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ENGINEERING MATERIALS

CHAPTER 6.0 TIMBER


(IMP FOR 15 MARKS)

Prepared By:
Er. Pramesh Hada
M.E Urban Planning
B.E Civil Engg (Asst. Professor),
Civil Engineering Dept.
Nepal Engineering College
TIMBER
 Sources of Timber
 Types of Timber

 Structure of Exogenous Plants

 Characteristics of Common Timber trees

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 Physical & Mechanical Properties of Timber
Strength Along & Perpendicular to the grain
 Seasoning of Timber
 Defects in Wood

 Wood Based Products – Veneer, Plywood,


Boards,Laminated Boards.
TIMBER
•Is one of the important construction materials.
•Used as structural elements in buildings, widely for
doors, windows and partitions and find large use through
secondary wood products like plywood, particle boards
and laminated boards, etc.

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•Wood Which is useful for engineering or Other
structural Purpose is called “Timber”
•Mostly uses timber – plywood,Posts et. in Formwork in
RCC,RBC etc.
•Both hard as well as soft woods are in use.
TIMBER
• When tree has been cut down and its stem and branches are
roughly converted into pieces of suitable length, then it is
known as Rough Timber.
• When roughly converted timber is further sawn and
converted into commercialized the planks,battens, posts etc is
called converted Timber.

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(Planks – board,plyboard,woodboards),
(battens-Partition, Roofing, something to hold)
 Mostly Timber used in load bearing
structure is called structural timber
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Er. Pramesh Hada, Asst. Professor, civil
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Er. Pramesh Hada, Asst. Professor, civil
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Er. Pramesh Hada, Asst. Professor, civil
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Er. Pramesh Hada, Asst. Professor, civil
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PROPERTIES OF TIMBER/WOOD
Physical Properties :
1. Density
- light — very light: density less than 550 kg/m3, eg.
bamboo
- moderately heavy: density 550 kg/m3 — 750 kg/m3, eg.
deodar
- heavy-very heavy: density greater than 750 kg/m3, eg. Sal

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2. Bulk Density - Defined as the mass of many particles of the material
divided by the total volume they occupy.
- Depends on air voids present in wood.

3. Moisture Movement
- Wood is liable to shrink or swell with the movement of
moisture. (increase or decrease)
4. Shrinkage :
- Is a Reduction in linear and volumetric dimension due to
drying of moisture.
PROPERTIES OF TIMBER/WOOD
5. Swelling (Increase in size)
- It is increase in linear and volumetric dimension on
absorbing moisture.
6. Sound conductivity

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- Has high Sound Conductivity
- Sound velocity in wood is greater than others.

7. Thermal Conductivity
- Has very low thermal conductivity.
- so uses for maintain heat temperature in rooms.
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MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF
TIMBER/WOOD:
 As wood is natural material there is different
mechanical properties for different wood
 Mechanical properties are governed by soil type,
climate and other factors.

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 Properties affected by specific gravity, moisture
content, knots and other defects.
 Wood can’t resist fire and burnt easily.

 It will be better to take precautions to save timber


structure from thermal action
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TIMBER (PU 2010)
 Uniform color, strong, durable and workable
 Straight and compacted fibers

 Fresh cut surface : sweet smelling

 Struck: clear ringing sound

 Relatively heavier

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 Free from all types of defects and disease of timber like
knots.
 Planning surface: bright appearance with silky.

 Sawing: Cut with a saw - not clogging (clogging -Become


or cause to become obstructed)
 Firm adhesion of fibers and compacted medullary rays

 Well seasoned
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Defects of Timber

Sawing
Fibers in timber
ADVANTAGES OF TIMBER: (PU 2011)
 availability: source and transportation
 strength: light weight and higher strength
 easy to handle and planed easily
 joining: simple
Repair and Modification: Easy

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 superior, thermal insulation, sound and electrical resistive


 uses: furniture and decorative purpose
 strong and flexible
 corrosion resistance: excellent
 higher shock and impact strength .
 Quick and easy to build.
 Cheaper than other types of building materials.
 Easy to heat and cool depending on the weather.
 More eco-friendly than other materials
 Can last many years if proper maintenance is carried out.
USES OF TIMBER
It is mainly used for following categories of works
(i) It is used for construction purposes including building
construction, houseposts, beams, rafters, bridges, piles,
poles etc.
(ii) It is used for furniture and cabinet making.

