we do with these discoveries? How do we react?
How do we take responsibility and to what extent do we own and accept rather than blame and
reject? How do we then evolve and make those uncomfortable things comfortable? What resources
do we need psychologically and spiritually? Who do we go to for help if we need it? How do we
develop the resilience to overcome those discoveries that make us feel negative about ourselves?
How do we develop awareness so we don’t become hubristic about those better physical, intellectual
or spiritual attributes we may have?
When do the discoveries we make force us to change something about ourselves and the world. Do
we have responsibility here? If we are confronted by what we see and experience and what we are
exposed to what can we do? What should we do? If we are provoked how do we begin a process of
change? What needs to change? Education? Perspective? Understanding of others? The positive
influences and negative connotations of not changing? How do we rationalise our changing
awareness? How are we justifying rather than accepting? How are we arguing and excusing rather
than revising and recalibrating? Why are we so provoked? Are we taking time to examine the
contextual information that has formed our original response and evaluated the underpinnings of that
response? What is the potential for self, society and the world if we decide to shift our perspective?
How do we now rationalise our changed perspective/s? Is the thought revolutionary? What will we
discover about ourselves and others when we begin to voice our new understandings of how a
discovery has led us to them?
What happens when we ourselves are discovered? Is it a positive sense of discovery, a contribution
we can make to others and society and the world and is it favourable and admired; does it lead to
approbation and affirmation – or the obverse, how do we avoid falling into hubris? What if we are
discovered for what we are not or what others assume we are not? How do we react when we feel
exposed, denigrated, relegated to something less than what we thought we were, discarded,
dispossessed, devastated by untruth, misrepresented? How do we recover? How long does it take to
recover? How do other’s discoveries impact on us and cause these reactions? What resolutions can
be made and how can we reinvent ourselves? Should we have to justify our being? Should we accept
the inevitable? Did we need to be discovered? Do we wish we were not discovered? What would be
different.
©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 31
Audience
Guevara’s text demands audience interaction. The reliance on audience to acknowledge, accept or reject the premise of the text and to understand its context
leads to a discussion of reception. The diary entries engage explicitly with the social, cultural and political voice of the author. The text leads to discoveries in
relation to self-awareness and the ability to challenge our sense of self and our response to others through deeper understandings of the human condition.

Audience reception in relation to Audience Aspects of Discovery Enduring qualities and lessons
ideas such as: to be learned
Political idealism

Social expectations

The social narrative explored through


experience

Creativity, intellect and truth


PURPOSE BOOKMARKS
to persuasively construct to persuasively construct to persuasively construct to persuasively construct to persuasively construct to persuasively construct
to educate to educate to educate to educate to educate to educate
to highlight to highlight to highlight to highlight to highlight to highlight
to infer to infer to infer to infer to infer to infer
to provide insight to provide insight to provide insight to provide insight to provide insight to provide insight
to clarify to clarify to clarify to clarify to clarify to clarify
to suggest to suggest to suggest to suggest to suggest to suggest
to introduce to introduce to introduce to introduce to introduce to introduce
to provoke to provoke to provoke to provoke to provoke to provoke
to develop to develop to develop to develop to develop to develop
to evoke to evoke to evoke to evoke to evoke to evoke
to specify to specify to specify to specify to specify to specify
to construct to construct to construct to construct to construct to construct
to illuminate to illuminate to illuminate to illuminate to illuminate to illuminate
to challenge to challenge to challenge to challenge to challenge to challenge
to exemplify to exemplify to exemplify to exemplify to exemplify to exemplify
to create to create to create to create to create to create
to differentiate to differentiate to differentiate to differentiate to differentiate to differentiate
to develop to develop to develop to develop to develop to develop
to denote to denote to denote to denote to denote to denote
to connote to connote to connote to connote to connote to connote

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 33


CONTEXT
On the following pages are a series of context worksheets. There is a worksheet for each of
seven contexts as set out in the program. Context is a challenging notion for students, both in
terms of how to recognise it in text and in how to write about it effectively and synthetically.

The syllabus refers explicitly to a range of contexts. The seven contexts in this program allow
for deep reading of the text and assists students to ‘see’ or ‘hear’ the authorial voice taking
shape. Evaluating how their own contexts, under similar headings develop an interpretation
that is personal and relatable assists them to develop and recognise personal voice in their
own work.

These worksheets provide students with concrete things to look for in texts that apply to the
context. Writing using contextual material is covered in the sentence starters and in the
annotated sample paragraph section.

Teaching context can begin with asking students what they think it might mean. Provide a
definition such as ‘the meanings that surround and inform text’. List the seven contexts on the
board and brainstorm where any of the following are explored in the text.

Context Aspects to look for in the How it might be revealed in the text
text
social Look for aspects of work, Facts, statements about work/education/leisure
education, relationships both Emotional and/or rational discourse on the impact
intrapersonal and interpersonal, of work, education and leisure.
leisure experiences Relationship dialogue and reflection
Formal and informal conversations between
individuals or protagonists
Social expectations discussed explicitly or implied
throughout the text

cultural Look for significance of Food and drink


traditions, rituals, heritage, Language discussion
language etc. Family celebrations
Clothing that has specific cultural significance or
identifiers

political balance of power roles in the text Mention of government imposition of intervention
– discuss government and and opinion as a result
governance and its influence on Roles of individuals in the text, natural or assumed
groups and individuals; examine hierarchies
the power relationships between Social class
individuals in terms of Enfranchisement or disenfranchisement due to
knowledge, experience, age, cultural or social expectations
social hierarchy or gender
historical specific historical references, Facts, dates, historical references that define
either implicitly or explicitly responses to events.
stated Assumptions that the reader understands or
identifies key facts, events, personalities and ideas
in the texts relating to specific historical data.
The idea that the text itself contributes to the
history of society, culture and people.

religious Religious aspects may include any References to specific religions and their impact on
spiritual dimension whether how individuals or groups can exist, are constrained
formal or informal. or benefited in their experience of discovering self
or ideas
metaphysical dimensions of the individual and their
response to circumstances that results in spiritual
growth or change as they discover their identity or
their moral and values proximity

gender Gender aspects explore masculine traits and the need to pursue
masculinity and/or femininity expectations
rather than sexual determinant feminine traits and how these construct views and
perspectives
how specific gender expectations are placed on
individuals or are challenged by individuals
how gender relates to political notions of self

intellectual Intellectual reading positions that communism versus capitalism as a discourse that
are evident in the text that may be limits or attracts opportunities to discover aspects
of a social, academic or cultural of human behaviour
nature, dominant versus resistant responses to social
constructs that impact on an individual’s ability to
discover more about the world, a specific event,
themselves or insight into others
Binary opposition theory – ethical debates on
whether discovery is a valid interpretation of right
and wrong, good and evil, happiness or despair,
understanding or ignorance ranging across the
perspectives of those who have the power to
discover and those who suffer disenfranchisement
through birth or socio-political/economic deficit.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 35


SOCIAL CONTEXT WORKSHEET: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara

Context questions Evidence Inferences and insights Links to ‘Discovery’ Links to related texts.
made apparent that assist concept.
a deeper reading of the
text.
What aspects of social
context are evident in the
text (education, work,
family relationships and
friendships - professional
or personal, leisure etc)

How is social context used


by the composer to reveal
insights into the
experiences of self?

How is social context used


by the composer to reveal
insights into the
experiences of others?

How does your social


context affect or shape your
response to the text?
CULTURAL CONTEXT WORKSHEET: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara

Context questions Evidence Inferences and insights Links to ‘Discovery’ Links to related texts
made apparent that assist concept,
a deeper reading of the
text.
What cultural contexts are
engaged with in your text?
(may include traditions,
heritage, language,
celebrations, rituals,
identity, religious beliefs,
food, clothing)
How does the text’s
cultural context reveal
insights into the
experiences of self?

How does the text’s


cultural context reveal
insights into the
experiences of others?

How does your cultural


context affect or shape your
response to the text?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 37


POLITICAL CONTEXT WORKSHEET: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara

Context questions Evidence Inferences and insights Links to ‘Discovery’ Links to related texts
made apparent that assist concept,
a deeper reading of the
text.
What is the political
context? (Examine
relationships of power,
government power, bullying,
force, demands, any character
or individual that is forced or
coerced into acting in a
certain way or who is
restricted from acting in a
certain way by a higher
power).
How does the text’s
political context reveal
insights into the
experiences of self?

How does the text’s


political context reveal
insights into the
experiences of others?

How does your political


context affect or shape your
response to the text?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 38


HISTORICAL CONTEXT WORKSHEET: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara

Context questions Evidence Inferences and insights Links to ‘Discovery’ Links to related texts
made apparent that assist concept,
a deeper reading of the
text.
Identify the author’s
historical context?

How does the text’s


historical context reveal
insights into the
experiences of self?

How does the text’s


historical context reveal
insights into the
experiences of others?

How does your historical


context affect or shape your
response to the text?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 39


GENDER CONTEXT WORKSHEET: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara

Context questions Evidence Inferences and insights Links to ‘Discovery’ Links to related texts
made apparent that assist concept,
a deeper reading of the
text.
What gender contexts are
present in the text?
(Examine the roles of
males and females and
whether they present
stereotypes or challenge
stereotypes).
How does the text’s gender
context reveal insights into
the experiences of self?

How does the text’s gender


context reveal insights into
the experiences of others?

How does your gender


context affect or shape your
response to the text?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 40


RELIGIOUS CONTEXT WORKSHEET: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara

Context questions Evidence Inferences and insights Links to ‘Discovery’ Links to related texts
made apparent that assist concept,
a deeper reading of the
text.
How has religious context
influenced the writing of
his text?

How does the text’s


religious context reveal
insights into the
experiences of self?

How does the text’s


religious context reveal
insights into the
experiences of others?

How does your religious


context affect or shape your
response to the text?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 41


INTELLECTUAL CONTEXT WORKSHEET: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara

Context questions Evidence Inferences and insights Links to ‘Discovery’ Links to related texts
made apparent that assist concept,
a deeper reading of the
text.
What is the intellectual
context explored in the text
– ideas about life,
philosophy – the big ideas
the text deals with?

How does the text’s


intellectual context reveal
insights into the
experiences of self?

How does the text’s


intellectual context reveal
insights into the
experiences of others?

How does your


understanding of the
various intellectual
contexts evident in this text
affect or shape your
response to the text?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 42


TECHNIQUE, EVIDENCE, PURPOSE, ANALYSIS (TEPA) WORKSHOP
Rationale: T.E.P.A, an acronym for Technique, Evidence, Purpose and Analysis was devised to
assist students to learn how to write sentences that reflected the HOW and WHY of text
construction.

The strategy is highly effective in that it allows students to see clearly how they can write
analytically about text.

Students are initially reading texts, beginning with reading for pleasure and to develop insight into
the context and ideas. Discussion on these areas takes place followed up by questions that can
identify character, setting, themes, issues, ideas and a range of contexts.

Once the initial reading and discussion has taken place students then need to learn how to write
about the language and how it has revealed or shaped meaning.

The techniques can be deconstructed quite explicitly and should be done so in the first instance to
look for any manipulation of tone or metaphorical inferences evident in the verbs and adjectives;
taking note of punctuation and sentence structure will allow analysis of pace or emphasis; adjectives
often present visual descriptions that have metaphorical or metaphysical meaning. Adverbs in
conjunction with verbs, assists with developing tone, characterisation and personification.
Accumulation of any of these features can present insight into the author’s perspective, their need to
express evocative and emotional reactions to people and events. Phrasing and phrases presents
opportunity to study cumulation as a device to reinforce and emphasise. Look for euphemism, look
for extended metaphor or synecdoche; metonymy can be constructed through successive phrases,
emotional outbursts or metaphysical insights can be revealed as the mind and writer processes them
in the writing of the text.

The evidence aspect of TEPA is self explanatory, textual references from the prescribed and related
material.

Purpose: the list of purpose words provided in this resource can be applied and tested against the
textual references to ascertain the composer’s agenda. This aspect of your analysis is significant as
it determines the insight you have into the way in which the techniques have been used to
intentionally shape meaning,

Analysis is always the hardest aspect of the process for students. Analysis can often be used as the
totality of the textual deconstruction process. This aspect of the process should focus on the greatest
lessons that can be learned from the text, the bigger world ideas and realisations we can draw from
the text. An example has been provided to assist you with your understanding of how to use a
TEPA sheet then to turn the analysis into a coherent paragraph.

Textual Reference:

‘Nearing 30, Alberto is seeing the Atlantic for the first time and is overwhelmed by this discovery
that signifies an infinite number of paths to all ends of the earth.’ Page 34
TECHNIQUE, EVIDENCE, PURPOSE, ANALYSIS (TEPA) WORKSHEET EXAMPLE
Conceptual focus drawn from syllabus description: ‘finding something new’, ‘rediscovering’, ‘life changing’

Technique Evidence Purpose Analysis


verb and numeral ‘Nearing 30’ identifies physical age of Alberto – infers his lack Discovery can occur at any age; it makes even more
of travel and experience, educates on age impact when experience is later in life as the lack of
inference difference; former experience can be regretted or the new experience
can be better appreciated.
verb phrase, literal and ‘seeing for the first time’ implies Ernesto has seen the ocean before and had For Alberto, ‘seeing’ is both literal and metaphysical; he
metaphysical notion the restorative, powerful experience and as his is confronted emotionally and spiritually by the power of
description implies, recognises the sensual, the ocean. The accumulation of verbs ‘building’ and
transformative power of the ocean ‘swelling’ from the previous sentence is reflected here
suggesting when we have the opportunity to be amazed,
explicitly states this is the first time Alberto has at any age, we realise the capacity to be transformed and
had this experience – a significant visual and renewed in perspective- whether that is about ourselves
sensory discovery in anyone’s life experience or our understanding of the world and our insignificance
in the face of nature’s magnificence.
verb ‘overwhelmed’ to express Alberto’s emotional reaction discovery of something so spectacular takes us beyond
our expectations; we often develop a sense of impotence
in the presence of nature’s magnificence
Conceptual metaphor ‘discovery’ Presents an explicit link to the concept, Metaphorically references the newness of the experience
embedded with the expectations of the experience; has
shifted his previous sense of self to a deeper one;
Ernesto’s revelations are insightful in so much as they
express his feelings, his emotions, we do not hear
Alberto’s exact words – the silence in itself expresses the
awareness Ernesto has of his own sense of rediscovery
through Alberto’s experience.
verb ‘signifies’ To demonstrate the symbolic nature of knowing; identifies a manifestation of the expectations of the
journey beyond this moment in time
Extended metaphor of paths and ‘Infinite number of paths to all ends To evoke the exploratory nature of the journey, tidal power, nature of exploration and the historical role
earth of the earth’ exploration has no end, the world that is their of oceans as a force of new experience, new discovery,
experience has endless opportunities to expand endless opportunity, finding self, learning about the
Adjective ‘infinite’ the mind and take them beyond the limitations of world and others. Revolutionary nature of new
the earth they know. experience and the ramifications, benefice and potential
the journey ahead of them will hold both physically and
metaphorically, philosophical change, metaphysical
realisation.
TECHNIQUE, EVIDENCE, PURPOSE, ANALYSIS (TEPA) WORKSHEET

Conceptual focus drawn from syllabus description:__________________________________________

Technique Evidence Purpose Analysis


Grammatical features Quotes/references from/to the text to inform… Deepest meaning – contexts or concepts
Figurative language to educate… Effectiveness
features to provide insight… Links to syllabus
Structural elements to challenge… Lessons to be learned
to engage…
to highlight…
to argue…
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF A NON FICTION TEXT: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara

Structural Element Purpose Effect Link to ‘Discovery’ concept


Not a complete list but starting point: ( provide an example)
Diary entries to provide a sequential record of Effectively takes the reader on the
experience journey building up a view of the
richness of experience
First person narration to allow insight into the personal nature Allows the reader to access personal
of an individual’s experience thoughts and reactions, makes the text
personal and reveals the social and
political voice of the author
Reflective voice to evocatively present the reader with an At times, Guevara reflects on earlier
understanding of the growth he experiences or life prior to the journey
underwent as a result of his experience and thus demonstrates the ability to
continue growth and change as we move
into adulthood
Diary entry titles suggesting narrative to construct narrative quality to the text The intentional rewriting of notes and
form revealing the metaphysical meaning of diary into narrative form elaborates on
each entry. the experiences by adding reflective
detail from memory
Intertextual insertion of letters written by to provide access into what he wrote emphasise a perspective of him as a child
Guevara home and highlight the nature of his and son as well as an adventurer and
relationships with family – provides a explorer, allows the reader to understand
different ‘voice’. the deeply human nature of a mythical
historical figure
Intertextual quotation and insertion if Provide evidence of Guevara’s cultural Effectively reinforces the emotional and
poems positioning and love of literature psychological aspects of the human
condition as they applied to this man and
this experience.
Use of photographs To provide visual and factual evidence of Reinforces significant episodes providing
the journey and experiences. veracity to the text as a whole

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 46


FIGURATIVE ELEMENTS OF A NON-FICTION TEXT: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara

