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“Allam MUHAMMAD SAEED AHMAD Mujaddadi”


(Rahmatullah Eleh)

Shakespeare TRADITION & INDIVIDUAL TALENT


A Writer Of All The Times (CRITICAL STUDY) BY T.S. ELIOT
SEPTEMBER,2002

AZEEM
English Magazine
(Under the Supervision of Azeem Educational Conference)

Chief Patron
Allama Muhammad Saeed Ahmad Mujjdadi
Chief Organizer CONTENTS
Prof. Muhammad Azeem Farooqi Al-Quran 2
Chief Editor Hadith 3
Prof. Muhammad Riaz Gohar
Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique 4
Mrs. Tabinda Iftikhar
The Great Personality of … 6
Editor Men Wing
Atiqu-ur-Rehman Khokhar Great Are The Ways Of Great 7
Hafiz Muhammad Asif Raza Farooqi What Is Unemployment ..... 8
Editor Women Wing Let Us Learn English Language 9
Mrs. Mussarat Azmat Farooqi Poetry 11
Editor Children Wing Let’s Learn Computer 12
Muhammad Umar Farooqi William Shakespeare 15
Miss Tuba Azeem T.S.Eliot 17
Art Editor Concept Of Content 22
Muhammad Naeem Anwar Farooqi Information Technology 25
Marketing Managers
Mr. Abu Zar Farooqi
Salahudin Ibrar
Photography
Usman Anjum
Well Wishers
Muhammad Saeed Babar (ACMA)
Lt.Col. Muhammad Ashraf (Phd. DVM)
Dr. Capt. Hafiz Muhammad Naeem
Mrs. Humaira Naeem (M.A. English)
Prof. Muhammad Younis Sajed (M.A. Urdu & Eco.)
Hafiz Muhammad Nadeem
Mrs. Fouzia Azeem

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Al-Quran By
Prof. Muhammad Azeem Farooqi

Israel! call to mind the (special) favor


which I bestowed upon You and that I
Translation: preferred you to all others (for My message).
(42)And cover not Truth with falsehood Explanation:
nor conceal the Truth when ye know (what it These words are recapitulated from ii.40,
is).(43)And be steadfast in prayer; practice which introduced a general account of God’s favours
regular charity; and bow down your heads with to Israel; now we are introduced to a particular
those who bow down (in worship). account of incidents in Israel’s history. Each
Explanation: incident is introduced by the Arabic word “lz”,
60 The argument is still primarily which is indicated in the translation by
addressed to the Jews, but is of universal “Remember”.
application, as in all the teachings of the
Quran. The chief feature of Jewish worship was
and is the bowing of the head.
Translation:
(48)Then guard yourselves against a day
when one soul shall not avail another nor shall
intercession be accepted for her nor shall
Translation: compensation be taken from her nor shall anyone be
(44)Do ye enjoin right conduct on the helped (from outside).
people and forget (to practice it) yourselves and Explanation:
yet ye study the Scripture? Will ye not Before passing to particular incidents, the
understand? conclusion is stated. Be on your guard; do not think
(45)Nay seek (Allah's) help with patient that special favours exampt you from the personal
perseverance and prayer: it is indeed hard except to responsibility of each soul.
those who bring a lowly spirit. 61
Explanation:
The Arabic word Sabr implies many shades
of meaning, which it is impossible to comprehend in Translation:(49)And remember We delivered you
one English word. It implies (1) patience in the from the people of Pharaoh: they set you hard tasks
sense of being thorough, not hasty; (2) patient and punishments slaughtered your sons and let your
perseverance, constancy, steadfastness, firmness of womenfolk live; therein was a tremendous trial from
purpose; (3) systematic as opposed to spasmodic or your Lord.
chance action; (4) a cheerful attitude of resignation Explanation: The bondage of Egypt was indeed a
and understanding in sorrow, defeat, or suffering, as tremendous trial. Even the Egyptians’ wish to spare
opposed to murmuring or rebellion, but saved from the lives of Israel’s females when the males were
mere passivity or listlessness, by the element of slaughtered, added to the bitterness of Israel. Their
constancy or steadfastness. (2.45) hatred was cruel, but their “love”was still more
cruel. About the hard tasks, “They made their lives
bitter with hard bondage, in mortar and in brick, and
Translation:- in all manner of service in the field; all their services,
(46)Who bear in mind the certainty that they wherein they made them serve, was with rigour.”
are to meet their Lord and that they Pharaoh’s taskmasters gave no straw, yet ordered the
AZ EEM are to return to Him. (47)O children of Israelites to make bricks without straw.
English Magazine
2 SEPTEMBER, 2002

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By
Prof. Muhammad Azeem Farooqi Hadith
In the name of Allah the most Gracious, the most Merciful.

Translation:
Also on the authority of Umar ibn al-Khattab 3 Incompetent persons will become administrators
(may Allah be pleased with him). Who said:“ One and rulers.
day while we were sitting with the Messenger of HOW DOES FAITH IN THE
Allah (may the blessings and peace of Allah be DAY OF JUDGMENT EFFECT LIFE
upon him) there appeared before us a man whose A firm belief in the Day of Judgment is
clothes were exceedingly white and whose hair instrumental in moulding the life, character and
was exceedingly black; no signs of journeying were to conduct of a person, according to the tenets of Islam.
be seen on him and none of us knew him. He walked up Some of the beliefs in the doctrine of the occurrence of
and sat down by the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). Resting his the Final Day are as follows:
knees against his and placing the palms of his hands on Man Develops Hatred For Evil:- A believer in the Day
his thighs, he said: O Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) tell me of Judgment knows fully well that all his acts, good or
about the “Hour”. He (PBUH) said The one bad, are being recorded honestly in his book of record
questioned about it knows no. better than the and that on the Day of Judgment, he will be sent to
questioner. He said: Then tell me about its signs. He paradise or thrown in Hell according to his deeds. This
(PBUH) said: That the slave-girl will give birth to her is why a believer in Islam tries his best to do noble
mistress and that you will see the barefooted, naked, deeds and abstains from ignoble or sinful acts.
destitute herdsmen competing in constructing lofty Bravery And Heroism:-A person who has full faith in
buildings. Then he took himself off and I stayed for a the Day of Judgment is fully conscious of the fact that
time. Then he (PBUH) said: O’Umar, do you know who Allah gives him life and He only takes out life of him;
the questioner was? I said: Allah and His Messenger he knows that he has to live in this world for a short
know best. He (PBUH) said: It was Gabriel, who came while only as compared with his life after death. This
to you to teach you your religion.(It was related by belief makes him bold and courageous; he is ever-
Muslim) ready to give his life for righteous cause in the name of
Explanation: Allah.
SIGNS OF THE DAY OF JUDGMENT Patience And Perseverance:-A believer in the Day of
Although the time of the Day of Judgment is Judgment cultivates in himself the qualities of “Sabr”
not known to anybody save Allah, our Holy Prophet or patience, which denotes a cheerful attitude of
(Peace be upon Him) has indicated a number of signs resignation and understanding as opposed to
that indicate that the Last Day is approaching. Some of murmuring and rebellion.
these signs are: Impetus For Spending Money:- The doctrine of the
3 Disobedience to parents and harsh treatment to Day of Judgment makes a true Muslim immune from
them. hoarding of money is not liked by Allah and that a
3 Tampering with trusted deposits singing, dancing person who spends money to please Allah entitles
and revelries will be in abundance. himself for reward on the Final Day.
3 Younger generation will begin abusing their Sense Of Responsibility:- A fear of Allah’s wrath on
ancestors. the Doomsday for sinful or mischievous acts done in
3 The uneducated and the rustics shall capture this world, enables a Muslim to feel his responsibilities
positions of honour and leadership. for doing good to others and for leading a pious and
3 Low persons in society will become owners of noble life. This element of a sublime character is
lofty buildings. possible only if one is conscious of the
reckoning of good or evil deeds on the Day
of Judgment. AZEEM
English Magazine
SEPTEMBER, 2002 3

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HAZRAT ABU(Razi
BAKR SIDDIQUE
Allah Tala Anho) By Prof. Muhammad Azeem Farooqi
Life before Khilafat reluctance and hesitation and tried to enter into an
The first Khalifa, Hazrat Abu Bakr (Razi argument. Abu Bakr (Razi Allah Tala Anho) was the
Allah Tala Anho) was born in the noble and only person who accepted Islam without any
respectable Quraish family of Makkah. He was two reluctance or hesitation and without any argument”.
years and three months younger than the Holy After his conversation, Hazrat Abu Bakr (Razi
Prophet (Peace be upon him). His father was Usman, Allah TalaAnho) dedicated his whole life to the service
surnamed Abu Qahafa and his mother was Salma, of Islam. Many slaves including Bilal who were
surnamed Umm-ul-Khair. The Holy Prophet and Abu persecuted and tortured by their masters for their
Bakr had a common ancestor in Murra. acceptance of Islam were purchased and set free by
When he was born he was taken to the Ka'aba, HazratAbu Bakr (Razi Allah TalaAnho).
dedicated to the gods, and named Abdul Ka'aba. In his He was the first person to confirm the Holy
early years he played with the younger ones of the Prophet's statement regarding his Mairaj and received
camels which earned him the surname of Abu Bakr, the title of Siddiq from the Holy Prophet (Peace be
“the father of the foal of the camel”. upon Him). He accompanied the Holy Prophet at the
He did not receive any formal education; he time of migration from Makkah to Madina and is
was, however, a keen observer. Even before accepting referred to in the Holy Quran in the following words:
Islam, he led a pious and chaste life and never drank “He being the second of the two when they were
wine nor gambled. in the cave -------.” (9:40)
At the age of eighteen, Hazrat Abu Bakr In Madina, Abu Bakr (Razi Allah Tala Anho)
adopted the profession of cloth merchant, which was always stood by the side of Holy Prophet and was his
the family's business. He came to be recognized as one Chief Counsellor. He was present at the Battles of
of the richest merchants of Makkah. Badr, Uhad, Ditch and Hunain as well at the Treaty of
When the Holy Prophet invited people to Hudaibiya. He placed all his wealth at disposal of the
accept Islam, Hazrat Abu Bakr (Razi Allah Tala Anho) Holy Prophet for the construction of a mosque at
first, free, male adult to become a Muslim. After Madina and for the Tabuk expedition. He was
conversation, the Holy Prophet changed his name to appointed as “Ameer-e-Haj” by the Holy Prophet to
Abdullah. After conversation, he began the extension lead the delegation of three hundred Muslims to
of Islam. He persuaded his intimate friends such as perform the Haj according to the Islamic way. He was
Usman, Zubair, Talha, Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Sa'ad appointed as the imam to lead the congregational
bin Abi Waqqas and Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah to accept prayers during the Holy prophet's (Peace be upon him)
Islam. All of them proved to be great assets to Islam. illness. When the news of the holy prophet's death was
This has been confirmed by Gibbon in “Decline and announced, he exercised remarkable self-control and
Fall of the Roman Empire”. resolved the crisis. He declared:
“The moderation and the veracity of Abu Bakr “He who worshipped Muhammad (Peace be
confirmed the new religion and furnished an example upon Him) let him know that Muhammad (Peace be
for invitation.” upon Him) being a mortal is dead; he who worships the
Muir has observed in “life of Muhammad”: Allah of Muhammad (Peace be upon Him), let him
“The faith of Abu Bakr was the greatest know that He lives for ever”.
guarantee of the sincerity of Muhammad (Peace be Hazrat Abu Bakr settled the question as to
upon Him) in the beginning of his career, and indeed, in where the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon Him) should
a modified sense, throughout his life. To have such a be buried. He was one of the ten fortunate Companions
person as a staunch adherent of his claim was for to whom the Holy Prophet blessed as being “Jannati”.
Muhammad (Pease be upon him) a most important In his last address at “Masjid-e-Nabvi, the Holy
step”. Prophet ordered that all doors opening into the mosque
Years later, the Holy Prophet recalling the should be closed except the door leading to the house of
conversion of HazratAbu Bakr said: HazratAbu Bakr (Razi Allah TalaAnho).
AZ EEM “Whenever I offered to Islam to
English Magazine
Character, Habits & Manners:
4 S E P T E M B E R , 2anyone,
002 He always showed some Hazrat Abu Bakr (Razi Allah Tala Anho) was

