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Types of

Antimicrobial
Antimicrobial Name Mechanism Remarks
Spectrum
Agents
• Interfere metabolism of both bacterial cells without Co-trimoxazole
damaging the body tissues. (Bactrim®) is
combination of
• E.g.: Inhibition of folic acid synthesis. Folic acid is Trimethoprim and
used by bacterial cells to synthesise nucleic acid. Sulfametoxazole. Treat
Broad (gram +ve and
Sulfonamides (competitive inhibition). UTI, pmeumonia and ear
–ve bacterial cells)
infections
• SMZ has similar in chemical structure to PABA.
Compete for active site in bacterial enzyme -> blocks
Synthetic folic acid synthesis -> prevents nucleic acid synthesis -
Antibacterial Agent > prevents DNA replication.
• Specifically interferes with cell wall synthesis in Combined in theraphy
Mycobacterium species. Inhibit production of mycolic with rifampin and
Very narrow
Isoniazid a.k.a acid. Causing cell wall formed to be weak and easily ethambutol.
(Mycobacterium
INH lyses.
species)

• First line drugs for patients with latent tuberculosis.


Quinolones Ciprofloxacin used to
Broad (gram +ve and • Block DNA synthesis in bacterial cells.
(derived from threat people exposed to
–ve bacterial cells) • Kills plasmid infecting immortal cells.
fluoroquinolone) anthrax spores.
Antibiotics (derived B-Lactam Family Active against variety • Block synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Usually paired with
from bacteria, can be of gram +ve bacteria • Inhibits peptide cross-linking of CHO b/w clavulanic acid and
semi-synthetics) i. Penicilin i.e. staphylococci, peptidoglycan layers during wall formation.
streptococci, • Causing cell wall formed to be weak; small internal taxobactam that inactivate
clostridia and osmotic pressure can cause cell to swell and burst. beta lactamase.
pneumococci.
• Bactericidal (capable to kill bacteria) in rapidly Drawbacks:-
Higher concentration, multiplying bacteria. + Anaphylactic reaction
inhibitory to gram –ve • Bacteriostatic effect (stops bacteria from reproducing = Swelling around the
diplococci (gonorrhea but not necessarily killing) or no effect at all when eyes or wrists, flushed or
and meningitis) and bacterial cells are multiplying slowly or dormant. itchy skin, breath
syphilis spyrochetes • “Resistance - If bacteria need to grow in order to be shortness, a series of hives
(STD). killed by antibiotics, then bacteria, can escape from + Penicilin-resistant
antibiotics, by NOT growing or by growing very bacterial species
slowly.” = Produce beta-
• In biofilms (colonies of bacteria living on a surface) lactamases e.g.
(1), E. coli in urinary tract infections (2), and most penicilinase – inactivate
notably in the slow growing bacteria, that cause beta-lactam antibiotics
tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and (allow water to react with
leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae O=C-N of beta-lactam
ring in sodium penicilin G
and produce O=C-OH and
N-H resulted in sodium
penicilloic acid.
• Derived from fungi Latest generation:
Broad (both gram +ve • First choice for penicilin-resistant bacterial species. Cefepime
ii. Cephalosporin
and gram -ve) • Last longer in the body.
• Resistant to beta-lactamase (cephalosporinases)
• Inhibits cell wall synthesis. Imipenem.
• Derived from compound produced by Streptomyces
cattley. People allergic to penicilin
Broad (both gram +ve
iii. Carbapenems • Effective against aerobic gram-positive bacteria and should not take imipenem.
and gram -ve)
gram-negative rods, anaerobs bacteria.
• Not active against methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus
aureus
• Cell wall inhibitor of gram +ve bacteria
• Administered via IV injection
Narrow (only gram
Vancomycin • Alternative for penicilin
+ve)
• Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis are resistant to
vancomycin.
• Interferes with the transport of cell wall precursors Produced by Bacillus
Narrow (only gram
Bacitracin through the cell membrane species.
+ve)
• Wound prevention
Quite toxic internally,
Gram -ve rods & • Acting like detergents, increase permeability of cell causing kidney damage.
Polymyxin B
bacilli membrane and lead to cell death
Restricted to topical use.
• Bind to 30s subunit of ribosomes, block attachment of Block protein synthesis
Tetracyclines
tRNA
Aminoglycoside • Misreading of genetic code in mRNA
• Misreading of genetic code
Chloramphenicol • Causes bacteriostatic effect by interfering with peptide
bond formation
Macrolides • Prevent chain elongation