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ABSTRACT

The soil investigation is the research carried out to assess the properties of water in a given volume
of soil, the ratio of the weight of given volume of soil sample to the weight of an equal volume of
water at a standard temperature and pressure, by knowing the percentage of the various grain sizes
present in a soil, to distinguish between silt and clay, the quality and suitability of the soil, the rate
with which water flow through saturated soil sample and the value of cohesion and the value of
angle of internal friction of the soil. From notable sources in Enugu. Sample of the soil were obtained
from jamboree, new site, chest unit unth and bunker, all in coal camp area , enugu state. These
samples were tested; compared against each other and with standard specifications – BS and
ASSHTO. The analysis revealed that the soil from the four different sources are good in carrying any
load.
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Civil engineering profession encounter soil in diverse ways uses soil as a foundation to support
structures and embarkments. Utilises soil as a construction material and must design structures that
retain soils from excavation and underground openings.
The answer to a problem in soil engineering is normally obtained by first determining the
properties of soil in question and employing these properties to work out a solution. It ies necessary
that the soil should be capable of sustaining the applied load without serious deformation and
damage, and should retain its strength and stability indefinitely, therefore to meet this requirements
an answer to a problem in soil engineering is sought. Hence in planning design and construction of
any engineering structure, the engineering should consider supremely important, a satisfactory
design with respect to safety and function. To this end, extra care should be taken in any design so
as not to defeat the purpose for which the structure was constructed.
Since the soil in every site is different, the soil involve in each different problem must be
evaluated. Often, this evaluation can be approximated from a knowledge of the geology of the site or
from experience with similar soils. This gave rise to soil surveying and these properties being
determined by laboratory tests. More so, and because of the great variety of subsoil condition that
may have an adverse effect on the stability of the structures, the design of such structures
constitutes a problem. This makes it all the more important to know the soil properties and hence the
justification of the project whose purpose is to determine by field and laboratory experiments.
The exercise is therefore designed to provide the necessary data that may be required in the
course of some engineering works. This is necessary because of the need to introduce and erect
modern structure which is bound to involve some soil problems.
“The practical purpose of soil survey is to enable more numerous, more accurate and more useful
predictions [of land performance] to be made for specific purposes than could have been
madeotherwise [i.e., in the absence of location-specific information about soils].
Lastly this project deals with the soil survey and laboratory testing of soils in Enugu state urban
area, a case study of Coal Camp sub urban area using only four boreholes at different locations.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Soil survey is a vast area of study or analysis. It depends on one area of discipline. This survey is
used to develop some engineering properties that is used to establish some parameters that is used
for geometrical design and this establishment depends on the type of soil one is dealing with.
This survey was done a group of three(3) persons, using coal camp sub-urban area as a case
study. Samples for the survey was collected from four different locations establishing four boreholes
at different depth.
Locations are
: New site, coal camp --------- borehole 1 : jamboree behind coal camp maternity-----
borehole 2 : Chest unit, UNTH, Enugu ------------------- borehole 3
: Bunker hill, coal camp ------------------ borehole 4
The test carried out on the samples are sieve analysis, specific gravity, moisture content,
compaction, permeability, consolidation, atterberg limit and triaxial test.
In a situation where the area is water logged , other test that can be carried out are soil pH test,
sodium chloride test and sulphate test..
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The main aim of our test is to have a comprehensive soil engineering map in enugu state urban
metropolis. A case study of coal camp. The project aims at providing a well constructed soil survey
for coal camp sub-urban which geotechnical engineers can relly on and carry out their engineering
projects
To provide good parameter s for geotechnical designs.
To help reduce constant case of failure in construction works.
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
In construction works , structural or geotechnical engineers have neglected the vital need for soil test
or soil survey. The neglect has lead to constant cases of building collapse, failure of newly
constructed roads, bridges, culverts etc.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Having seen the problems of neglect of soil survey, i feel like contributing to this vital study of
geotechnical engineering by collecting the samples, identifying and describing them and carrying out
necessary laboratory test to help engineers design to safety.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
The project aims at determining the soil engineering properties, identifying and classifying them.
Due to the vast area to cover, it intends to surveying of soil only in this particular area of
enugu state using only four (4) boreholes.
1.7 COLLECTION OF SAMPLES AND LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAM
The test carried out in this project was on distributed soil sample.
This implies collecting soil samples that are disfigured their natural shape.
Soil samples were collected on three (4) trial pit at different locations within the coal camp
Enugu. A total of three (6) samples were collected from the trial pits using pick are and spade. The
samples were taken at 1.0m depth intervals. The samples were put in sack bags and labelled
1,2A,2B,3A,3B and 4. The samples were spread on the floor of the soil laboratory and stones
removed for seven (7) days to allow for air drying.
The laboratory testing program comprises seive analysis, compaction test, specific gravity,
atterberg limit tests, moisture content test, permeability, consolidation test.
The objectives of the laboratory testing program were
1. To obtain a general information regarding the nature of the soil and their variation with
depth.
2. To obtain information regarding the strength characteristics of the soil.
To obtain information which will enable engineers to group soils according to their appearances of
the purposes of complying different soils.