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Modul 15 Road & Bridge Construction

1. Road construction:
 Excavation : alatnya excavator
 Scrapping : alatnya scrapper
 Grading : alatnya grader
 Compaction : alatnya roller
 Paving : kalau flexible bisa pakai sprayer / paver, kalau rigid pakai concrete paver, road
reclaimer

Hal-hal untuk menambah jawaban:

 Pekerjaan konstruksi jalan itu tetap dalam waktu yang lama, didominasi oleh pekerjaan tanah
 Pemilihan peralatan menjadi hal yang penting (karakteristik, kapasitas, kombinasi alat,
produktivitas, availability)
Fungsi road reclaimer: untuk mengeruk aspal lama yang rusak apabila si kontraktor mau menambah overlay
pada jalanan yang rusak. Nanti aspal lama yang rusak dimasukin lagi ke asphalt paver.
Tahapan paving:
1. Hamparkan bahan paving ke jalanan dengan alat / paver atau sprayer (sprayer buat aspal cair)
2. Ratakan dengan roller, yang ngikutin paver dari belakang, roller bisa maju mundur

BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION
Bridge type:
1. Short to medium span
 Concrete bridges
 Beam bridge: jembatan girder yang paling simple dan paling murah. Beam bridge
terdiri dari balok horizontal yang ditopang oleh pier di kedua ujung nya. Beam
harus diperhitungkan lendutan akibat lalu lintas.
 Concrete arch bridges
 Arch bridge: jembatan yang beban nya ditransfer semua jadi beban tekan, karena
dulu ga ada tulangan jadi gabisa nahan gaya tarik.
 Steel frame bridges
2. Long span
 Cable stayed, suspensions, and hybrid bridges
 Suspension bridge: jembatan dengan biaya termahal, beban ditanggung oleh pier,
kabel yang melengkung ditengah hanya menyalurkan beban ke pier
 Cable stayed bridge: jembatan yang beban nya ditanggung oleh kabel, kabel nya
ditaruh di tower, jadi beban naik keatas lewat tali, terus diterusin ke tower, tower
nyalurin beban ke tanah.

Terminologi:

1. Superstructure: komponen dari jembatan yang menerima beban secara langsung (yang ada di atas
jembatan)
2. Sub-structure: bagian tambahan yang mendukung superstructure (ada di bagian bawah jembatan)

Cast-in-situ Method of Bridge Construction:


Cast-in-situ method of construction of bridges is a flexible method in which the demands of more
unusual geometrical shapes can be easily coped with. This method is commonly used for short
span bridges for the cost effective construction of solid, voided or ribbed reinforced concrete slab
bridges. Each bridge type is build by designing the decks to allow each span to be cast in one
continuous pour. Construction is simplicitic in form consisting of a birdcage scaffold with plywood
formwork.

Where cast-in-situ construction is used for longer span bridges, the falsework system required
becomes more sophisticated. Semi or fully mechanical falsework will require a specialized
contractor. Semi-mechanical falsework will generally consists of steel beams or trusses which are
then spanned between temporary towers. Fully mechanical falsework system is where a self
launching gantry with steel lined shutters is used.

The type of false work system used will also have a bearing on the rate of span construction. For
semi mechanical system each span will take between 2 to 6 weeks to construct. While for fully
mechanical systems a span may be placed within 1 to 2 weeks.
Balanced Cantilever method of Bridge Construction:
Balanced cantilever method of bridge construction is chosen where a bridge has few spans which
range from 50 to 250m. Construction begins at each bridge pier. Special formwork is positioned
and cast-in-situ pier segment is begun. The complete pier segment is then used as an erection
platform and launching base for all subsequent travelling formwork and concrete segment
construction. Cast-in-situ segments range between 3mm to 5m in length with formwork moving
in tandem with each segment. Segment construction is continued until a joining midpoint is
reached where a balanced pair is closed.

Stability of the end cantilever is maintained by using temporary pier supports as the end span is
begun. The length of the end spans is equal to between 0.55 and 0.65 times the length of the typical
span in the bridge.
Although this is a flexible method with its repetitive construction cycle improving efficiency it is
still relatively slow. This restriction was improved in 1962 with the introduction of precast
segments.
Precast Method of Bridge Construction:
(i) Precast Beams:
Precast beam decks are generally used for short span bridges ranging between 5m to 50m – these
may be railway or motorway bridges. Standard inverted tee beams or M-beams are chosen and
positioned by crane.

Where precast beams are considered for a motorway bridge construction, the bridge cross-section
for a typical carriageway will generally consist of four beams. Erection time of such bridge should
have a rate of construction of four beams per day. A cast-in-situ slab top deck is normally used
with an expected rate of construction of one span a week.

(ii) Precast Decks:


Precast deck construction is often used for the construction of long viaducts. It is a time saving
method which is beneficial for long bridges where construction time for the final completion stage
is tight.

