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Assignment of Literary Appreciation

Drama

By
Ade Kartika

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHING TRAINING AND EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE

MATHLA’UL ANWAR UNIVERSITY

BANTEN – 2017
The definition of Drama

Drama is one the major genre of literature. We can define drama as “a literary
composition involving conflict, action crisis and atmosphere designed to be acted by players on a
stage before an audience." This is a common definition of drama, famous poet and literary critic
of seventeenth century John Dryden, defined draws in following words.
”Just and lively image of human nature, representing its passions and humors, and the changes of
fortune to which it is subject, for the delight and instruction of mankind."
According to the definition, drama is an ’image' of ‘human nature’, and the image is
‘just’ and ‘lively’. By using the word ’just‘ Dryden seems to imply that literature imitates (and
not merely reproduces) human actions. For Dryden, 'poetic imitation' is different from an exact,
servile copy of reality, for, the imitation is not only 'just’, it is also 'lively'.
Drama is defined by Aristotle as “ a criticism of life, on stage, with action, characters,
and dialogue.” The Greek word for “deed” or “action” is dram .
Drama is a composition in prose form that presents a story entirely told in dialogue and
action and written with the intentions of its eventual performance before an audience

Type of drama

1. Tragedy
in general, tragedy involves the ruin of the leading characters. To the Greeks, it meant the
destruction of some noble person through fate, To the Elizabethans, it meant in the first place
death and in the second place the destruction of some noble person through a flaw in his
character. Today it may not involve death so much as a dismal life, Modern tragedy often
shows the tragedy not of the strong and noble but of the weak and mean.

2. Comedy
is lighter drama in which the leading characters overcome the difficulties which
temporarily beset them.
3. Problem Play
Drama of social criticism discusses social, economic, or political problems by means of a
play.

4. Farce
When comedy involves ridiculous or hilarious complications without regard for human
values, it becomes farce.

5. Comedy of Manners
Comedy which wittily portrays fashionable life.

6. Fantasy
A play sometimes, but not always, in comic spirit in which the author gives free reign to
his fantasy, allowing things to happen without regard to reality.

7. Melodrama
Like farce, melodrama pays almost no attention to human values, but its object is to give
a thrill instead of a laugh. Often good entertainment, never any literary value.

Element of Drama
1. Literary Elements

1. Plot
The plot is the storyline or arrangement of action
2. Script
A script is the written words and directions of a play
3. Character
A character is a person portrayed in a drama
4. Story organization
The story organization is how a story is told the beginning, middle and end
5. Theme
the basic idea of a play; the idea, point of view, or perception that binds together a work of
art.
6. Style
the shaping of dramatic material, settings, or costumes in a deliberately nonrealistic manner.
7. exposition
is the “who, when, where and what” part of the play.
8. Setting
The setting is where the action takes place
9. Dialogue
A dialogue is a spoken conversation between two characters.
10. Monologue/soliloquy/aside
 A monologue is a long speech made by one person.
 Soliloquy? A character alone on stage reveals private thoughts.
 Aside? A character briefly expresses private thoughts to the audience that other
characters on stage cannot hear.
11. Conflict
The internal or external struggle between opposing forces, ideas, or interests that create
dramatic tension.
12. Suspense
a feeling of uncertainty as to the outcome, used to build interest and excitement on the part of
the audience.
13. Language
in drama, the particular manner of verbal expression, the diction or style of writing, or the
speech or phrasing thatsuggests a class or profession or type of character.

2. Technical Element

1. Scenery
The scenery is theatrical equipment such as curtains, backdrops, and platforms to
communicate the environment. An example might be trees to show a forest environment.
2. Costumes
Clothing and accessories worn by actors to portray character and period.
3. Props
Props are any article other than costumes or scenery used as part of a dramatic
production. An example might be a table on the stage.
4. Sound and Music
Sound is the effect an audience hears during a show, like the sound of rain. And music
well, you know what music is
5. Make-up
Make-up is the use of costumes, wigs and body paint to transform an actor into a
character.
6. Light
The placement, intensity, and color of lights to Help communicate environment, mood, or
feeling

3. Performance Elements
1. Acting
Acting use of face, body, and voice to portray character
 Character motivation: the reason or reasons for a character’s behavior; an incentive or
inducement for further action for a character
 Character analysis: in responding to dramatic art, the process of examining how the
elements of drama—literary, technical, and performance—are used
 Empathy: the capacity to relate to the feelings of another.

2. Speaking
Speaking: the mode of expression or delivery of lines
 Breath control: proper use of the lungs and diaphragm muscle for maximum capacity
and efficiency of breath for speaking
 Vocal expression: how an actor uses his or her voice to convey character
 Inflection: change in pitch or loudness of the voice.
 Projection: how well the voice carries to the audience
 Speaking style: the mode of expression or delivery of lines
 Diction: selection and pronunciation of words; clarity of speech.
3. Nonverbal expression:
 Gestures any movement of the actor’s head, shoulder, arm, hand, leg, or foot to convey
meaning
 Body alignment physiologically correct posture and use of the body to ensure the
maximum capacity and efficiency of breathing and movement
 Facial expression physical and vocal aspects used by an actor to convey mood, feeling,
or personality
 Character blocking the path formed by the actor’s movement on stage, usually
determined by the director with assistance from the actor and often written down in a
script using commonly accepted theatrical symbols
 Movement stage blocking or the movements of the actors onstage during performance;
also refers to the action of the play as it moves from event to event.