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(iii) Used for door and window frames.
iv) Uses for Formwork, scaffolding etc,
iv) It is also used for heavy packing cases such as
machinery and similar stores.
(v) It is used for manufacturing agricultural implements
and tool handles.
(vii) It is used for manufacturing veneers, plywoods,
boards etc.
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SCAFFOLDING
HOUSEPOSTS
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DISADVANTAGES OF TIMBER: (PU2011)
 Defects in timber can reduce the life of wood.
 Affected by relative humidity, fungi, insects.

 Modification of general arrangement drawings if based


on masonry construction

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 Transportation and carriage access

 Exposure to weather before enclosed

 vulnerability to decay of timber when exposed to


excessive moisture.
 If left untreated, timber become water logged and
crack or chip.
 Timber is more susceptible to fire than other building
materials unless treated and maintained.
TYPES OF TIMBER/WOOD
 Wood is a product obtained from the tree.
 In simple classification of tree, it can be classified as:

1. Standing timber - if a tree is living then the timber is


termed as Standing Timber.

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2. Rough timber - if a tree is fallen then the timber is
termed as Rough timber.
3. Converted timber - If a tree is modified into desired
size and shape then the timber is termed as Converted
timber.

on the basis of mode of growth , the types of trees are :


1. Endogenous Tree
2. Exogenous Tree
1. ENDOGENOUS TREE
 Trees grow in inward direction with the addition of fibrous (like
of jute) layer at tip portion, i.e the growth is longitudinal.
 Trees are hollow at the core and have flexible stem.
e.g- Bambo, coconut, Sugarcane etc.
 For construction purpose only bamboo can be used.
 Are very flexible due to which they are not generally used for

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construction material.
2. EXOGENOUS TREE
 Trees increase in bulk by growing outwards and distinct
consecutive rings are formed in the horizontal section of such
trees.
 These rings are called annual rings, because one such ring added
every year, such trees grow bigger in diameter as well.
 Life of trees can be find by counting the annual rings.
e.g – Sisham, Sal, Pine etc.
 Timber from these suitable for construction purpose
These are further classified as
1. Deciduous tree 2. Coniferous tree
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EXOGENOUS TREE
Deciduous tree
 Are characterized by flat and broad
leaves which fall in autumn season and
new one appear in spring season
 HARD WOOD is obtained by such tree
which can be used for superior structural

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and engineering work.
e.g – Sal, Sisham, Teak etc.
Coniferous tree
Trees are characterized by needle
shaped thin leaves which are evergreen
Trees bear conical shaped fruits and
yield resins ( viscous substance )
 SOFT VARIETY OF WOODS are obtained
Used is general constructional purpose
- e. g Pine, deodar etc.
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Coniferous Tress

Deciduous Tress
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HARD WOOD AND SOFT
WOOD (CHARACTERISTICS)

Aspects hard wood soft wood


(Deciduous) (Coniferous)
Annual rings Indistinct Clearly distinct
Medullary rays Distinct indistinct

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Color Dark Light
Strength Strong: tens, comp, shear Strong: direct pull
Weak: shear
Structure Non resinous Resinous and split easily

Weight Heavy Light


Uses Structural purpose Aesthetic and light structural
purpose
Sources Deciduous Conifers/evergreen trees
Branches Less branches More branches
Example Sal, teak, deodar, shisam Pine, chir, kail etc
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SISHAM TREES
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SAL TREE
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TEAK WOOD
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PINE TREES
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DEODAR TREES
STRUCTURE OF A EXOGENEOUS TREE (PU 2009,2010)

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• Pith/Medulla/Core
•Heart wood
•Sap wood
•Cambium Layer
•Inner Bark
•Outer Bark
•Medullary rays (Pit Rays)
STRUCTURE OF A EXOGENEOUS TREE
Pith/ medulla/core:
 It is first formed portion of trees.
 It consist entirely cellular tissues and nourishes the
plant in young age.
 It is found as dead part of the trees incase of
matured trees and decayed.