Figurative Elements Purpose Effect Link to ‘Discovery’ concept


( brief list use longer list to extend)
Metaphor and extended metaphor Extensive use throughout the text to Adds deeply personal impact of the
illustrate the emotional insights offered experience; cultural metaphors reinforce
by Guevara’s experience the passion Guevara has for South
America;
Verb, adverbial and adjectival use, to evocatively convey emotions, visual Convey the reality and humanity of the
accumulation and phrasing descriptions of landscape, add tone, experience; the language choices reveal
personify events and especially ‘La the deeply intellectual reactions of
Ponderosa’. Guevara to his surroundings and those he
interacts with.
Irony to reveal how the lessons that need or At times created humour, other times
can be learned from the experience are deeply sad and evocative as the
often paradoxical in nature experience resonates provoking empathy
and dismay from the reader in regards to
the socio-political and socio-economic
hardships evident in South America
Tone (Google: ‘List of Tone Words’. you to expose/construct/reveal/provide The atmosphere/tone/mood established
will find lists of sophisticated language insight into the personal reactions and through the language choices reveals the
that can evocatively present the depth of feelings of the author. breadth of human experience for both
this technique – always suggest how it is Guevara and those he interacts with
constructed – verb/adverb use etc.) during and after his journey.
Reflective voice To demonstrate the enduring nature of Highlights the revisiting of the diaries
the experience for Guevara. post journey and the need to share the
experience to allow insight into the
development of the individual as they
discover a world beyond themselves.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 47


FIGURATIVE ELEMENTS BLANK WORKSHEET

Figurative Element Purpose Effect Link to ‘Discovery’ concept

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 48


NON FICTION LANGUAGE FEATURES BOOKMARKS
Metaphor Metaphor Metaphor Metaphor Metaphor
Simile Simile Simile Simile Simile
Personification Personification Personification Personification Personification
Allusion Allusion Allusion Allusion Allusion
Alliteration Alliteration Alliteration Alliteration Alliteration
Alliterative Alliterative Alliterative Alliterative Alliterative
Connotation Connotation Connotation Connotation Connotation
Allegory Allegory Allegory Allegory Allegory
Foreshadowing Foreshadowing Foreshadowing Foreshadowing Foreshadowing
Flashback Flashback Flashback Flashback Flashback
Tone Tone Tone Tone Tone
Irony Irony Irony Irony Irony
Epiphany Epiphany Epiphany Epiphany Epiphany
Superlative Superlative Superlative Superlative Superlative
Hyperbole Hyperbole Hyperbole Hyperbole Hyperbole
Paradox Paradox Paradox Paradox Paradox
Sarcasm Sarcasm Sarcasm Sarcasm Sarcasm
Verbal irony Verbal irony Verbal irony Verbal irony Verbal irony
Idiom Idiom Idiom Idiom Idiom
Reflective voice Reflective voice Reflective voice Reflective voice Reflective voice
Anecdote Anecdote Anecdote Anecdote Anecdote
Bias Bias Bias Bias Bias
Factual evidence Factual evidence Factual evidence Factual evidence Factual evidence
Intertextual use of Intertextual use of Intertextual use of Intertextual use of Intertextual use of
interview or expert interview or expert interview or expert interview or expert interview or expert
statistics statistics statistics statistics statistics
Point of view Point of view Point of view Point of view Point of view
Sequencing of discussion Sequencing of discussion Sequencing of discussion Sequencing of discussion Sequencing of discussion
or argument or argument or argument or argument or argument
Connotative and emotive Connotative and emotive Connotative and emotive Connotative and emotive Connotative and emotive
language language language language language
Objective language Objective language Objective language Objective language Objective language
Subjective language Subjective language Subjective language Subjective language Subjective language
Humour: parody, satire Humour: parody, satire Humour: parody, satire Humour: parody, satire Humour: parody, satire
Tone Tone Tone Tone Tone
Cumulation Cumulation Cumulation Cumulation Cumulation

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 49


FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE FEATURES

Technique Evidence Purpose Analysis Explicit link to


(provide an explicit (see purpose word list) (discussion of effect in Discovery
example from the relation to the terms of
poem) the question)
Alliteration
Repetition of the same sound at
the beginning of two or more
words or within a phrase or stanza

Allegory
Metaphorical story, usually with
moral purpose that adds layers to
the narrative being explored by
the poet

Allusion
When the text alludes to or makes
reference, either implicitly or
explicitly to another text or idea

Anachronism
Presenting ideas that are not
consistent with the time and place
of the text – out of place – for
example light bulbs in a movie set
in the 16th century

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 50


Technique Evidence Purpose Analysis Explicit link to
(provide an explicit (see purpose word list, (discussion of effect in Discovery
example from the some examples relation to the terms of (locate from the
poem) provided.) the question) syllabus)
Assonance
Internal rhyme of vowel sounds

Antonym
A word opposite in meaning to
another

Accumulation
Building up of evidence –
accumulation of verbs or
adjectives for effect

Anthropomorphism
A form of personification giving
human characteristics to an
animal, god or entity

Caesura

An interruption or break in the


line of poetry to emphasise a
thought or create a deliberate
pause
Technique Evidence Purpose Analysis Explicit link to
(provide an explicit (see purpose word list, some (discussion of effect in relation Discovery
example from the examples provided.) to the terms of the question)
poem)
Cliché
An overused phrase or idea
that reveals a lack of
original thought

Climax
The most intense point of
the poem, may be
anywhere in the structure

Colloquialism
Informal language or
idiom

Colloquial voice

Use of a conversational
tone in the poetry

Couplet
A pair of lines that usually
rhyme and have the same
metre ( beat)
Technique Evidence Purpose Analysis Explicit link to
(provide an explicit example (see purpose word list, some (discussion of effect in relation Discovery
from the poem) examples provided.) to the terms of the question)
Epiphany
Sudden and insightful realisation

Irony
Cynical expression using
language that is opposite to what
would be expected – saying
something is ‘lovely’ when it is
ugly using a sarcastic tone

Juxtaposition
Placing ideas or language side by
side for comparison or contrast

Metaphor
A comparison that says one thing
is another

Metonymy
Using one word to express a
complete idea – crown for
monarchy and all it implies
Technique Evidence Purpose Analysis Explicit link to
(provide an explicit example (see purpose word list, some (discussion of effect in relation Discovery
from the poem) examples provided.) to the terms of the question)
Oxymoron
Placing of two completely
opposite ideas together –
bittersweet

Paradox
A statement or notion that
contradicts itself

Personification
Giving human attributes to non
human objects

Rhetorical questions
Questions that are not intended to
elicit a physical response

Sensory language
Language that explores sight
sound, touch, taste and smell
Technique Evidence Purpose Analysis Explicit link to
(provide an explicit example (see purpose word list, some (discussion of effect in Discovery
from the poem) examples provided.) relation to the terms of the
question)
Simile
A comparison between objects
using like or as

Slang
Extremely informal language
may use expletives

Symbolism
Symbols used to express ideas-
dove for peace, heart for love
etc

Synecdoche
Similar to metonymy – where
one word is used to express a
bigger idea in a metaphorical
manner – take up your pen –
pen is a synecdoche for writing
down your ideas
Tone
The mood, atmosphere or
feeling that is developed
through the composer’s
language choices
LITERAL, INFERENTIAL, METAPHYSICAL, PHILOSOPHICAL (LIMP) ANALYSIS WORKSHOP

Avoiding exaggeration, metaphor, or embellishment; factual; prosaic: a literal description; a literal mind.

Literal: Who: Who is the composer? Who is the target audience? Who are the characters? Identify each character
individually and identify the literal descriptors used for each.
What: What contexts inform the composer’s writing of the text (social, cultural, political, historical,
gender, religious, intellectual)? What contexts relate to the target audience? What is the theme of the text?
What issues does the text examine? What ideas does the composer use to convey themes and issues? What
values are inherent to the text? What level of vocabulary has been used and why is this significant to the
study of texts?
Where: Where was the text written and is the geographical context of the composer important to the
overall concept the text conveys? Where is the text set?
When: When was the text composed? Does the time period a text is composed in inform a particular
reading of the text? Why? How? Does the time period a text is written exclude the responder from aspects
if the text? How? What time period is the text set in? How do you know? What vocabulary or
language/film techniques are used to describe time, space and locality? How effectively does the composer
convey a sense of place or time?
How: How has the text been composed? What is its diary entry structure? What modality of vocabulary
has been used? What language features does the composer use? How effectively have they been used?
Why: Why was this text composed? Is there any evidence to suggest authorial purpose for the text? Why
is this text important/significant?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 56


Inferential: Based on interpretation; not directly expressed

Inference is/are the meaning/s provided in text that is/are open to interpretation. These interpretations
depend on your understanding of metaphor, allusion and allegory in texts.
Metaphors: One thing conceived as representing another; a symbol Metaphorical can be simple
metaphors – a direct reference or comparison to one object or idea by using another. Metaphorical
meaning can also be gleaned from an analysis of literary features such as similes, personification,
onomatopoeia and oxymoron.
Allusions: An instance of indirect reference: an allusion to classical mythology in a poem Allusions to
other texts are often used by composed to add depth to the meaning in texts. They may infer contextual
information or add an extra layer of meaning to the text. Allusions can be implicitly or explicitly stated yet
are inferential in meaning when used in the composition of texts.
What allusions are made in the text? Do the allusions require a reading of other texts or biographical
material of other composers? What are the possible intentions of the composer in using these allusions?
Allegory: a representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms;
figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another. Allegorical meaning is usually implicitly
stated rather than explicitly stated. References to religious symbols, stories or beliefs can provide added
meaning that exposes the composer’s context as well as suggests the universal understandings of spiritual
concepts in society.
What allegories appear in the text? What texts, beliefs or religious concepts might they refer to?
What abstract idea/s is the composer asking the reader to engage with?
Why would the composer use this technique in his text?
Motifs: a recurring subject, theme, idea, etc., esp. in a literary, artistic, or musical work.
Composers often use recurring symbols in their texts to add metaphorical meaning. The use of the symbols
can relate to a character, a setting or the theme of the text.
What repeated motifs are used in the text? How do they provide deeper meaning?
How effective are the motifs in providing insight into the themes, issues, ideas, characters or setting of the
text.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 57


Pertaining to the study of texts that are highly intellectual and philosophical, usually reflect the spiritual
aspects of an individuals experience, can use wit and conceit as a means of expressing thought, opinion and
Metaphysical: ideas,

Studying a text for its metaphysical qualities provides opportunities to see beyond the literal and
metaphorical meaning to develop an understanding of the possible spiritual depth behind texts. Composers
often write quite serious texts as a criticism of society or to inform and educate us about aspects of a
society. The use of puns, euphemisms, parody and specific choice of descriptors often provides clues as to
the metaphysical nature of the text. Reflective voice and moments of spiritual enlightenment clearly create
opportunities to explore more about ourselves and the world we exist in.
What techniques have been used?
Do events in the text suggest the composer is challenging a society, culture, laws, processes or individuals
to shift and change?
What deeply held concerns are related in text challenging new audiences to engage with individuals and
the world with a greater sense of humanity, respect, tolerance and compassion?
How does the text engage with the concept of spiritual renewal and personal growth?

Philosophical: Examining texts for views or theories on profound questions in ethics, metaphysics, logic, and other related
fields.

What views does the composer present that suggest a deeper engagement with the text is required?
What theories does the text present? e.g. Freudian Feminist etc
Does the text raise questions of ethics or morals?
What other questions does the text raise about the world?
Does the text challenge us to appreciate or engage with ideas beyond our own experience?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 58


LIMP WORKSHEET: The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara

Examples Purpose Link to ‘Discovery’ concept


Literal

Inferential

Metaphysical

Philosophical

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 59


VALUES WORKSHOP
Referring to Lesson 7, brainstorming the concept of values has particular resonance for the
‘Discovery’ concept. Realising we do or do not have the values admired in others can allow us to
promote a better version of ourselves.

Brainstorming student definitions and parameters of knowledge can lead into meaningful
discussions.

Some examples of how values can be discussed in relation to The Motorcycle Diaries are suggested
below. The following page holds a checklist of values students could apply as they read. The
worksheets allow for a more detailed paragraph analysis of values in the text.

Values are those things we adhere to, that we know and understand to be real and true for ourselves.
For example, we know it is wrong to lie, steal, deceive, cheat, abuse, discriminate or have prejudice
against others - this is not a new discovery but what is the innate sense of being that tells us these
things are wrong. What we do not always understand, however, is that these things happen
everyday, by individuals, groups and governments. When we ‘discover’ how this occurs in our own
lives or more globally, to others, we begin to realise how values are an important part of
establishing our personal ethical position.

A key aspect of ‘Discovery’ is responsibility. Whether the discovery is literal – scientific or medical
– or a personal discovery about an individual’s response to the world around them there is an
inherent need for responsibility.

Other values explored in The Motorcycle Diaries are truth and integrity. These values, as
represented in Guevara’s text, provoke us to examine our own sense of integrity and the truths we
tell ourselves and others in the process of constructing a personal sense of identity.

Accountability, community, charitable works and sacrifice are all significant aspects of the Guevara
experience. The significance of these values lies in the awareness and personal growth that
accompanies embracing the better part of human experience.

By studying then testing the values that become evident through the world of text, students become
more aware and self discover the impact they can have on society.

Test the following values against the textual references you select for analysis and evaluate how
Guevara’s experience allows insight into humanity’s ability to learn and grow.
Acceptance Cooperation Encourage Ingenuity Openness Resilience

Adaptability Courage Endurance Insightfulness Optimism Respect

Ambition Courtesy Ethics Inspiration Originality Responsibility

Anticipation Credibility Excellence Integrity Patience Restraint

Appreciation Curiosity Fairness Introspection Passion Sacredness

Assertiveness Decisiveness Faith Intuition Persistence Sacrifice

Availability Dependability Fidelity Judiciousness Persuasion Security

Awareness Determination Flexibility Justice Pragmatism Self-control

Belonging Dignity Freedom Knowledge Precision Self-reliance

Benevolence Diligence Frugality Leadership Preparedness Self-respect

Capability Discipline Generosity Learning Pride Simplicity

Clear- Discovery Gentility Liberty Punctuality Sincerity


mindedness
Discretion Happiness Love Rationality Spirituality
Commitment
Diversity Honesty Loyalty Reason Sympathy
Community
Duty Honour Mindfulness Recognition Trust
Compassion
Efficiency Independence Modesty Reflection Truth
Conformity
Empathy Individuality Motivation Reliability Understanding
Conviction
VALUES WORKSHEET

Value Technique Evidence Purpose Analysis


RELATED TEXT DECONSTRUCTION SHEETS
On the following pages are a range of related text deconstruction worksheets. As The Motorcycle Diaries is
identified as a non-fiction text, students should develop related material that uses an alternate text type. It is
important to demonstrate breadth in their knowledge and understanding of how a range of texts across a
range of forms and genres can provide similar or related material they can then correlate with their core text.

Judicious choice of related texts can make a significant difference to the overall impression of the work
produced on the marker. Reading through the markers comments on the BOSTES site provides some insight
into the need to select related material that has appropriate and effective links to the core text.

The sheets are self directed and provide opportunities to develop some depth in the initial study of the text. It
is at this stage that students can make a clear decision as to whether the text will have sufficient technical and
conceptual detail to correlate with the ideas in their core text.

Selecting at least ONE related texts is wise for the Area of Study. Considering the range of aspects that can
be explored in the ‘Discovery’ description students should select texts that will allow a thorough
understanding.

Ideally, when relating texts to The Motorcycle Diaries students will locate aspects of discovery in terms of
the literal sense of discovering new spaces, as well as suggesting what discoveries these new spaces can
present in terms of understanding self or the world that becomes apparent through experience.

Road and travel texts, especially fictional and figurative texts (to demonstrate breadth of understanding of a
range of text types as stated earlier) will present similarities to the experiences of Ernesto Guevara. Poetry
relating to locating one’s self through personal experience would also work well. Films of road movies
abound, these are appropriate texts as long as students have strengths in deconstructing film. Artworks,
specifically those that relate to exploration and discovery, may prove useful in terms of the cultural and
political implications they resonate. Early Australian art, along with the contextual meaning drawn from
artistic intention can certainly depict a recording of discovery that is open to interpretation and revision of
that interpretation. Guevara reflects on the experiences in quite visual terms and demonstrates the influential
impact in terms of changing and broadening his understanding, tolerance, respect and compassion that shifts
earlier views and understandings. Students who select these text types and others, websites, games or
narrative memoirs need to become quite confident in the language techniques associated with their chosen
text type. A few links to related text options are suggested below to add to those suggested in the program.

Prose Fiction: https://www.goodreads.com/shelf/show/self-discovery

Poetry: http://www.poetrysoup.com/famous/poems/travel

Biographies and memoirs:


http://www.bookbrowse.com/browse/index.cfm/category_number/1/biographies-&-memoirs

Film: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Road_movies

Artworks: http://www.australia.com/about/culture-history/australian-art.aspx

Websites: http://www.nla.gov.au/australiana/australian-history-selected-websites

Maps and histories: http://gutenberg.net.au/


Related Text Overview: Prose Fiction
Title of text
Author
Date published
Brief Overview: what is the
composer’s purpose and how does
the text link to ‘Discovery’?
Provide at least three sentences
here.
Identify the audience for this text
and explain why.
What contexts does the text engage
with; provide a brief explanation of
each that is relevant (at least three
from social, cultural political,
historical, religious, gender or
intellectual)
How does the text argue or explore
ideas about ‘Discovery’ using
LIMP? What language techniques
and evidence – grammatical,
figurative and structural - are used
to explore or highlight the impact
of the concept? Discuss at least six.
What values are explored in the
text and how do these values
correlate with the notion of
‘Discovery’?
What themes and issues does the
text engage with that explore or
provide insight into the concerns
and ideas relating to ‘Discovery’?
Provide explicit detail.
What implicit and explicit links in
terms of ideas and structure does
the text make to your core text?
Provide a dot point list that can be
analysed in your comparative
charts.
How does the text challenge
notions of Discovery that are
evident in your core text?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 64


Related Text Overview: Poetry
Title of text and anthology if
relevant
Author
Date published
Brief Overview: what is the
composer’s purpose and how does
the poetry link to ‘Discovery’?
Provide at least three sentences
here.
Identify the audience for the poem
and explain why.
What contexts does the poem
engage with; provide a brief
explanation of each that is relevant
(at least three from social, cultural
political, historical, religious,
gender or intellectual)
How does the poem argue or
explore ideas about ‘Discovery’
using LIMP? What poetic devices
and evidence – grammatical,
figurative devices as well as
structural - are used to explore or
highlight the impact of the
concept? Discuss at least six.

