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DUW1012

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


JUN 2017

Case Study 2

M MANIYARASI A/P MUNUSAMY

MANOSHKUMAAR A/L S
KALAIMANI DANIEL
24DKM17F1157
RAJAN A/L TANASHINGAM
24DKM17F1074
KESAVEN A/L
S.SWAMINATHAN
24DKM17F1099
NESANT A/L MANIMARAN
24DKM17F1161
Car accidents are a common occurrence in Malaysia, especially in the more crowded areas,
such as Klang Valley. In 2016, Malaysia recorded a total of 521,466 car accidents, which was
an increase from the year before when the total amount of car accidents stood at 489,606. The
accident rate in Malaysia is rising and this is concerning.

23-year-old Singaporean dies in car crash in Malaysia after Woodlands Checkpoint

A fatal accident in Johor Baru right after the Malaysian customs, on Saturday, May 20
2017.

SINGAPORE - A 23-year-old Singaporean man died in a car crash on Saturday (May 20) in
Malaysia just after Woodlands Checkpoint.
The man, who The Straits Times understands was living in Malaysia and whose mother is
Malaysian, was declared dead on the scene by Malaysian paramedics, an eyewitness said.
Malaysian police on Saturday confirmed with ST that the man was a Singaporean, Mr
Victor Rubindranraj.
Mr Farid Rosnam, a 30-year-old Singaporean engineer who saw the accident, told ST that it
occurred after 3am on Saturday.
"I was riding my bike when I saw the car pass by. Just about two seconds after going past my
bike, it hit the divider," he said.
The man was flung out of the car and broke his left leg, he said. The car later caught
fire.Malaysian paramedics arrived and declared him dead, said Mr Farid.
The Straits Times saw a crowd of about 50 looking on at about 4.15am. An ambulance and a
fire engine were at the scene.
A woman who said she was Mr Rubindranraj's friend later arrived and was seen crying
there.Pictures of the scene show Mr Rubindranraj's car wrecked and scorched.
He was alone when it happened, said Mr Farid, who said he did not see any other vehicle
involved in the accident.
Mr Farid stayed until 5am before he left, as he wanted to make sure things were alright. He
said he did not see anyone arrested, and said the ambulance left after declaring the man dead.
Man split in half in gruesome accident on Seremban-PD highway

A man was killed when he lost control of his Mitsubishi Lancer, which skidded and crashed
into the road divider at Km20 of the Seremban-Port Dickson highway at 4.45pm
By Bernama - September 23, 2017 @ 8:52am

SEREMBAN: A man was killed when he lost control of his Mitsubishi Lancer, which
skidded and crashed into the road divider at Km20 of the Seremban-Port Dickson highway at
4.45pm yesterday.
The body of N. Ananthan, 27, of Aman Sri Muda, Shah Alam, Selangor was split in two after
he was catapulted from his vehicle.
"Based on initial investigations, the accident is believed to have occurred when the
Mitsubishi Lancer driven by the victim, who was heading to Port Dickson from Seremban,
skidded to the left side of the road and hit the metal road divider.
"The accident caused the victim to be thrown from his vehicle,” Port Dickson District police
chief Supt Zainudin Ahmad said in a statement.
The body was sent to the Port Dickson Hospital for a post-mortem. — BERNAMA
Mother and son die in car-lorry collision

A mother and son were killed in Kampung Sungai Soi here at 4.50 pm on Monday
whenthe car they were travelling in was hit by a 12-tonne lorry carrying soil. –Bernama

KUANTAN: A mother and son were killed in Kampung Sungai Soi here at 4.50 pm
on September 26, 2017, Monday when the car they were travelling in was hit by a 12-tonne
lorry carrying soil.

Kuantan Fire and Rescue operations commander Md Yusof Husin said Tuan Mohd Zulhaizee
Tuan Temeran, 38, and his mother Kelsom Hamat, 66, died at the scene due to severe injuries
in the head and body.

"Fire-fighters took 15 minutes to extricate Tuan Mohd Zulhaizee who was trapped in the
driver's seat while the body of his mother who was in the back passenger seat was brought
out by members of the public.

"His father and a child who were severely injured were rushed to engku Ampuan Afzan
Hospital (HTAA) for further treatment," he told reporters here Monday.

Md Yusof believed the accident occured when a lorry travelling from Sungai Soi to Kuantan
skidded into the opposite lane and collided into the Proton Iswara car in which the victims
were in.

"We were also informed that the lorry driver had escaped during the accident," he said.