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extremely simple in his habits. Tender hearted, he About the qualities of Hazrat Abu Bakr, Andre Servier
was easily moved. But at the same time he was firm, has observed this in his book “Islam and the
determined and courageous. He had a very Psychology of the Musalmans”:
sympathetic heart for the poor and the needy. He “He was a man of simple manners and in spite
would go out at night to help the distressed and the of his unexpected elevation lived in poverty. When he
destitute. For sometime after his election, he died, he left behind a worn out garment, a slave and a
continued to maintain himself from his private camel. A true patriarch, after Madina's own heart, he
income. But finding that in looking after his property had one great quality-energy, and he possessed what
and business, he was not able to pay sufficient had given victory to Muhammad, and what was lacking
attention to affairs of the state, he agreed to receive in his enemies an unshakable conviction. He was the
six thousand dirhams annually from the Bait-ul- right man in the right place”.
Maal. On his death-bed, however, he was so Saviour of Islam
disturbed at having taken public money that he He did not merely save Islam in Arabia, he
directed one of his properties to be sold in order to made Islam a world force which successfully
refund to the State the sum he had received. confronted the might of the Persian and Byzantine
He was generous and humble, truthful and Empires. Abu Huraira, an eminent companion of the
faithful. He was very intelligent and blessed with an Holy Prophet, had declared that but for Hazrat Abu
extraordinary memory. About his judgement, Shah Bakr (Razi Allah Tala Anho), Islam would have
Waliullah has observed: disintegrated. His calm judgement and sagacity with a
“He was just like other scholars among the gentle and compassionate heart were of immense
companions in his knowledge of the Quran and the service to the faith of Islam.
Sunnah. In what he excelled over others was that His contribution towards preserving the Holy
whenever he was faced with a difficult problem, he Quran is also very great. When a large number of
would exercise his judgement and deeply ponder over reciters of the Holy Quran were killed in the Battle of
it.” Yamama, Hazrat Abu Bakr (Razi Allah Tala Anho)
According to Imam Ahmad, Hazrat Ali had took steps to protect and preserve the Holy Quran by
said that Abu Bakr was the best person after the Holy instructing Zaid, son of Sabit, one of the Holy Prophet's
Prophet (Peace be upon Him). The Holy scribes, to collect the written copies of the various
Prophet himself said that if all the virtues were surahs from the Companions of the Holy Prophet and
catalogued, they would be sixty-three in number and arrange them in the form of a book. In this way, the
Abu Bakr possessed all the sixty-three virtues. He is word of Allah was preserved for all times for the
also reported to have said: guidance of mankind till eternity.
“Verily, Abu Bakr is the best of human beings For all these services, Hazrat Abu Bakr (Razi
except the Prophet.” Allah Tala Anho) holds a unique place in the history of
About the greatness of Hazrat Abu Bakr the Prophet Islam.
said:
“Never has the sun risen or set on a person, CONDOLENCE
W
except a prophet, greater than Abu Bakr.” e sympathize with Prof.
Some of the western writers have also paid Muhammad Azeem Farooqi &
glowing tributes to Hazrat Abu Bakr. In the Sahibzada Rafique Ahmad Mujadadi
Encyclopaedia of Islam, it is said: at the death of Hazrat Allama Peer
Muhammad Saeed Ahmed
“His was a gentle character. During recitation Mujadadi. It is a great loss of the
of the Quran he shed tears, a thing that made greater Muslims of the whole world. May
impression on many, but especially on the women, and Allah shower His blessing upon him.
as his daughter related, he wept with joy at the news
that he would accompany Muhammad as companion
on emigration- -------, no sacrifice was too great in his
eyes for the sake of the new faith. Thus, it came about 65-1st-Z, Peoples Colony, Gujranwala-Pakistan
that of his considerable fortune estimated at 40,000 Tel # +92-300-9641756 Fax # +92-431-253630
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AZEEM
English Magazine
E-mail: azeementerprises@hotmail.com SEPTEMBER, 2002 5
THE GREAT PERSONALITY OF MY GUIDE
Hazrat Allama MUHAMMAD SAEED AHMAD Mujadadi
G reat persons are not born everyday. The earth
has to wait for a long time. Thousands of
babies are born daily. But they are not Allama
Iqbal, Quaid-I-Azam, Mujadad Alf Sani or Shah Wali
Ullah. Such are very few personalities for those,
of Hazrat Sahib. Hazrat Baba Samasi washed all the ill-
thinking and hesitation of mine by Zikar-ai-Ilahi and
his great attention. When I told all this to my great
guide, he at once handed me twenty-five forms of
membership. And now, with the grace of Allah, there
human beings have to wait. are at least twenty-five Madaris of women wing where
The baby who was born in 1943 in the simple thousands of girls are given Islamic education and are
house of Maulana Laal Din shone like a bright star in trained for practical life. Due to the kind training of
the constellation of the world. This child belonged to Hazrat Sahib very expert and competent lady teachers
the beautiful land of Kashmir. His family migrated are working in these institutions. I remember the
from Kashmir valley to a village of Saray Alam Gir, function of inauguration of Jamia Tanzeem-ul-Islam
District Jehlam. for Women Peoples Colony. Suddenly Qibla Hazrat
His forefathers were related to the great Sahib had to go to Rawalpindi for some preaching
companion of Holy Prophet (PBUH) Hazrat Dahia purpose on the very day. I was worried, what would be
Kalbi (God be pleased with him). It is said that Hazrat happened. He telephoned from Pindi and prayed for
Dahia Kalbi was a handsome personality among his our institute and ordered his Mrs. to join us and start the
companions. So the beauty of the companion (God be teaching of the Holy Quran. This is just an example of
pleased with him) is found in Hazrat Sahib. As far as his kindness for all of us. He provided us funds to
his education is concerned, he got his master degree in popularize our institutes.
Islamic & Arabic education. His teacher in the Holy Even he prepared all the banners of Jamia
Quran is Hazrat Allama Abdul Ghafoor Hazarwi and in Tanzeem-ul-Islam for women Nila Chauk.
Hadith, Hazrat Allama Sayyad Ahmad Saeed Kazmi Jamia Riaz-ul-Madina G.T road is a bright
who is called as Ghazalia- Dauran. Besides them, he example of his struggles. Darul Alum Naqashbandia
was the great admirer of Sahibzada Faizul Hassan and Aminia Model Town is also founded by our great
he spent twenty five years of his life in the kind guide. Besides this, he established Sunni Jihad Council
companionship of this great personality Hazrat nd
in Rawalpindi on 2 March 1992.
Khawaja Qmar- ud-Din Sialwi called him “Abul Bian” As far as his spiritual relations are concerned,
that is part of his name. When we discuss his preaching he received his spiritual guidance from Hazrat
activities, we find him as an organization in himself. A Khawaja Muhammad Ali Naqashbandi Mujadadi, a
great scholar of Shariah, the bearer of spiritualism, special successor of Alo-Mahaar Sharif. Khawaja
punctual of Sunnah, a complete guide a great lover of Sahib used to say, “if Allah will ask me on the Day of
the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), a great warrior Judgment, what have you brought from the world, I
in his path, an expert debator, and a sublime writer. All will answer that I have brought Muhammad Saeed
these qualities and features are combined in his single Ahmad. Due to his highly spiritual and scholarly
personality. abilities, great internal and external saints bestowed
upon him the caliphate of Qadria, Chistia,
In 1980, he founded Almi Idara Tanzeem-ul- Soherwardia,Awaisia and Shazlia etc.
Islam to organize the youth for scholarly, ideological Among these saints is Sahibzada Faizul
and spiritual training. The very organization is working Hassan, of Alo Mahaar Sharif, Hazrat Shaikh Abul
effectively in Australia, Malaysia, America and other Noon Shazli, Hazrat Abdul Ghafoor Hazarwi, Hazrat
Arabic countries. It is rightly said, “Men are not great Muhammad Ghulam Farid Shah Mujadadi of Nathial
but their deeds make them so”. Sharif Dist.Atak.
In 1989, Hazrat Allama Muhammad Saeed And besides them, there are many other saints
Ahmad Mujadadi started women wing of Almi Idara who bestowed upon him all the teachings of their links.
Tanzeem-ul-Islam and appointed me as convenior. I
hesitated to work for that. I was surprised when a great (To be continued)
Naqasbandi Saint, Hazrat Baba Samasi
AZ EEM ordered me in dream to obey the orders
English Magazine By: Prof. Mussarat Azmat Farooqi.
6 SEPTEMBER, 2002

Azeem Educational Conference


By Prof. M. Riaz Gohar

W e live in the ocean of men. As compared to


the past, ours is a very dense population.
The people though they are restricted to
different geological and ideological boundaries, have
many common features and characteristics. These
The people in the second category are the
“Specific” people. They are the blessed and bestowed
ones and deserve the title of the Caliphs of Almighty
Allah.
Now another aspect is that the common people
features and characteristics may be of love, are bound to die and with the passage of time even their
brotherhood, or may be malice, hypocrisy, and so on. memories and encroached from the minds of the living
But if we try to survey mankind in this prospect, we'll ones. But the “Specific People” are their to live for ever
have to make a long list and hundreds of pages will be as they sacrify themselves in the way of their Lord long
consumed to classify them. Instead, if we look at before the arrival of death. So death makes no
mankind from another angle, we may smartly difference for them. This point has been very
categories it in two groups. First group consists of emphatically described even in the Holy Quran.In
those people who come at this earth for their own sake. other words we may say:
They do different chores of duties just to entertain
themselves. They, in other words, are the people who
come here to enjoy the fruit of the planted trees. They
have a little tendency towards growing fruit giving Such people as have love for others are not
trees. They sit under the trees with ripened fruit and eat bound to die. They live in immortality and their names
it with great relish notwithstanding the fact that they are repeated by millions and billions people daily.
should also sow the seeds of some new trees for the
others.
Secondly, there are the people who are created Now giving one dimension to the topic, I say
with some specific aim- the aim of planting, planting, not speak about the first group of people, they're the
growing, nourishing and watering the new trees. These temporary ones and they are busy in the worldly
people don't care for the thing that they will either live pursuits and preoccupations. They even don't have a
so long to eat the fruit or not. They are actually the thought of their own selves what they would think
selfless people and they feel delight in self-denial and about the others.
self-sacrificing acts. For such people a Punjabi poet They are in other words the burden on the earth
very aptly remarks and the second group is that one that has accepted the
burden and responsibility of Caliph-hood of the
universe.
They suffer all the odd behaviour of the others Among such the great men as shoulder, the
yet they remain firm on their footings. They are never responsibility of growing new plants, making new
to submit or yield and in this way they don't care for the grounds, serving the others and earning the title of
hurdles and obstacles on the way. Saints is a person namely Hazrat Peer Saeed Ahmed
Mujaddadi (R.A). He remained with his physical
structure for a long time, planted new seedlings,
In other words these are the very people who nourished them and made them the strong trees. He
can be called the crown of creation. Although they are himself was a person never to be forgotten. Thousands
always in smaller number as compared to the former of people sat in his shadow ate delicious fruits, slept in
group.Now if we speak in another way, we can say that his shelter with peaceful dreams. He taught his children
the people of the first group are the common people. worldly as well as spiritual mysteries. Just a few days
They are always in majority and they've been created before he among us but now he has shifted his lodging
for the world and its luxuries. But the people to the next world.
constituting the second group are those who are always He is now making a peaceful rest in his
in minority but they're the very people for whom the heavenly home. He remained a bright sun on the world
world had been made. TariqAziz says, AZEEM
of mysticism and still he is. Though he is English Magazine
physically absent yet his spirituality is S E P T E M B E R , 2 0 0 2 7

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still here and we can feel it and see by our inward WHAT IS UNEMPLOYMENT &
senses. The congregation at his funeral ceremony is a
HOW TO CURB IT?