What values are explored in the


poem and how do these values
correlate with the notion of
‘Discovery’?
What themes and issues does the
poem engage with that explore or
provide insight into the concerns
and ideas relating to ‘Discovery’?
Provide explicit detail.
What implicit and explicit links in
terms of ideas and structure does
the poem make to your core text?
Provide a dot point list that can be
analysed in your comparative
charts.
How does the poem challenge
notions of Discovery that are
evident in your core text?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 65


Related Text Overview: Film Text
Film Title
Director
Film Company
Date released
Core actors and characters that
they play and how they relate to
‘Discovery’?
Brief Overview: what is the core
message of the film? What is the
Composer’s purpose?
Audience for the film
How does the film provide
insight or opportunities to explore
the concept of ‘Discovery’?
What contexts does the film
engage with and provide a brief
explanation of each that is
relevant (at least three from
social, cultural political,
historical, religious, gender or
intellectual)
How does the setting and
cinematography develop insight
into the challenges of’
Discovery’? Create explicit
analysis of the camera angles/
score/ dialogue/lighting etc are
used to explore or highlight
motifs that relate to the
‘Discovery’ concept.
What themes, issues or ideas does
the film engage with? Provide
every detail that you can; include
any techniques that are used to
convey the ideas.
What implicit and explicit links in
terms of ideas and structure does
the film make to your core text?
Provide a dot point list that can be
analysed in your comparative
charts.
How does the filmmaker
challenge notions of Discovery
evident in your core text?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 66


Related Text Overview: Image: Artwork/Photograph/Album Cover
Title of image
Artist/Photographer
Date created
Brief Overview: what is the
composer’s purpose or agenda?

Suggest an audience for this


image.
How does the image link to the
concept of Discovery?

What contexts does the image


engage with; provide a brief
explanation of each that is
relevant (at least three from
social, cultural political,
historical, religious, gender or
intellectual)
What specific visual techniques:
perspective, angle, centrality,
focus, multilayering, foreground,
background, use or absence of
colour etc., are used to explore or
highlight the concept of
Discovery?
What themes, issues or ideas does
the image engage with that
explores or provides insight into
Discovery? Provide every detail
that you can; include any
techniques that are used to convey
the ideas.
What implicit and explicit links in
terms of ideas, content and layout
does the image make to your core
text? Provide a dot point list that
can be analysed in your
comparative charts.
How does the artist/photographer
challenge notions of Discovery
evident in your core text?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 67


Related Text Overview: Website
Title of Website
Creator
Date last updated
Brief overview: what is the
website’s purpose?
Identify the expected audience.
How does the website link to the
concept of Discovery?
What contexts does the website
engage with; provide a brief
explanation of each that is
relevant (at least three from
social, cultural political,
historical, religious, gender or
intellectual)
How does the website provide
insight into ideas relating to
‘Discovery’? What language
techniques including persuasive
language, criticism, cause and
effect or bias are used to explore
or highlight the concept?
What themes, issues or ideas does
the website engage with that
provide insight into the
significance of Discovery?
Provide every detail that you can.
How effectively does the website
engage the audience through
graphics, multimedia, textual
content, fonts, gifs, hyperlinks,
colour, ease of navigation etc.?
What implicit and explicit links in
terms of ideas, content and layout
does the image make to your core
text? Provide a dot point list that
can be analysed in your
comparative charts.
How does the artist/photographer
challenge notions of Discovery
evident in your core text?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 68


Related Text Overview: Maps and Histories
Title of Map and/or historical
document
Creator
Date of creation/publication
Brief overview: what is the map’s
purpose? What agenda is set by
the history?
Identify the expected audience.
How does the map and history
link to the concept of Discovery?
What contexts are engaged with;
provide a brief explanation of
each that is relevant (at least three
from social, cultural political,
historical, religious, gender or
intellectual)
How does the map/history
provide insight into ideas relating
to ‘Discovery’? Discuss historical
language, bias, visual markers etc
that are evident on both the map
and in the text that denote it as an
expression of discovery?
What themes, issues or ideas can
be drawn from the map and
history that provide insight into
the significance of Discovery?
Provide every detail that you can.
What veracity can be drawn from
the map and history? Are they
accurate representations or are
they imaginatively constructed to
define or reshape a specific
agenda?
What implicit and explicit links to
your core text in terms of ideas,
content and layout are evident?
Provide a dot point list that can be
analysed in your comparative
charts.
How does the map and history
challenge notions of Discovery
evident in your core text?

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 69


COMPARATIVE STUDY CHART: The Motorcycle Diaries and related texts

Key idea from ‘Discovery’ Evidence: content and page Evidence: Related Text One Evidence: Related Text Two
description number: The Motorcycle Diaries
by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara
ESSAY SCAFFOLD USING TEPA
There is no exact formula to writing the perfect essay. Writing an essay using TEPA provides
students with a clear structural premise that can be refined as they work towards the final
examination period. Whilst the ‘formula’ may seem pedantic in the first instance, students very
quickly learn how to use the structure to write sophisticated and effective responses that manipulate
the process.

What the process does do is develop writing habits such as:

avoiding repetition of the same argument and evidence


strengthening technical evidence
ensures textual referencing
discourages generalisations
encourages analytical discussion
discourages relying on thematic premise
encourages students to focus on how language shapes meaning

The first thing to consider with students is the ways in which they can structure their essay. The
usual commentary on n essay having an introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion does not
always provide students with sufficient structure.

Ideally, we would like students to write conceptually rather than independently about texts. Both
structures, however, can work successfully. Both structures are outlined below. Suggested word
counts for paragraphs are provided. These constraints are not rigid requirements, merely
suggestions on how to get our less confident students moving along the continuum of the extended,
critical writing process.

An effective way of strengthening writing skills is to be quite explicit about what goes in each
sentence in each paragraph. This way, students can see they have covered a range of ideas and have
developed technical and conceptual discussion and analysis.

Students should begin by collating their completed TEPA sheets. They should create two to three
TEPA sheets that are conceptually based. As a starting point, their worksheets should contain at
least two TEPAs for each text they will use in their paragraphs. Modelling how they can write the
paragraph then annotating on the board develops their understanding and confidence.
STRUCTURING YOUR ESSAY: CONCEPTUAL

Introduction: 6 sentences maximum, approx 150 words

1. Topic sentence: Introduce texts and use the language of the question acknowledging its
parameters.
2. Thesis sentence: state your thesis
3. Concept One: state your first argument
4. Concept Two: state your second argument
5. Concept Three: state your third argument
6. Final sentence: conclude using an evaluative adverb to demonstrate you will develop an
evaluative response

Body paragraph One: Concept One: 7 sentences maximum, approx 150-180 words: Core Text plus
Related Text One

1. Topic sentence: (explicitly reference language from the question, state title of text, establish
thesis concept)
2. Context sentence: (orient the reader, passage in the text, contextual information relevant to
your argument)
3. TEP ( core text: from your sheets)
4. A: (from your sheets – think about what lessons your choice of reference offers in terms of
Discovery)
5. TEP: (related text: from your sheets use a linking word – similarly, in addition, as a
correlative…)
6. A: (from your sheets – think about what lessons/significance your choice of reference offers
in terms of Discovery)
7. Concluding sentence (use an evaluative adverb - purposefully, cleverly, insightfully etc).Eg.
Significantly, both texts project the necessity of….

NOTE: USE THESE SAME STRUCTURES THROUGHOUT, FIRST TEPA: CORE TEXT,
SECOND TEPA: RELATED TEXT

Body paragraph Two: Concept One: 7 sentences maximum, approx 150-180 words: Core Text plus
Related Text Two

1. Topic sentence:
2. Context sentence:
3. TEP: ( CORE)
4. A:
5. TEP (RELATED TEXT 2)
6. A:
7. Concluding sentence:

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 72


Body paragraph Three: Concept Two: 7 sentences maximum, approx 150-180 words: Core Text plus Related
Text One

1. Topic sentence:
2. Context sentence:
3. TEP:
4. A:
5. TEP:
6. A:
7. Concluding sentence:

Body paragraph Four: Concept Two: 7 sentences maximum, approx 150-180 words: Core Text plus Related
Text Two

1. Topic sentence:
2. Context sentence:
3. TEP:
4. A:
5. TEP:
6. A:
7. Concluding sentence:

Body paragraph Five: Concept Three: 7 sentences maximum, approx 150-180 words: Core Text plus Related
Text One

1. Topic sentence:
2. Context sentence:
3. TEP:
4. A:
5. TEP:
6. A:
7. Concluding sentence:

Body paragraph Six: Concept Three: 7 sentences maximum, approx 150-180 words: Core Text plus Related
Text Two

1. Topic sentence:
2. Context sentence:
3. TEP:
4. A:
5. TEP:
6. A:
7. Concluding sentence:

Conclusion: 5 sentences, approx 100 words

1. Topic sentence
2. Evaluative sentence on concept one
3. Evaluative sentence on concept two
4. Evaluative sentence on concept three
5. Final sentence that presents the overall strength of your thesis

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 73


Hints:

Use of evaluative adverbs – sophisticated or skilful responses (BAND 6 range in the descriptor bands)
should be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the composer’s purpose, language and meaning. Construct a
list of adverbs that you can use in a range of sentence structures and phrases.

Technique is not limited to a single example; you can accumulate techniques for example,

‘The accumulative value of the verbs ‘coughed, hacked and choked’ constructs the metaphorical imagery
of… in order to…

Sample Topic Sentence

Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara’s The Motorcycle Diaries (2003), Wilfred Owen’s ‘Dulce et Decorum Est’ (circa
1917-1918) and Mike Nichol’s film adaptation of Margaret Edson’s play W;t (2001) construct a profound
discussion on the repercussions of self discovery.

Sample Essay Questions

(a) ‘Discovery can be sudden and unexpected.’

To what extent is this statement true in relation to the texts you have studied?

Make reference to your core text and at least ONE text of your own choosing.

(b) ‘Discoveries and discovering can offer new understandings and renewed perceptions of
ourselves and others.’

How has this view of discovery been represented in your text and at least ONE other text of your
own choosing?

(c) ‘Discovery is the promise of something new; the hope of things unseen’

Discuss this statement in the context of the texts you have studied.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 74


ESSAY DRAFTING TABLE
Introduction: 6 sentences maximum, approx 150 Your sentences
words
Topic sentence: Introduce texts and use the language of
the question acknowledging its parameters

Thesis sentence: state your thesis

Concept One: state your first argument

Concept Two: state your second argument

Concept Three: state your third argument

Final sentence: conclude using an evaluative adverb to


demonstrate you will develop an evaluative response
Body Paragraph One: 7 sentences maximum, approx 150- Your sentences
180 words: Core Text plus Related Text One
Topic sentence: (explicitly reference language from the
question, state title of text, establish thesis concept)

Context sentence: (orient the reader, passage in the text,


contextual information relevant to your argument)

TEP ( core text: from your sheets)

ANALYSIS: (from your sheets – think about what


lessons your choice of reference offers in terms of
Discovery)

TEP: (related text: from your sheets use a linking word


– similarly, in addition, as a correlative…)

A: (from your sheets – think about what


lessons/significance your choice of reference offers in
terms of Discovery)

Concluding sentence (use an evaluative adverb -


purposefully, cleverly, insightfully etc)...Eg.
Significantly, both texts project the necessity of….
Body Paragraph Two: 7 sentences maximum, approx 150- Your sentences
180 words: Core Text plus Related Text One
Topic sentence: (explicitly reference language from the
question, state title of text, establish thesis concept)

Context sentence: (orient the reader, passage in the text,


contextual information relevant to your argument)

TEP ( core text: from your sheets)

ANALYSIS: (from your sheets – think about what


lessons your choice of reference offers in terms of
Discovery)

TEP: (related text: from your sheets use a linking word


– similarly, in addition, as a correlative…)

A: (from your sheets – think about what


lessons/significance your choice of reference offers in
terms of Discovery)

Concluding sentence (use an evaluative adverb -


purposefully, cleverly, insightfully etc)...Eg.
Significantly, both texts project the necessity of….
Body Paragraph Three: 7 sentences maximum, approx Your sentences
150-180 words: Core Text plus Related Text One
Topic sentence: (explicitly reference language from the
question, state title of text, establish thesis concept)

Context sentence: (orient the reader, passage in the text,


contextual information relevant to your argument)

TEP ( core text: from your sheets)

ANALYSIS: (from your sheets – think about what


lessons your choice of reference offers in terms of
Discovery)

TEP: (related text: from your sheets use a linking word


– similarly, in addition, as a correlative…)

A: (from your sheets – think about what


lessons/significance your choice of reference offers in
terms of Discovery)

Concluding sentence (use an evaluative adverb -


purposefully, cleverly, insightfully etc)...Eg.
Significantly, both texts project the necessity of….
Body Paragraph Four: 7 sentences maximum, approx Your sentences
150-180 words: Core Text plus Related Text One
Topic sentence: (explicitly reference language from the
question, state title of text, establish thesis concept)

Context sentence: (orient the reader, passage in the text,


contextual information relevant to your argument)

TEP ( core text: from your sheets)

ANALYSIS: (from your sheets – think about what


lessons your choice of reference offers in terms of
Discovery)

TEP: (related text: from your sheets use a linking word


– similarly, in addition, as a correlative…)

A: (from your sheets – think about what


lessons/significance your choice of reference offers in
terms of Discovery)

Concluding sentence (use an evaluative adverb -


purposefully, cleverly, insightfully etc)...Eg.
Significantly, both texts project the necessity of….
Conclusion: 5 sentences, approx 100 words Your sentences

Topic sentence: (explicitly reference language from


the question)

Evaluative sentence on concept one – most important


lessons that can be learned

Evaluative sentence on concept two – greatest insight


into humanity

Evaluative sentence on concept three – how we should


use the text to reshape our thinking

Final sentence that presents the overall strength of


your thesis – nil home the collective insights you can
draw from your study

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 79


PEER TO PEER ESSAY CHECKLIST

Tick Version

Does the introduction topic sentence state and format the titles of the texts YES NO
correctly?

Does the introduction clearly establish two to three conceptual arguments?

Does each topic sentence have an explicit link to the question?

Does each body paragraph have an effective context sentence?

Does each paragraph have at least two examples of TEPA for each text beginning
with the core text then related text?

Have linking words been used between the texts’ TEPA analyses?

Are the concluding sentences of each paragraph evaluative and imply the greatest
lesson that can be learned through the textual analysis of the concept?

Is there any evidence of repetition or overwriting?

Is spelling correct throughout?

Are there any grammatical errors in sentences?

Is punctuation used correctly and for effect throughout the essay?

Are the publication/release dates placed after the title of the text in brackets in the
introduction?

Does the essay demonstrate elements of flair and originality


ESSAY CHECKLIST RUBRIC
Criteria A B C D E
INTRODUCTION: The student has Sophisticated and explicit Explicit reference is made Uses some words from Uses one word but does Does not demonstrate
addressed the question in the first reference is made, language is to the question but thesis the question but does not demonstrate clear evidence of addressing
sentence of the introduction? echoed or appropriate is vague. not attempt to present a understanding of the the question in the
synonyms have been used. thesis. question. opening sentence
Thesis is clearly evident.
INTRODUCTION: The student Everything perfect Mostly perfect Some lapses Many lapses No attempt to format
formatted the titles of the texts correctly
correctly – inverted commas for
individual poems or diary entry titles
or magazine /newspaper articles. In
hand written texts, titles of novels,
films, play scripts etc. are underlined.
The date of publication is placed
immediately after the title of the text
in brackets. The composer/s full
name is used and spelt correctly.

