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Asthma Drugs

Class Mechanism of Applications Pharmacokinetics Toxicities


action

Short Acting Beta Beta-2 selective Asthma relief drug Duration:


Tremor

Agonist
agonists
of choice 2-4 hours Tachycardia
eg: Salbuatmol, -bronchodilatation
Albuterol

Long Acting Beta Beta-2 selective Asthma Duration:


Termor

Agonist
agonists
prophylaxis 12-24 hours Tachycardia
eg: Salmeterol, -bronchodilatation

Formeterol - potentiation of
corticosteroids

Non selective Non selective Obsolete Duration:


Excess
sympathomimetics Beta-2 agonists
1-2 hours sympathomimetic
(inhaled)
-bronchodilatation
effects
eg: epinephrine, -epinephrine also
isoproterenol alpha-agonist

Indirect Release stored Obsolete Duration:


Insomnia

sympathomimetics
cathecolamines
6-8 hours Termor

eg: Ephedrine -non selective Anorexia

sympathetic effects Arrythmias


Methylxantines
Phosphodiasterase Asthma Duration:
Insomnia

eg: Theophyline inhibition


prophylaxis 12 hours
Tremor

Adenosine receptor (slow relase) Anorexia

antagonistsst Arrythmias

Antimuscarinic Muscarinic Asthma


Duration:
Dry mouth

Agents
Antagnoists COPD several hours
Cough
eg: Ipratropium, (inhaled)
Tiotropium

Mast cell stabileser


Reduce release of Asthma
Duration:
Cough
eg: cromolyn, inflammatory and (note: rarely used) 3-6 hours
nedocromil bronchocontrictor
mediators from
sensitized mast
cells

Leukotriene Pharmacologic Asthma Duration:


Minimal
Antagonists
antagonists at prophylaxis 12-24 hours
eg: monteleukast, LTD4 receptors
zafirlukast

Corticosteroids
Inhibitaion of Asthma Duration:
Pharyngeal
Inhaled eg: phospholipase A2
prophylaxis
10-12 hours
candidiasis

Beclamethasone
Reduce expression
of COX

Systemic
Treatment of severe Duration:
Steroid toxicity
eg: Prednisolone refractory asthma 12-24 hours

Antibodies
Binds to IgE Prophylaxis of Duration:
Extremely
eg: Omalizumab antibodies on mast severe refractory undetermined/ expensive
cells, reduces asthma not undocumented
reaction to inhaled responsive to
antigen drugs
References: Trevor, A.J., Katzung, B.G. and Masters, S.B., 2009. Basic & clinical pharmacology. McGraw-Hill Medical.