You are on page 1of 44

Las informaciones y conceptos expresados en las conferencias de la

RC 2016 se hacen con el propósito de divulgar e informar de manera


general sobre los temas relacionados con el cemento, concreto y
prefabricados.

ASOCRETO no es ni pretende ser asesor de proyectos específicos.


Cualquier duda en relación con obras específicas debe ser consultada
por el interesado con los diseñadores e interventores de la respectiva
obra.

El uso que se haga de las informaciones y conceptos aquí expresados


no conllevan responsabilidad alguna para ASOCRETO ni para los
conferencistas, ya que debe ser utilizada por personas idóneas bajo su
responsabilidad y criterio. Esta información no sustituye las funciones
y obligaciones de las personas contractualmente responsables de la
concepción, ejecución y vigilancia de los respectivos proyectos. Los
conceptos expresados no son asesoría para una obra en particular.

DISEÑO SÍSMICO DE ANCLAJES
ADHESIVOS EN APLICACIONES
ESTRUCTURALES Y NO ESTRUCTURALES

Catherine Moulinier
Hilti Latín América
Francia
Seismic design for anchoring
with adhesive anchors
in structural and non-structural applica7ons

Catherine Moulinier
Technical marke2ng
Hil2 La2n America

Colombia
September 2016
Agenda
•  Anchors in seismic

•  Approved anchors

•  Anchor qualifica2on (including in seismic)

•  Anchor design

•  Recommenda2on for anchor specifica2on

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 5


Seismicity in Colombia
•  87% of the Colombian popula2on lives in a medium or high seismic zone

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 6


Code and regula7on
•  NSR-10, refers to ACI 318-08 •  Ley N° 400 & Decreto 926

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 7


Many applica7ons
Only seismically designed structures as well as all construc2on elements can
ensure safety
•  Structural anchoring connec2ons are vital to ensure that the structure
responds to a seismic event in a proper, predictable manner.
•  Non-structural elements are o[en either poorly detailed or decisions are
le[ to the jobsite which pose major threat to the inhabitants.

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 8


Anchoring applica7ons
Anchors are used in many applica2ons and shall be detailed wisely
Plumbing Racking Structural steel

Façades U7li7es Post-installed rebar

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 9


Agenda
•  Anchors in seismic

•  Approved anchors

•  Anchor qualifica2on (including in seismic)

•  Anchor design

•  Recommenda2on for anchor specifica2on

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 10


Why research is important?

•  How to generate sound technical pre-qualifica2ons to ensure safety?

Basic Codes & Customer /


Approvals
Research Regulations Application

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 11


Research Network Large scale seismic testing
E-Defense (2009)

7-Story building BNCS (2012)


(2006)

Large scale seismic testing

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 12


Methodology
Building Anchor load and crack test protocols

Sub-system

Parameter extrac2on and sta2s2cs

Ground mo2on selec2on

Nonlinear building Building Sub-system Sub-system


simula2on response simula2on response

Ground mo2on afloor aequipment


scaling

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 13


Full scale test
•  BNCS large scale test aims to becer know the seismic response of non-
structural components

BI

FB

BI = base-isolated ;
FB = fixed-base

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 14


Denali Alaska, M 7.9

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 15


Clear link between load, displacement & cracks
40.0 1.0

20.0
Anchor loading 0.8
Wcr 1
Concrete cracks

Crack Width [mm]


Wcr 2
Anchor Load [kN]

0.6 Wcr 3
0.0 Wcr 4
0.4

20.0
Anchor 2 Anchor 4 0.2
Anchor 1 Anchor 3
40.0 0.0
9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
10.0
Time [s] Time [s]
9.0
Anchor Displacement [mm]

8.0
7.0
Anchor 1
Anchor 2
Anchor displacement
6.0 Anchor 3
5.0 Anchor 4
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
Time History
Time [s]
30.0 9.00
8.00
Loa d
Correla7on load / displacement / concrete cracks 7.00

Displacement [mm]
Displ acement
Crack Wid th
20.0 6.00
Load [kN]

5.00
4.00
10.0 3.00
2.00
1.00
0.0 0.00
8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
Tim e [s]

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 16


Transparency with approvals
•  Approvals are the only way to provide transparent and reliable
informa2on
•  Unfortunately s2ll happens that companies publish resistance values in
their manuals that do not correspond to the real performance

M12

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P
Various sleeved expansion anchors available in the market
27/09/16 Seismic anchors 17
Agenda
•  Anchors in seismic

•  Approved anchors

•  Anchor qualifica2on (including in seismic)

•  Anchor design

•  Recommenda2on for anchor specifica2on

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 18


US code landscape
ICC ACI
Interna7onal Code American Concrete
Council Ins7tute

IBC 2015 ACI 318-14


Chapter 17
ICC - ES “design requirements for anchors”
Evalua2on Services

AC 193 AC 308 ACI 355.2 ACI 355.4


“Mechanical “Adhesive “Mechanical “Adhesive
Anchors” Anchors” Anchors” Anchors”