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Annual rings:
 Grows extra layer around the circumference of the trees
per year

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 Circular concentric rings
 Each rings indicates the age of tree in year
Heart wood:
 Annual rings around the pith at the innermost central
portion of the tree section
 Strong, durable and compact part of trees
 Darker in color
 Best part of trees in engineering views
 Imparts rigidity to the trees
STRUCTURE OF A EXOGENEOUS TREE
Sap wood:
 Outer annual rings between heart wood and the cambium layer
 Light in color and weight as well
 Indicates recent growth and contains sap
(Sap = A watery solution of sugars, salts, and minerals that circulates
through the vascular system of a plant )
 Annual rings of sap wood are less sharply defined in comparison to

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heart wood
Cambium layer:
 Thin layer of sap between sap wood and inner bark
Inner bark:
 Inner layer covering the cambium layer
 Protect cambium layer from any injury
Outer bark:
 A protective layer, outer skin covering the trees
 Contains cracks and fissures sometimes
Medullary rays: (Pit rays )
 Radial fibers extending from pith to cambium layer
 Hold the annual rings of heart wood and sap wood together
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Resinous wood
DEFECTS IN TIMBER (PU 08,09,10,12,13)
 Defects are either due to growing phases of tree or defect
occurring after cutting trees
 Defects reduce the usefulness of wood as aesthetic
appearance as well as strength
1. Heart Shake
- This defect usually occurs in over matured trees due to

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shrinkage of heart wood
- These cracks are mostly confined to heart wood portion
and diminishing towards outward.
DEFECTS IN TIMBER
2. Star Shake
- It is confined in the outward portion
and diminishing towards center.
- It occurs due to frost action and strong
heat of sun.

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- It is the most serious defect because it
tends to separate single log into small
pieces.

3. Radial Shake
- These are radial cracks extending from
centre towards bark .
- These are similar to star shake but are
irregular and numerous.
- It occurs due to drying of sap or
moisture .
DEFECTS IN TIMBER
4. Cup or Ring Shake
- Is the separation of tissue along annual
rings
- If the shake is whole round the annual
ring then it is called ring shake and if it is
half way round the ring then it is called cup

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shake.
- It is due to unequal seasoning and change
in humidity.

5. Rind Gall
- Is the curved irregular swelling on surface.
- Due to development of new sap layer on
wound left after branches have been
irregularly cut.
- New layer fails to unite with old one and
decay starts from that point
DEFECTS IN TIMBER
6. Knots
- This defect occurs due to formation of annual rings at right
angles to surface and also due to twisting of fibers.
- The roots of the branches yet embedded(Enclosed firmly) by the
tissue and knots are formed

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- Knots reduce the aesthetic value and effects tensile strength
- Knots may be round or oval shaped
DEFECTS IN TIMBER
7. Twisted fibers
- This defect occurs due to wind velocity constantly turning trees in
one direction only.

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8. End Splits
- Occurs only at the ends of log due to exposed conditions during
seasoning.
- May be prevented by painting the ends of log or covering with
metallic cap.
DEFECTS IN TIMBER
9. Druxiness and Foxiness
(Druxiness is a term that is defined as a disease that is
found in timber or wood. It is caused or brought about by
a wound located in the layer known as the cambium
which is attacked by fungus.)

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(Foxiness is caused due to poor ventilation during storage
or due to over maturity of the tree).