INTRODUCTION: The student has Sophisticated and original Thesis is present and Some evidence of a Arguments offered but No thesis statement
presented a thesis that links to the thesis. Thesis is relevant to appropriate. May not be thesis but may have not linking to a unifying
requirements of the question and the text choice, parameters of clear in terms of linking some ambiguity as to thesis
sustains the thesis in relation to the the question and can be across all arguments. what it may be or how
arguments presented. sustained for each argument t links to the
offered. requirements of the
question. Not sustained
for each argument
presented.
INTRODUCTION: The student has Sophisticated and insightful, Appropriate, structure is Some evidence of a Little evidence of a No evidence of a
presented one to two sentences detailed links and structure is present but may have a structure but not structure being presented structure being presented
establishing an argument for each clear and explicitly stated lapse in terms of explicit and may lead for the work for the work
text used. Arguments clearly link to argument presentation. to ambiguity or may
the thesis. Student has a clear and have repetition of
defined structure for the essay. earlier arguments
INTRODUCTION: The student Sophisticated evaluative Appropriate sentence- May have closing No closing sentence or No concluding sentence
developed a closing sentence for the sentence that reiterates thesis may use a word or phrase sentence but does not sentence does not
introduction that reiterates the thesis and uses a word or phrase that to link to topic sentence. clearly link to the topic reiterate thesis or link to
and links to the first sentence of the will be echoed in the topic Attempts to be evaluative. sentence of next next paragraph
next paragraph. sentence of the first paragraph paragraph. Repeats the
to create flow. question in a
superficial way.
PARAGRAPHS: The student has Sophisticated and detailed – Appropriate, uses some May be waffly – no Topic sentence is Very weak topic sentence
used a topic sentence that uses no waffle – perfect topic words from the question; clear links to the awkward and does not that does not state an
language from the question and sentence; uses explicit clear sentence and question – uses define an argument, argument or the text
clearly states the text being addressed language or accurate direction established. inaccurate synonyms. introduce a text or have being presented
and the thesis/argument being synonyms from the question Lacks polish. Ambiguous arguments. clear grammatical
presented. establishing the argument and structure
thesis. States text clearly, uses
formatting appropriate to text
type.
PARAGRAPHS: The student has YES – clear and explicit- Context is evident but Attempts to state Context sentence lacks No context sentence.
provided a context statement for the grammatically correct. sentence is not clear or context but is any depth or
text – one sentence that suggests the Insightfully places the context choice of contextual inaccurate or lacks any understanding of the
core themes, issues and ideas, at the forefront of the markers material not exactly depth. Superficial requirements of the
historical context or composer’s attention. relevant to the thesis and mention of dates or question.
context for the text in the context of question. lacks flow or relevance
your study? to the question.
PARAGRAPHS: The next sentence Sophisticated, links to the May have techniques but Some evidence of Minimal discussion or No identification of
introduces the first TEPA and argument, links to the does not link to idea, may techniques but identification of techniques
presents a succinct sentence that question, uses a sophisticated use weaker techniques, discussion is not clear techniques- presents a
identifies an idea, followed by a idea, presents the technique or purpose verb may be or is simplistic- series of statements with
technique or accumulation of accumulation of techniques – suitable but not insightful identifies a noun but no textual evidence
techniques, provides evidence and (‘the significance of identity (‘to create’ rather than ‘to does not identify
suggests purpose? is evident through the verb… evoke’ for example) complex techniques or
which creates a personified figurative language.
image in order to), establishes Begins sentence with
purpose. quotes. Technique
discussion is repetitive
and restated

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 82


PARAGRAPHS: Demonstrates how Sophisticated and insightful - Appropriate – analysis is Some evidence of Very little evidence of No analysis
the next sentence or two sentences analysis that explicitly uses present but may not be analysis but has analysis – statements that
presented a succinct analysis of how the evidence to support the sophisticated or insightful weaknesses and does are not clear and make no
the techniques chosen present argument and sustain the not present a clear link relevant sense in terms of
evidence that supports the thesis thesis offered for this text. to any argument. the argument
presented by the question and offered
by the student in the introduction?
PARAGRAPHS: Student has YES YES Attempted Not attempted Limits discussion to one
repeated the last two points at least sentence
twice depending on the depth of
technique analysis provided – you
should attempt to develop two to
three TEPAs per paragraph

PARAGRAPHS: Concluding Sophisticated, contextualises Appropriate – Not clear, does not use No evidence of No evidence of
sentence and defends the use of the summarises the evaluative language; evaluative language; concluding sentence
evidence from the text and its paragraph; attempts to may be a statement mere statement or not
effectiveness in addressing the use evaluative language. rather than an evident
question. Uses sophisticated Attempts to establish evaluation
evaluative language. Presents either an insight or a
a significant insight or lesson lesson.
that can be learned from the
text.
CONCLUSION Succinct topic sentence that Conclusion evident; Conclusion is weak – No genuine conclusion – No conclusion
links directly to the question presents a sentence on does not really address some statements but does
and opening sentence of the each text that evaluates its the question or, not link back to the
essay. One succinct sentence role in defending the addresses the question question or have any
on each text that evaluates its argument. Makes an superficially or insights present.
role in defending the attempt to present an repetitively without
argument. Evaluative final insight or lesson. presenting evaluative
sentence that ensures insights insights.
are appreciated and lessons
offered by the text have been
identified.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 83


Checklist: Sophisticated Appropriate Sound Limited Missing many aspects
needed to develop a
Highlight where relevant: competent and clear
response
Identifies verbs used to
construct tone,
personification or extended
metaphor
Identifies adjectives –
accumulation to construct
sensory imagery or create
metaphors or tone
Identifies adverbs - tone or
personification
Identifies abstract nouns –
tone, insightful metaphors
Identifies specific or
intentional use of pronouns
to establish the difference
between authorial or
character voice
Identifies use of punctuation
in texts when used for
specific effect
Analyses how specific
choices of grammatical
features have been used to
develop insight into how
figurative language or
rhetorical devices have been
formed?
Identifies sophisticated
range of figurative devices
including synecdoche,
paradox and irony
Uses appropriate and
meaningful purpose
verbands
Uses appropriate register of

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 84


vocabulary for the text type
Avoids any emotive
language
Stays in the form presented
by the question
Spelling is all correct
Titles of texts are all
formatted correctly
Sentence are not overly long
All analysis links directly
back to the question
All evidence links directly to
the question
Topic sentences are concise
and to the point and address
language from the question
Any references from other
sources are acknowledged
appropriately

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 85


SUGGESTED SENTENCE STARTERS
Synonyms for composer can and should be used for each different text type: poet author, write,
reporter, cartoonist, artist, novelist, filmmaker, director, producer, scriptwriter,

The [author]/ [composer’s name] suggests…


The [poet]/ [composer’s name] provides opportunities…
The [playwright]/ [composer’s name] challenges…
The [speaker]/ [composer’s name] purpose if to …
The [filmmaker]/ [composer’s name] highlights…
The [director]/ [composer’s name] use of [technique]…
The [photographer]/ [composer’s name] presents…
The [designer [composer’s name] explores….
The [artist]/ [composer’s name] has presented…
[Name of composer] uses his/her text to (convey, challenge, inform, educate, challenge, provoke,
suggest, impart, communicate, develop, reveal, provide insight, expose, deliberate, construct)
The composer uses his text to portray a view of…
The composer has used…

Synonyms for ‘text’ should be inserted to identify the text type being discussed such as: poem, short
story, newspaper article, song lyric, speech, novel, fiction text, website, image, artwork, documentary,
etc

The text suggests…


The text provides opportunities…
The text challenges…
The text highlights…
The text provokes…
The text indicates…
The text educates…
The context (social, cultural. political, religious, gender, historical, intellectual, personal) is
(suggested, exposed, highlighted) through the use of…
The context has been highlighted through the development of…
The composer has provided a contextual focus by….
Contextually the text suggests…
The values of the text are conveyed through the use of…
The composer’s values are exposed when…
The composer’s values are exposed by…
Values of….. are explored through the text using…
The audience for the text is suggested through….
The audience for the text is suggested by…
The use of [technique] highlights, suggests, infers, develops understanding, exposes, provokes,
informs,
Techniques such as…. have been used to (expose, highlight, provoke, suggest, initiate discussion,
provide opportunities, inform, educate, develop an understanding of)…
The theme of ….. is developed through the issue of….
The theme of …..is highlighted…
The theme of ….. is explicitly stated….
The theme of ….. is implicit rather than explicitly stated using….
The theme of ….. is exposed…
The issue of ….. (is exposed, highlighted, suggested, inferred, paralleled by, implied, intimated,
headlined, given priority) through ….
A critical reading of the text suggests…
A critical analysis of the text provides opportunities to…
Close reading of the text provides insight into…

Synonyms such as viewer, reader, author etc can be developed here

The responder/audience/ viewer/ understands…


The responder/audience/ viewer/’s impression is…
The responder/audience/ viewer/ is persuaded to…
The impact on the responder/audience/ viewer/ reminds us that…
The responder/audience/ viewer/ becomes convinced of…
The responder/audience/viewer develops…

Sentence starters relating to Discovery (use any of the synonyms relating to Discovery to develop
alternative sentence scaffolds)

Conceptually, ‘Discovery’ is highlighted through…


Discovery, as a concept, is highlighted by…
Discovery, both literally and conceptually, is exposed through…
Literal ‘Discovery’ is exposed through/when/by…
‘Discovery’ is a manifestation of…
The moral notion of ‘Discovery’ suggests….
‘Discovery’ as a metaphysical construct of self is suggested \…
The concept of Discovery is developed through…
The composer engages with the conceptual premises inherent to ‘Discovery’ through…
The composer engages with the concept of Discovery using…
In transforming the relationship between… the composer is suggesting…
Transformation takes place through….
The concept of ‘Discovery’ is effectively conveyed through…
The composer explores the effects of discovery…
The transition from … to…. Suggests a changing (perception, understanding, view) of ….
The use of dialogue (suggests, conveys, exposes, develops, provides)…
Aspects of the theme are (discussed, exposed, inferred, developed) ….
Juxtaposing the three texts provides…
Juxtaposition of the texts suggests…
Juxtaposing [the text] alongside [the text]….suggests opportunities to explore…
Analysis of the three texts suggests…
A critical reading of all three texts provides…
All three texts explore…
All three texts expose…
The three texts suggests...
The three texts portray…
A balanced discussion of …………….. is maintained through…
Bias becomes evident when…
Negation of the rights of the individual become apparent through the…
A discomforting aspect of discovery becomes evident through…
The nascent implications located in the…
The anticipation and joy of literal discovery is overwhelmed by the moral rectitude of…
Responsibility for exploration is not evident in the linguistic expression of…
The metaphysical awareness of the poet in…leads us to…
The narrative qualities present quintessential insights into…

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 87


Philosophically speaking, the …
Existential ideas about sovereignty and self become evident in…
Self awareness, an epiphany depicting…becomes apparent through…
The subtlety of the poet’s awareness of…is evident in…
Our views on … are challenged by…
Our views on …are provocatively engaged through…
Historical interpretations are negated and revised through the language of…
Disturbing awareness of the implications of…become evident in…
Increasing awareness of …. allows us to…
The exposition of…is damning as…
Representations of gender as a minority provide opportunities to explore…
An uncomfortable reminder of the consequences is apparent when…
The cinematography expels any sense of…
The constructs evident in the purposeful choice of [language/film technique] create doubt in terms
of…
Inspirational mantras of…evolve out of the challenges to individual discovery through…
The disparate nature of individuals and an awareness of how they discover insights is located in…
Alternate views of history are exposed through…
We are compromised by the historical metanarrative s it…
The cultural and gender constraints of history represented in … are often new discoveries for a
modern audience but ironically, reinforce notions of…
The resonance of…when… exposes…
Moral codas are revealed and sustained through …
Social, cultural and moral disintegration of individuals is depicted through…
Quests of themselves are then derided as inconsequential as the impact of…becomes evident in…
Scientific assertions of discovery challenged prevailing notions of…
Paradigm shifts exist between what is discovery and what has long been known becomes evident
in...
The chronicling of events in a coherent structure allows insight into…
The impact of discovering aspects of ourselves through the mirroring of others is highlighted in…
The ongoing implications of exploration and discovery are exposed as…
Political and philosophical ideas about…convey the innate need to…
Allegorical representations force us to recognise…
Speculation arises when the expectations of …. confront our pre-existing view of…
Colonial and postcolonial discourse surrounding…is a confronting reminder of…
Traditional boundaries of…are exposed and shattered as…
The dramatic realities of a world that rejects future discovery become apparent through…
The structural premise echoes the voice of each of us when we are confronted by…
Attitudinal responses need to be equated with the…
The gulf between colonisation and self determination reveals how discovery…
The imposition of values placed upon the ‘discovered’ exposes/reveals…
The implications of Guevara’s self awareness resulted in…
As we study the conditional consequences we understand…
Our understanding of …is confronted by…leading to a deeper engagement with…
The epiphany experienced when…constructs the argument that…
Ultimately, we are forced to realise the consequences of…
To that end, Guevara’s texts provokes and insightful examination of…
Significantly, the revelations, both emotional and spiritual confront us leading to…

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 88


STUDENT FEEDBACK AND EVALUATION

What is successful about the learning


you are engaging with in this class?

What can you improve upon in terms


of the types of activities you are
engaging in?

Do you engage with and take action


on the feedback you are receiving
about your progress?

Are you accessing the range of


resources that have been provided for
you and how effective are they in
developing your skills and
knowledge?
How effectively are you engaging with
the home study components –
research for context, rehearsing
writing under examination
conditions?
To what extent are you taking
responsibility for your learning goals?

What strategies do you need to put in


place to enhance your learning goals?

How can you use the resources you


have been provided with to develop
your skills and knowledge further?
TABLE OF COMMENTS FOR FEEDBACK AND SELF EVALUATION
Strong topic sentence, makes specific links to the Topic sentence would be strengthened with closer links to
question and has a strong thesis the question and by constructing a thesis
Thesis is strong and original Thesis is ambiguous and could be developed further,
examine the thesis statements for ideas
Ticks for correct formatting Highlight or underline incorrect formatting and place
suggestion in margins – underline, inverted commas, needs
date etc.
Context is relevant and establishes social, cultural, Adding a context sentence ( relevant to ideas in the analysis)
political, historical, religious, gender or intellectual will strengthen your work and allow you to show the marker
aspects of the text and argument well – synthesised, you have understand how context presents imperatives
show not tell
Techniques are strong, relevant and cleverly link to Strengthen technical evidence by adding or building
the thesis and question techniques into your discussion and linking to the question

Analysis is strong and develops the integrity of your Analysis would be enhanced by linking to the question and
perspective of the question and thesis thesis

Effectiveness adverbs are synthesised and Evaluative adverbs would assist you to develop a statement
demonstrate insights and understanding on effectiveness and present perceptive insights.

Purpose language is relevant and demonstrates clear Work through the range of purpose words and test against
understanding of authorial intent your views to ensure you have addressed authorial intent in a
sophisticated manner

Audience is acknowledged well Inclusion of audience reception will enhance your response
allowing you to reinforce the purpose and effectiveness of
the text on yourself and others.

Concluding sentences are strong and present the Strengthen personal voice by demonstrating how this
lessons learned and presents original insights; paragraph presents a lesson or insight that will change the
personal voice is present. world

Spelling and punctuation are used correctly; Check spelling of circled vocabulary; use punctuation where
vocabulary is sophisticated without being contrived marked for effect and to enhance your meaning. Vocabulary
is, at times. Distracting Apply the KISS principle.

Length is appropriate (900-1000) words and spacing Length needs attention – can you write this much in 40
of paragraphs is appropriate and continuous. minutes? If you extend your discussion by at least one more
paragraph you will allow yourself to demonstrate deeper
understanding of the concept and how the texts work to
express their ideas.

©Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 90


________________________________________________________________

AREA of STUDY 2015-2018:


STANDARD AND ADVANCED

Discovery Resource:
The Motorcycle Diaries
By
Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara

**********************************************

DIARY ENTRY SUMMARY


AND QUESTIONS
*************************************
NOTES ON THE SUMMARY AND QUESTIONS
These questions are provided to assist you to develop your ideas and interpretations of The Motorcycle
Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara (2003). It is important to read the text closely to ensure you develop
insight into how aspects of the discovery concept become apparent. These questions and prompts are
intended to assist you to develop the thinking and analytical vocabulary required for Stage 6 English.

Language analysis is your agenda. You should, at all times, ensure that the textual references you select
have a direct link to discovery in the first instance, and then that they are rich in techniques; your
responses will then allow you to demonstrate to the markers that you can determine HOW meaning is
being made. In effect, all responses, must deliver detailed analysis of the forms, features and structures of
the text – each answer should focus on techniques, evidence and authorial purpose.

The questions are conceptually based. Whether they explicitly refer to discovery, as in literal discovery -
finding of something, someone or some sense of self - they are also embedded with inferential content –
spiritual, emotional, philosophical aspects of discovery. Clearly, Guevara’s journey was not restricted to
the literal; he acknowledges throughout the text that he has experienced a metaphysical and philosophical
shift in his perspectives which had a profound effect on initial chapter questions are accessible and short
answer style responses. Later questions provide you with the opportunity to develop paragraph length
responses embedded with rich technical analysis; these questions can make up a bank of resources you
can apply to any relevant essay question.

It is important to develop a personal response to the text therefore, there are no prescribed or suggested
answers provided for the questions. The text is open to interpretation and as long as you respond to the
question with evidence and analysis that supports your ideas you have a valid response. Learning how to
deconstruct a text quickly and effectively is essential here. You should read the text in its entirety in the
first instance. Revise your techniques for non-fiction texts as well as the functions of grammatical
features in constructing figurative language. You can then, for example, evaluate the cumulative value of
the verbs to determine the tone of the particular entry. Further analysis would develop you understanding
of how Guevara’s vernacular, his education, his mood in relation to the events he is describing and his
love of language all impart ideas relating to discovery. At all times keep the focus on Guevara’s purpose
and agenda in sharing his experience. It is here you will find the insights that will add depth to your
responses.

Guevara’s writing is, at times, eloquent. The metaphors are evocative and present insight into his idealism
and his spiritual sense of self. The identity that evolves from this young Che into the revolutionary Che is
deeply engaged with his South America and the issues that he learns of and sees first hand throughout his
travels. It is essential that you take the time to think deeply about how these metaphors affect your
response toward his narrative of events and assist you to discover the moments of change – or discovery –
he experiences.

I truly hope you enjoy your study of The Motorcycle Diaries by Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara as much as I have
in putting together this resource.