-- BERNAMA
Married couple killed, ten injured in road accident

KOTA TINGGI: A married couple was killed while 10 other people were injured in an
accident involving five vehicles at KM59 of Jalan Sungai Rengit - Kota Tinggi here.

Kota Tinggi OCPD Supt Ashmon Bajah said that the accident occurred when the driver of a
vehicle heading from Sungai Rengit lost control of the vehicle during the incident at around
9.45pm on Sunday.

He said the driver of that vehicle veered into the opposite lane before ramming into the other
four vehicles.

"The accident resulted in the death of the married couple who were from Felda Pengeli
Timur, while the other 10 to suffer minor injuries," he said in a statement on Monday.

He added that all of the victims were brought to Kota Tinggi Hospital for treatment and the
case is being investigated under Section 41 (1) of the Road Transport Act 1987 or reckless
driving resulting in death.

Supt Ashmon has advised road users to follow the speed limit when driving to avoid further
accidents.
Accidents are defined as unplanned occurrences which result in injuries, fatalities, loss of
production or damage to property and assets. Preventing accidents is extremely difficult in
the absence of an understanding of the causes of accidents. Many attempts have been made to
develop a prediction theory of accident causation, but so far none has been universally
accepted. Researchers from different fields of science and engineering have been trying to
develop a theory of accident causation which will help to identify, isolate and ultimately
remove the factors that contribute to or cause accidents. In this article, a brief outline of
various accident causation theories is presented, followed by a structure of accidents.
According to W.H. Heinrich (1931), who developed the so-called domino theory, 88% of all
accidents are caused by unsafe acts of people, 10% by unsafe actions and 2% by “acts of
God”. He proposed a “five-factor accident sequence” in which each factor would actuate the
next step in the manner of toppling dominoes lined up in a row. The sequence of accident
factors is as follows:
1. ancestry and social environment
2. worker fault
3. unsafe act together with mechanical and physical hazard
4. accident
5. damage or injury.

Common causes of these accidents:


Road traffic accidents the leading cause of death by injury and the tenth leading cause of all
deaths globally now make up a surprisingly significant portion of the worldwide burden of
ill-health.

Common causes of these accidents included speeding, drink driving, not wearing seat belts or
careless driving. Around a third involved someone driving during their work. About 10% of
those killed were inexperienced drivers.

Higher driving speed both increases the risk of collision and the risk of serious injury to the
driver or others. Even a modest speed reduction helps reduce both the number and the
severity of accidents,

In most vehicles, it is now compulsory for everyone to wear a seat belt. It is the driver's
responsibility to ensure that passengers are correctly restrained. Seat belts are designed to
retain people in their seats during a crash, and so prevent or reduce injuries. They minimise
contact between the occupant and vehicle interior and significantly reduce the risk of being
ejected from the vehicle.On modern vehicles, seat belts are also designed to work as the key
part of wider injury prevention measures and safety systems, such as airbags and head
restraints, which will not be as effective in reducing the risk of injury if an occupant is not
wearing a seat belt.
Alcohol impairs judgement, reaction times, co-ordination and concentration. Drivers may
also be impaired due to the use of drugs. Any drugs that cause sedation are a problem,
including many antihistamines and antidepressants. Alcohol reduces all of the important
skills necessary to drive safely, such as judgment, reaction, vision, and concentration.
Alcohol is absorbed into the lining of the stomach and then passes directly into the
bloodstream and reaches your brain within minutes after consumption. A person’s judgment
is the first thing affected after drinking an alcoholic beverage. Even one drink of alcohol can
affect your driving. Alcohol slows your reflexes and reaction time, reduces your ability to see
clearly, and makes you less alert. You will have trouble judging distance, speed, and
movement of other vehicles. You will also have trouble controlling your vehicle.
Besides alcohol, there are many other drugs both legal and illegal prescription, controlled
substancethat can affect a person’s ability to drive safely. These drugs can have effects like
those of alcohol, or even worse. Some drugs taken for headaches, colds, and allergies can
make you too drowsy to drive. Energy pills and diet pills can make you dizzy, unable to
concentrate, and affect your vision. Other prescription drugs can impair your reflexes,
judgment, vision, and alertness in ways similar to alcohol. Be sure to ask your doctor or
pharmacist about the effects your prescription may have on driving.
Research has shown that using hand-held or hands-free mobile phones whilst driving
increases the risk of the driver crashing, injuring or killing themselves and/or other people, by
four times. It is an offence for drivers to use a hand-held mobile phone whilst driving.