A long viaduct can have a complete precast deck speedily placed with this method. The decks are
positioned using either a large crane or purpose made gantry. A rate of construction of two spans
per day is considered normal where a gantry system is in use, if this pace is maintained a one
kilometer deck can be placed in three weeks.

However, if this method of construction is chosen it is imperative that the engineer has clearly
organized the deck construction schedule. The speed of this method depends on the timely delivery
of prefabricated decks, the engineer and deck contractor must set out a rate of construction which
allows the supplier to produce a sufficient decks to time while the deck contractor must be ready
to place and store decks on receipt of delivery.

(iii) Precast segmental decks:


Precast segmental deck construction is used for long bridges where the deck depth is difficult for
cast in situ construction. Box girder deck segments are generally used where the segment can be
2m or less deep, between 2.5m and 4m long carrying a deck upto 15m wide are generally used.

Where in-situ post-tensioning is favoured the segments can be prestressed either internally or
externally. Internal tendons must be protected from moisture attack.

The repetitive nature of this method allows for a variety of modern placement techniques to be
used, though balanced or free cantilever about a pier is a preferred choice. With this method a
crane or self launching gantry system can place upto six segments per day.
The rate of construction for internally prestressed segments is considered to be a span per week. If
externally prestressed tendons are used it should be feasible to complete three spans per week.

Span by Span Casting method of Bridge Construction:


Span by span is a relatively new construction technique historically associated with cantilever
construction but the advancement in external prestressing has enabled its own potential use to
grow. Today it is considered to be the most economic and rapid method of construction available
for long bridges and viaducts with individual spans upto 60m.

Decks are begun at one abutment and constructed continuously by placing segments to the other
end of the bridge. Segments can be positioned by either a temporary staying mast system through
more commonly using an assembly truss.

Before segments are placed the truss with sliding pads is braced over two piers. Depending on the
bridge location the segments are then transported by lorry or barge to the span under construction.
Each segment is then placed on the sliding pads and slid into its position. Once all segments are in
position the pier segment is then placed.

The final stage is then begun by running longitudinal prestressing tendons through segments ducts
and prestressing entire span. Deck joints are then cast and closed and ducts grouted. When the span
is complete the assembly truss is lowered and moved to the next span where construction cycle
begins until the bridge is complete.
Incremental Launching Method of Bridge Construction:
For bridge decks greater than 250m in length, the method of incremental launching can be
considered. With this method of construction the bridge deck is built in sections by pushing the
structure outwards from an abutments towards the pier. It is most suited to the rapid construction
of bridges with a constant radius of curvature such as constant depth of box girder segments.

The construction sequence begins behind one abutment where a highly mechanized prefabrication
deck mould is set up removing the need for temporary supports with this method. A rigid
framework is then attached enabling the production of cast-in-situ segments. In-situ deck segments
range in length from 5m to 30m. when each segment is complete it is placed on sliding bearings
and pushed through into the span.

A steel nose is also positioned at the front of the first span formwork. This allows for the necessary
deck cantilever length as the span approaches the first pier.

Bridge decks of 1km can be built by this method with a rate of construction of 30m per week.
Cable Stayed Method of Bridge Construction:
The technique of cable-stayed construction has been used and continually developed over the last
50years. It is the most common construction choice today when a bridge is required to span more
than 300. Cable-stayed bridges can be either concrete or steel though a combination of both
materials is often chosen.
Fig: Stay cable anchorages on a concrete deck

For concrete cable stayed bridges free cantilever construction is considered economical. With this
method the deck segments can be either precast or cast-in-situ by travelling shutter arrangement.

In ca cable stayed bridge, depending on its design, the cables carry the bridge deck from one or
both sides of the supporting tower. The stay cables carry the deck and transfer all bridge loads to
the foundations. This is done by transmitting the cable stay forces, through its extremeties, at it
anchorage points. Stay cables are firmly attached to the anchorages which are designed to resist
the buckling forces of the loads.

Detailing of all anchorages should allow for their safe construction and accessibility for inspection
and maintenance on completion. In concrete stay-cabled anchorages are placed under the deck.
Arch Method of Bridge Construction:
The arch is the most natural bridge shape in nature. Originally constructed of stone, today such
bridges are built of reinforced or precast concrete. They are often the most economical choice
where a bridge is required to cross over inaccessible landscapes.

The development of modern arch construction methods has made the use of arch construction more
economical by removing the need of expensive centring formwork. Though abutments still must
be well founded on rock or soild ground.
Two construction techniques are most commonly used today.
(i) Cast-in-situ free cantilever method

This method involves the partially built arch tied back to rock anchors in the valley side slopes.

(ii) Slip formed sections

This method involves half arch sections being held vertically over each abutment and then rotating
each arch section into position.

Tee-beams are generally used for arch bridge decks for their functionality and self weight.