Pamela Cohen

The Cohen Curricula


Diary Entry One

‘so we understand each other’

The first entry introduces us to Guevara as he reflectively presents his rationale for revisiting his original notes and
rewriting it into a narrative diary form; vocabulary such as ‘adventurer’ and ‘discover’ present explicit links to the
concept. Guevara explains his shift in identity, from the boy he was to the man he is at the time of writing (and
would continue to become as a result of his experiences). He presents the notion that discovery of new places, new
people, new understandings of self and the world change us utterly. The notion here is the eternal paradox we all
become subject to: we long to change, to grow and to become something beyond our present; what we do not
realise in the moments of becoming is that we have altered – emotionally, spiritually and philosophically - to the
point that a revisiting of the experiences is seen through changed eyes. Understanding this notion is the discovery
we are all subject to: we are made different by experience. When retold, our revising reflects new perspectives and
understandings so the original story is never again our reality.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

Guevara’s use of third person in the sentence beginning ‘Man, the measure…’
use of mathematical probability as a comparative
metaphor of vision
rhetorical questions
personification
dissociation
evocative language
accumulative value of verbs
descriptive language
juxtaposition
extended metaphor of photography and plates and ‘pictures’, images’
reflective voice
nostalgic tone
evaluative and philosophical voice
use of ellipsis

Discuss discovery in terms of:

Truth versus Reality


Comprehension of experiences
Paradoxical nature of remembering experience and suffering regret
Choices we make and how we negotiate them in our new realities
Experience means acknowledging how we discover and evaluate fearlessness, restlessness, challenge,
change, truth and integrity

Study Questions

1. How does Guevara suggest, in reflection, that his experiences were a source of discovery about himself as
an individual?
2. Identify the extended metaphor used by Guevara on page 31 and evaluate its meaning in terms of discovery
being about new perceptions of ourselves and the world?
3. How do the rhetorical questions on page 31 reveal the concept of self discovery as subject to evaluation of
a particular perspective or experience?
4. How does Guevara indicate he has undergone a reawakening of his perspective on who he was at the time
of writing, who he became whilst on the journey and the transition point that renewed his perception of
self?
5. What does the diary entry provoke us to discover about ourselves?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 3


Diary Entry Two

‘forewarnings’

Despite the foreboding title here, Guevara recounts the literal and metaphysical genesis of the journey
that would lead to the discovery of his life purpose. The entry deals with the friendly banter between
Ernesto and Alberto that reflects their sense of confinement in the economic social stricture they find
themselves. The title, clearly decided upon in hindsight, reveals both their naivety and enthusiasm.
Vocabulary such as ‘lamenting…uneasy…jaded’ characterises both the personalities of each individual
and the tone of the entry; thus the text suggests that the impetus for discovery, for this pair of intrepid
adventurers arises out of:

daydreams improvisational abilities an endeavour to improve


imagined possibilities pacts and agreements self
future expectations a mission to achieve a an escape from social
a need to break free goal of personal constraints and
from malaise significance expectations
discontent with present recognising hurdles that devouring of new ideas
circumstances would need to be and possibilities
negotiating navigational overcome devising routes and
challenges a self deprecating view plans that reassure
visiting remote as ‘would-be-travelers’ others of their ability to
communities of the ability to safely embark on their
negotiate the unknown agenda

Techniques you could discuss here are:

verbs and verb phrases collective pronouns


contrast abstract nouns
tone metaphor
euphemism

Discuss discovery in terms of:

Serendipity Curiosity
Opportunity Speculation
Unexpectedness Necessity
Emotional Challenge

Study Questions

1. How are contrasts established between the personalities of Alberto and Ernesto on page 33?
2. Identify the cause of Guevara’s unease and evaluate how it could have provoked his decision to
embark on the journey?
3. How has language on page 33exposed the speculative nature of discovery?
4. The final lines on page 33 suggest Guevara and his travelling partner were speculating without
thinking of the ramifications of what they might discover about themselves or the world. How does
the language suggest a romanticised vision of the journey ahead?
5. How can specific language features in this diary entry be used to reinforce the idea that discovery is
often unplanned?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 4


Diary Entry Three:

‘discovery of the ocean’

This entry explores discovery literally, in terms of Alberto’s first sighting of the ocean; Guevara
poetically presents the deeply spiritual opportunities afforded by engaging with new experiences.
Guevara’s reflective stance reveals he has previously discovered and appreciates the transformative
qualities of the ocean. Further, Guevara reveals how the expedition was not seen as viable by some,
implying that whilst the taunting they received was jovial, it had the underpinnings of doubt and a lack of
confidence in both the protagonist and the bike (which, cleverly, becomes a character in the narrative
styling of the memoir). The expectations of the travellers is undaunted, however, despite the challenges
expressed, and as the metaphors associated with the ocean suggest, there is an expectation of
transformation associated with the discoveries they will make on their journey. Fear and apprehension are
referred to in this entry. Guevara’s anecdotes about ‘Comeback’ present symbolic implications for the
responsibility we have when we embark on journeys of discovery with others.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

verbs and verb phrases- ‘revealing’,’ overwhelmed’, ‘transformed’


adverbs
abstract nouns – construct imagery and reflect Ernesto’s emotional and philosophical stance
tone – reflective, jovial, defensive
metaphor – ocean
symbolism
anecdote
ellipsis

Discuss discovery in terms of:

Unexpectedness
Speculation
Emotional
Challenges
Necessities
Responsibility
Amazement
Apprehension

Study Questions

1. The literal discovery depicted on page 34 encompasses the experience of discovering something
for the first time. What impact does the arrival at the Atlantic Ocean have on Alberto? Discuss
using the verb and adverbs in lines 7-9.
2. Analyse how Guevara’s poetic language suggests that discovery can be awe inspiring and
transformational.

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 5


Diary Entry Four:

‘…lovesick pause’

In this entry we discover the ways in which expeditions, planned and dreamed off, can be easily derailed by
emotional and personal attachment. Self deprecating in his honesty, Guevara willingly exposes his weakness found
in his love – or lust (according to Alberto) – for Chichina. Once again Guevara uses sea imagery to express
metaphysical insights into his self awareness; a predestination of the import of continuing with his journey. The
reader must assess these poetic musings in light of the rewriting of the text post journey. Explicit language relating
to the discovery concept – ‘explorers…expedition’ - suggests there is more to be discovered beyond the present
which is foreshadowed by the unease that moves him away from his idyllic beach tryst. The philosophical
utterances here reflect the importance of challenging ourselves to move forward and not allow barriers or
limitations to prevent us from reaching our potential. One could pose the questions here of how history would have
been changed if Guevara had not continued in this journey from this point.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

intertextuality
verbs and verb phrases
adverbs
abstract nouns
philosophical musings
use of parentheses
tone
metaphor
euphemism
symbolism
anecdote

Discuss discovery in terms of:

Predestination
Spiritual
Challenges
Responsibility
Expectations
Fear
Potential

Study Questions

1. Guevara’s use of metaphor in the first three lines of page 36 suggests that he is not as committed to the
journey as Alberto. Identify the significance of the metaphor in terms of discovery being an insightful way
of reflecting on emotional rather than rational responses.
2. What do we, as the reader, discover about Guevara through the intertextual use of Otero Silva’s poetry?
How does this perspective of Guevara challenge our assumptions given the eventual revolutionary he
became post journey?
3. Guevara uses euphemism to depict his spiritual and emotional nature. Identify the euphemism and explore
how he extends the idea to speculate about how the discoveries he makes on this journey would change his
perspective of self and the world?
4. What warning does Guevara experience through the metaphorical sea references on page 37? How does
this reference suggest Guevara’s deep intellectual understanding of the impact of the experience he would
participate in?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 6


Diary Entry Five

‘until the last tie is broken’

This entry reveals how social conditioning and stereotypes can confine us to a certain pattern of existence.
One aspect of discovering who we are or who we are to become lies in our being able to challenge those
socially imposed proprieties or constructs. Even though there is a realisation of the hardships of hunger
and cold that lay ahead, our protagonists remains excited about the adventure. The title suggests that all
ties with those notions of who we are or were need to be shed if we are to engage truly with the creative
and spiritual aspects of discovery. The entry finishes with the speculative and somewhat romanticised
nature all explorers seem to depict: heroism, liberation and fear. Guevara suggests that he must break free
of constraints - social, political and personal – if he is to truly embrace what lies ahead.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

verbs - ‘exhilarating’, ‘breathed’, ‘swirled’, ‘mocking’, ‘harnessed’


abstract nouns
philosophical musings
tone
euphemism
symbolism
anecdote
simile
paradox
sentence structure and phrasing

Discuss discovery in terms of:

Predestination
Spiritual
Challenges
Adventure
Future
Speculation
Change
Shifting perspectives of self and others

Study Questions

1. Guevara and Alberto’s visit to a university friend (page 38) reveals how values and ideas of
one individual may not correlate with our own. What is the text suggesting can we discover by
acknowledging and appreciating the views of others?
2. How does this diary entry reveal the challenges of the journey? What do we discover about
ourselves when we are faced by challenges?
3. What do Alberto and Guevara discover about our ability to control the uncontrollable? What
are the repercussions of this discovery?
4. Is discovery, according to the evidence in this entry, an idealistic notion or something tangible
and real? What language would you select for analysis to suggest it can be both?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 7


Diary Entry Six

‘for the flu, bed’

This entry presents a commentary on the vulnerabilities that can inhibit or delay engaging with
exploration and discovery. Guevara’s graphic expressions of his illness, his determination and eagerness
to overcome its hold on him are testament to how committed he and Alberto were to their expedition. The
philosophical underpinnings of freedom referenced here override the subjective nature of human frailty.
Discovery thus lies in the ways in which we determine to shift and change ourselves and our perspective
of the constructs that might attempt to define who we are and what we are capable of achieving.
Vocabulary such as ‘exhaled…circumstances…horizons…’Civilization’ links explicitly to the discovery
concept. Further, we are encouraged to engage with the idea here about subjugation and racial
identification, the social and cultural constraints that define identity, progress and survival.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

verbs – in particular how they construct personification of the bike juxtaposed with the emotions
of the travellers.
tone - and how it shifts in this entry
euphemism
symbolism
visceral imagery
anecdote
simile
paradox
sentence structure and phrasing
alliteration

Discuss discovery in terms of:

predestination
challenges
speculation
shifting perspectives of self and others
idealism
prejudice

Study Questions

1. What do Alberto and Guevara discover when they awaken after the storm? What are the
repercussions of this discovery? How can this diary entry provide insight into the challenges of
discovery when subjected to the vagaries of nature?
2. How do we, as readers, deal with the disturbing notion of human exploitation depicted in this
diary entry?
3. What paradoxical notions are embedded here in the notion of freedom and civilisation?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 8


Diary Entry Seven

‘san martin de los andes’

The contrasting physical descriptions in the orientation of this diary entry reveal a cynical view of
discovery. The need to secure accommodation, to protect their own subsistence dominates their arrival in
each destination. The expansive philosophical evaluation of the beauty and restorative qualities of the
township are contrasted with the more challenging destinations they encounter; again here it is clear that
Guevara is editing in hindsight. Opportunism becomes an essential aspect of each discovery; the ability to
eat and wash is often compromised by completing menial duties. The diary entry ends with the
excitement of re-engaging with the familiar and how even the most intrepid of explorers is reassured by
the bonds of friendship and the common understandings which connect to the identities we inhabit.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

philosophical tone
humourous tone
juxtaposition
contrasts
sensory imagery
simile
paradox
irony

Discuss discovery in terms of:

opportunism
idealism
enjoyment
encounters with new people, places
expectations

Study Questions

1. A cynical perspective of discovery is presented in the first paragraph of this diary entry. What is
inferred by the use of inverted commas and the notional reference to tourism?
2. Our assumptions of others are often challenged by our personal values. Through a close
discussion of language features, relate how the representation of the individual met by Guevara
and Alberto in paragraph two suggests we need to discover more about an individual than first
impressions may afford?
3. On page 45, Guevara’s reflective voice draws on the spiritual and philosophical discoveries he
makes about himself as a result of his experiences. How does the style and tone of the language
change when he reflects in this way?
4. Humourous reflections on events such as those on page 46 remind us that, ironically, we usually
find ourselves ‘discovered’ when we try to deceive others. Provide detailed evidence of how the
language of this passage reveals irony and what we can learn from the travellers’ experiences?
5. What specific language shapes the tone of this passage suggesting we need to discover a sense of
personal dignity and honour in order to be respected by others?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 9


Diary Entry Eight

‘circular exploration’

This diary entry explores a range of notions relating to the Discovery concept. Whilst we take the
opportunity to explore and discover new places and meet new people, we are constantly being reminded
of who we are ourselves and the contexts that shape our view of new discoveries. All explorers, across
time, go forth on their journeys with a purpose, an intent borne of frustration, desire, need for fame, need
for glory. Guevara and Alberto are no different. Whilst they were not discovering new continents, they
were in search of a newness of self, renewal of soul and spirit, opportunity and truth. The confronting
nature of inequality and coming to terms with expectations that are challenged (and at times shattered),
are explored in this entry. Ideally we realise that true discovery is not in the newness of things or places
but in the way these engagements renew us, make us think beyond ourselves and our own preconceptions.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

philosophical tone
juxtaposition
contrast
descriptive imagery
archetypal imagery
metaphor
paradox

Discuss discovery in terms of:

unexpectedness
encounters with new people, places
expectations
spiritual awareness
political awareness
implications of interaction
contextual impositions

Study Questions

1. The title of this diary entry infers that when we explore we often find ourselves back where we
began – physically, emotionally or spiritually. Locate the adjective used in the first few sentences
that might reflect back on the reason why Guevara and his companion set out on their journey in
the first place.
2. The opening sentences of this diary entry establish a contrast with those in the previous entry.
What realisations about the landscape are presenting metaphors relating to the breadth of
experience of the human populations of South America?
3. What language is used by Guevara to depict representations of inequality?
4. On page 49, expectations of what the travellers might find are challenged. How has language
revealed the disappointment and disillusionment that comes when expectations are not met?
5. In what ways does the language on page 40 reveal Guevara’s growing spiritual awareness in
relation to the natural world?
6. Is awareness of self or others an essential outcome of discovery? How? Provide a discussion using
evidence from this diary entry.

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 10


Diary Entry Nine

‘dear mama’

Letters home always reveal the intimacy of relationships. Guevara is no different. Interestingly, in this
letter where he reveals news about his illness, a recap for us, he mentions his taking of penicillin. That the
drug is ‘little-known’ in his experience suggests the importance of a discovery made in 1928 by British
bacteriologist Alexander Fleming. Twelve years later, in 1940, at Oxford University, an Australian
scientist, Howard Fleming and a German refugee, Ernst Chain were able to turn his discovery into a
powder that became the drug that would be used to save thousands of lives during WWII and since
(acs.org). Medical discovery is again referenced in this letter, when Guevara tells his mother he was able
to diagnose a tumour in someone he has met. This ‘discovery’ would have been reassuring to parents who
have already invested in their son becoming a doctor. What this entry does provide is an understanding
that whilst some discoveries are serendipitous they have the potential to be of life changing importance.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

humourous tone
medical jargon
personal language
person, first person
euphemism
salutation, closing, paragraph structure of a letter
nomenclature – reflects affection, Mama, Papi
visual descriptive language

Discuss discovery in terms of:

opportunism
serendipity
realisation
encounters with new people, places
reflection
physical
assumptions
historical context

Study Questions

1. How effective is the insertion of the letter that Guevara has written to his mother? How does the
letter provide insight into Guevara’s personality?
2. Guevara provides us with some historical context into discovery here by mentioning his taking of
penicillin. How significant was the discovery of penicillin to the world and how does this passage
of text allow us to engage with broader ideas about the impact of discovery on human experience?
3. How does this letter allow us to discover the importance of the medical knowledge gained by
Guevara? To what extent is the journey and the discoveries made by the protagonists largely
influenced by the medical education and focus they both have?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 11


Diary Entry Ten

‘on the seven lakes road’

This diary entry engages with discovery in terms of the impact of heightened sensory experience. The
appreciation and embracement of the natural environment is contrasted with the constructed beauty of a
suburban garden. Further, the challenge of engaging with a range of environments, for a range of
individuals, is explored. The metaphor implied here is that we can only truly discover ourselves or
understand the experiences of others when we break free from the social constraints that construct a
superficial view of the world. Further, this entry deals with fear as the protagonist of impulsive action that
may result in unfortunate consequences. Story and myth can become synthesised creating reactionary
truths that may impact beyond our own experience. The entry dares to raise the question of how we
absolve or make excuses for our behaviour and foolish deeds in the name of survival. The irony here is
that when making new discoveries of people and places we are forced to discover our own flaws and
inconsistencies.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
verbs
euphemism
poetic language
reflective tone
emphatic tone
irony

Discuss discovery in terms of:

opportunism
self-realisation
encounters with a range of new people and environments
reflection
physical, social contexts
curiosity
transformative

Study Questions

1. This diary entry provides insight into Guevara’s ability to discern between his own life experience
and that of others. How does the passage on page 51 indicate a growing sense of a South
American sensibility in terms of the gulf between equity and discrimination?
2. What intellectual and spiritual aspects of Guevara’s personal discovery are explored in the first
paragraph on page 52?
3. Whilst humourous, how does the relating of experiences in this diary entry suggest that fear and
its consequences can be barriers to self discovery?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 12


Diary Entry Eleven

‘and now, I feel my great roots unearth, free and…’

There are times in our life experience when we are challenged to re-evaluate our direction. When these challenges
come we are often thrown off course, sometimes momentarily, sometimes long term. The way in which we respond
to such events encourages self realisation which leads to spiritual and philosophical discoveries about how we react
and respond to the world around us. The import of this entry is that we need to recognise when we are subject to
making our lives fit a certain pattern, to an expected pattern, to an unsustainable pattern. These are all aspects of
growing up and dealing with broken hearts and realising not only can we overcome them but that we need to look
beyond ourselves at these times, to see we are not the centre of the universe. The nature of this type of discovery is
quite confronting, and many of us do not accept or react well. Despite Guevara being surrounded by opportunities,
by living in a world outside of his emotional estate, he allows, for this short time, his world to be overcome by his
fear and loss of Chichina. Guevara uses the clichéd metaphor of ‘crossroads’ to depict his state of mind. That he
moves forward on his quest, even if he did not realise it at the time, suggests his awareness of his need to re-
evaluate and then draw on resilience to re-engage with life.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives bildungsroman qualities


verbs ellipsis
cliché intertextual references
metaphor paradox
reflective tone allusion

Discuss discovery in terms of:

self-realisation
challenge
encounters with others – truth and interpretations of truth
self-reflection
physical, social contexts
transformative
emotional
spiritual
intellectual