- These are stains or patches on the surface of timber


which destroy the appearance and may cause decay
of timber
- Stain may be in form of white patches or mottled
reddish colour.
(stains - A soiled or discolored appearance)
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SEASONING OF TIMBER: (PU 09,10,11)
 Wood is hygroscopic material, dry wood absorbs moisture from
surroundings
 Freshly cut wood may contains more than 50% water in the
form of sap and moisture
 After removal of such water from wood then it can be used in
diff. engineering works

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 Thus drying process of timber is known as seasoning of
timber
 Moisture must be extracted during seasoning under controlled
conditions as nearly as possible at a uniform rate from all parts
of the timber
 If the drying is irregular, the shrinkage of timber will also be
irregular and it will set up internal stresses between the fibers
 Moisture content in wood may be:
 Free moisture: present in cell cavities (major part)
 Bound moisture: present in cell wall ( associated with the body of
timber)
o Free moisture/ water evaporated first and the point at which cell
cavities no longer contain free water is known as fiber saturation point.
DIFFERENT OBJECTIVES OF SEASONING ARE:
 Timber to burn readily, if used as fuel
 Decreased the weight of timber: easy handling and
low cost
 Impart hardness, stiffness, strength, better electrical

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resistance. (stiffness - hard to bend)
 To increase resisting power of timber against the
cause of defects
 To maintain the shape and size of the component of
the timber
 To make it fit for painting and other treatment

 For effectively gluing and joining

 To reduce the shrinkage, warping, twisting


(shrinkage - becoming less or smaller)
(Warping - Bend out of shape, as under pressure or from heat)
METHODS OF SEASONING OF TIMBER:
Natural seasoning
Artificial seasoning
Natural seasoning
 Air seasoning/ drying
 Water seasoning

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Air seasoning:
Method used with the timber stacked in the open air. It
requires the following:
 Stacked stable and safely with horizontal or vertical spacing
of at least 25 mm.
 Ends of boards sealed by using a suitable sealer or cover to
prevent too rapid drying out via the end grain.
 The stack raised well clear of the ground, vegetation, etc to
provide good air circulation and free from rising damp, frost,
etc.
 Over head cover from effects of direct sunlight and driving
weather.
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AIR SEASONING:
 This method is economical one
 Takes 2 to 4 years

 Covers more space

 No need of skilled labor

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 Timber can stack either horizontally or vertically
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AIR SEASONING:
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AIR SEASONING:
WATER SEASONING
 Log of wood is kept completely
immerged in stream of water
 Sap, sugar etc are leached out of
wood and replaced by water
 Then log is kept out of water

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after 2 to 4 weeks and placed in
air
 Quick process and also remove
organic matters/ materials
 Elasticity may reduced and
make timber brittle
 Boiling of timber in water is
another rather quick process
 Takes long time to be dried but
less than air seasoning
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Wood logs floating on water kept for
seasoning near echo point at lake
Munnar; Kerala ; India
ARTIFICIAL SEASONING:
This is quick process of seasoning and moisture content
can be controlled.
o Popular method of artificial seasoning is KILN
SEASONING.

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Reason for carrying artificial seasoning are :
 Shrinkage, cracking and warping are minimized

 Drying is controlled and no chances for the attack of


fungi and insects
 Drying surface is even and uniform

 Reduced duration of seasoning

 Desired moisture content can be attainable


(shrinkage – becoming less or smaller)
(warping - Bend out of shape, as under pressure or from heat)
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Artificial kiln seasoning
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KILN SEASONING:
 This process consists basically of introducing heat.
 May be directly, using natural gas and/or electricity or
indirectly, through steam-heated heat exchangers,
although solar energy is also possible.
 In the process, deliberate control of temperature,

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relative humidity and air circulation is provided to give
conditions at various stages (moisture contents or
times) of drying the timber to achieve effective drying.
 Timber is stacked in chambers, called wood drying
kilns, which are fitted with equipment for manipulation
and control of the temperature and the relative
humidity of the drying air and its circulation rate
through the timber stack.
 Provides a means of overcoming the limitations imposed
by erratic(inconsistent) weather conditions.
 Almost all commercial timbers of the world are dried in
industrial kilns.
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KILN SEASONING:
 Advantages of conventional kiln drying include higher
throughput and better control of the final moisture content.
 Conventional kiln and solar drying both enable wood to be
dried to any moisture content regardless of weather
conditions.
For most large-scale drying operations solar and