Metode Jembatan Beton

Secara umum metode pelaksanaan jembatan beton dibedakan menjadi Cast insitu dan Precast segmental.
Cast insitu merupakan metode pelaksanaan Jembatan dimana dilakukan pengecoran di lokasi pembangunan
sedangkan Precast segmental merupakan metode pelaksanaan dimana beton disuplai dari luar berupa
Precast yang siap untuk dilakukan instalasi.

Metode Cast insitu terdiri dari:

a. MSS (Movable Scaffolding System)


b. ILM (Increamental Launching Method)
c. Balanced Cantilever dengan FormTraveller
d. Cable Stayed dengan Form

Metode Precast Segmental terdiri dari:

a. Balanced Cantilever Erection With Launching Gantry


b. Balanced Cantilever Erection With Lifting Frames
c. Span by Span Erection With Launching Gantry
d. Balanced Cantilever Erection With Cranes
e. Precast Beam

Movable Scaffolding System (MSS)

MSS (Movable Scaffolding System) adalah suatu metode yang digunakan pada pelaksanaan Cast insitu
dimana pengecoran dilakukan di lokasi setelah selesainya bekisting. Prinsipnya adalah memindahkan
Scaffolding dengan cara digeser ke segmen berikutnya setelah beton mengeras.

Berikut adalah langkah-langka pekerjaan pada metode MSS (Movable Scaffolding System).

START -> SUPPORTING BRACKETS -> LAUNCHING WAGON -> MAIN GIRDER ->
TRANSVERSE BEAM -> SUSPENSION GALLOWS -> EXTERNAL FORMWORK -> INTERNAL
FORMWORK -> END
Metode MSS (Movable Scaffolding System)

Contoh pembangunan Jembatan yang menggunakan metode Movable Scaffolding System:


ILM (Increamental Launching Method)

ILM adalah suatu metode erection pada jembatan bentang panjang yang sudah diimplementasikan sejak
tahun 1962 yaitu di Rio Caroni Bridge, Venezuela.

Metode ini ditemukan oleh Prof. Dr. Ing. F. Leonhardt dan partnernya Willi Baur. Metode ini telah
dipatentkan sejak tahun 1967. Metode jembatan ini dibangun biasanya karena adanya syarat bahwa tidak
diperbolehkan adanya gangguan pada sisi bawah lantai jembatan. Metode ini mengharuskan tersedianya
lahan yang cukup luas di lokasi belakang abutment untuk produksi segment lantai jembatan. Adapun
mekanisme proses pelaksanaan erection jembatan dengan menggunakan metode ILM ini dapat dijelaskan
secara prinsip sebagai berikut:

1. Lantai jembatan diproduksi di area belakang jembatan secara kontinu tiap segment. Segment tersebut
dihubungkan secara monolit dengan segment sebelumnya. Panjang segment berkisar 15 – 25 m.
2. Pada bagian Ujung depan lantai dipasang Nose yang terbuat dari struktur baja. Nose tersebut akan
berfungsi sebagai tambahan lantai sedemikian mengurangi momen yang besar yang terjadi ketika rangkaian
pelat lantai membentuk struktur Cantilever. Nose berfungsi mengurangi besarnya momen kantilever yang
terjadi. Nose didesign seringan mungkin untuk mengurangi tambahan beban yang harus dipikul oleh
struktur lantai jembatan.
3. Struktur Nose memiliki panjang sekitar 65% terhadap bentang jembatan yang typical. Pada saat segment
yang telah diproduksi dan umur beton telah mencukupi, maka seluruh lantai jembatan didorong dengan
menggunakan metode Pulling Jack yang dipasang di abutment.

Pulling jack
4. Permukaan pilar dikondisikan memiliki tahanan geser yang kecil. Hal ini untuk memudahkan proses
mendorong rangkaian segment lantai jembatan. Dapat menggunakan suatu alat khusus dengan permukaan
teflon.

5. Jika diperlukan berdasarkan perhitungan, dapat ditambahkan temporary support di tengah bentang antara
pilar jembatan. Temporary support ini akan berfungsi mengurangi besarnya momen yang dipikul oleh
struktur pelat lantai jembatan.

6. Pilar jembatan dapat ditambahkan perkuatan. Hal ini disebabkan jembatan akan mendapat beban
horizontal tambahan selama proses launching. Tambahan beban ini akan mempengaruhi kemampuan pilar
dalam menahan beban.

Untuk mengatasi tambahan beban gaya horizontal, maka pilar dipasang perkuatan kabel. Contoh jembatan
yang menggunakan metode ILM (Incremental Launching Method) adalah Jembatan Le Viaduc De Millau.
Viaduc de Millau merupakan jembatan jalan raya tertinggi di dunia. Jembatan Millau Viaduct (bahasa
Perancis : le Viaduc de Millau) adalah jembatan kabel raksasa yg membentang di atas lembah sungai Tarn
dekat Millau di Perancis Selatan.