Study Questions

1. The title of this diary entry is a metaphor. How does the language suggest an impending incidence
of self realisation for Guevara?
2. To some extent, this text can be interpreted as a bildungsroman. How?
3. How does Guevara’s emotional pain create empathy in the reader?
4. The metaphor ___________________in the final sentences of the diary entry indicates the need to
reassess old expectations and relationships. Discovery and renewal of identity is then a significant
reminder of the human need for ___________________.
5. In what ways does the allusion to Otero Silva show a shift from the earlier mention of the poetry
in diary entry four?
6. To what extent is the text developing your understanding of discovery in terms of realising the
capacity for emotional and spiritual growth as an individual?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 13


Diary Entry Twelve

‘objects of curiosity’

This entry engages with discovery in a number of ways. Guevara relates how he and Alberto meet with a number of
doctors whilst travelling to Chile. The medical interests of our travellers, leprosy in particular, provides them with
the opportunity to show off, to share their knowledge. In hindsight, Guevara presents an honest appraisal of their
embellishment of their skills. The opportunities afforded by an unexpected meeting foreshadow future experiences
for our ‘doctors’. Discovery is also humorously references here as we realise that despite their travels, Ernesto does
not know who to drive a car. The language is humourous, the tone light-hearted in contrast to the previous entry as
we learn some of the mishaps of his driving experience. Finally, this entry deals with discovery in the historical
sense. Explicit allusions to the conquistadors allows us to reflect on the alignment Guevara makes as an inveterate
explorer of all things new, at least in reference to himself and Alberto. We discover some facts about interracial
mixing, or lack therefore, and the respect for preserving indigeneity. Discoveries of food, customs and self
realisation (of what we lose when we do not engage with the experiences of others) provide interesting
philosophical discussions on the ways in which discovery has shaped or reshaped peoples across the world.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

verbs
euphemism
irony
humorous tone
metaphor
cultural context
historical context
social context
metaphor

Discuss discovery in terms of:

opportunism
encounters with a range of new people and environments
curiosity
values
human experience
potential
assumptions

Study Questions

1. This diary entry presents opportunities to explore discovery as a means of educating others,
enriching them through a sharing of knowledge. Locate at least three textual references,
deconstruct them for techniques and determine how Guevara is highlighting the need to have
integrity in one’s experience.
2. Guevara’s reference to the history of the conquistadors implies the positive attributes of discovery.
To what extent do his discussions reveal the responsibilities inherent in the actions of explorers
and adventurers?
3. What do we discover about the cultural aspects of race and indigenous impact in Chile? Why has
Guevara shared these insights?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 14


Diary Entry Thirteen

‘the experts’

This diary entry engages with discovery in terms of the potential we have to make a difference in the lives
of others. Reviewing of events that have occurred is uppermost in Guevara’s account, referencing the self
reflective qualities that have arisen as a result of engaging with their journey. The intertextual placement
of the headlines of the newspaper story they are the subject of provides them with kudos and recognition.
This new discovery would be advantageous for the two men and, in their usual fashion, be used to their
benefit, especially when it came to locating food and shelter. What this diary entry does raise is the idea
that we can reinvent ourselves to suit certain purposes. What happens if we are discovered for what we
are not? Guevara seems to realise this fact in hindsight, identifying the audacity of their intentions and
assertions. Does this suggest we should never extend our truth in order to maintain integrity?

Techniques you could discuss here are:

verbs
euphemism
reflective tone
irony
high register of language
metaphor
nomenclature

Discuss discovery in terms of:

opportunism
self-reflection
encounters with a range of new people and environments
transformative
confronting
necessity
values
consequences

Study Questions

1. Discovery of one’s ability to change and grow are often a result of reviewing the impact of
experiences. Identify how circumstances and experiences are impacting on Guevara’s growth as
an individual.
2. The hubris evident as a result of the newspaper article has consequences. How has language been
used to foreshadow the consequences that may arise when the travellers are exposed?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 15


Diary Entry Fourteen

‘the difficulties intensify’

Sometimes the discoveries we make are requisite to our needs. Facing the reality that La Ponderosa was
becoming an increasing liability leads our travellers to reassess the future of their journey. The newspaper
article, however, has resulted in the two being ‘discovered’ and they enjoy reaping benefits from their
personality status. As objects of curiosity they are able to use notoriety to be fed and housed. Lessons are
to be learned here by the still naive Ernesto. His crush on a married woman gets him into trouble and he
quickly learns about the fickleness of this woman; an important discovery to make considering the
implications. Discovery can be explored in this entry philosophically: we may have status, self assumed,
but that status does not make us better human beings.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

pronouns
assumed nomenclature
oxymoron
use of dialogue ( remember this is memory)
anecdote – cultural context
verbs and adverbs
metaphor
humorous tone
irony

Discuss discovery in terms of:

opportunism
self-realisation
encounters with a range of new people and environments
reflection
hubris
provocative
necessity
values
inventiveness

Study Questions

1. As we experience life we develop our perspective of the world and a tolerance and understanding
for the experiences of others. What is the significance of Guevara’s developing realisation of the
fickleness of women?
2. To what extent does the diary entry title suggest challenge is a prerequisite for spiritual growth?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 16


Diary Entry Fifteen

‘la ponderosa II’s final tour’

This diary entry explores the need to reassess our intentions in our endeavours to discover new places and
people. The loss of La Ponderosa II is going to have ramifications for the next phase of their journey. The
accident is a form of discovery, the unexpected nature of events that are out of our control. Further,
Guevara’s ill health and lack of control of his bodily functions adds a humourous note to discovery. The
impact of loss, of the bike, of the hopes and dreams of the journey ahead, of the fears and expectations
that will overshadow their intentions, is a premise for new discoveries to be made about manhood,
individuality, resilience and ingenuity.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

foreshadowing
amplification
adjectives
sentence structure, cumulative phrasing
verbs
euphemism
reflective tone
irony
caesura
hyperbole

Discuss discovery in terms of:

self-realisation\
unexpectedness
necessity
speculation
re-evaluation
ramifications
perspective

Study Questions

1. The title of this diary entry foreshadows that the remainder of Guevara’s journey will be altered.
In what ways does this challenge to pre-existing expectations provide opportunities for the
travellers to self reflect on all aspects of their experience? Provide evidence from the text to
support your assertions.
2. Is it possible to speculate, at the point of disaster, the true discoveries we can make about
ourselves when events do not take an expected course? Why not? How then, do we overcome or
rationalise the unexpected?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 17


Diary Entry Sixteen

‘firefighters, workers and other matters’

In this diary entry we are introduced to the hardworking Guevara and Granado. With the loss of the bike
there needs to be a reassessing of how the journey will evolve and how others will influence the extent to
which the travellers are physically able to continue on their way. Contributing to the lives of others,
contributing to community brings a fresh perspective on their view of the world and of themselves. Their
ability to work hard, to contribute productively, provides them with a greater sense of self worth. The
discovery we can make here is that we are often caught out ‘navel-gazing’; we often forget how our lives
change when we contribute constructively to the world beyond ourselves.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives use of inverted commas and italics for


verbs emphasis
adverbs poetic language
hyperbole reflective tone
alliteration oxymoron
euphemism cliché
ellipsis irony
use of parentheses

Discuss discovery in terms of:

encounters with a range of new people and environments


reflection
physical, social, personal, cultural contexts
curiosity
assumptions
values
curiosity
renewed understanding and perception of self
human experience

Study Questions

1. Identify the figurative language used to reveal Guevara’s creativity as a writer. Explain how the
language challenges the historical notion of the ‘Che’ that evolves later in his life. Are these
notions mutually exclusive?
2. On page 66, Guevara reveals how some individuals have no sense of self awareness. To what
extent does the language create paradoxical but realistic notions of human experience?
3. Discovery of sameness and commonality of experience is what unites humanity. Identify specific
language features and examples used by Guevara to support this idea.

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 18


Diary Entry Seventeen

‘la giaconda’s smile’

This entry presents the idealistic nature of our adventurers. The shift in perspective as to how Ernesto and
Alberto see themselves and how they imagine they are received by others reveals a sensitivity to their
new circumstances. References to the hospitality of the region romanticises the benefits of travel, an
appeal not lost on others. The reader is able to discover the contrasts in the landscape and the inferred
development of Valparaiso. Uppermost in the intentions of the travellers is to find a way to get to Easter
Island. The text reveals how we long to go to exotic places and rather than make mention of the medical
ideology that first attracted them, the references are to women and the perfection of all that may be found
in an imagined place, prime for discovery. In contrast, reflections of the experiences of visiting and
treating an elderly sick woman provide insight into Guevara’s developing revolutionary awareness. We
discover the beginnings of a passionate voice that identifies the class distinctions between the proletariat
and the bourgeoisie. Humour is evident in the depiction of Alberto and the sardonic ‘heroic’ decision to
embark on new adventures in a somewhat daring and unconventional manner.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

anecdote sardonic tone to construct humour


personification evaluative and philosophical voice
evocative language constructed through euphemism
accumulation of adjectives cliché
descriptive language – adjectives to repetition
describe place anaphora
juxtaposition and contrast
reflective voice

Discuss discovery in terms of:

the choices we make and how we negotiate them in our new realities
new perspectives of self and others
curiosity
speculation
new ideas and possibilities
relationships
social class and the consequences of social injustice

Study Questions

1. The first paragraph indicates, in no uncertain terms, that the travellers’ expectations of the road
journey is about to change in profound ways. Identify examples from the text that indicate this
change and suggest the discoveries about self we can learn from their experience.
2. On page 70, the man who would become ‘Che’ begins to evolve. The language is distinctly
different from earlier diary entries. Provide three examples from the entry; deconstruct for
techniques and explain the significant lessons we can learn from these discoveries.

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 19


Diary Entry Eighteen

‘stowaways’

Ingenuity and inventiveness are presented as positive attributes in this entry; the fact that the values
exhibited by our protagonists are supported by daring and associated risks exemplifies some of the innate
ironies of discovery. As stowaways, our travellers are faced with challenges that are visceral and at times,
somewhat graphic in their description. These qualities allow us to imagine our own reaction to such an
experience and to evaluate the consequences of our actions whether they are planned or spontaneous. The
reflective nature of the entry, closing with a realisation of dreams of a ‘vocation’ that lies in travel,
seeking new experiences and rejecting any kind of true engagement with the serious issues of humanity,
suggests how discovery can become an obsession, rather than an end in itself. Responsibility is inferred:
for our actions when we seek new places and are confronted with new opportunities; for engaging with
people and places that expose us to new ideas; for challenges that engage us in real and genuine ways
with a humanity that cannot be romanticised. Responsibility is thus a quintessential quality of discovery.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

anecdote
visceral language constructed through adjectives and verbs
juxtaposition and contrast
reflective voice
sardonic tone to construct humour
evaluative and philosophical voice
euphemism
repetition

Discuss discovery in terms of:

choices we make and how we negotiate them in our new realities


new perspectives of self and others
curiosity
speculation
new ideas and possibilities
relationships
social context
cultural context
philosophical context
responsibility

Study Questions

1. This diary entry is about responsibility and repercussions relating to discovery. Locate two
textual references and suggest the implications for understanding more about the interactions
we have that can impact on others.
2. The reflective tone in the final paragraph reinforces some of the negative aspects of discovery
for the sake of discovering. Why would Guevara include this philosophical musing in his text?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 20


Diary Entry Nineteen

‘this time, disaster’

This diary entry uses a range of vocabulary and concepts relating to discovery: ‘Odyssey’, both literal and
metaphorical; becoming lost; being found; being found out; self realisation; realisation of how others are
impacted on by social class and capitalist agendas; expressing knowledge of the consequences of being
discovered and then hidden from public view; and, exposing the truth and the sad realities of human
existence. Guevara’s representation of the miners, their desperation and their typifying of the
overwhelming poverty that exists in parts of South America is tangible. We are encouraged by Guevara’s
revolutionary voice as it contrasts with the dreamer voice from the previous entry. There are implications
of complicity, an acceptance of historical impositions of colonialism, a disregard in the exploitive
qualities of humanity by humanity, one of the greatest ironies of all. Would we be aware of these issues if
we did not read or engage with this text? What can we discover about our own needs and wants that
suggest our complicity in allowing others to be compromised by materialism and consumerism?

Techniques you could discuss here are:

metaphor political and philosophical rhetoric


evocative language constructed through euphemism
adjectives and verbs colloquial language
juxtaposition and contrast expletives
reflective voice allusion
humour

Discuss discovery in terms of:

new perspectives of others


curiosity
new ideas and possibilities
relationships
reality
complicity
social context
political context
philosophical context
responsibility

Study Questions

1. The opening sentence of this diary entry reveals Guevara’s reflective nature and the revisiting of
his original comments from his first entry. How have the expectations of the original agenda
changed and how has this impacted on their sense of adventure?
2. In the final two paragraphs of page 77 and on page 78, Guevara retells the story of meeting a
couple who represent a political and social conundrum in Chile. What does the use of reflective
voice suggest about the discovery Guevara makes about himself and how are we affected by the
knowledge we can gain from this passage?
3. Irony and sarcasm become apparent in the final paragraph of this diary entry. The discovery
compromises the travellers and provokes a shift in their experience. Identify specific language
used to shape the tone and present insight into the concerns being expressed here.

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 21


Diary Entry Twenty

‘chuquicamata’

The descriptive and explanatory data provided in this diary entry reveal the juxtaposing elements of
requisitioning of land and manpower as part of the discovery process with the need to respect humanity
and cultural integrity of the native population. The accumulation of euphemisms and metaphor in this
entry reveal a passionate voice of realisation and discontent when faced with the vista of the mine and its
ramifications. Nationalism as an excuse for exploitation becomes evident in the revolutionary rhetoric
used by Guevara. Genuine underpinnings of the ‘Che’ are in evidence here. The experience, if read
between the lines of the invective vocabulary, reveals sympathies for the people, empathy for the plight
of nations desperate for economic sustainability and, a deep and abiding criticism for exploitation.
Discovering the ramifications of exploiting the poor leads to discoveries of how we measure human
integrity when it is compromised by nationalist agendas.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives – used to construct imagery and compound complex sentences


tone metaphor
verbs jargon
simile political voice
juxtaposition and contrast euphemism
personification repetition
historical notation
statistics

Discuss discovery in terms of:

realities
consequences
confronting ideas
curiosity
speculation
political context
cultural context
historical context
philosophical context
responsibility to explore ramifications
loss and culpability

Study Questions

1. How does the simile in the opening line construct tone?


2. Guevara aligns the geographical description with the psychological ramifications of the human
experience. Identify specific language used to demonstrate his critical perspective and identify the
techniques. Suggest Guevara’s agenda in adding this commentary to his diary.
3. On page 81, Guevara presents the economic and political ramifications of copper mining. Do you
think he knew these facts at the time of his travels or are these political insights presented and
added as a revising of the experience? If so, what is the purpose and effect of this commentary?
4. What do we discover in the final paragraph? What is the profound impact of this information?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 22


Diary Entry Twenty One

‘arid land for miles and miles’

This diary entry engages with the next leg of the journey for our travellers. Hardship, in terms of hunger
and need for water, shade and paradoxically, warmth in an unforgiving desert landscape become evident.
Discovery of new places and new ideas and the dreams of eternal travel are forsaken as both men become
overwhelmed by their less than ‘heroic’ qualities. The need to return to where they had started from that
day suggests that some discoveries, whether literal or philosophical, will need revisiting or revising.
Security and basic needs often drive our ability to sustain our objectives. Ingenuity and a reliance on the
success of social interaction once again benefit our protagonists. Historical context on the evolution of the
mines and their political, functional and economic benefits for the country are juxtaposed with the social
paradigms they construct. The final paragraphs return us to Guevara’s poetic voice, the simile and
allusion reminding us that discovery is often speculative and is embedded in the human imagination
through visual stimuli that can reinvigorate our spirit. Expectations and hopes are not always met,
however, so adaptation and pragmatism become necessary values for those seeking to discover new
worlds, both physical and spiritual.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives –imagery and tone statistics


verbs allusion
simile repetition
juxtaposition and contrast poetic voice
historical references euphemism

Discuss discovery in terms of:

reality
curiosity
cultural context
historical context
ingenuity
courage
hopefulness
values
serendipity
revision

Study Questions

1. What qualities, physical, psychological and spiritual, does this diary entry engage with in terms of
how we discover our personal strengths and weaknesses? Locate at least four textual references
from across the diary entry; deconstruct verbs for tone, adjectives for descriptive insights and
figurative devices used. Explain how these textual details present insight into self reflection as the
key to self actualisation.
2. The interaction of the travellers with others is a significant aspect of the discoveries they make
about themselves. How does this entry suggest community and collaborative endeavours can
contribute to small discoveries that in turn, become a necessity if we are to contribute to larger
endeavours?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 23


Diary Entry Twenty Two

‘the end of chile’

Travelling and paralleling their physical and intellectual journey in the footsteps of explorers is an explicit
link to the discovery concept here. The feats of colonisation, of endurance and engagement with a
landscape so demanding and fierce in its contradictions impress our travellers. Guevara references the
vagaries of desire and the desperation for fame and glory that substantiate conquest and refute any who
negate the authority of the conqueror. The aligning of Valdivia’s role in history with that of Caesar
exposes uncontrollable hubris and its resulting consequences as an expected outcome of discovery.
Guevara’s political notion of self continues to be exposed in his expressions of resentment against an
unwelcoming bourgeois doctor met in Arica. The symbolic generosity of the Chilean population is once
again referenced; as a travelogue, the reader is encouraged by the notion that there is encouragement to
engage in new pursuits in lands unfamiliar and challenging.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

verbs
adjectives
tone
imagery
contrast
historical referencing
statistics
symbolism
political rhetoric

Discuss discovery in terms of:

parallelism
reflective voice
political context
cultural context
historical context
philosophical context
responsibility
hubris

Study Questions

1. Explicit reference is made to discovery in the opening paragraph of this diary entry; therefore it
has a literal meaning. What are the inferential connotations of this discovery?
2. What do we discover about the challenges of exploration? Does Guevara’s reference to historical
exploration and discovery have a philosophical correlation to their own journey?
3. What do the travellers discover about the inhabitants of Arica?
4. How is a sense of anticipation established in the final paragraph?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 24


Diary Entry Twenty Three

‘chile, a vision from afar’

This entry clearly identifies the postscript nature of its writing; Guevara acknowledges that the writing
reflects the impressions of his discoveries in the moment they occurred. The paradox is that once a
discovery has been made there is no option but to revise the experience with the emerging power of new
knowledge. A commentary could be made here about how discoverers reflect on the impact of their
interactions with land and peoples in hindsight; or, how history itself chooses to selectively ignore the
consequences or ramifications of discovery. The abdicating of responsibility for the actions of generations
of explorers has been an abiding concern for revisionist historians. In this entry, however, Guevara’s
analysis of his experience constructs his perspective of a Chile where poverty and inequality abounded.
His references to the standard of living reflect his awareness of his own privilege. His evaluation of the
political parties and their influence on the nation’s economic and philosophical future are inherently
affected by his revised awareness. Guevara’s assertions that Chile needs to remove itself from the power
of external factions that use the discovery of minerals to exploit its nationals demonstrates the significant
politicisation that has occurred post his original experience.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives – used to construct political political jargon


inference and tone political voice
verbs – ‘inspires’, ‘observe’, ‘manipulating’ euphemism
use of parentheses repetition
historical context allusion
metaphor assertive voice

Discuss discovery in terms of:

political realities
consequences
speculation
political context
historical context
philosophical context
responsibility to explore ramifications
provocation
confrontation
values

Study Questions

1. How does the opening paragraph provide the reader with a sense that Guevara, in hindsight, has
discovered insights into himself and humanity as a result of his experiences in Chile? List the
concerns Guevara has about what he has seen and experienced. Evaluate, from this list, the
political and social agenda that resonates.
2. Write a paragraph, using specific, deconstructed textual references, that defines Guevara’s
reactions to his experiences. Use the BOSTES ‘Discovery’ description to assist you with
identifying those aspects of the journey that suggest how we, as readers, can discover deeper
understandings of the world from his experience.