Emotions can have an effect on driving safely. You may not be able to drive well if you are
worried, excited, crying, angry, or depressed. Emotions can distract you from your driving
because your mind is “somewhere else.” Your emotional state can alter the way you react or
overreact to driving situations. Take time to calm down and get focused before driving.
Road rage is violent or visibly angry behavior by a driver which can result in crashes or other
incidents on roadways. Signs of road rage include, sudden acceleration or braking, following
too closely, cutting off other drivers, preventing other vehicles from merging into your lane,
excessively hitting the horn or flashing headlights, intentionally causing a crash, throwing
objects from the vehicle. If another driver is threatening you or intentionally driving
dangerously around you, remain calm and try to put as much distance between you and them
as possible. Slow down and let them pass.
Distracted driving is extremely risky behavior that puts not onlyyou and your passengers in
danger, but also pedestrians and bicyclists sharing the road. Focused attentionon driving helps
to prevent crashes.Texting requires all three types ofdistraction, making it one of the most
dangerous of distracted driving behaviors. However, this is not the only cause of distracted
driving. Other common distractions include, talking on a cell phone, watching an object,
person, or event outside of the vehicle, reaching for an object, interacting with passengers,
eating or drinking, grooming, adjusting radio or climate Controls, lighting a cigarette,
daydreaming.
Road accident prevention advice
Watch your speed when you are driving. Watch your speedometer, know the limits,
concentrate and slow down when you are entering villages.
Do not use hands-free or hand-held mobile phones whilst driving.
Do not park on pavements - this affects pedestrian safety.
Broken-down vehicles should be moved off the road if possible. Switch on hazard warning
lights and wear a high-visibility jacket if possible.
If stopping on a hard shoulder is necessary, leave the vehicle and wait on the embankment for
assistance. Stationary vehicles on the hard shoulder are at high risk of being involved in an
accident.
Preventing sleepiness while driving, Drive when well rested, healthy and not taking sedating
medication.
Take regular rest breaks (at least 15 minutes every two hours).
If feeling sleepy during a journey, stop somewhere safe, take drinks containing caffeine and
take a short nap.
If necessary, plan an overnight stop. Avoid driving into the time when you would normally
be falling asleep, into the small hours (2 am-6 am) or after a full day at work.
Be extra careful when driving between 2 pm and 4 pm, especially after a meal.
If intending to drive, do not drink alcohol. Never rely on trying to calculate accurately how
much alcohol is in your body and whether you are above or below the drink-drive limit.
If intending to drink alcohol, either arrange for a non-drinking person to drive, use public
transport or stay overnight. Be aware that you may still be impaired the following morning
after a drink the night before.
Avoid driving while under the influence of medicines. Check for warnings on the packet
patient information or ask a pharmacist or doctor if the medicine could affect your driving.
Do not drive under the influence of drugs.
All passengers should use appropriate seat belts or child restraints; this is the driver's
responsibility. Detailed information is available on suitable child seats and current regulations

Getting Ready to Drive


Before you start your engine:
• be sure vehicle is in park or neutral.
• adjust the seat so you can reach all controls.
• adjust all rear-view mirrors so that you can use them without having to
lean forward or backward.
• move anything that blocks your view of mirrors or roadway.
• lock all car doors.
• put on your seat belt and make sure all passengers do the same.

Keep Your Car in Good Condition Brakes, Check to see that the pedal stays well above the
floor when you step on it. If the car pulls to one side when you use the brakes or if you hear
any scraping or squealing noises, your brakes may need to be repaired. Replace burned-out
bulbs and keep lenses clean. Inspect often for proper inflation/tire pressure, even tread wear,
and damage. Keep the glass clean inside and out. If the rear window is covered by or treated
with any material that makes it non transparent, the vehicle must be equipped with side
mirrors on both sides that allow the driver a view to the rear of at least 200 feet.

Anti-lock brake system (ABS) prevents skidding and allows drivers to steer during an
emergency braking situation. ABS can help improve vehicle stability, steering ability, and
stopping capability. It is important to know if you have ABS because it will affect the way
you should stop in an emergency situation. With conventional brakes, you pump the brakes in
order to stop in an emergency situation where traction is lost and the vehicle slides. However,
drivers with ABS need to press down hard on the brake pedal, hold it, and steer out of danger.
In an emergency situation, the ABS automatically pumps the brakes at a faster rate than the
driver could.
Bangladeshi dies in Malaysia workplace accident

A Bangladeshi migrant worker was killed after he was crushed by a compactor at Kahang Dam
construction site in Kluang area of Malaysia's Johor Bahru state on Sunday.