I
clear proof of his glory and grandeur. He served the
Muslim Ummah even at the direst periods of his life. n this modern and scientific age where we are at the
He was really an undaunted person and he never peak of progress, we have to face a lot of problems
compromised over principles. Even in the later years of but some are very serious and alarming. In those
his life, he fought bravely against his consumption and problems the major one is unemployment. That is the
he always gave the lesson of patience. Egoism is root cause of many social evils.
considered a poison in the mystic world and he'd Although the unemployment is the problem of
curbed his egoism at the very early age of his life. He almost every country of the world but its ratio keeps on
had, if something of this kind, it was self-respect. fluctuating with the economic and industrial
Whenever, I go to his shrine, I really feel myself still development of that particular country. In a developing
sitting there with his lulling charities and sitting there country like Pakistan, this has become a major
with his lulling charities and consoling hands patting economic and social issue and with the passage of
on my back, advising me to be careful in my life. I've every day, its intensity is increasing.
within me the countless jewels of memories about him. According to the economic survey of Pakistan, the
number of jobless has crossed the figure of 24 lacks.
This number of unemployment is alarming.
He was really a versatile person and every Now the point is that, what are the major
aspect of his life opens onto me a new chapter and a reasons that cause the unemployment?
new ground of thought. His power of speech, his There are many causes but the major is rapid
simplicity of style, lucidity of words, preciseness of growth of population. The ratio of growth is 3.5 and we
thought, logicality of arguments, his untiring don't have resources to deal with such a great number
enthusiasm, his grip over events, his of population. Due to the lack of resources a large
comprehensiveness, his pithy language and his mystic number of our population is uneducated and un-skilled.
touch to the subject, all are really worth praising. In the We don't have resources to provide them basic needs of
firmament of the great person who may fill his gap. life. Most of them are living in a very miserable
W h a t I s a y , w h a t y o u s a y , condition and place known as “KatchiAbadi”.
How speak his glory in a day! Another reason of unemployment is that about
A long life he spent in lead 70% of our population is engaged with agriculture.
Such a leader really my need. Most of them are busy in their work only seasonal. And
the rest of time, they are jobless and unemployed.
Hidden unemployment is also present in agriculture.
They have no opportunities to raise their income.
Hence the majority of them remain unemployed.
Due to population, our villages grow into towns, towns
grow into cities and cities grow into big cities. The
demands of the cities are increasing day by day. To
cope with demand the owners of factories and mills
adopted the way of automatic and labour-saving
devices.
Automation really fulfills the demands but the
labour-saving device has made a large number of
populations unemployed. Due to poor economic
conditions, many mills have shut downed that make a
lot of people unemployed.
The main reason of this problem is our
By Marceline Fareed educational system. In our country, we have “Lord
M.A English Mecaly's” system. A British system that just wants to
make people with limited thinking. This system can
AZ EEM
English Magazine only give us a Baboo (Clerk). When the students with
8 SEPTEMBER, 2002 Continued On Page No.14

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Let Us Learn English Langu By Prof. Muhammad Azeem Farooqi
In Religious Congregations or Moral-Ethics ' East or west, home is the best.
' There might be something wrong at the Bottom. ' His bread is buttered on both sides.
' Take care of the present; tomorrow will take ' Two and two make four.
care of itself. ' They love least who let others know their love.
' Time and tide wait for none. ' Man is paragon of animal he is not paragon of
' Time/Riches has wing and flies away. perfection.
' Hold the time by for the forelock. ' Practice makes a man prefect.
' Two heads are better than one. ' Christmas comes but once a year.
' Life is a painful journey, bear it courageously ' Honey is not for ass's mouth.
and patiently. ' Nearer the Church, farther from God.
' All praise be to Allah, Lord of the of the worlds, ' Athing of beauty is joy for.
the Beneficent, the Merciful, Lord of the Day of ' Think clearly, say plainly you have clearly
Judgement. We only worship you and we only conceived and good style will automatically
seek your help. Show us the straight path. The result.
path of those who were blessed by You: neither of ' Studies serve for delight for ornaments and for
those who earned Your anger and nor of those ability.
who went astray. (Al Quran) ' Hurry spoils the cury.(Haste makes waste.)
' Honour your children and beautify their ' Every tide has its ebse.
manners. (Hadith) ' Blood is thicker than water.
' Wedlock is my way; he who turns away from ' A pitcher that goes often to the well, must break
my way is not mine. one day.
' Paradise lies under the feet of your mother. ' It takes two to make a quarrel.
' Men seek a woman's hand for four things; her ' Ablind man's wife needs no paint.
Beauty, her wealth, her family and her piety ' Silence is half consent.
but you should give preference to her piety. ' Society moulds a man.
(Hadith) ' Love and a red nose can't be hid.
' It would be awfully good of you. ' To owe is to woe.
' Man is paragon of animals. He is not paragon of ' Birds of a feather flock together.
perfection. ' An uninvited guest is seldom welcomed.
' Life is a painful journey, bear it courageously and ' The butcher looked for his knife when he had it,
patiently. in his mouth.
' Alow loorn man feels proud of honour. ' Agood name is better than bags of gold.
' Don't tease others for nothing. ' The fox preys farthest from its den.
' Never deceive/ chat/ betray. ' Adrowning man catches at a straw.
' God is Omni-Potent and Omnipresent. ' Early to bed and early to rise makes a man
' She recites the holy Quran and prays five times a healthy wealthy and wise.
day. ' Money attracts money.
' Don't make fun of aged people. ' Asweet tongue is a good weapon.
' Harsh words create hatred whereas gentle words ' Better give wool than the whole sheep.
can win hearts and sympathies. Unity, faith and ' Pleasure in mine.
discipline is key to success. ' Long live Pakistan.
' Do in Rome as the Romans do. ' None can serve two masters.
' Lost reputation is seldom regained. ' Debt is a great curse.
' Do not put off till tomorrow what you can do ' Ahealthy body is necessary for sound mind.
today. ' Beauty is truth, truth lead. That is all ye know
For References Purpose beauty on earth and all ye need to know.
' Something is better than nothing. ' AZEEM
A book of verses underneath the English Magazine
bough a jug of wine, a leaf of bread S E P T E M B E R , 2 0 0 2 9

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and thou; Beside me singing in the winter, o, ' It’s Sunday, Tomorrow will be Monday.
wilderness were paradise enou. ' See that you don't hurt yourself.
General Information ' Time passes quickly.
' How are you? ……I'm quite hale and hearty with ' He could not speak for fear.
the grace of God. ' He came round after a little while.
' How do you do? What are you? What is your ' There is no alternative to it.
father? ' I am dying with hunger.
' My watch gains time. ' Hearing this, I heaved a sigh of relief.
' My watch loses time. ' This summer. is unfounded
' My watch has two hands. ' The ship sank and many people died.
' Here he comes. ' You have spoken after my own heart.
' Why are you so sad/glad/jully. ' There was a defending noise.
' He works round the clock. ' He takes me for his brother.
' What a beautiful scene it is. ' This reminded me a saying.
' Reading maketh a full conference a ready man a ' My life is in danger.
writing an exact man. ' Walk here quickly.
' Distance lends a charm. ' I can't admit this.
' Let us see which way the wind blows. ' Why do you look so nervous?
' The dead are soon forgotten. ' It haven't ridden a bicycle for longer I can
' New lords, new laws. remember.
' There might be something wrong at the bottom. ' I haven't eaten any meat since I was a boy.
' It would be awfully good of you. For Requests or Pardons
' Reading maketh a full man conference a ready ' Would you please help me? I beg your pardon.
man a writing an exact man. (Excuse me). Pardon this freedom.
' All art is an expression of life in forms of truth ' What is the time by your watch please?
and beauty. ' Does your watch keep the correct time?
' A play ought to be just and lively image of the ' How old are you?
human natural representing its passions and its ' What is he/she to you?
humours and the changes of fortune to which is ' Help yourself please.
subjected for the delight and instruction of ' Would you have another one(anything else.)
mankind. ' What brings you here?
' Literature must voice the past reflect the present ' Thank you, see you again.
and mould the future. ' Have a good luck.
' What do I need? ' Can you speak English easily?
' How much is this watch? ' As soon as possible.
' Even walls have ears. ' As early as possible.
' Where have you been so long? ' Don't mention it.
' What is he to you? ' May I know your name please?
' Your words came true. ' Whom do you want to see?
' What are you to do? ' I have given you much trouble.
' For how long have you been waiting? ' Very sorry to keep you waiting
' Are you hungry?/ I am very hungry/ thirsty. ' May I introduce my friend to you?
' How many brothers and sisters are you? ' What would you like to drink?
' Who does knock at the door? ' I should like a cup of tea.
' When are you going out? ' Please help yourself to lunch.
' Let's go out, wait for me, what for? ' Don't trouble your-self, please.
' How is the weather? The noted above proverbs and sayings must be
' It 's very fine / cloudy / pleasant / rainy etc. used and applied very tactfully and in a natural way.
' What are you looking for? One can take help from any experienced English
' It is too late. teacher for their deft and impressive usage.
AZ EEM ' Your visit are few far.
English Magazine
10 SEPTEMBER, 2002

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The Holy Hymn And unknown in a very known valley It makes ease and us happy
My special adore I pay A poor little child In solitude grant sweet recreation
With a short, sad life It does please as gentle breeze
In every night and day! Living in a death valley, Wise men gain clue of meditation
Our sorrows You diminish! Can he hope for life? Some say, some say every thing
Our cares You finish! Standing near the graves of his dears, Some say, they don't know.
In tearful eyes I say Can you believe? Marceline Fareed ( M.A English)
Make us happy and gay! That he is left only with his dreams
I stand thus at bay! and a short sad life,
Laying his head near the grave of his MY CHILDHOOD DAYS
And wait Your special ray. mother, M y c h i l d h o o d d a y s
The Holy Encomium Can he fall the past sweet life I m i s s y o u r g a y s
I, in the field of sins With roses for mother, Full of games and toys
Second to none! And candies for his sisters, A l l g i r l s a n d b o y s
Can he still smile?
Before the arrival of death With empty belly and torn clothes, I remember the nights
The holy deeds none! Can he survive? Filled with moonlight
The angles on both deeds Can other believe that it's a sad story Under the open sky
Made me fun! of an unknown, who remained All kids play and fly
Countless worries seemed ahead unknown? Ch ildhood is un forgettab le
Who died of hunger and cold?
Great faults I'd done! Near the graves of his dears,
Alas! It is not reversible
All of my closest chums! A homeless little child, W h e r e v e r I m i s s i t
Stood silent at shun With a short sad life, I want to go back to it.
The backward move I thought, In the very known valley, of Kashmir.
But could have no run. By Faiza Sarfraz ( B.A Final year) SUMMER SEASON
The heart of mine shattered Hot summer go, I do pray
Under each sorrow of ton! “Cast Away” Send heavy clouds and gray
Nearer was to be helled, I relieve the night Wet the soil in the coal rain
Grant us freshness of the brain
For my every cun! The endless night Cool rainy season is the best
But suddenly I was mercied, … Of betrayal For some it is like a test
By a dazzling sun,
When the stars that once I really enjoy it to the fill
It was my own 'Muhammad' Not caring about the kitchen bill
(PBUH) Shone down on me O ! M y G od th a nk s f or r a i n
Neither priest nor nun! consistently. For refreshing heart and brain
By M.Riaz Gohar Directed their light Good-bye a rainy season
Their ever so precious light Thanks coming for a great reason.
We The False Muslims To forbidden skies
(A Message For The Generation) FRIENDSHIP
Who are we? To this heart I ask,
Forbidden nights Friendship is a lovely gift of God
Are we Muslims or is this just a mask? I will not intrude It's not upon everyone bestowed
We are Muslims but only by name, Please exclude
To face this truth is a crying shame. Me Good friends are very hard to find
The way to sing and dance and do your hair, Only given to the heart which is kind
And about Islam? Do you really care?
Eternally
You drink in fashion and European styles, The stars are years alone. I am the one granted this gift
To come back in a journey of miles. By Maliha Hamid ( B.A Final year) Tr u l y i t h a s g i v e n m e a l i f t
To turn on the video to spend the time,
Opening the Holy Quran won't be a crime. Friend of mine is a model of modesty
At 10.00 A.M goes off your alarm,
LOVE She is the person full of qualities
Perhaps love is like an ocean
Saying your morning prayers won't do you Deep and bright peace of mind
harm. It is valuable in all tradition
If you ask me to explain
The chapter of your life is yet to continue, Not all but same do find The words aren't enough
There's still time to find the true Muslim in you! For few flocks love has no beauty I d o c l a i m .
By Fauzia Anwar (4th year) They have no time for the dear ones
They just take it as a duty SummerFareed
Days AZEEM
An Unknown Blessed are those who love someone
By Marceline English Magazine
Homeless in his homeland, Oh! M.A
Summer
Englishdays SEPTEMBER, 2001
21

