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ABSTRACT

The joining of dissimilar AA2024 and AA6061 aluminum plates of 5mm


Thickness was carried out by friction stir welding (FSW) technique. Optimum
process parameters were obtained for joints using statistical approach. Five
different tool designs have been employed to analyze the influence of rotation
speed and traverse speed over the microstructural and tensile properties.

In FSW technique, the process of welding of the base material, well below
its melting temperature, has opened up new trends in producing efficient
dissimilar joints. Effect of welding speed on microstructures, hardness
distribution and tensile properties of the welded joints were investigated. By
varying the process parameters, defect free and high efficiency welded joints
were produced.

The ratio between tool shoulder diameter and pin diameter is the most
dominant factor. From microstructural analysis it is evident that the material
placed on the advancing side dominates the nugget region. The hardness in
the HAZ of 6061 was found to be minimum, where the welded joints
failed during the tensile studies.

The joining of similar AA6082 aluminum plates of 4mm thickness was


carried out by friction stir processing (FSP) technique. Optimum process
parameters were obtained for joints using statistical approach. The tool designs
have been employed to analyze the influence of rotation speed and traverse
speed over the microstructural and tensile properties.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER.NO TITLE PAGE.NO
ABSTRACT i
LIST OF FIGURES iv
LIST OF TABLES v
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. WELDING 1
1.2. FRICTION STIR WELDING 2
1.2.1. INTRODUCTION 2
1.2.2. TYPES OF FSW 2
1.2.3. APPLICATIONS 3
1.2.4. ADVANTAGES 3
1.3. ALUMINIUM ALLOY 4
1.3.1. INTRODUCTION 4
1.3.2. TYPES OF Al ALLOY 5
1.3.3. AA6061 Al ALLOY 6
1.3.4. AA2024 Al ALLOY 7
1.3.5. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 7
1.3.6. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 8
1.3.7. APPLICATION OF AA6061 8
1.3.8. APPLICATION OF AA2024 9
1.3.9. ADVANTAGE OF AA6061 9
1.3.10. ADVANTAGE OF AA2024 10

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER.NO TITLE PAGE.NO
2 LITERATURE SURVEY 11
3 METHODOLOGY 13
3.1. RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD 13
3.2. BOX BEHNKEN DESIGN 16
4 EXPERIMENT 19
4.1. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 19
4.2. DIMENSIONS OF LAP JOINT 20
4.3. FRICTION STIR WELDING TOOL 21
4.4. PRODUCTION JOINT 22
4.5. PREPARATION OF
SHEAR STRENGTH 26
4.6. UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE 27
4.7. SPECIMEN PREPARATION OF
HARDNESS 28
4.8. MICROSTURCTURAL ANALYSIS 29
4.8.1. MACRO ANALYSIS 29
4.9. MICRO ANALYSIS AND MICRO
STRUCTURE 29
4.10. RESULTS OF SEM/EDS 30
5 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 32
5.1. OPTIMIZATION SOFTWARE 32
5.2. RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD 33
CONCLUSION 38
REFERENCE 39
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LIST OF TABLE
TABLE.NO TITLE PAGE.NO
1.1. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF 7
AA 6061 AND AA 2024
1.2. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF
AA 6061 AND AA2024 8
3.1. BOX-BEHNKEN DESIGN MATRIX 18
4.1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 23
4.2. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 23
4.3. WELDING PARAMETERS AND LEVELS 23
4.4. BOX- BEHNKEN DESIGN MATRIX 24
4.5. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN MATRIX 25
4.9. MACROGRAPH OF FRICTION STIR 29
4.10. HAZ OR FUSION LINE IS VISIBLE 29
4.11. ALUMINIUM PARTICLES 30
4.12. MAGNESIUM PARTICLES 30
5.1. EXPERIMENTAL VALUES OF TENSILE
STRENGTH AND HARDNESS 36
5.2. ANOVA FOR TENSILE STRENGTH 38
5.3. ANOVA FOR HARDNESS 39

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LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Al4C3 - Aluminium Carbide
AMC - Aluminium Matrix Composite
Al203 - Aluminium Oxide
ASTM - American Standard Testing Method
BM - Base Metal
B4C - Boron Carbide
CBN - Carbon Boron Nitride
°C - Celsius
Cu - Copper
DB - Diffusion Bonding Process
DCEN - Direct Current Electrode Negative
DCEP - Direct Current Electrode Positive
EDM - Electrical Discharge Machining
EBW - Electron Beam Welding
EDAX - Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis
FCC - Face Centered Cubic Structure
PRMMCs - Particle Reinforced Metal Matrix
Composites
FSW - Friction Stir Welding
GMAW - Gas Metal Arc Welding
GTAW - Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
GPa - Giga Pascal
HAZ - Heat Affected Zone
HCHCr - High Carbon High Chromium Steel

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LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE.NO TITLE PAGE.NO
1.1. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 1
FSW PROCESS
4.1. PARTS AND ASSEMBLY OF
FIXTURE 19
4.2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 20
4.3. DIMENSION OF LAP JOINT 21
4.4. FSW PIN PROFILES AND SHOULDER
PROFILE 22
4.5. DIMENSIONS OF TENSILE TEST
SPECIMEN 26
4.6. SPECIMEN BEFORE TENSILE TEST 26
4.7. UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE 27
4.8. SPECIMEN PREPARED FOR HARDNESS28
5.1. INPUT VS TENSILE STRENGTH 40

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