The details of the victim could not be known immediately.

“We will look into the matter soon,” Musharrat Jebin, first secretary (labour) at the Bangladesh high
commission in Kuala Lumpur told The Daily Star over the phone yesterday.

Mohamad Laham, assistant commissioner of the Malaysian police department in Johor Bahru, said the
victim succumbed to severe head injuries after he was crushed by the machine, reports Malaysian English
daily The Star.

The victim was resting on the machine when the incident happened. The operator did not notice the victim
when he started to move the machine and crushed him to death, the police official said, adding, the
operator fled after the incident.

"We are investigating the case under Section 41(1) of the Road Transport Act 1987 for reckless driving,"
he added.

Meanwhile, the Johr Bahru state immigration department detained 33 foreigners including four
Bangladeshis for overstaying and remaining in the country without valid documents on Sunday night.

The rests include 23 Indonesians, four Indians, and one each from Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Common Causes of ThisWorkplace Accidents

Humans are notoriously lazy, so taking shortcuts is a rather common practice in all walks of
life. When workers take shortcuts at work, especially when they are working around
dangerous machinery or lethal chemicals, they are only exposing themselves to a potential
accidents . Simply put, shortcuts that are taken on the job are not actually shortcuts. They are
simply increasing your risk of injury, or worse, death.
Confidence is always a great thing to have, but there is also such a thing as too much
confidence. When workers walk into work everyday with the attitude that, “It will never
happen to me”, they are setting an attitude that leads to incorrect procedures, methods, and
tools while working. Be confident, but remember that you are not invincible.
Whenever someone walks through your workplace, they can get a pretty good idea of your
attitude towards workplace safety by just looking at how well you’ve kept up your area.
Housekeeping is one of the most accurate indicators of the company’s attitude towards
production, quality, and worker safety. A poorly kept up area leads to hazards and threats
everywhere. Not only does good housekeeping lead to heightened safety, but it also sets a
good standard for everyone else in the workplace to follow.
The quickest way to get a job done is to do it right the first time. To do it right the first time,
you need to make sure that you have any and all pertinent information relating to the task you
will be performing. Workers who begin a job with just half the information, or half the
instructions, are essentially doing the job while blind. Remember this; it’s not stupid to ask
questions, it is stupid not to.
This is probably the worst thing that any employee at any level in the organization can do.
Deliberately neglecting set safety procedures in the workplace doesn’t just endanger yourself,
but it endangers the workers around you as well as the company as a whole. Casually
following safety procedures doesn’t work either. You are paid to follow workplace safety
procedures, not your own.
Everyone has a life outside of the workplace, and sometimes life can take dips and turns that
affect your emotions and your mood negatively. However, as harsh as it sounds, workers
cannot let mental distractions from their personal lives affect their performance at work. Not
only will they become less aware of their surroundings and less safe, but they will also
become less productive, costing the company time and money.
Make sure you plan your work, then work your plan.There are several reasons why
workplace accidents happen, but these are the most common, and sadly, the most overlooked,
causes. It really comes down to awareness and focus. Lazy workers are not as effective and
they are not as safe as their aware and focused counterparts. On top of this, lazy workers
immediately become a direct threat to everyone around them. There needs to be a conscious
effort each and every day in the workplace to make sure that these causes don’t happen
Here are ways prevent accidents in the workplace:
1. Always be alert. Being awake and alert isn’t just important in order to complete tasks
adequately, but it also helps to keep both you and your co-workers out of harm’s way.

2. Don’t rush your work. In many workplaces, time is of the essence. Employees are given
deadlines that they must meet, so there is often a sense of urgency when it comes to
completing certain tasks. It’s important, however, to take the appropriate amount of time to
perform your duties safely.

3. Wear required safety gear. Many jobs require uniforms. But the jobs that require the
wearing of safety equipment are the ones where dress codes are the most important. A person
who works in a factory has a greater chance of being involved in an accident at work. Never
take safety to chance so always go to work with the proper dress code.
4. Pay attention to and follow emergency drills. Workers also tend to take safety drills for
granted. these emergency drills are conducted for the purpose of teaching employees what to
do in the event of an emergency and so that they can avoid accidents.
5. Insist upon proper training. This is especially important if you plan on taking on a job that
may present a number of risks. Knowing exactly what you’re in for and how to react during
emergency situations is imperative for your safety.