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Let's Learn Computer (By Prof. Muhammad Azeem Farooqi)
Q:- Define Different Windows Elementary Images? your applications.
Ans:- Logo------It is a running line blow the taskbar Q:- Windows Applications
which reflect the process of loading windows in the Ans:- Programs that adhere to windows conventions
machine. are windows applications. These conventions describe.
Dialog Box-----It appears if you are part of any Type and style of window
network. Arrangement and style of menus
Give password in this dialog box for onward working Use of the keyboard and mouse
on system. Format for screen image display
Desktop------- The display screen upon which icons The Windows graphical use interfaces use both
(shortcuts), windows, background & so are displayed a keyboard and a point-and draw device for input. The
is known as desktop. point-and draw device is often a mouse or some other
Taskbar ----- The taskbar positioned at the bottom of devices. Such devices are also called Cursor Control
the screen provides a constant view of which. Devices (C.C.Ds).
applications are running on the system. It may be Working with the Keyboard
classified into two parts, one left and other right side. # Enter text as needed
START button, pictures of short cut and icons present #Activate the current menu bar by tapping theAlt key
on left side and Time. #Enter the underlined letter of the menu to chose that
Volume control etc on right side also called System option
Tray. #Use the arrow keys to highlight menu option in an
Title bar ------ The title bar displayed along the top of active menu
almost all program, folder and dialog box windows. It #Use the short cut key, which can be a key or a key
is used to display information such as the name of the combination
application and the documents you are work on. It has Tool Tip
maximize, minimize restore and close buttons to size When we touch the cursor an any Icon on the
your application facility. desktop, the slide blinked shows its name or feature
Scroll Bars----- There are two scroll bars displayed called tool tip.
along the bottom and right side of the window. By Icon
using the scroll bars it is possible to move to any The graphical representation of a Window
position within a document and also work on a element.
document many time bigger than your physical screen Kinds of Icon
size. Application Icon An active application window can be
Tool Bar------ It is just below the title bar which shows minimized to a button on the taskbar there by making it
the different tools applied in the application. It inactive. The application icon, usually a graphic
provided added information. rendering of the software package's logo, is positioned
Text Boxes----- It allow entering text into dialog e.g. on the button.. Point and click on the button icons to
run. restore; the window and the application to active status
Drop down List Boxes------ It will drop down list of Short Cut Icon A short cut icon to any application
options. document or printer can be positioned on the desktop,
Check Box------ It allows the selection of one or more in a folder or on a short cut bar. The short cut icon has an
time. arrow on its lower left corner. Short cuts are clicked to
Radio Buttons---- These allows a single selection from begin an application.
a range of options. Document Icon The active document window which
Tabs----- Dialog box have tabs for further categories. is a window within an application window can be
List Boxes----- A list box presents a pick list of entries minimized to a document icon within an application's
on screen that can be selected by clicking the mouse workspace.
over the required entry. Disk Drive Icon The disk drive icon graphically
Command Icons These provide a represents several disk drive options, floppy, hard,
AZ EEM shortcut to advanced features within
English Magazine network or CD Rom.
12 SEPTEMBER, 2002

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network or CD Rom. Viewing Windows:- Arrangement of Windows through
Moving on Windows on the Interface Terminating an Taskbar. The Windows environment lets you view
application and a window session performs three multiple applications in window on the desktop
operations before ending a window session. display. Once open, a window can be resized,
Save Your Work The save option in the File menu minimized (and restored), maximized (and restored)
updates the existing file to reflect the changes made and finally closed. Essentially any applications
during the session. Save-as option allows user to save software for the Windows environment can be:
the current file under another file menu. Viewed and run in a window the shape and size
Close all open Windows of which is determined by the user
Shut-down Windows Run full-screen (maximized), that is, filling the
Menus entire screen, with no other application windows or
Menus Bar: It is just below the title bar. The menu bar icons showing.
lists the menus available in the application. Choosing When multiple applications are running, the
an option from the menu bar results in a pull-down user can use the Move and Resize capabilities to
menu or drop down menu or pop-out menu. arrange and size the windows to meet viewing needs.
Menu It provides different options for a working in the The user can request that the document windows be
application like File menu have all commands or automatically presented as cascading windows or tiled
options which or compulsory for file development. windows. Choose these options from the Windows
Certain Conventions Apply To User Interactions menu option in the menu bar.
With Any Menu:- Right click on taskbar. The menu bar will open
Choosing a menu option followed by an arrow like these options.
(a) results in pop-out menu also called sub-menu. Tool Bar
Choosing a menu option followed by an arrow results Adjust Date /Time
in pop-out menu also called sub-menu. Cascade Windows
Only the boldface options can be chosen The Win Vertically
Dimmed options are not available in an Edit menu if Min all Windows
nothing had been selected to be copied. A user- Properties
recorded check mark(a ) to the left of the menu option Firstly open two Windows at a time
indicates that the option is active and applies to any To view these windows differently
related commands. After Right Click, the pop-up will · Click the Win Horizontally option. Both
open called context sensitive menu. windows will aligned horizontally.
Ways to Choose Menu There are three ways to choose · Click the Win Vertically option. Both windows
menu. will set vertically side by side.
· Point and click the mouse on the option Now Click both windows and open again. You
· Enter the under lined letter key of the menu will see that both will open as they will open as
option in combination with Alt key on a they were closed.
keyboard e.g.Alt + v for the view menu. · Click the Cascade option. The Cascade
· Once the menu is activated (by mouse click or option overlaps open document windows so
keyboard ) you can use the keyboard cursor that all title bars are visible.
control keys to select (Highlight the desired · Click on Min all Window by which you can
option and tap the enter key to choose it). minimized the windows.
Q:- Explain Window Taskbar? · Click Taskbar Properties and adjust the taskbar.
Ans:- Typically a windows session begins with the · It can be hide from the screen. After
Start button in the taskbar which lies below the clicking,Dialog box will appear which have
desktop. two tabs named General andAdvanced.
The taskbar, which can be displayed all the · It can open from the click Start, go to Setting
time or hidden as desired, show what programs are and in its sub-menu select Taskbar and Start
running and available for use. Click the Start button in Menu Properties also.
the taskbar to display the Start menu and open the door · There will be preview on the top
to the resources on your PC. AZEEM
of the window. Check boxes are English Magazine
SEPTEMBER, 2001
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on the below. Use these checks and watch the results you want to copy or move, then click Edit and Copy.
carefully. To move Edit and Cut. After that, open disk or
Adjustment of Time and Date: folder where you want to copy or move and then on the
Right click on Clock on System Tray in the Edit, click Paste.Another method is by right clicking.
Taskbar and adjust the time and date. Deleting Go to My Computer, select a file or folder that
Volume Control: you wish to delete and then click File and click Delete
Left click to adjust volume as you desired or option on by Right Clicking you can delete after
mute it. Right click on vol. Icon and adjust volume selection the file or folder.
features. Move Folder By Dragging Go to My Computer, Find
Q:- DRIVERS, FOLDERS& FILES. item and make sure where you want to drag. Press and
Ans:- What is driver? hold down the mouse button while dragging the file or
When accessing a hard disk, whether it is local folder the new location.
to your machine or perhaps located on a network.
Windows 2000 uses a system of drive letters to serve a
logical printer to the different physical drives you have Continued From Page No.8
access to. There are many drives in the computer. To
identify these we named them like A,B,C,D,E,F …. graduate degrees come in practical life,
For example, we can insert two cassettes in Tape they just have degrees and nothing else.
recorder windows at a time, one in A window and When with these degrees (On which they
another on B window. In the same way we named our have spent a lot of money and time) they
drives in the computer. search a job and find the board of 'No
Adrive for floppy, Vacancy' they became irritate. Some of
C drive for hard disk having large capacity to them commit suicide and some of them
store data say 20 GB, we will partition it for quick and indulge in social evils and drugs (Anti
safe storage and named these partitions as C,D,E,. Go SocialActivities).
to “MY COMPUTER” for looking these different In our country, we must pay
drives called Disk Drive Icons. attention towards technical education. So,
From each drive letter, it is possible to access we can provide to our society skilled
all of your files stored on that particular physical drive. members. We must educate our students
Folders & Files If all of the files were held together in mentally, physically and spiritually so; they
one place on each drive the system would be very can become useful members of society and
difficult to use because of the sheer number of files can really work for the betterment of
involved. To help organize your files it is possible to society.
create folders (also referred to as directories) to help To over come this major problem,
divide and even sub-divide to files stored within the we must pay attention towards small and
various logical drives available. Folder can contain cottage industries. Government must
files, programs and other folders. provide loans for these industries on easy
Name the File When you created a file in Win, you can conditions.
name it up to 225 characters including spaces and They must be provided exemption
periods (full stops). In the original version of MS from various taxes and other utilities that
Windows file names were limited to only eight are necessary for the promotion of an
characters. industry.
Opening a File or Folder Click on My Computer, At the end the most important thing
Click the driver that the item you want open is on or is that we must develop our economic
right click and click the open with option. system according to Islam. It is the only and
Creating a New Folder Folders may be created within the best way to solve our problems and to
the Explored directory on the desktop. Click the File, develop us as a great Muslim nation.
then Folder and type the folder name or Right Click and
New and Folder. By Tayyaba Khan.( M.A Economics )
Copying or Moving Folder
AZ EEM
English Magazine Click My Computer, click File or folder
14 SEPTEMBER, 2002

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WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE By
Ikram-ul- Haq

“WRITER FOR ALL TIMES”