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conventional kiln drying are more efficient than air drying.
 Compartment-type kilns are most commonly used in timber
companies.
 A compartment kiln is filled with a static batch of timber
through which air is circulated. In these types of kiln, the
timber remains stationary. Drying conditions are
successively varied from time to time in such a way that the
kilns provide control over the entire charge of timber being
dried.
 Method is well suited to the needs of timber companies,
which have to dry timbers of varied species and thickness.
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 Kilns are used because the process speeds up seasoning
and it can be used to accurately control the moisture
content of the wood.
 Wood is carefully stacked inside the brick kiln.
 Water is heated and the resulting steam allowed to enter
the kiln, circulating inside and around the wood boards.
Over time, the amount of steam (humidity) is reduced until
the wood has the desired moisture content.
Compartmental kiln
 A compartment kiln is a single enclosed container or
building, etc.
 Timber is stacked as described above and the whole
stack is seasoned using a program of settings until the
whole stack is reduced to the moisture content

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required.
Progressive:
 A progressive kiln has the stack on trolleys that
‘progressively’ travel through chambers that change
the conditions as it travels through the varying
atmospheres. (trolleys - An wheeled vehicle that runs on rails and is
propelled by electricity)
 The advantage of this system, although much larger,
has a continuous flow of seasoned timber coming off
line.
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Solar kiln
 A solar kiln is a cross between kiln drying and air drying.
These kilns are generally a greenhouse with a high-
temperature fan and either vents or a condensing system.
Solar kilns are slower and variable due to the weather, but
are low cost.
OTHER SEASONING OF TIMBER ARE
Boiling or Steam seasoning

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 Submersion in boiling water or the application of steam
speed the drying of wood. This method is said to cause less
shrinkage "...but it is expensive to use, and reduces the
strength and elasticity of the timber."
Chemical or salt seasoning
 Salt seasoning is the submersion of wood in a solution of
urea, sodium nitrate or sodium chloride, all of which act as
dehydrating agents. Then the wood is air dried.
Electrical seasoning
 Electrical seasoning involves running an electrical current
through the timber causing heat to build up drying the wood.
This method is expensive but is fast and uniform quality.
WOOD BASED PRODUCTS
1. Veneers
 Veneering is the primary process of manufacturing
woods.
 Prepared by slicing and sawing of wood in thin sheets of

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0.4mm to 6mm.
 Are of superior Quality.
 Used in manufacturing ply woods, battens, lamin
boards.
WOOD BASED PRODUCTS
2. Plywood
 Is a manufactured wood panel from the family of
manufactured boards (such as medium-density
fibreboard (MDF), particle board (chipboard), etc.) made
from thin sheets of wood veneer.

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 Prepared by gluing together odd number of veneers with
grain direction of core block at right angle to adjacent
veneer or ply.
 Are used in making partition, furniture, ceiling, doors,
paneling wall, Formworks for concrete.
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PLYWOOD
3. BATTEN BOARD
 Is a solid block with core of sawn thin wood
 The Thickness of core is about 20mm to 25mm

 Total thickness of board is about 50mm

 Is Light and strong

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 Do not crack or split easily

 Uses: partition wall, furniture, shutters, packing case


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4. LAMIN BOARD
 Consist of core of strips each not exceeding 7 mm in
thickness.
 These strips are joined together with two face veneers.

 Lamin board are used for furniture, partition, doors,


windows, ceilings,etc.

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IMPREG TIMBER /IMPREGNATED TIMBER
 Timber which has been made flame-resistant, fungi-
resistant, or insect-proof by forcing into it under
vacuum or pressure a flame retardant or a fungal or
insect poison.

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COMPREG TIMBER
 Processed wood whose cells are impregnated with a resin and
compressed, to reduce shrinking and swelling and to
increase density and strength.
 Compreg is a very special wood composite material with
exquisite mechanical properties.
Compreg indicates that it is both impregnated and

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compressed.
 Used in applications where long durability, hardness, and
dimensional stability is required e.g. gears, rolls and wear
strips of industrial conveyors, woodworking machine tables.
 Regardless of its hardness, it is comparatively easy to
machine, which makes it an excellent choice for
manufacturers of exclusive woodworking products.
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