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 25


Diary Entry Twenty Four

‘tarata, the new world’

This diary entry reflects aspects of discovery including apprehension and frustration. Expectations of how
we journey and experience new discoveries is often influenced by pragmatism. The impact of the
surroundings, of meeting with the native population who seem suspended in time is confronting and
provokes our protagonists to reflect on their purpose. Being able to share stories of Argentina, to provide
hope to others is a significant shift in the perspective. Increasingly, they realise the import of their impact
as individuals on others. The personal discovery they make and share in relation to the exploitation and
misery construed by the history of colonisation constructs a confronting position for us as readers. If we
are to learn anything from this entry it may be to suggest how we ourselves can be a source of discovery
for others.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives – used to construct imagery and tone


verbs
adverbs
juxtaposition and contrast
historical references
metaphor
allusion
political voice
euphemism

Discuss discovery in terms of:

reality
consequences of discovery
inaction
curiosity
political context
cultural context
historical context
philosophical context
responsibility to explore ramifications
loss and culpability

Study Questions

1. What historical detail is provided in this diary entry?


2. What do we discover about the geographical challenges of the journey?
3. How does the interaction with the truck driver suggest the processes of discovery?
4. On page 90, making choices becomes an inherent factor in being able to access new adventures.
How does the ensuing hardship suggest that the travellers were confronted by the decision they
had made?
5. What racial prejudice is exposed in this diary entry?
6. What has been the impact of colonial intervention and what criticisms are implied about discovery
in terms of exploration and sovereignty as opposed to self determination of indigenous peoples?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 26


Diary Entry Twenty Five

‘in the dominions of pachamama’

Discovery in this entry is explored through new experiences in Peru and engagement with cultural rituals
our travellers had not previously encountered. Despite the fact that Ernesto and Alberto are significantly
suffering in physical as well as economic terms, they differentiate themselves from other travellers who
suffer even greater indignity. The implicit social class commentary presented here reveals how even when
we are confronted by need and desperation and are, in many ways equal in circumstance, we are keen to
distance ourselves from what we determine as undesirable. Rituals and customs, symbolism and history
are all encountered as the travellers encounter new people and experiences. The political commentary
continues as we learn of the racial and educational deficits placed on people who are deprived of human
rights. Radicalisation of politics as a means of defending the under-classes is highlighted. Our discovery
should be to parallel these revelations with the political commentary on refugees or those who live in
third world conditions throughout Australia and the world. In this way we become as informed and able
to enact change as Guevara did in his later role as the ‘Che’.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives statistics repetition


verbs and adverbs compound complex Latino vocabulary
simile sentences acronyms
juxtaposition metaphor use of parentheses
contrast jargon tone
personification political rhetoric accumulation
historical notation euphemism

Discuss discovery in terms of:

consequences philosophical context


reality of impact responsibility to explore ramifications
curiosity loss and culpability
political context reflection on the past
cultural context changed perspectives
historical context

Study Questions

1. How does the opening paragraph use provocative language to suggest the travellers desire to differentiate
themselves from their other travelling companions?
2. What discoveries, physical and psychological, do Alberto Granado and Ernesto Guevara make when they
compare their interaction with the landscape to that of the Indians?
3. To what extent does the relating of their personal political experiences in Argentina suggest the needs, fears
and hope across South America in general?
4. What discovery do the travellers make on page 96? What impact does it have for the travellers? What
implications does it present for us as we understand the importance of experiencing new places and ideas if
we are to discover a deeper sense of self?
5. What contrasts in human experience does Guevara provide insight into on page 97? What political growth
is afforded the young traveller through this experience? Identify the metaphors, allusions and context that
shape his response.

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 27


Diary Entry Twenty Six

‘lake of the sun’

Verbs such as ‘revealed’ and ‘exploring’ are used in this entry to remind us of the nature of discovering
new places. The geographical beauty of the landscape never seems to escape Guevara allowing us to
discover a world beyond our imagination or experience. The poetic language reminds us of the man not
the revolutionary, of the boy who sees something new in every sunrise. Resilience and determination to
engage fully with the journey highlights the benefits of experience. Contrasts between ritual and
symbolism, costume and traditions and the visible influence of European civilisation are discussed
reminding us once more of the stark discoveries made by the travellers.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
abstract nouns
verbs
adverbs
juxtaposition
contrast
metaphor
jargon

Discuss discovery in terms of:

curiosity
speculation
cultural context
historical context
impact
repercussions

Study Questions

1. The reference to the islands, with populations who live and practise ancient rituals, foods and
traditions, provides insight into the impact that discovery has made on other parts of South
America and indeed the world. Why is this a significant point of discovery for our travellers?
2. What can be suggested here about the impact of discovery on people, landscapes and traditions
across the world? Locate specific language choices that can be used to make a critical commentary
on the invasive and destructive repercussions of discovery, exploration and colonisation.

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 28


Diary Entry Twenty Seven

‘toward the navel of the world’

This entry allows us further insight into racial prejudice and racial differentiation that has resulted from
discovery and colonisation. Whilst not discussed explicitly, the inference is that the travellers were
distinctly aware of the issue in this part of their odyssey. We, as readers, see the increasing mention of
hunger, cold and weariness that begins to overshadow their experiences. These discoveries could be
interpreted as warnings or as a means of expressing the charity and generosity the travellers were afforded
at different points in their journey.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
verbs
anecdote
dialogue
rhetorical questions
juxtaposition
jargon
humour
manipulative tone

Discuss discovery in terms of:

curiosity
racial context
cultural context
philosophical context
responsibility
dignity
preservation
Human Rights
ritual

Study Questions

1. This diary entry reveals the ingenuity of Granado and Guevara as a result of their experiences.
Identify language features that highlight the humourous discoveries they have made about
themselves and others along their journey.
2. Despite making discoveries about ourselves we often ignore the warning signs and consequences
of our actions. How does this diary entry provide opportunities to explore this idea?
3. How is racial prejudice exposed in this entry? What implications are there for us, in Australia, as
we discover the ramifications of our response to the ‘other’?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 29


Diary Entry Twenty Eight

‘the navel’

The arrival of the travellers in Cuzco reveals its impact as a city where discovery and rediscovery has
made a mark on the geographical and architectural landscape. Explicit references to discovery and
rediscovery can be ascertained through the discussion of conflict between the conquistadors and native
populations. The explicit language of people, the search for new futures and the conquering of new
territory reveals a sense of realisation of the impact and consequences of new domination; the need for
defence and the building of fortresses seems incongruous with the ‘discovery’ of something previously
unknown. Cuzco, as a city, becomes a symbolic tale of conquest: the text details battles for freedom and
rights and the ramifications of discovery and how it continues to resonate throughout South America. The
historical information provided here allows us to discover the mythical and historical import of this place
in the journey.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives – used to construct imagery and tone


verbs
juxtaposition and contrast
personification
historical references
metaphor
extended metaphor
euphemism

Discuss discovery in terms of:

consequences
curiosity
political context
cultural context
historical context
philosophical context
responsibility to explore ramifications
loss and culpability
freedom
imposition
awe

Study Questions

1. Deconstruct this diary entry for its evocative use of language. Highlight verbs, adjectives and
adverbs. Identify the allusions and imagery that are constructed and explain how they shape
meaning in terms of the discovery paradigm.
2. Develop an analytical paragraph here that reveals both the critical and appreciative perspectives of
the traveller’s first introduction to Cuzco.
3. Explore the political critique that is being presented here by our travellers. Identify and analyse
the impact of the landscape and the mythical and symbolic resonance of the city as a focus for
discovery.

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 30


Diary Entry Twenty Nine

‘the land of the incas’

This diary entry presents historical detail of the consequences of colonisation and discovery in South
America. Guevara presents an evocative summary of the repercussions of history, specifically in relation
to the geographical layout of cities, constructs of defence and the resulting social, cultural and political
implications that eventuated. Guevara, relating what he saw and thought at that time (and in hindsight,
remembering he revises these entries) suggests the imperative of responsibility - or the lack of foresight –
of colonisers. Language of defensiveness, calls to arms, battles won and lost against those who want to
draw on or impose themselves on a people resonates and reminds us of the consequences for all countries
and peoples who become subject to the dominion of those with greater economic strength and resources.
The loss of what was, rediscovering the greatness of a people is an important aspect of the entry
reminding us that we can find something in ourselves, that all is not lost even when we are defeated by
centuries of social and racial stigma. Historical references to explorers and conquistadors, the religious
impositions and sacrifices, the development of architecture resonate for our travellers as they encounter
the history they have learned first hand. One can only wonder at the awe with which they witnessed first
hand the ironic and impressive defence that epitomised this discovery. A true paradox!

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
adverbs
verbs
historical references
metaphor
symbolism
allusion
use of parentheses
euphemism

Discuss discovery in terms of:

awe and wonder


consequences
curiosity
speculation
political context
cultural context
historical context
philosophical context
responsibility to explore ramifications
loss and culpability
creativity
rediscovery

Study Questions

1. What is the significance of this diary entry in terms of discovery and Guevara’s revelations of the past?
2. To what extent has this diary entry enhanced your understanding of colonisation and how it has impacted
on cultures in such a manner as to expose the paradoxical nature of discovery?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 31


Diary Entry Thirty

‘our lord of the earthquakes’

Guevara shares here a somewhat distanced view of the ritual and celebration he bears witness to in his
travels. Discovering history, discovering the source of ritual becomes a factor in becoming part of an
event. Voyeurism is a simple way to see but not acknowledge; to stand outside of the consequences and
ramifications of events that have reshaped history. The voice is strangely distanced here reminding us that
our travellers are merely tourists. Empathy for the shifts and changes in tradition and culture are then
presented and paralleled with historical representations presenting incongruities and contrasts. The way
we relate our discovery of a people or a country defines us somewhat. As this entry ends it is clear that
history sustains its narrative and rather than hides the impact of colonisation, the benefits and changed
rituals, Guevara emphasises the spectacular nature of what was, rediscovered through new eyes with new
appreciation.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives – used to construct imagery and tone


verbs
humour
juxtaposition and contrast
historical references
dates, facts
metaphor
political voice
allusion
referential tone
irony

Discuss discovery in terms of:

reality
consequences
curiosity
political context
cultural context
historical context
loss and culpability
rediscovery
new perspectives

Study Questions

1. This diary entry relates experiences that reflect social, cultural, religious, political and historical
imperatives relating to discovery. Identify what each of these are and critically evaluate the
purpose in adding this entry in terms of what it criticises and affirms about discovery and
colonisation.

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 32


Diary Entry Thirty One

‘homeland for the victor’

As Guevara relates the beauty of the city, its buildings, and criticises the overly ornate impact of
colonisation, we recognise the impact and ramifications of imposing new values, new religions and new
uses for the mined resources after centuries of colonisation. The entry provides a tour narrative; an
explanation of the wealth of a people dominated who paradoxically lost their true wealth – pride,
endurance and longevity amid the colonisers’ impositions. The benefits of discovery are referenced, the
bounty of the new world being transported back to an Imperial parent that now controls and assumes
power. There is an embedded irony throughout this entry, as we rediscover such historical places as
tourists we must not forget to acknowledge a past that has seen the loss of an entire civilisation.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
humour
juxtaposition and contrast
historical references
dates, facts
metaphor
political rhetoric
allusion
referential tone
irony
paradox

Discuss discovery in terms of:

consequences
imposition
political context
cultural context
historical context
loss and culpability
rediscovery
new perspectives
reassessment
questioning of the empirical defence of discovery

Study Questions

1. Identify the personal realisation that Guevara makes as he reflects upon his time in Cuzco.
2. Guevara recommends tourists travel to see this part of the world. To what extent is this passage
suggesting why we need to discover those aspects of our world that have been lost, forgotten or
concealed?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 33


Diary Entry Thirty Two

‘cuzco straight’

Discovery is explicitly referred to in this diary entry with reference to Hiram Bingham, the American
who, according to Guevara, ‘discovered’ the ruins at Machu Picchu. This reference highlights the concept
of ‘discovery’ in terms of its being compromised by colonial constructs. Historical fact would not support
Bingham as the discoverer; he may have been preceded by a German archaeologist Augusto Berns in
1867. Regardless, he is ascribed in this journal as being the person who discovered and therefore wears
the implications and ramifications of that discovery. The excavation of the site to the degree where it
suffered from looting and disregard for the ownership of the country itself has become a source of
political and historical discourse on ownership of artefacts and discovery. The vast implications of this
new ‘ownership’ have ramifications that impact on the future of archaeology. The extensive knowledge of
the museum’s curator and his personal insights into the impact of colonisation on native Indians reprises
Guevara’s political voice. Discovery, once so sought after by nations, claimed and venerated, is now a
damning commentary on the ramifications, social, cultural and political, that have impacted on a people
and their innate understanding of the land.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives metaphor
verbs political voice
juxtaposition and contrast allusion
historical references referential tone
dates irony
facts

Discuss discovery in terms of:

reality
consequences
curiosity
political context
cultural context
historical context
loss and culpability
rediscovery
new perspectives

Study Questions

1. What do the travellers learn about Dr.Hermosa?


2. What insights are provided into the customs of the indigenous peoples travelling on the train?
3. What can we perceive about Guevara’s developing socio-political identity in his reference to the
tourist population?
4. How does Guevara establish contrasts to create a challenging discourse on the social issues that
have impacted on cultural history?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 34


Diary Entry Thirty Three

‘huambo’

Discovery is referenced in this entry initially, through the eyes of tourists. New places, new appreciations
of experience and reflections on past experiences are uppermost in the early part of the entry. The latter
part of the entry introduces us to the leper hospital and the conditions the two ‘doctors’ find there. This
entry reveals the distance between the reality of poverty and rejection of those who suffer this dire
disease. We discover the extent of the disease and the nature of the conditions challenging us to engage
with experiences we are not likely to witness in our lifetimes. For the travellers, this sojourn is an
imperative that reinforces their realisation of economic and social distance that is impacting on the health
of so many who are afflicted by leprosy. That leprosy continues to be the subject of intensive disease
management by the ILEP (The International Federation of Anti-Leprosy Associations – ilep.org.uk)
suggests that we need to discover means of containing its spread as well as locating effective treatments
that ease the suffering of the inflicted.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
verbs
juxtaposition and contrast
historical references
political rhetoric
medical knowledge and jargon
irony
paradox

Discuss discovery in terms of:

reality
consequences
curiosity
political context
historical context
values
challenge
ramifications

Study Questions

1. This diary entry introduces us to the travellers’ initial experiences at a leper colony. How does
Guevara use language to reveal his perception of the medical facilities?
2. How can we use this diary entry to develop an argument for the validity of Guevara’s developing
revolutionary stance?
3. How does the description of the hospital impact on you as a reader? What do you discover about
leprosy and its impact on individuals and nations?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 35


Diary Entry Thirty Four

’ever northward’

The human capacity to withstand hunger is explored in this entry. Increasingly the travellers are impacted
on by their own need for food and shelter. Ironically, in a land where poverty is so profound, where
discrimination is rife – and referenced in this passage by the witnessing of an assault on an Indian woman
– Ernesto and Alberto are able to survive. The revelation of the disregard exhibited towards the Indian
race reprises an ongoing culpability in negating the sovereignty of First Nations peoples in Australia. The
dispiritedness of the race is exemplified in the anecdote about the young bull. It is important here that we
realise the depth of racial prejudice implied in this entry and speculate the extent to which these
experiences developed Ernesto’s revolutionary stance in later life.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
adverbs
verbs
metaphor
political rhetoric
euphemism
imagery
tone

Discuss discovery in terms of:

reality
consequences
confronting ideas
speculation
political context
cultural context
historical context
philosophical context
intellectual determinations
assumptions and values