“My words fly up thoughts remain below”
M.A English
(Rawalpindi)
magnificent poetry but a profound insight into human
Words without thought never to heaven's go” nature.
Very well said, this beautiful verse is spoken by Shakespeare is man of Renaissance. Drama
one of the Shakespeare's character in his play Hamlet, was the chief glory of the Renaissance. Its central
he says that my lips utter the prayers but my heart is not figure was decidedly Shakespeare. Ben Johnson and
with the words I utter such petitions are there, which Marlow were close rivals but outclassed by
are not the outcome of true penitence, God never Shakespeare whose genius is reflected in vitality,
designs to hear. Ironically, he wants to say that God is versatility, dramatic technique and the “Bewitching
always eager to listen the prayer that come out from music” of his poetry. It has been said in Renaissance
sincere heart. that best study of life is the study of mankind, the
William Shakespeare, poet and playwright, is capability of human soul is more than universe, there is
said to be the world favourite author, no other writer's micro cosmos in human intellect, and spirit of the
plays have been produced so often and read so widely Renaissance touches Shakespeare.
in so different countries. His reputation as perhaps the Observation and imagination made his writing
greatest of all dramatists was not achieved during his ever lasting. He was the man of great genius and his
life time, though his contemporary, Ben Johnson genius was certainly shaped and enriched by external
touchingly and in admiration described him “Not of an influence. Two outward influences were most
age but for all times”. Needless to point out that Ben powerful in developing his genius- the little village of
Johnson, himself a poet and playwright of repute, was Stratford and the great city of London. In Stratford, he
also a great scholar of Latin and Greek. learned to know the natural man in his natural
Why we call Shakespeare “writer for all times” environment; in London, he learned to know the social,
that is because he depicts the eternal human truth by the artificial man in his most unnatural surroundings.
presenting human nature in its original shape, name of John Dryden the pioneer of new Classical era in
characters and places may be different but the general the history of English literature wrote “He was the man
behaviour of man is common, the sands of time cannot who of all modern and perhaps, ancient poets had the
change the general characteristics of human nature. In largest and most comprehensive soul. All the images of
this connection we can call Shakespeare a great nature were still present to him and he drew not
psychologist. He has a great and deep knowledge of laboriously but luckily; when he describes any thing,
human nature. He knows that how man reacts and you more then see it, you feel it too. Those who accuse
thinks in certain situation. He is a great dramatist and him to have wanted learning give him the greater
great poet, so great that we can all of us find something commendation: he was naturally learned; he needed
that we want in him. not to spectacles of books to read nature; he looked
William Shakespeare was born at Stratford-on- inwards and found her there”.
Avon in 1564 and died in 1616. He began writing at an Pope asserted that Shakespeare was not an
early age and had established a reputation for himself imitator but an instrument of Nature. He did not speak
by acting and writing plays. His early works included for Nature; rather it was Nature that speaks through
the poems “Venus and Adonis”(1593) and “The Rape him.
of Lucrece”(1594). The controversial sonnet “To The “Nature himself was proud of his designs
Dark Lady” appeared in 1609. He acted in Ben And joy'd to wear the dressing of his lines”
Johnson's “Every Man in his Humour” and probably More than a century ago, in an outburst in
played the part of the Ghost in his own 'Hamlet'. The praise of his hero, Thomas Carlyle exclaimed, “ The
18th century did not think much of Shakespeare as a Indian Empire will go, at any rate some day but this
dramatist and his plays were adapted and changed to Shakespeare does not go, he lasts for ever with us, we
suit the taste of the age. However, the 19th century saw a cannot give up Shakespeare”.
reaction in his favoure and modern critics agree that he T.S. Eliot the pioneer of twentieth century
is the world greatest dramatist; his knowledge of men literature has once said “Shakespeare and Dante divide
and women is unequalled. Not only, does he give us the world between them; there is no English AZEEM Magazine
third” SEPTEMBER, 2001
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Another reason to call Shakespeare the writer of all ages figures of art and poetry: like Cervantes's Don Quixote
is the quality of negative capability, the objective and Goethe's Faust. He creates an impression that if we
submission of things, without any effort to intellectualise are to be kept in similar situations we are likely to act to
them into something else. It is a capacity for objectivity them in the same way in which Hamlet reacts to his
in the midst of terrible personal suffering, and the predicaments. Stratford Brooke says “Wherever persons
capacity to come to terms with the misery, not through of this type exist in poverty or in riches among peasants
fact and reason but through an understanding of its true or princes, we find Hamlet and they find themselves in
nature. It may be inadequately called acceptance. It Hamlet. “Macbeth is indeed the tragedy of unchecked
involves the ability to identify with the subject of one's will, destroy itself, as Hamlet is the tragedy of unready
poetry or art, Shakespeare could enter and merge into the will waste itself.
personality of hear in his madness or the clown in his fun- Shakespeare deals with the entire length and
fury. It is what makes his drama great. He, of all great breadth of human life and character in all its complicity
poets possessed the “Negative capability” to create a and variety. According to a critic, “He sweeps with the
logo or an imager, dark villainy or pure innocence with hand of a master, the varied experience of human life
equal perfection. from lowest note to the very top of its compass, frame the
His characters are alive and reflection of life, life sportive childish treble of Mimilius and the pleading
and nature are same before him. The struggle between boyish tones of Prince Arthur up to the scepter haunted
good and evil forces is the basic theme of his plays; he terrors of Macbeth, the tropical passion of Othello, the
presents ancient theme into different angles. The plot of agonized senses tortured spirit of Hamlet, the sustaining
the story is not as important as his theme regarding time, and sustained titanic force and tragic pathos of King
beauty and love. The feeling of happiness and grief is as Lear.
deep as universe itself. His plays are shining like light, Shakespeare's plays are of universal significance
the light of truth, which is the secret of life. He is a man of and highly superior because of his wonderful poetry, his
earth, love with earth, talk about earth and expresses the sympathetic, humanity and broad mindedness, his
grief and joy of earth, the poet of earth. superb mastery of his medium, and his masterful insight
His plays are divided into three groups- into fellow being which ever remain the same. Human
comedies, histories and tragedies. Most of the comedies being come and go but human nature remains the same.
are romantic fantasies, designed to delight and amuse Shakespeare's heart beats in unison with all times and all
their audiences. The histories illustrate the moral lessons countries. Ben Johnson said, “He was not of an age but
to be learned from the crimes and ambitions and all times”. We could also say, as Legouis suggests that he
treacherous leaders of state. In his later histories, he was not of a land but of all lands.
combined sober events with lively comedy. The In an uncanny way, he understands why people
tragedies deal with death, morality and destruction and behave the way they do young and old women and men,
show how the breaking of moral law inevitably leads to good and evil, beggars and king. All lives in his plays. All
disaster. His tragedies depict the operation of flaw in speak in voices so right and so true that and they emerge
characters, in circumstances congenial to its working. as solid as life, as much at home in our times as in
Although chance, fate and supernatural elements play Shakespeare's own.
some parts in his tragedy on the whole it is a tragedy of The establishment of institutes such as the Royal
character. There is a vast scope to present the human Shakespeare Theatre in Britain, and the Folger
nature in different shapes in tragedy. In his thirty-six Shakespeare Library in the United States, has ensured
plays that he has left for posterity, no two plays alike. For that his work has remained a central icon of Western
dramatic appreciation, Professor A.A Bradley has culture.
chosen of his four tragedies, namely, Hamlet, King Lear, Iqbal, greatest Urdu poet of the century, was also
Macbeth and Othello. Bradley places Hamlet as the most great admirer of Shakespeare's poetic genius. In his
popular of Shakespeare's tragedies and King Lear as poem entitled “Shakespeare”, Iqbal acknowledge his
Shakespeare's greatest work, the best of his plays. talent as:
Hamlet is the “Tragedy of thought” according to Husn aiena-e-haq aur dil aiena-e-husn
Schegel. “To be or not to be this is the question” is still Dile-e-insan ka tera husn-e-kalam aiena.
universal dilemma. King Lear, Macbeth and Othello are Let us conclude by referring to an actual
called “Tragedies of passions”. incident. A Japanese student, on being asked if he could
The character of Hamlet has universal appeal be understand and sympathies with the characters in “As
AZ EEM and significance, his figures as Brands you like it” he replied, “Why not? They are all Japanese”.
English Magazine
16
puts it, is out of the very few immortal
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Thomas Stearns Eliot. (1888 1965)
A Brief Introduction To T.S. Eliot. T.S. Eliot inherited from his father and mother
Out Line: the methods to have grip on the practical affairs of
· Introduction life. He tried to study Sunsikrit. Then he became an
assistant in philosophy and in 1914, he also met
· His birth and family career.
Bertrand Russell. From Oxford College he studied
· His keen observation and literary taste Greek philosophy.
inherited from his parents. T.S. Eliot's first important poem, “The Love
· The rewards, “order of merit” and “The Song Of J.Alfrod Prufrock” appeared in poetry in
Nobel Prize.” 1915. He gave lectures in different well known
· The range of his works. (His death). colleges. He received the “Order of Merit” and the
· His contribution to English poetry. “Nobel Prize” in literature both in 1948. He
· Conclusion. separated from his first wife ( His first marriage was
The life of T.S. Eliot was remarkably devoid of with Miss Viviene Haigh in 1915) in 1933. In 1957,
any rebellious elements, and thus it presents a he married Valerie Fletcher, his secretary. He died on
contrast to his work, both as a poet and a critic, which January 4, 1965 in London.
revolutionized the whole literary taste of his time. It T.S. Eliot's principal works include poems,
was an uneventful life with no great ups and downs plays biography and essays. Eliot's criticism is the
or emotional crisis of any kind. His acquaintances criticism of practising poet who worked out in
are unanimous on the point of his being an relation to his reading of other literature what he
immaculately dressed gentleman, soft-spoken, self- needed to hold and to admire. He kept wit and
composed and muffled. But, Eliot, unlike the poets passion in separate compartments and determined
th
of today, never confused life with art, though both the course of English poetry through out the 18 and
th
were most intimately related to each other. What was the 19 centuries. This was his great literary
however vitally alive in Eliot was his sensibility with contribution to rewriting of English literary history.
which he sensed the deeper issues of life and He disliked poetic exploitation, grandiloquent style
absorbed the shocks of both personal and impersonal and mingling of the formal with the conventional. He
life. considered himself, “Classicist in literature, royalist
T.S. Eliot was born in St. Louis, Missouri, an in politics and Anglo-catholic in religion.” He was in
industrial city in the heart of the United States Of favour of order against chaos, tradition against
America, in 1888, the year identically, in which e c c e n t r i c i t y, a u t h o r i t y a g a i n s t r a m p a n t
Methew Arnold died. He was the seventh and the individualism; yet his own poetry is in many respects
youngest child of his parents. His father was Henry untraditional and certainly highly individual in tone.
Ware Eliot and his mother was Charlotte Chauney TRADITION AND THE INDIVIDUAL
Sterns. His family was immigrent from England to TALENT
Boston America. His family became prospous T.S. Eliot occupies an important position in the
through trade and Eliot's ancestors enjoyed great history of modern literature, both as a poet and as a
prestige in public life. But it was his grand-father critic. Central to his concept of poetry and criticism
who left Boston and settled in St. Louis. His grand is the idea of tradition. Perhaps, the best and the most
father William Green, also helped and founded famous piece of writing explaining his idia of
Washington University and become its Chancellor tradition is the essay, “Tradition And The Individual
in 1872. Besides, he wrote a number of religious Talent”, however, the idea of tradition is implied in
books and essays. His two uncle were also related to the several essays and writings as well. The essay
the service of church but his father liked to be a “Tradition And The Individual Talent” was first
businessman. His father was a graduate from published in the Egoist' (1919) and later in the
Washington University and his mother was woman Sacred Wood (1920). This is one of the most
of fine literary and keen intellect. His family had a influential essays of Eliot and it is with this his
Unitarian faith(a sect of Christianity) and puritan critical career effectively begins. It is AZEEM
inclination. an unofficial manifesto of Eliot's English Magazine
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Criticism, or critical situation of the principles, the must be conscious of his contemporary society; the
young critic planned to bring to bear upon English place and time of his era “No artist of any art, no poet
poetry. This is not the kind of essay that invites has his complete meaning alone”, his significance is
discussion. The essay falls into three parts. Eliot that of belonging to a tradition. By indulging in
takes up the problem of tradition, explains “The variety of life, his writing would be capable of
relation of the poem to other poems by other bearing something of universal validity. So, for this
authors,” and suggests Conception of poetry as a indulgence in the variety of life he must have a sense
living whole of all the poetry that has ever been for tradition. So, the judgment of any piece of art
written”. “In the second part he touches on the must not be done by the canons of dead critics, but by
problem of personality and art explaining the the wholesome of his surroundings in precise
relation of the poem to its author”. The third part is manner.
merely a gist, in a few lines, of what has been © Eliot, however, does not advocate a “Dead”
discussed in the first two. tradition. His concept is of a dynamic tradition,
Part 1. which involves both the past and the present. He
· Anew conception of Tradition. maintains that just as the new poet is influenced by
· Necessity of Tradition. “Tradition”, so the tradition-order itself will be
· The Relation of the poet to the past. effected by the new. The past writers help us in
