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Carbon: bonds and

hybrization
Matter and sustainability
Carbon

 A black sphere means carbon in


organic chemistry
 Valence e-: 4
 Up to four covalent bonds

 Tetrahedral structure
Concatenation
Hydrogen

 A white sphere means hydrogen in organic


chemistry

 Group 1A

 A single valence e-, up to one covalent bond


Group 5A

Nitrogen Phosphorous
 Blue sphere  Orange sphere
 5 valence e-  5 valence e-
 3 bonds  3 bonds

Compounds of this group can enter a state in which they are able to make 5 bonds
Group 6A

Oxygen Sulfur
 Red sphere  Yellow sphere
 6 valence e-  6 valence e-
 2 bonds  2 bonds

Compounds of this group can enter a state in which they are able to make 6 bonds
Halogens (Group 7A)

 Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine

 Represented by a green sphere

 All have 7 valence e-


 1 bond
Building Carbon structures

1.One carbon and only hydrogen


2.Two carbons, one sulfur and the rest hydrogen
3.Three carbons, one phosphorous, three bromines, the
rest hydrogen
4.Four carbons, one nitrogen, two chlorines, two oxygens
and the rest hydrogen
Useful videos

 Hybrid orbitals
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vHXViZTxLXo
 Orbitals
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ewf7RlVNBSA
 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otYj92d7rB0
 Why hybridization occurs
 https://www.brightstorm.com/science/chemistry/chemical-
bonds/hybridization/