Acceptance criteria Testing program

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 19


Performance in cracks
•  Earthquake clearly lead to concrete cracks that significantly change the
anchor load transfer
•  As a cracks intersect the anchor the load transfer will be changed due to
an unsymmetrical distribu2on of the anchor loads.

crack plane

Uncracked concrete Cracked concrete

Anchor’s aptness to perform in cracks is a star7ng point for seismic

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 20


Specific tests to assess seismic performance
•  Specific tests are required to assess the suitability of anchors under
seismic loading since they will need to cope with:

Load cycling Concrete crack cycling

Crack width
Shear

à  Very wide cracks


Tension

(above sta2c loads)

A sound and standardized qualifica7on process is required

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 21


US code landscape for tes7ng and evalua7on
ICC ACI
Interna7onal Code American Concrete
Council Ins7tute

IBC 2015 ACI 318-14


Chapter 17
ICC - ES “design requirements for anchors”
Evalua2on Services

AC 193 AC 308 ACI 355.2 ACI 355.4


“Mechanical “Adhesive “Mechanical “Adhesive
Anchors” Anchors” Anchors” Anchors”

Acceptance criteria Testing program

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 22


Robustness and performance of anchor
1st : Robustness 2nd : Performance
“what’s checked on the background” “what you see in the approval”

Service condi7ons Design resistances


•  Concrete condi2ons (low/high •  Resistance values for all tension and
strength, un-cracked vs. cracked) shear failure modes
•  Durability and sensi2vity (e.g. •  Different load types (e.g. seismic)
temperature, chemical acack)
•  Correspondent safety factors

Installa7on devia7ons Installa7on boundaries


•  Sensi2vity to reduced installa2on •  Min. concrete thickness and edge
efforts (e.g. torque, cleaning) and spacing distances
•  Note: gross errors not covered •  Min. installa2on torque
•  General installa2on guidance

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 23


Ability to perform in cracks need to be
tested
Load (KN) Wedge anchor tes7ng
Conclusions
Un-cracked concrete
Wedges can not be
Cracked concrete assessed by shape
Crack width 0.5mm

Double wedge anchors are


Service failure not beYer
à Not approved for
cracked concrete

Anchor displacement (mm)

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 24


Robustness and performance of anchor
1st : Robustness 2nd : Performance
“what’s checked on the background” “what you see in the approval”

Service condi7ons Design resistances


•  Concrete condi2ons (low/high •  Resistance values for all tension and
strength, un-cracked vs. cracked) shear failure modes
•  Durability and sensi2vity (e.g. •  Different load types (e.g. seismic)
temperature, chemical acack)
•  Correspondent safety factors

Installa7on devia7ons Installa7on boundaries


•  Sensi2vity to reduced installa2on •  Min. concrete thickness and edge
efforts (e.g. torque, cleaning) and spacing distances
•  Note: gross errors not covered •  Min. installa2on torque
•  General installa2on guidance

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 25


Importance of cleaning for chemical anchors
•  During the approval process tests are done with reduced clearing to
check the robustness of the chemical anchor system

Mortar
Ultimate resistance
Threaded Rod

Load [kN]
Concrete

With hole cleaning

Mortar + Dust
Threaded Rod
Concrete

Improper hole cleaning


Displacement [mm]

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 26


Robustness and performance of anchor
1st : Robustness 2nd : Performance
“what’s checked on the background” “what you see in the approval”

Service condi7ons Design resistances


•  Concrete condi2ons (low/high •  Resistance values for all tension and
strength, un-cracked vs. cracked) shear failure modes
•  Durability and sensi2vity (e.g. •  Different load types (e.g. seismic)
temperature, chemical acack)
•  Correspondent safety factors

Installa7on devia7ons Installa7on boundaries


•  Sensi2vity to reduced installa2on •  Min. concrete thickness and edge
efforts (e.g. torque, cleaning) and spacing distances
•  Note: gross errors not covered •  Min. installa2on torque
•  General installa2on guidance

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 27


Seismic test in tension
•  It simulates earthquake load cycling in 0.5 mm crack
•  The service condi2on test #12 deals with tension

Pulsa7ng tension tests

Ns = 50%Nu

Ni = 1/2(Ns-Nm)+Nm
Nm = 25%Nu

∆w= 0.5mm 10 30 100 cycles

Note: for sta2c approval crack width 0.3mm

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 28


Seismic test in shear
•  It simulates earthquake load cycling in 0.5 mm crack
•  The service condi2on test #13 deals with shear

Alterna7ng shear tests


Vs= 50%Vu

Vi = 1/2(Vs-Vm)+Vm

Vm= 25%Vu

cycles
10
100
∆w= 0.5mm 30

Note: for sta2c approval crack width 0.3mm

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 29


Robustness and performance of anchor
1st : Robustness 2nd : Performance
“what’s checked on the background” “what you see in the approval”