(a) Eliot tells that in English writing the critics judging the new; the new poet or artist will in turn by
very seldom speak of tradition. If it has been used, it the present and the present is directed by the past.
is used in a very vague and unclear manner. He says The poet has to learn and know a great deal, but this
that criticism is inevitable as breathing and so it must knowledge is not to be the superficial pedantry
be distinguished and explained in a very definite which kills sensibility. In the traditional order even
manner being the sign of life for literature like the secondary writers perform a useful function as
breathing. If tradition means “Following the ways of indispensable links between the past and the present,
the immediate generation before us in a blind or as Eliot observes in “The Classcies And the Man of
timid adherence to its success, tradition should Letters”. The continuity of a literature is essential to
positively be discouraged.” In such a case “novelty its greatness, and it's the secondary writers who
is better than repetition. According to Eliot, provide this continuity.
“Tradition is matter of much wider significance. It Part-II.
can't be inherited, and if you want it, you must obtain In this part, Eliot takes up the theme at which he
it by great labour.” Tradition involves the historical ended part-I: “Depersonalization And Poetic
sense; and the historical sense involves a perception, Expression”
not only of the pastness of the past but also of (a) Poet's personality; a medium, a catalyst.
present. A poet can't communicate with his audience (b) Poetry, an escape from emotions.
with out having a ready access to these traditional The emphasis on all-pervasive importance of
equipment. Tradition, however, in Eliot's sense is tradition leads to the understanding of impersonality
not a passive transference of the poetic practices of a in art. A writer deriving his bearings from the
previous generation or generations. Such a tradition traditional heritage will obviously hesitate from
is to be discouraged. True tradition is not passive; it indulging his merely personal feelings or emotions.
can't be inherited but it is obtained with conscious The poet and the man, says Eliot, are two different
effort alone. The most important element in tradition beings altogether. He discusses the relation of the
is the “Historical sense”, a perception, not only of the poem to its author. To explain his idea of the function
pastness of the past but it of presence. It's sense of the of personality in a poetic process, he gives an
timeless as well as the temporal and of the timeless example from chemistry. The analogy is that of the
and aware that the whole of European literature from catalyst. A catalyst is a substance which alters the
the time of home “His own day constituent a rate at which a chemical reaction occurs, but is itself
simultaneous order. In short, tradition does not mean unchanged at the end of the reaction. When oxygen
a blind Imitation; it means a historical sense of the and Sulphur dioxide are mixed in the presence of a
past and the present. filament of platinum, they form Sulphurus acid. This
combination takes place only if Pt. Is present, and Pt.
AZ EEM (b) The necessity of tradition is
Itself is apparently unaffected; remained neutral and
English Magazine
18 Highly Authentic by Eliot. A writer
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unchanged. Many appreciate the expression of sincere emotion
The personality of the poet, in the same in verse. A smaller number can appreciate technical
manner, is a medium in which special, or very varied, excellence, but very few know when there is an
feelings are at liberty to enter into new expression of significant emotion (emotion which
combinations. The mind of the poet is the shred of has its life in the poem, and not in the history of the
platinum. So the mind or personality of a poet is the poet). Eliot concludes the essay in these words, “The
transforming catalyst, and the elements which enter emotion of art is impersonal.And the poet can't reach
the presence of this catalyst are of two kinds this impersonality without surrendering himself
emotions and feelings. Eliot concludes by saying, wholly to the work to be done. And he is not likely to
“The poet's mind is infact a receptacle for seizing know what's to be done unless he lives in what's not
and storing up numberless feelings, phrases, images merely the present, but the present moment of the
which remain their until all the particles which can past, unless he is conscious not of what is dead, but of
unite to form a new compound are present together”. what is already living.”
He explains his point of view by quoting examples In short T.S. Eliot enjoys a remarkable place in
from Dante, Shakespeare and Keats. the history of criticism. His essay, “Tradition and the
(b) Eliot says, “Poetry is not a turning loose of Individual Talent” occupies a prime place among the
emotion, but an escape from emotion; it's not the other critical books not only of his age but also of the
expression of personality, but an escape from predecessors. His theory of poetry and poet is highly
personality. Thus the artistic process is a continual thought provoking and the result of a keen
depersonalization rather than an expression and penetrating observation of the whole system of
assertion of personality”. The greater the extent to poetry.
which a writer is able to transcend the limitations of “THE METAPHYSICAL POETS”
his self, the more varied and profound would be the · Introduction
appeal of his work. A writer or artist will achieve a · Eliot on Grierson's Edition of metaphysical
fuller existence by shearing off all personal poets.
eccentricities and oddities . Which is what often goes
· Problems of the task.
by the name of “individuality”. The business of the
poet is not to find new emotions, but to use the · Salient features of metaphysical poetry.
ordinary ones and in working them up into poetry, to · Dr. Johnson's definition of metaphysical
express feelings, which are not in actual emotions at poets.
all. Eliot calls Words Worth's formula emotions § Unification of thought and feeling.
recollected in tranquility an exact one. It is fact that · Dissociation of sensibility.
poetry is the result of high concentration, · The influence of Milton & Dryden on
contemplation and experiences, and an experienced emergence of “Dissociation of sensibility”.
person finds, then, it is very difficult to be conscious · Metaphysical poets and the modern age.
to tie up all his experiences. In fact, a bad poet is · Conclusion.
usually unconscious where he aught to be conscious, The essay on the metaphysical poets is
and conscious where he aught to be unconscious. significant. It is true that Eliot might have been
Both errors tend to make him personal. In short, prompted to write it so as to make his own poetry
“Poetry is not a turningloose of emotion, but an acceptable, for his own poetry had a close affinity to
escape from emotion; it is not the expression of that of the school of Donne. But his essay did a great
personality, but an escape from personality” deal to establish a revolution in taste. Interest was
Part-III The Conclusion. “This part begins with a revived in Donne and other poets of his time. Eliot
quotation from Aristotle's De Anima (on the soul), has shown in a methodical and striking manner, how
which means: the mind is doubtless some thing more Donne and his company were in the direct line of the
divine and unimpressionable. Eliot asserts himself tradition in English poetry. They were not digression
to such practical conclusions as can be applied by the from the main current but were a continuation of it.
reasonable person interested in poetry. His aim is “to They were not quaint and fantastic; they were mature
divert interest from the poet to the poetry” because it and able poets. It is this essay that Eliot used the
would bring the just judgment of the poetry good or term, “Unified Sensibility” which AZEEM
bad. People's attitude to poetry be of three kinds. gained great currency. The concept is English Magazine
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central to Eliot's theory of poetry. Further the essay is course, the comparison of two lovers to a pair of
one of the best examples of Eliot's critical method. compasses in the poem.
He illustrates his points, generalizes from particular “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning,” by
examples, and shows a methodical approach which Donne. Secondly, there is the rapid association of
goes a great way towards lending conviction to his thought. This device requires considerable agility on
arguments. the reader's part. Eliot gives the example of Donne's.
This essay was originally a review in the “A Valediction: of Weeping,” where three separate
“London Times Literary Supplement” (1921) of the images are presented as the picture of a geographer's
book “Metaphysical Lyrics” and poems of globe, the beloved's tears and the great flood.
Seventeenth century”. Donne to Butter, selected and Thirdly, the metaphysical poets like Donne produces
edited by J.C Grierson. Eliot says that by collecting a startling effect through sudden and striking
there poems professor Grierson has rendered a contrasts. One instance is the line, “A bracelet of
service of some importance. In this essay Eliot bright hair about the bone.” Here the most powerful
discusses three questions. effect is produced by the sudden contrast of
(i) To what extent did the so-called associations of “Bright hair” and of bone. Fourthly,
metaphysics from a school or a movement? metaphysical poetry had for its characteristic the
(ii) How far is this so called school or “Unification of Sensibility.” It was unfortunate that
movement, a digression from the after this stage, English poetry saw a “Dissociation
main current? of sensibility.”
(iii) What's the importance in the Dr. Johnson has tried to define metaphysical
modern age, of the study of these poetry by its faults. The chief characteristic of this
poets? poetry is that “The most heterogenous ideas are
Now following arguments are given to satisfy yoked by violence together.” But, says Eliot, the
these three questions. The step taken by Eliot was not bringing together of dissimimilar ideas and
an easy thing and he was fully conscious of it. The compelling them into unity through the operation of
greatest difficult was that all the metaphysical poet the poet's mind is not new in poetry. It's practice of
were not be enlisted under the some definition or by a almost all the poets. There are infinite instances of
single term. They secondly, did not show any distinct such a fusion between heterogeneous ideas and
and particular features in their poetry which make concepts in poetry. The force of Johnson's remark
them able to be explained collectively. The lies in the word “yoked”. He charged that these poets
beginning of the 17 th century saw three different could only “yoke”, the heterogenous concepts by
schools of poetry. One was that of Donne, a late violence. They could not unite or fuse them into a
Elizabethan. Related to him were Marvell and single unity. Eliot finds such quality in many other
Bishop king. The second one was that of Ben poets too; out of metaphysical poets. In this way, this
Johnson: what we could call the “Courtly School” of is not what differentiats metaphysical poetry from
poetry. The third school is to be seen in the religious other kinds; in all kinds of poetry one finds that
poetry of Herbert, Vaughan and Crashaw. heterogenous ideas are united together.
Characteristics common to all these schools, are It is to be noted that by the term “sensibility”,
difficult to establish. Now we can find some Eliot means something of wider importance than the
dominant features to indicate these poets as forming ability to receive sense perceptions. The term
distinct groups. implies a synthetic facility, which can bring together
Eliot goes on to examine in a methodical and unite thought and feeling. It is a faculty that can
fashion, with illustration, the features which are fuse together disparate, even contradictory
considered to be common to metaphysical poetry. experiences. The thinking and learning of the
Firstly, it's maintained that metaphysical poetry is Elizabethans influenced their mode of feeling. This
the elaboration of for fetched images and modified feeling is expressed in their poetry. There
communicated association of poet's mental is, thus a unifiction of thought and feeling is their
processes. “The most heterogeneous ideas are yoked poetic works. Eliot illustrates his point with
by violence together”. The reality lies in this fact that examples, and shows that this kind of fusion is
they are yoked but not united. The most present in the poetry of Donne and in the modern
AZ EEM extended instance of this feature is, of
English Magazine poets but is lacking in the poetry of Tennyson.
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It is after Donne and Herbert that we see To conclude the whole matter, we can draw three
“Dissociation of sensibility”, emerging in English conclusions: First, the main quality of the metaphysical
poetry. There was a loss of the ability to fuse thought poets is their fidelity to thought and feeling, an attempt to
and feeling. Poets could either think or feel, they merge into one whole the most heterogenous ideas;
could not both think and feel at the same time. The secondly, if a dissociation of sensibility has not taken
place during the 17th century and gap had not occurred,
18th century poets thought , but they could not feel. they would not have been called metaphysical ; thirdly,
The Romantics of the 19th century felt, but they could modern poets are tending to become like them in their use
not think. But Donne's case was different. “A of language and ideas and hence the metaphysical poets
thought to Donne was an experience. It modified his are in the direct current of English poetry. In this way
sensibility.” He amalgamated the disparate Eliot's assessment and analysis of the metaphysical poets
experience. In this way Donne and Herbert; the poets is very impressive and seems very close to reality.
of 17th century, continued this tradition. They
possessed a mechanism of sensibility, which could
assimilate any kind of experience. They could Obituary
present thought in the sense of sensuous. They are
simple, difficult, or fantastic, as their predecessors,
the Elizabethans were. It is after them that we see the
W e condole with Prof. Muhammad Azeem
Farooqi and Muhammad Rafique
Ahmad Mujadadi at the sarrowful death of
setting of dissociation of sensibility in which Milton C h ie f P at r on of A ZE E M E NGLI S H
and Dryden played their roles. MAGAZINE “Hazrat Allama Muhammad
Milton and Drydon brought unhealthy Saeed Ahmad Mujadadi”. May Allah give you
influences in the practice of English poetry. It was courage to bear this loss.
the result of their influence that brought a Sheikh Imtiaz Ahmed Farooqi
dissociation of sensibility in English poetry from SHEIKH FABRICS INTERNATIONAL
which poetry has not fully recovered. Eliot admits ------------------------------------------
that the services of these two great poets to the
English Language should not be ignored. They did a
great deal in refining and purifying the language. At
A t the sad death of Chief Patron
“Azeem English Magazine” & Founder
of “Almi Idara Tanzeem-ul-Islam”,
same time, however, the feeling became more crude. Allama Peer Muhammad Saeed Ahmad
The Second effect of the influence of Milton Mujadadi, we sympathize with Prof.
and Dryden followed from the first. It manifested Muhammad Azeem Farooqi and
itself slowly. The sentimental age began in the early Sahibzada Rafique Ahmad Mujaddadi. It
th
18 century, and it continued. There was a revolt is really a great dilemma of Muslim
against the ratiocinative or the rationalizing nature world. May Allah give you patience.
of the poetry of the day. Keats and Shelly were Haji Sheikh Muhammad Azam
forefront in this revolt but they died young. Their AZMAT INDUSTRIES
successors, Tennyson and Browning, merely
------------------------------------------

