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String Matching

We formalize the string-matching problem as follows. Given a text array, T[1 . . n], of n character and a pattern array,

P[1 . . m], of m characters. The problem is to find an integer s, called valid shift where 0 s < n-m and T[s+1 . . .

s+m] = P[1 . . m]. In other words, to find whether P in T i.e., whether P is a substring of T.

The naïve approach simple test all the possible placement of Pattern P[1 . . m] relative to text T[1 . . n]. Specifically,

we try shift s = 0, 1, . . . , n-m, successively and for each shift, s. Compare T[s+1 . . s+m] to P[1 . . m]

NAÏVE_STRING_MATCHER (T, P)

1. n ← length [T]

2. m ← length [P]

3. for s ← 0 to n-m do

4. if P[1 . . m] = T[s+1 . . s+m]

5. then return valid shift s

Q. Write an algorithm for naïve string matcher? What is its worst case complexity? Show the

comparisons the naïve string matcher makes for the pattern P=0001 in the text

T=000010001010001

@2008-09 Shankar Thawkar , Sr. Lect. IT dept.

2) Rabin-Karp Algorithm

1. 2.

Rabin-

Rabin-Karp Algorithm …

Key idea:

The pattern P[1..m] as a key, transform (hash) How to compute p?

it into an equivalent integer p

p = 2m-1 P[0] + 2m-2 P[1] + … + 2 P[m-

P[m-2] + P[m-

P[m-

Similarly, we transform substrings in the text 1]

string T[] into integers

For s=0,1,…,n

s=0,1,…,n-m, transform T[s+1..s+m] to an

equivalent integer ts Using horner’s rule

The pattern occurs at position s if and only if

p=t

p=ts

If we compute p and ts quickly, then the

pattern matching problem is reduced to

This takes O(m) time, assuming each arithmetic operation

comparing p with n-

n-m+1 integers can be done in O(1) time.

3. 4.

Upper limits

How it works

Problem

For long patterns, or for large alphabets, the number

Hash pattern P into a numeric value representing a given string may be too large to be practical

Solution

Let a string be represented by the sum of Use MOD operation

these digits Let q be a prime number so that 2q can be stored in one

Horner’

Horner’s rule (§

(§ 30.1) computer word.

Example

Example

BAN = 1 + 0 + 13 = 14

{ A, B, C, ..., Z } → { 0, 1, 2, ..., } 14 mod q = 1

BAN → 1 + 0 + 13 = 14 14 mod 13 = 1

BAN → 1

CARD → 2 + 0 + 17 + 3 = 22 CARD = 2 + 0 + 17 + 3 = 22

22 mod 13 = 9

CARD → 9

@2008-09 Shankar Thawkar , Sr. Lect. IT dept.

How it Works • if the hash values match, the strings might not match

Once we use the modulo arithmetic, when p=t p=ts and in those cases we have the spurious hits .

for some s, we can no longer be sure that P[1 ..

M] is equal to T[s+1 .. S+ m ]

Therefore, after the equality test p = ts, we

should compare P[1..m] with T[s+1..s+m]

character by character to ensure that we really

have a match.

So the worst-

worst-case running time becomes O(nm),

O(nm),

but it avoids a lot of unnecessary string

matchings in practice.

2: hs = hash(T[1::m]) i.e. ts

3: for s = 0 to n - m do

4: if hs = hsub then

5: if T[s+1.. S+m] = P then

6: print “Pattern occurs with shift” i

7: hs = hash(T[i + 1..i + m])

Q. Write a rabin-karp algo for string matching. Given working modulo q=11.how may spurious hits does the rabin

karp matcher encountered in the Text T=3151592653589793 when looking for pattern P=26.

p= P mod q p= 26 mod 11 = 4 The find ts for the text T as ts= 31 mod 11 , ts+1= 15 mod 11

3 1 5 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 8 9 7 9 3

9 3 8 4 4 4 4 10 9 2 3 1 9 2

Spurious

@2008-09 Shankar Thawkar , Sr. Lect. IT dept.

The Knuth-

Knuth-Morris-

Morris-Pratt (KMP) algorithm If a mismatch occurs between the text and

looks for the pattern in the text in a left-

left-to-

to- pattern P at P[ j ], what is the most we can

right order (like the brute force algorithm). shift the pattern to avoid wasteful

comparisons?

But it shifts the pattern more intelligently

than the brute force algorithm. Answer:

Answer: the largest prefix of P[0 .. j-

j-1] that

is a suffix of P[1 .. j-

j-1]

continued

Example

i

T:

P: j=5

jnew = 2

The KMP algorithm preprocess the pattern P by computing a prefix function that indicates the largest possible shift

s using previously performed comparisons. Specifically, the prefix function (q) is defined as the length of the

longest prefix of P .

1. m=length[P]

2. [1]=0

3. k=0

4. for q=2 to m

5. while k>0 and P[k+1]<> P[q]

@2008-09 Shankar Thawkar , Sr. Lect. IT dept. 4

@2008-09 Shankar Thawkar , Sr. Lect. IT dept.

6. k=[k]

7. if P[k+1]=P[q] then

8. k=k+1

9. [q]=k

Note that the prefix function for P, which maps q to the length of the longest prefix of P that is a suffix of P[1 . . q],

encodes repeated substrings inside the pattern itself.

As an example, consider the pattern P = a b b a b a . The prefix function, using above algorithm is

q 1 2 3 4 5 6

P[q] a b b a b a

(q) 0 0 0 1 2 1

Analysis

The running time of Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm is proportional to the time needed to read the characters in text and

pattern. In other words, the worst-case running time of the algorithm is O(m+n) and it requires O(m) extra space. It is

important to note that these quantities are independent of the size of the underlying alphabet.

function. Calculate the prefix function for the patter – a b b a b a [ Ans : shown in above

prefix example.]

@2008-09 Shankar Thawkar , Sr. Lect. IT dept.

@2008-09 Shankar Thawkar , Sr. Lect. IT dept.

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