Service condi7ons Design resistances


•  Concrete condi2ons (low/high •  Resistance values for all tension and
strength, un-cracked vs. cracked) shear failure modes
•  Durability and sensi2vity (e.g. •  Different load types (e.g. seismic)
temperature, chemical acack)
•  Correspondent safety factors

Installa7on devia7ons Installa7on boundaries


•  Sensi2vity to reduced installa2on •  Min. concrete thickness and edge
efforts (e.g. torque, cleaning) and spacing distances
•  Note: gross errors not covered •  Min. installa2on torque
•  General installa2on guidance

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 30


Resistance may vary
a lot with installa7on parameters
•  Minimum base material thickness, edge and spacing distances ensure
splirng is precluded during installa2on. Installa2on torque is very much
linked to this values above.
•  Various serng details are also given, for example the drilling diameters,
embedment depths, cleaning effort…

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 31


Agenda
•  Anchors in seismic

•  Approved anchors

•  Anchor qualifica2on (including in seismic)

•  Anchor design

•  Recommenda2on for anchor specifica2on

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 32


US code landscape for design
ICC ACI
Interna7onal Code American Concrete
Council Ins7tute

IBC 2015 ACI 318-14


Chapter 17
ICC - ES “design requirements for anchors”
Evalua2on Services

AC 193 AC 308 ACI 355.2 ACI 355.4


“Mechanical “Adhesive “Mechanical “Adhesive
Anchors” Anchors” Anchors” Anchors”

Acceptance criteria Testing program

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 33


Mechanical anchors strength design
for post-installed anchors
N : TENSION failure modes
Rd

Steel Pullout Breakout Spli`ng

VRd : SHEAR failure modes for post-installed anchors Interac7on


between tension
Steel Edge Pryout and shear (N & V)

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 34


Chemical anchors strength design
for post-installed anchors
N : TENSION failure modes
Rd

Steel Bond Breakout Spli`ng

VRd : SHEAR failure modes for post-installed anchors Interac7on


between tension
Steel Edge Pryout and shear (N & V)

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 35


Three design approaches
•  To avoid any sudden failure of the connec2on 3 different design
approaches are given
- Duc7le anchor 17.2.3.4.3(a) / 17.2.3.5.3(a)
•  Anchors must fulfill the duc2lity requirements and
steel failure must govern the anchor resistance

- Capacity Design 17.2.3.4.3(b) / 17.2.3.5.3(b)


•  Anchors must resist to the load corresponding to
the yielding of the fixture

- Elas7c design 17.2.3.4.3(d) / 17.2.3.5.3(c)


•  Anchors must resist to the load resul2ng from an
elas2c seismic design

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 36


Characteris7c seismic resistance
defined in ACI 318-14 Chapter 17
Characteris7c resistance: ICC-ES Report values Calculated
Rk,seis (ESR) ACI 318 Chapter 17

Steel φNsa -
TENSION

Pull-out * 0.75φNeq
Concrete cone - 0.75φNcbg

Steel φVeq -
SHEAR

Pry-out - 0.75φVcpg
Concrete edge - 0.75φVcbg
* Chemical anchors: “combined pull-out and cone concrete”. Bond value shall be used with regular expressions

0.75φ… No annular gaps…


considers the concrete extensive Shear resistances valid with the
cracking and the skater in the load- assumption of no annular gaps between
displacement of the different anchors anchor and fixture

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 37


Anchor design professional
sogware from manufacturer
•  The easiest way to ensure a correctly done seismic design with a clear
design report.

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 38


Agenda
•  Anchors in seismic

•  Approved anchors

•  Anchor qualifica2on (including in seismic)

•  Anchor design

•  Recommenda2on for anchor specifica2on

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 39


Anchor specifica7on
Mechanical anchor
Type of anchor, designa2on, size,
material, manufacturer, embedment
depth, total length of the anchor and
reference to the approval


Anclaje de rosca externa KB-TZ 3/4, de
acero galvanizado de Hil2 con 97 mm
de empotramiento y 3 1/4 de longitud
instalado según ESR-1917

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 40


Anchor specifica7on
Chemical anchor
Type of anchor, designa2on,
manufacturer with anchoring
elements, designa2on, size,
embedment depth, total length of the
element, drilling method and
reference to the approval

Resina de inyección HIT-HY 200 de
Hil2 con varilla roscada HAS 3/4 de
Acero galvanizado, con 89 mm de
empotramiento, 125 mm de longitud,
instalado mediante Barreno con
rotomar2llo, según ESR-3187

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 41


Example of a good specifica7on for seismic
bracing fastening

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 42


Example of a good specifica7on for seismic
bracing fastening

27/09/16 Seismic anchors 43


Thank you for your acen2on!

Catherine Moulinier
Technical marke2ng
Hil2 La2n America

Colombia
September 2016