O
reflected in their poetry.
Eliot goes on to point out that the modern age ur hearts are shedding the
showed certain similarities to the age of Donne. The tears of blood at the death of
modern poet has to be 'difficult', he is bound to be Hazrat Allama Peer Muhammad
difficult. The conceits evolved by the modern poets Saeem Ahmad Mujaddadi, the Chief
are similar to those of the metaphysical poets. Ideas Patron of “Azeem English
and thoughts are transmuted into sensuous imagery
while feelings are transmuted into thought. Donne,
Magazine”. We condole with Prof..
Crashaw , Veughan , Herbert, Msarvell, etc, are in the Muhammad Azeem Farooqi. May
direct current of English poetry. The moderns are in his soul live in eternal peace.
the line of this tradition. The continuity was broken
under the influence of Milton and Dryden, and Sheikh Shahzad Ahmad & Sheikh
dissociation of sensibility set in. By having a Arshad Jamil
unification of sensibility, the poetry can be AZEEM
completed. English Magazine
SEPTEMBER, 2002
21

Azeem Educational Conference


CONCEPT OF CONTENT (FAQR) Written By
Hafiz Asif Raza Farooqi
Translated By

T
Mrs. Tabinda Iftikhar
his word “Faqr” is usually termed for poverty According to Hazrat Data Gunj Buksh, the real
but the real concept of “Faqr” is entirely a asset of 'Faqr' is not leaving world and separation from
different one. “Faqr” means the practice or it but it means to make heart carefree of worlds love. So
vocation of a “Fakir” or Dervish; acceptance of a life of in terms of mysticism real 'Fakir' is that person who is
resignation or self-contentment, mode of life, without without want of worldly pursuits; and it is equal for him
any want of material-gains in a carefree manners. whether he has wordly things or not. According to Data
According to Sheikh Abu-Nasar-Al-Siraj “The Sahib, “It is better for a 'Fakir' to be poor because in this
fourth step in abodes of mysticism is “Faqr.” Faqr does case 'Haal' gets more obvious for him and he seldom
not compel 'Sahibe-Faqr' to resign completely the becomes negligent.
business of life or to find a secluded corner to alien That is why Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said,
himself from grandeur and money. But the true Faqr “One who lets his stomach empty is more dear to Allah
lies in self-denial. than seventy learned pious men”. More over he said ,
'Faqar' is that stage of a man's spiritual “Hunger is food of Allah in this world,” but only if this
development when his heart gets completely free of hunger is only to obligeAllah.
basic desires and greediness; there would remain Want of nothing(carefreeness) should be like
nothing except intimacy with Allah (yaode-Ilah) in his Hazrat Isah (May Allah be pleased with him) who once
heart and he would become the sole ruler of realm of went on his way taking a bowl and a comb with him. In
his own heart and mind. Islam breathed its first in 'Faqr' the way, he saw a man drinking water in his hands then
; was nourished in the lap of 'Faqr' ; and it was faqr he thought that bowl is unimportant, so he left the bowl
which endowed Islam; kingdom and splendour. Holy there. Then he saw a man combing his hair with the
Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) said, help of his fingers; he threw the comb there also and
“I am proud of my Faqr”. made himself free of worldly things. It is true that when
The 'Faqr' is completely a different one from a man makes himself free of material desires in such a
the apparent poverty. That is why “Allama Iqbal” tried way that there would remain not a single desire in his
to avoid that 'Faqr' which means to be penniless or to be heart except intimacy with Allah, then it is the real
sick. destination of 'Faqr' and this is the greatest gift of Allah
as regarded by Auliya Allah, (saints). The saints take
The difference between Faqr and Kingdom is care of this gift of Allah more than any other most
that kingdom is a blow of force and 'Faqr' is a costly thing. Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jillani says in
blow(swordplay) of a sight (attention ). Kingdom is “Ghaniah-Tul-Talbin”, “It is more suitable for a fakir to
gained through military power and Faqr is gained love as much his 'Faqr' as a we extremely simple in his
through sight. ( attention from spiritual leader). The habits. Tender hearted, he was easily moved. But at the
work which (an army or) a blow of force does for same time he was firm, determined and courageous. He
worldly kingdom the same thing is done by the blow of had a very sympathetic heart for the poor and the
sight in Faqr. needy. He would go out at night to help the distressed
and the destitute. For sometime after his election, he
Moreover the pomp and show of wordly continued to maintain himself from his private income.
kingdom is dependant on splendour of Qaiser and But finding that in looking after his property and
Alexander, victories of Akbar, Royal majesty and business, he was not able to pay sufficient attention to
many other material resources while the kingdom of affairs of the state, he agreed to receive six thousand
Faqr is based on for want of nothing. The limits of dirhams annually from the Bait-ul-Maal. On his
kingdoms of Qaiser and Qisra are confined where as death-bed, however, he was so disturbed at having
the kingdom of Faqr is over and above of limits and that taken public money that he directed one of his
is whyAlexender has no value in the eyes of Faqr. properties to be sold in order to refund to the State the
sum he had received.
He was generous and humble, truthful and
AZ EEM faithful. He was very intelligent and blessed with an
English Magazine
22 SEPTEMBER, 2002
extraordinary memory. About his judgement, Shah

Azeem Educational Conference


faiths light; became the reason of Islam's victory. These
God fearing 'Fakirs' were replete with fortune of Faqr.
Continence and piety were their weapons. They came
wearing tattered and torn clothes (quilts), encamped
near a river or outside a town and soon became beloved
of masses. They were so continent that neither they
Islamic teachings, the Holy Quran and the thought anything to be their property nor they wished
Sunnah are the resources of 'Faqr'. Obviously Islam any thing else.
rejects priest-hood and desertion of world. The model Hazrat Data Ganj Buksh (May Allah be pleased
life of Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) is the most with him) writes in Kashaf-ul-Mahjoob, “Once he was
beautiful combination of religious as well as the sick and had high temperature, tired with pain prayed
worldly life and is a practical example for us. We learn to Allah for relief, there came from an invisible side a
from his life thet the reaponsibilities of practicle life voice, “Your body is our property, we can keep it in the
should be fulfild in such a way that there could be left state as we wish.”
no stone unturned. Similarly , mystics think that 'Faqr' This is that stage of continence and content
does not mean deprivation of material mediations but it when a man intoxicated in intimacy with Allah gets
is deprivation of desire of matrrial gains and carefree of everything and every desire and then
carefreeness. becomes thankful creature of God Almighty. Its true
that when a man gains this stage of 'Content'(Faqr) ,
then he rules over the hearts. Kings are only rulers of
Kingdom who rule over the visible bodies but men of
God are the rulers of hearts. The reign of kings ends
with their deaths. But a 'Fakirs' kingdom and empire
spreads even after his death and there is continuous
It means that deprivation of true. Faqr deprived increase in his followers and devotees,
Muslims of money of Hazrat Salman (May God's The tomb of a king is deserted after his death
blessings on him) as well as of Hazrat Suleman(May but the shrine of a Fakir is more crowded and more
Allah's blessings upon him). Hazrat Salman Farsi beautiful than the king's tomb.
(May Allah be pleased with him) was a close
companion of Holy Prophet (May peace be upon him)
and a model of humility and darweshi (Medicancy). Regretfully Muslims are so much fascinated by
Hazrat Suleman (May Allah be pleased with him) was western civilization that they have remained
a prophet of Allah and a king who commanded over the unconscious of the true spirit of Islam and its teachings.
gennis, fairies and all creatives. The fall of Faqr has Even they can't judge true or false properly. Moreover
deprived Muslims of money of Hazrat Salman as well materialistic thought of West has made Muslims
as of Hazrat Suleman ( May Allah be pleased with involved merely in pursue of material gains. That is
them) History reveals that as long as Muslim kept why they face mental dispersion (confusion) and
themselves away from palace life and led the life of perverseness. Absence of 'Faqr' is the reason behind
hardships they accomplished the great works like this problem. Absence of 'Faqr' is the cause of our
discovering the universe. Even sea, mountains, thirst & slavery and distress.
hunger, dangers and destitute of neccessties of life
could not come in the way of their moral and material
victories. But as soon as they left living hard life and In short, that 'Faqr' which is trusty of Tauhid
become used to palace life, greed and lust seized them. (Unitrianism) and Faithful to Muhammad (P.B.U.H),
As soon as they were deprived of true 'Faqr' their unity whose source is Quran and whose elements are truth,
was torn into pieces and they lost those territories sincerity, self respect, carfree, passion, sympathy, zeal
which they had once conquested. and zest, acknowledgement and contentment ,
History witness that Islam spreaded not only by forsightedness, and self sufficiency; besides, he
military power but those 'Fakirs' and always (Freinds considers it child play to solve the mysterious affairs of
of Allah) who came with the armies or who came later the universe. The self-sufficiency of a
on with sincerity, virtues, selflessness and money of AZEEM
'Fakir' should be so perfect that he would English Magazine
SEPTEMBER, 2002
23

Azeem Educational Conference


not bewail the problems of life because one complaints
only when either he has desire of anything in his heart
or if he has expectations from society. If he has
Condolence
The death of Peer Muhammad Saeed
anything it means that his 'Faqr' in not perfect.
Ahmad Mujaddadi, the founder of Almi
Idara Tanzeem-ul-Islam, has jolted and
stunned the Muslims of the whole world. We
According to Abu-Bakr Waraq (May Allah be
condole with all his caliphs especially
pleased with him), “There are three types of people:
(a) Rich (b) Scholars (c) Poor Sahibzada Muhammad Rafique Ahmad
If rich people become vicious then economy Mujaddadi & Prof.Muhammad Azeem
and earnings of subjects is spoiled. When scholars Farooqi.
become vicious then the methods of worship Hafiz Gulzar Ahmad Mujaddadi
(devotion) and ordinance (law) are changed. And when Almi Idara Tanzeem-ul-Islam Sydney - Australia
Fakirs become vicious then the habits of people are __________________________
spoiled. Viciousness of Rich people is because of

A
tyranny, while lust causes the viciousness of scholars t the death of our religious and spiritual
where as subjects causes 'Fakir's spoiled character. So s c h o l a r, H a z r a t A l l a m a P e e r
'Fakirs' provide model examples of virtue and Muhammad Saeed Ahmad Mujaddadi,
etiquettes (manners) which are fairly practicable as Chief Patron of Azeem English Magazine
well? In this way, fakirs are like a spinal cord for the
and founder of Almi Idara Tanzeem-ul-
Muslim Society.
Islam, we condole with Prof. Muhammad
Regretfully, our young brothers and sisters
Azeem Farooqi.
should be like any one of contented persons. They must
May his soul live in eternal peace.
follow the examples of Hazrat Ibrahim Adham, Hazrat
Members of
Data Gunj Baksh, Hazrat Moinu- Din Chishti Ajmeri,
Almi Idara Tanzeem-ul-
Hazrat Mujaddad Alf Sani and Hazrat Rabia Basri,
Islam(Regd.)Pakistan
(May Allah blessing on all of them). Remorsefully,
(Farooq-e-Azam Unit)
every youth is trying to follow the examples of film
stars. Those mothers and sisters who should recite __________________________

T
Holy Quran are only singing the songs. Alas! We have
forgotten our roots and we care more for this mortal life he recent death of Allama Peer
than the immortal life. That is why we face failure Muhammad Saeed Ahmad Mujaddadi
instead of success. has created a vast space among the
Today, Muslims are victims of oppression in spiritual and religious personalities of
every corner of the world. All this, if only because of Islam. It is an unrepairable loss for Muslim
remoteness from the true spirit of Islam. So, my dear community of the world.
sisters and brothers you must try your best to adopt May his grave would become an
Islamic code of life. eden garden.
Mrs. & Mr. Muhammad Nadeem Sadiq
(U.S.A)
Not the words but the actions make the man __________________________
great. So we must do something to achieve our goal.
T he news of Hazrat Allama Peer Muhammad
Saeed Ahmad Mujaddadi’s death fell upon
us like a thunder. It is really a heart rending
news that gave a great shock to our minds. In
this time of trial, we sympathize with Sahibzada
Muhammad Rafique Ahmad Mujaddadi, Prof.
Muhammad Azeem Farooqi & all the members
of Azeem English Magazine & Almi Idara
Tanzeem-ul-Islam (Regd.) Pakistan.
Mrs. & Mr. Muhammad Saeed Babar Farooqi
AZ EEM
English Magazine
24 SEPTEMBER, 2002

