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# Nyquist / Haghighi ABE 601

ANSYS Tutorial
Performing a Fatigue Analysis

A flat leaf spring has been machined from AISI 1050 steel cold-drawn steel (Young’s Modulus is 210
GPa, Poisson’s ratio is 0.3, Yield Strength is 580 MPa and the Ultimate Strength is 690 MPa).

1 cm

Four load cases are applied to the two corners of the free end of the spring:
a. 50 N at each corner. The time at the end of the load step is 10 seconds.
b. -50 N at each corner. The time at the end of the load step is 20 seconds.
c. 74.5 N at each corner. The time at the end of the load step is 30 seconds.
d. -74.5 N at each corner. The time at the end of the load step is 40 seconds.

## Number of Cycles, N Fatigue Strength, Sf

< 103 0.9Su
( 0.9Su )
2
3 6 −(1/ 3) log ( 0.9 Su / Se )
10 to 10 N
Se
6
> 10 Se

where Su is the ultimate strength and Se is the endurance limit (fatigue limit). Assume the ratio Se/Su is
equal to 0.6.

## The events to be used in the analysis are:

No. No. Repetitions Factor
1 1 50 N Load 500,000 1
1 2 -50 N Load 500,000 1
2 1 74.5 N Load 5,000 1
2 2 -74.5 N Load 5,000 1

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Nyquist / Haghighi ABE 601

The following is the step-by-step procedure for the beam deflection problem using the ANSYS GUI
(Graphic User Interface) environment. Using the left button of the mouse, click on everything that is
typed bold and type everything that is italicized below.

Preprocessor
Element Type
Structural & Solid & Quad 4 node 42 & OK

Material Props
Material Models
Structural
Linear
Elastic
Isotropic
EX = 210e5
PRXY = 0.3 & OK

Modeling
Create
Areas
Rectangle
By Dimensions
(Click X1 box) 0 (Click X2 box) 60
(Click Y1box) 0 (Click Y2 box) 1 & OK

Meshing
Mesh Tool
Click on the Lines Set button
Pick lines 2 & 4 & Apply
NDIV = 4
SPACE = -2 & Apply
Pick lines 1 & 3 & Apply
NDIV = 30
SPACE = -2 & OK

## Click the Mesh Button

Pick All & OK

Solution
Analysis Type
New Analysis
Choose Transient & OK & OK

Sol’n Controls
Basic Tab
Time at end of loadstep: 10

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Nyquist / Haghighi ABE 601

Transient Tab

Apply
Structural
Displacement
On Lines
Pick line 4 & OK
Select All DOFs
Displacement Value = 0 & OK

Force/Moment
On Keypoints
Pick keypoints 2 & 3 & OK
Direction of Force/Moment: FY
Force/Moment Value: 50 & OK

Write LS File
Load step file number n: 1 & OK

Analysis Type
Sol’n Controls
Basic Tab
Time at end of loadstep: 20 & OK

Delete
Structural
Force/Moment
On Keypoints
Pick All & OK

Apply
Structural
Force/Moment
On Keypoints
Pick keypoints 2 & 3 & OK
Direction of Force/Moment: FY
Force/Moment Value: -50 & OK

Write LS File
Load step file number n: 2 & OK

Analysis Type
Sol’n Controls
Basic Tab
Time at end of loadstep: 30 & OK

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Nyquist / Haghighi ABE 601

Delete
Structural
Force/Moment
On Keypoints
Pick All & OK

Apply
Structural
Force/Moment
On Keypoints
Pick keypoints 2 & 3 & OK
Direction of Force/Moment: FY
Force/Moment Value: 74.5 & OK

Write LS File
Load step file number n: 3 & OK

Analysis Type
Sol’n Controls
Basic Tab
Time at end of loadstep: 40 & OK

Delete
Structural
Force/Moment
On Keypoints
Pick All & OK

Apply
Structural
Force/Moment
On Keypoints
Pick keypoints 2 & 3 & OK
Direction of Force/Moment: FY
Force/Moment Value: -74.5 & OK

Write LS File
Load step file number n: 4 & OK
Solve
From LS Files
Starting LS file number: 1
Ending LS file number: 4
File number increment: 1 & OK

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Nyquist / Haghighi ABE 601

General Postproc
By Pick
Select Set 1 & Read & Close

## Definitions used in performing a fatigue analysis:

Location: a node in the model for which fatigue stresses are to be stored.
Event: a set of stress conditions that occur at different times during a unique stress cycle.
Loading: one of the stress conditions that is part of an event.

General Postproc
Fatigue

Property Table
S-N Table
(Click N1) 10 (Click S1) 62.1e3
(Click N2) 1000 (Click S2) 62.0e3
(Click N3) 10000 (Click S3) 51.2e3
(Click N4) 100000 (Click S4) 42.2e3
(Click N5) 1000000 (Click S5) 34.8e3

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Nyquist / Haghighi ABE 601

Stress Locations
NLOC = 1
NODE = 65 (node along the surface at the fixed end of the beam
TITLE = Fixed End & Apply

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Nyquist / Haghighi ABE 601

NLOC = 2
NODE = 54 (node along the surface in the middle of the beam)
TITLE = Middle & Apply

NLOC = 1
NODE = 32 (node along the surface at the free end of the beam)
TITLE = Free End & OK

Store Stresses
From rst File
NODE: 65
Event: 1

NODE: 54
Event: 1

NODE: 32
Event: 1

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Nyquist / Haghighi ABE 601

By Pick
Select Set 2 & Read & Close

Fatigue
Store Stresses
From rst File
NODE: 65
Event: 1

NODE: 54
Event: 1

NODE: 32
Event: 1

By Pick
Select Set 3 & Read & Close

Fatigue
Store Stresses
From rst File
NODE: 65
Event: 2

NODE: 54
Event: 2

NODE: 32
Event: 2

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Nyquist / Haghighi ABE 601

By Pick
Select Set 4 & Read & Close

Fatigue
Store Stresses
From rst File
NODE: 65
Event: 2

NODE: 54
Event: 2

NODE: 32
Event: 2

Assign Events
NEV = 1
CYCLE = 500000
TITLE = Load 1 & Apply

NEV = 2
CYCLE = 5000
TITLE = Load 2 & OK

## Calculate Fatig & OK

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Nyquist / Haghighi ABE 601

Results:

## Location: 1 Node 65 at the fixed end.

The combination of event 2, load 1 and event 2, load 2 produces an alternating stress intensity of
55744 N/cm2. The spring was subjected to 5000 cycles while from the S-N Table, the maximum
number of cycles allowed at that stress intensity is 3595. The partial usage value, 1.39063, is the ratio
of cycles used/cycles allowed.

The combination of event 1, load 1 and event 1, load 2 produces an alternating stress intensity of
37412 N/cm2. The spring was subjected to 500,000 cycles while from the S-N Table, the maximum
number of cycles allowed at that stress intensity is 421,300. The partial usage value, 1.18669, is the
ratio of cycles used/cycles allowed.

The Cumulative Fatigue Usage value is sum of the partial usage factors (Miner’s rule).

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Nyquist / Haghighi ABE 601

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