Study Questions

1. An aspect of the protagonists’ journeys throughout South America was the ever-present hunger
they experienced. Why would individuals continue to travel knowing they might not find food or
lodging? What can we discover here about human capacity and the power of human will?
2. How does the language used to relate racial prejudice expose the values of the travellers?
3. The human capacity for survival often involves manipulation of others. Why would Guevara
expose this aspect of the experience? What does his writing suggest about the contradictory values
of integrity and human weakness?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 36


Diary Entry Thirty Five

‘through the center of peru’

The impact of the extended journey on our protagonists is evident in this entry. Hunger, hunger and more
hunger is referenced throughout the entry suggesting an increasing lack of control over their
circumstances. The reliance and expectations on others to support them is contrived and manipulated by
their lack of funds, their ability to sway opinion and their status as ‘doctors’. The tensions of the journey,
the haphazard events that marked their travel create a narrative of adventure. The sharing of their
experiences with others highlights the opportunity to discover more about the world and about their
response to events that have taken place in the past and the present. The implied reminder of the racial
prejudice towards Indians resonates within this entry reminding us of the political realisations that were
embedding themselves in Guevara’s future.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
verbs
metaphor
jargon
political voice
euphemism
repetition

Discuss discovery in terms of:

consequences
potential
confronting ideas
curiosity
speculation
political context
cultural context
historical context
philosophical context
responsibility to explore ramifications
assumptions about others
values

Study Questions

1. Hunger, and the language surrounding the desperation and need to source food, whatever the
means, continues as a focus in this entry. How and why is this focus, in terms of Guevara’s
decision to rewrite and publish his diaries, of significance?
2. How effective has Guevara been, in revealing human frailty?
3. Is the acceptance of human frailty the true subject of the text? If so, what are we able to determine
about our own ability to withstand hardship, fear and deprivation?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 37


Diary Entry Thirty Six

‘shattered hopes’

As readers we discover how necessity has begun to override conscience in our travellers. Hunger and lack
of resources has forced them to accept even begrudging hospitality. That this hospitality is so generously
provided is fortuitous. Euphemistically speaking, Ernesto and Alberto, knowing full well that their host
would like to relieve himself of their presence, accept an offer to return to the city. Opportunists as they
are, they fall prey to a scam to dump them by the side of the road, a significant distance from their
planned destination. Once more the ingenuity of our protagonists is presented, identifying as ‘routine’ the
behaviours they have discovered have the greatest impact and result in getting the sustenance they crave.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
verbs
simile
layout
metaphor
euphemism
humourous tone
sarcasm
sardonic tone
irony

Discuss discovery in terms of:

reality of circumstances
consequences
curiosity
political context
cultural context
historical context
philosophical context
responsibility to explore ramifications
assumptions and perspectives

Study Questions

1. How does this chapter use euphemism to reveal the travellers as gullible? Why are we being
exposed to so many traits of human weakness? Can we discover something about our own
tendencies to dwell on the difficulties rather than the successes of our experience? What could the
entry have been about? What opportunities were given to the travellers?
2. What do we discover about human ingenuity through the five point plan presented in this entry?
3. What would cause Alberto to become nervous?
4. What implicit discussion is being presented on work and the significance of work as an
honourable venture to the people of Peru?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 38


Diary Entry Thirty Seven

‘the city of the viceroys’

One of the longest entries of the journey, this representation of the journey makes explicit and implicit
references to discovery. The architectural beauty is explored in detail and juxtaposed with the memories
of Cuzco. Colonial contrasts are made as are the notions of explorers and settlements made since the first
Spanish explorers arrived and constructed monuments to their gods and their power. The interest of our
travellers in the museum reprises our understanding of their keenness to know and understand the origins
and evolution of the city. Meetings with doctors at the leprosy hospital once again reaffirm their interest
in scientific discoveries and treatment. A significant aspect of this entry is the growing sense of a journey
well-travelled, despite some less than admirable traits becoming commonplace in the oeuvre of our
protagonists in their search for food and shelter.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
verbs
simile
juxtaposition
contrast
historical context
metaphor
euphemism
anecdote
humour

Discuss discovery in terms of:

confronting ideas
curiosity
speculation
cultural context
historical context
philosophical context
assumptions
values
responsibility
opportunism

Study Questions

1. How does the opening sentence of this entry indicate the ability of individuals to develop an
appreciation for a life lived in simplicity?
2. How does Guevara’s discovery of the sights of Lima equate or contrast with that of the
conquistadors long before? Why is this comparison being made?
3. List the discoveries the travellers make through their various experiences in Lima. How do these
activities add weight to the purpose of their journey in both the literal and philosophical sense?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 39


Diary Entry Thirty Eight

‘down the ucayali’

Explicit reference to discovery is evident in the nomenclature of ‘explorers’. The spiritual connotations of
the journey are evident in the reflective voice used by Ernesto as he describes the landscape he recalls.
Despite being housed in the first class section of the vessel, the travellers discover their truth lies with
sailors and passengers who are less privileged; a natural evolution considering the experiences they have
had over the previous six months. Discoveries, according to this entry, are sometimes simple reminders
that the world does not revolve around us. We are part of a greater experience that if we make the
decision to contribute to, can be enriched and confident in our contribution to a more equal world.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
imagery
poetic language
verbs
adverbs
simile
personification
metaphor

Discuss discovery in terms of:

assumptions
expectations
curiosity
speculation
philosophical context
psychological importance
responsibility
consequences
experiential necessity

Study Questions

1. This diary entry focuses on the adventurous nature of our protagonists. How does exploration and
discovery lure both Granado and Guevara? At any point do the travellers suggest the journey is
less than worth the discovery they hope to make?
2. There is a distinctly spiritual connotation to the wanderlust presented here. Identify two textual
references that reveal this aspect of their personalities.
3. Guevara explicitly references the psychological aspects of the experience in this entry. Why?
What aspects of the BOSTES ‘Discovery’ description does his representation align with?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 40


Diary Entry Thirty Nine

‘dear papi’

In his letter to his father, Guevara suggests he is discovering interests in certain fields of medicine. He
also suggests he does not know if these interests will be sustained. The voice of the explorer resonates in
the speculation of further journeys into more dense and remote country reflecting a desire to know more
about the native populations and the illnesses they suffer. There is a spiritual discovery being conveyed
here; the simplicity, the embracing of himself and Alberto by those suffering leprosy has resonated with
Ernesto. A realisation of the need to meet the people, to connect with humanity is implied in his relating
of the experience. The letter contains silences; many of the feats of endurance are missing; many of the
manipulative qualities used to sustain them on their journey go unmentioned. These silences reflect the
need to take responsibility for actions.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
verbs
reflective tone
silences
juxtaposition
comparison
statistics
use of punctuation

Discuss discovery in terms of:

spiritual
emotional
truth
consequences
confronting ideas
curiosity
philosophical context

Study Questions

1. How effectively does Ernesto use language to share his experience with his father?
2. How does his representation of self reveal a shift in his perspective of others?
3. In what way does the language in this entry impel us to understand and reject our prejudices for
those less fortunate than ourselves?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 41


Diary Entry Forty

‘the san pablo leper colony’

One of the greatest things we can discover from this text is the benefits we gain from learning from
others; especially those how allow us to humble ourselves in the face of such grace. The time spent in
the leprosy clinic, realising the humanity of its patients has a spiritual and psychological impact on
Ernesto. His depiction of the lifestyle and the respect of the medical staff reflect a willingness to learn
lessons of self deprecation and appreciation of the needs of others. The dire needs, simple requisites
for many citizens including electricity, refrigeration and basic medical equipment highlights the lack
of resources and economic focus on those who suffer leprosy. This entry is significant in terms of the
text as a whole. We learn that if we contribute to humanity we have the opportunity to discover that
better part of ourselves.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
verbs
statistics
jargon
political context
medical context
social context

Discuss discovery in terms of:

reality
consequences
humility
assumptions
values
opportunity for personal growth

Study Questions

1. What elements of scientific discovery and the benefits of studying the sick are presented in this
entry? Why is this entry significant in the schema of the diary as a whole?
2. What aspects of human experience evident in this entry can provide us with the opportunity to
discover a sense of humanity for those less fortunate than ourselves?
3. To what extent do you think this experience led to Ernesto becoming a richer person in the
spiritual sense?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 42


Diary Entry Forty One

‘saint guevara’s day’

Spiritual growth and self discovery are essential qualities we should aspire to. This entry reflects upon the
impact of the experience of meeting and working at the leprosy clinic. The endearment of our travellers in
the eyes of the patients and medical staff is implied. The philosophical underpinnings of equity are
evident. Understanding of the people we meet, acceptance and tolerance, respect for humanity and
restoring human dignity is the message being related here. These discoveries are profound and often take
extraordinary experiences for them to become real in our lives.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
verbs
analogy
insertion of speech transcript
reflective voice
metaphor
jargon
political voice
euphemism
repetition

Discuss discovery in terms of:

humility
reality
consequences
opportunity
speculation
spiritual benefits
generosity

Study Questions

1. How does Guevara’s speech at the colony suggest spiritual growth and self discovery?
2. Considering Guevara’s young age, what has he discovered about South America, Alberto, social
and racial poverty, sickness and life?
3. What is the metaphorical significance of these travellers leaving on a raft?
4. How has the leper colony impacted on both individuals?
5. What have they discovered about themselves, their futures and their dreams?
6. How can we apply these lessons to our own lives?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 43


Diary Entry Forty Two

‘debut for the little kontiki’

This entry explores the fortitude, resilience and pragmatism of the travellers. Frustration at their inability
to physically control their raft metaphorically presents the concept that we cannot always control our
circumstances. The study of the discovery concept can teach us that not all aspects of our experiences are
going to be planned. Being able to cope with change to those plans, being able to adjust and accept the
vagaries of nature and humanity are essential to our being able to cope with life. Destinations and how we
get there may change but a true spiritual discovery is accessible to our understanding of ourselves and the
world when we realise that we do not have to be in control. What is essential is the realisation that as long
as we have the intellectual and spiritual resources to make the best of whatever confronts us in our
experience we will benefit not only ourselves but contribute more effectively to the world as global
citizens.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
verbs
abstract nouns
tone
personification
metaphor
euphemism
foreshadowing

Discuss discovery in terms of:

realities
confronting ideas
speculation
serendipity
philosophical context
loss and culpability
responsibility

Study Questions

1. Discovery can be both active and passive. How does serendipity become a complicit contributor to
the ultimate goals of our travellers?
2. To what extent is spiritual discovery evident in this entry?
3. How can we apply the pragmatism shown by Ernesto to experiences in our own lives?
4. How effectively, at this point in the text, has Ernesto explored the significance of planning and
then readjusting experiences? How is this in itself, a form of discovery?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 44


Diary Entry Forty Three

‘dear mama’

This letter as with previous letters, inserted as a diary entry, must have been recovered post journey. The
details of the experiences and the claims - expressed with self deprecating humour - of being explorers
reveals the intentions of the journey were to engage in new experiences despite a world that was shifting
and changing. The political tensions and air of revolution presents an ironic backdrop to this letter. The
relating of events is more thorough than some of the previous entries on the same topic; written in the
moment, the detail and desire to share the experiences provides greater insight into how we resolve to
learn from experiences. There is a clear indication that the travellers are nearing the end of their journey
as Ernesto begins to talk about the future. The dreamer, however, is still present as Guevara’s
humanitarian desires express his hopes to return and continue his travels and engagement with the human
populations he has met at a later stage.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives – used to construct imagery and tone


verbs
juxtaposition and contrast
metaphor
jargon
political voice
euphemism

Discuss discovery in terms of:

realities
consequences
confronting ideas
curiosity
speculation
political context
cultural context
philosophical context
responsibility

Study Questions

1. This letter recounts much of the recent journey and event of the travellers. What does Guevara
leave out of his letter? How effective is this letter in presenting the personal and childlike Ernesto?
2. This entry expresses the confronting realities of a South America that has experienced much
conflict and tension over many centuries. What discoveries does Guevara recount? How have
these discoveries constructed new perspectives?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 45


Diary Entry Forty Four

‘on the road to caracas’

This entry explores responses to the confrontations with authority experienced by the travellers. The
confronting discovery of the need to ensure personal safety through diplomacy is evident. The need to be
diplomatic, respectful and intuitive resonates as the protagonist locates themselves in more challenging
territory. This diary entry is quite different in tone to the freedom and joy expressed in earlier entries. The
tensions of the destination clearly affect the protagonists who have to become increasingly aware of what
they say and how they manage situations. This new level of understanding, according to Guevara, and the
need to be diplomatic, has become an art they have had to reprise as they have engaged with others during
their experiences. It is this inner realisation that demonstrates how much they have discovered about
themselves and the changing South America they travel within.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
verbs
adverbs
abstract nouns
ambiguity
simile
juxtaposition and contrast
personification
metaphor
political voice
euphemism

Discuss discovery in terms of:

realities of the experience


consequences
confronting ideas
curiosity
speculation
political context
philosophical context
responsibility to explore ramifications
reliance on others

Study Questions

1. Discovery, in all its forms, can take its toll on the human body, physically and psychologically. To
what extent does this entry suggest the repercussions of such a long journey on the health of our
protagonist?
2. The underlying sense of danger and the need to protect oneself echoes throughout this entry. Does
the end justify the means? Is the risk taken worth the outcome of the experience?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 46


Diary Entry Forty Five

‘this strange twentieth century’

Realisation of the end of the journey being close and final separation of the compatriots resonates
throughout this entry. The discoveries made and shared are nostalgically referenced. The idea that
exploration and discovery has changed the travellers’ outlook on life and humanity is reflected through
philosophical reflections on colonisation and the contrasts between the races who maintain a tense
distance, socially, politically and culturally. Coming to terms with the life to be experienced beyond the
journey seems to be confronting. The discoveries made have been profound in terms of understanding
how humanity responds to change, how colonisation has impacted so harshly on the native populations
and how the spirit of man can absorb and then use the education gained from such a journey to become a
revolutionary themselves.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives
adverbs
verbs
simile
juxtaposition and contrast
metaphor
political rhetoric
euphemism
repetition

Discuss discovery in terms of:

reality
consequences
compromise
confronting ideas
curiosity
speculation
political context
cultural context
historical context
philosophical context
responsibility to explore ramifications
loss and culpability

Study Questions

1. What is the importance of Alberto and Ernesto’s relationship in terms of this narrative? Would the
discoveries of place, of life, of the people they met and the food that they shared or purloined, the
hardships overcome, been as meaningful if they had attempted the journey alone?
2. Guevara is exposing the contrasts between urbanisation and the pastoral extremes experienced on
this long journey. Why? What can we learn?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 47


Diary Entry Forty Six

‘a note in the margin’

The poetic nature of Guevara’s language, the accumulating personal rhetoric on human rights and his
observations on political inequality and discontent resonate throughout this entry. The notation is a
foreshadowing of what is to come. The dire warnings of revolutionary spirit overshadow the prose. We,
as readers, discover the underpinnings of his revolutionary stance and his perceived need to make a
difference in a South America that has resited change for so long that it has sacrificed generations of
people to its internal tensions. The entry is revolutionary, starkly political and highlights that catalysts
come at times in our lives when we are most vulnerable to prepare us for change. Discovery here cannot
be planned; it must be appropriated from experience. The lessons learned of humanity’s inability to
adjust, accommodate and appreciate each other are a damning indictment on the way in which, despite
history, we have not learned the deficits of discovery and will live in a world that continues to deal with
its paradoxical ramifications and benefits.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives metaphor
verbs political rhetoric
juxtaposition euphemism
contrast repetition
historical context foreshadowing
compound complex sentences

Discuss discovery in terms of:

reality
truth
consequences
confronting ideas
curiosity
speculation
political context
cultural context
historical context
philosophical context
responsibility
challenge
change

Study Questions

1. This final entry is provocative, highly political, reflects the source and seeds of discontent that
form revolution, of the individual or the soul and of a people. Why has Guevara added this entry?
What discovery does he expose about himself and the impact of this journey?
2. To what extent has this journey been a discovery of self determination?
3. To what extent has this journey been a discovery of the hardiness of the human spirit?
4. To what extent can we, as readers, take on the responsibility towards humanity that Guevara has
discovered and shared?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 48


Appendix

This entry reveals the journey towards becoming a revolutionary that has taken place in the eight years
since this travelogue of discoveries was written. The change in tone and the reflective voice reveals a
politicised annotation on the ways in which the right of passage experience had such a profound affect on
Guevara. We discover the man he becomes; his poetic voice is used effectively to persuade the reader, as
it must have done for so many that stopped to listen and believe in his passion for a changed South
America. We are provoked by this new discovery, how in such a short time we can change in such
revolutionary and revelationary ways. The continued desire to travel further, the levels of inequality
recognised, become powerful reminders of his earlier travels and build on his discovery of himself.

Techniques you could discuss here are:

adjectives – used to construct imagery and jargon


tone political voice
verbs euphemism
simile repetition
juxtaposition and contrast foreshadowing
personification first person
metaphor

Discuss discovery in terms of:

realities
consequences
confronting ideas
curiosity
speculation
political context
cultural context
historical context
philosophical context
responsibility to explore ramifications
loss and culpability

Study Questions

1. In what ways does the appendix draw together the impact of the experiences of the travel diary?
2. To what extent, according to Guevara, does he attribute that experience in terms of having the
opportunity to see firsthand a continent of such varied wealth and poverty?
3. Do we all have to have to undergo such a life changing journey to discover our place in the world?
4. What impact did the poverty have on Guevara?
5. What impact did hunger have on Guevara?
6. What impact did Alberto Granado have on Guevara?
7. What impact has Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara had on you?
8. What have you discovered?
9. Have you discovered a revolutionary humanist inside yourself?

© Pamela Cohen The Cohen Curricula Page 49


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