Azeem Educational Conference


Information Technology (IT) By
Prof. M. Riaz Gohar
Govt. College GRW.
Out line: 1 It brings to us the latest development in science,
1 - Meaning of information technology. technology and arts in the advanced world. We can
2 - Introduction to information technology. communicate with anyone, anywhere in the world
3 - Information technology---- as wide as life. within no time. The facility of email and voice chat
4- The fastest means of communication. has possible to exchange information from
5 - Computer and information technology. anywhere.
6- Hardware and software industries. So computer has really reduced distance and we can
7-Its expansion (growth) in the developing speak anyone in the world at any time.
countries. 3- Computer technology is helping us in bringing
8- Blessings of information technology. about social, political revolution in the country. We
(i) Brings of latest technology. can make a complete study of the different social,
(ii) Reduction of time and space. economic and political systems in the most
(iii)Computer ---- a revolutionary device. successful countries. In this way we may follow their
(iv)Collection of information from all spheres of life. examples to up lift our standards.
9 Information technology and chances of job. Computer technology can be used to collect
10 A key to solution of our problems. information about the different classes and groups of
11 - The advanced countries and the spread of the people in the country. The working of
knowledge. government departments, law courts, firms, courts,
12 Conclusion. companies, educational institutes, industries, farms,
markets, bus companies, airlines, seaports, stock

F irst of all it would be better to define the term


of “Information technology”. In general the
word “Information” mean method of running
our machines and commerce. But in a real sense
“Information technology” mean the methods of
exchanges and anti-social activities like smuggling,
black marketing, terrorism and other crimes should
be within the network of the computer. It can be used,
surely, to lessen crime and social disorder
(disorganization). It is already in use for the
gaining knowledge from all corners of the world that improvement of weapons and defense. But efforts
can help in promoting our work in all fields of life. should be made to use it for the progress of mankind
These fields may be of science, industry, commerce, and not for mass destruction.
education, engineering, medicine, land, air, space It is, in this way, very helpful for mankind.
war, games, designs, sewing, cooking and so on. The But the promotion of Information Technology is
gaining and spread of information from everywhere directly linked with the availability of jobs in
has been made possible by information technology. industry, commerce and administration. If our
For the communication of information there I.T.graduates don't find well-paid jobs in the
are many sources such as television, radio, different fields, they will be discouraged. So there
newspaper, telephones, books etc. But the main tool must be chances for the computer experts to make
is computer. Compute is the most wonderful use of their abilities.
invention of man in this modern period. If the information technology goes on
In the field of computer there is software spreading in advancing countries like ours, It holds
industries including programs and systems of the the key to solution of our most pressing problems
computers. Side by side with there is hardware like poverty, ignorance and backwardness. We
industry for the manufacturing of the mechanical should make use of scientific knowledge and
and electrical parts of the computer. technology in all sectors of national life.
Now, the computer software and hardware The developed countries should share their
industries are expanding speedily even in the scientific knowledge and technology with the
developing countries like Pakistan, India and South developing countries for the promotion and expansion
Korea. (growth) of information technology to avoid social
Now, we can easily point out the following disturbance terrorism and general disorder.
blessings of information technology. AZEEM
English Magazine
SEPTEMBER, 2002
25

Azeem Educational Conference


Hussain then arrived in Makkah on 3rd Sha'aban 60
A.H. Later a deputation from the people of Kufa
approached Imam Hussain and requested him to come
to the rescue of the faith. Thereafter, the Imam, to
review the situation sent his cousin, Muslim, to
Hazrat Imam Hussain was born to Hazrat Ali proceed to Kufa. The people of Kufa gave Muslim a
and Hazrat Fatima on Thursday, the 3rd Sha'aban in the very warm welcome and thousands of them paid
fourth year of the Hijrat. At the time of his birth, the homage to Imam Hussain through Muslim. Impressed
Holy Prophet was out of Madina on an expedition. with the enthusiasm of the deceitful people of Kufa,
Immediately after his birth, Hazrat Fatima became ill Muslim wrote a letter to Imam Hussain to come over to
and the baby was given to Umm-e-Fazal for nursing. Kufa. As soon as the letter was despatched Muslim
It is said that the outward appearance i.e., the learnt of this treachery. It seemed that almost all the
physical features of Hussain were those of his leaders of the town had been bribed. Added to it, strong
grandfather, the holy Prophet, Ibne Kaseer, the threats from Yazid's deputy, the Governor of Kufa
historian says: made the people desert Muslim. Ultimately, Muslim
“I never saw a more handsome man than was killed.
Hussain.” Meanwhile, Imam Hussain had already left
And according toAnas: Makkah for Kufa. On the way he heard the news of
“There was no one resembling the Holy Muslim,s assasination. With it, the large number of
Prophet more than Hussain.” companions of Imam Hussain began to desert him. But
Once, when the Holy Prophet was with his son Imam hussain proceeded as before.
Ibrahim and his grandson Hussain, Jibriel appeared Fearing that Imam Hussain might escape from
and said: their grip, soldiers were immediately despatched in all
“O Prophet of God! It is the will of Allah that directions in the desert to stop the Imam and bring him
you shall have anyone of them, either Hussain or either to Kufa or to Damascus.
Ibrahim and not both. Whichever you desire will be Enroute, unaware of the plot of his enemies,
taken away from you.” Imam Hussain stopped and encamped at Karbala, near
The Holy Prophet said: the Euphrates river. Soon after, yazid's army too began
“Let Ibrahim be taken away and Hussain be to gather on the plain of Karbala. It surrounded the
spared.” Imam's camp.
Thus Ibrahim was taken away (died). On the 7th of Muharram, 61 A.H., Yazid's forces
After the death of Hazrat Ali, the fourth cut off all sources of supply of water to the Imam's
Khalifa, his eldest son Imam Hassan became the camp and did not allow even a drop of water to reach
Khalifa. But Ameer Muawiya, the son of Abu Sufyan them.
wanted his own son Yazid to be Khalifa. This led to a All efforts of the enemy through temptations
rift in the Muslim Ummah. and tortures to persuade the imam to yield to Yazid
On his death-bed Imam Hassan handed over the were in vain. Imam Hussain then decided to fight the
charge of Imamat to his brother, Hussain who became forces of Yazid. But, on his announcement that the
the third Imam. Following the footsteps of his brother ultimate end was near, people from his camp began
Hassan, he, too retired into seclusion in Madina. deserting him until he was left with only seventy-two
In 60 A.H., after the death of Ameer Muawiya, of his faithful followers.
his son Yazid succeeded him as the Khalifa at Thus the battle of truth against falsehood
Damascus. Tradition demanded that all Muslims began. One after another, the Imam's followers laid
should swear allegiance to the new Khalifa. Imam down their lives. Finally, on the 10th of Muharram when
Hussain decided to leave Madina and go to Makkah. all his devotees were slain, Imam Hussain was left all
Learning about the decision of the Imam, people alone on the battlefield. He then went to his sick son,
approached him asking the reason for the decision. Zain-ul-Abidin and handed over the charge of the
Imam Hussain replied that his refusal to take the oath of office of Imamat to him and went back to the
allegiance to Yazid would certainly annoy him and he battlefield. Swords and axes began falling on him and
would not spare shedding blood for it. He did not like he lay fully wounded from head to feet. Later when he
AZ EEM the city of his grandfather, the Holy died, his head was cut off from his body and taken to
English Magazine
26
Prophet to become a battlefield. Imam
SEPTEMBER, 2002
Yazid's court. Thus, Imam Hussain won an everlasting

Azeem Educational Conference


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English Magazine
SEPTEMBER, 2002
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Azeem Educational Conference


Hussain then arrived in Makkah on 3rd Sha'aban 60
A.H. Later a deputation from the people of Kufa
approached Imam Hussain and requested him to come
to the rescue of the faith. Thereafter, the Imam, to
review the situation sent his cousin, Muslim, to
Hazrat Imam Hussain was born to Hazrat Ali proceed to Kufa. The people of Kufa gave Muslim a
and Hazrat Fatima on Thursday, the 3rd Sha'aban in the very warm welcome and thousands of them paid
fourth year of the Hijrat. At the time of his birth, the homage to Imam Hussain through Muslim. Impressed
Holy Prophet was out of Madina on an expedition. with the enthusiasm of the deceitful people of Kufa,
Immediately after his birth, Hazrat Fatima became ill Muslim wrote a letter to Imam Hussain to come over to
and the baby was given to Umm-e-Fazal for nursing. Kufa. As soon as the letter was despatched Muslim
It is said that the outward appearance i.e., the learnt of this treachery. It seemed that almost all the
physical features of Hussain were those of his leaders of the town had been bribed. Added to it, strong
grandfather, the holy Prophet, Ibne Kaseer, the threats from Yazid's deputy, the Governor of Kufa
historian says: made the people desert Muslim. Ultimately, Muslim
“I never saw a more handsome man than was killed.
Hussain.” Meanwhile, Imam Hussain had already left
And according toAnas: Makkah for Kufa. On the way he heard the news of
“There was no one resembling the Holy Muslim,s assasination. With it, the large number of
Prophet more than Hussain.” companions of Imam Hussain began to desert him. But
Once, when the Holy Prophet was with his son Imam hussain proceeded as before.
Ibrahim and his grandson Hussain, Jibriel appeared Fearing that Imam Hussain might escape from
and said: their grip, soldiers were immediately despatched in all
“O Prophet of God! It is the will of Allah that directions in the desert to stop the Imam and bring him
you shall have anyone of them, either Hussain or either to Kufa or to Damascus.
Ibrahim and not both. Whichever you desire will be Enroute, unaware of the plot of his enemies,
taken away from you.” Imam Hussain stopped and encamped at Karbala, near
The Holy Prophet said: the Euphrates river. Soon after, yazid's army too began
“Let Ibrahim be taken away and Hussain be to gather on the plain of Karbala. It surrounded the
spared.” Imam's camp.
Thus Ibrahim was taken away (died). On the 7th of Muharram, 61 A.H., Yazid's forces
After the death of Hazrat Ali, the fourth cut off all sources of supply of water to the Imam's
Khalifa, his eldest son Imam Hassan became the camp and did not allow even a drop of water to reach
Khalifa. But Ameer Muawiya, the son of Abu Sufyan them.
wanted his own son Yazid to be Khalifa. This led to a All efforts of the enemy through temptations
rift in the Muslim Ummah. and tortures to persuade the imam to yield to Yazid
On his death-bed Imam Hassan handed over the were in vain. Imam Hussain then decided to fight the
charge of Imamat to his brother, Hussain who became forces of Yazid. But, on his announcement that the
the third Imam. Following the footsteps of his brother ultimate end was near, people from his camp began
Hassan, he, too retired into seclusion in Madina. deserting him until he was left with only seventy-two
In 60 A.H., after the death of Ameer Muawiya, of his faithful followers.
his son Yazid succeeded him as the Khalifa at Thus the battle of truth against falsehood
Damascus. Tradition demanded that all Muslims began. One after another, the Imam's followers laid
should swear allegiance to the new Khalifa. Imam down their lives. Finally, on the 10th of Muharram when
Hussain decided to leave Madina and go to Makkah. all his devotees were slain, Imam Hussain was left all
Learning about the decision of the Imam, people alone on the battlefield. He then went to his sick son,
approached him asking the reason for the decision. Zain-ul-Abidin and handed over the charge of the
Imam Hussain replied that his refusal to take the oath of office of Imamat to him and went back to the
allegiance to Yazid would certainly annoy him and he battlefield. Swords and axes began falling on him and
would not spare shedding blood for it. He did not like he lay fully wounded from head to feet. Later when he
AZ EEM the city of his grandfather, the Holy died, his head was cut off from his body and taken to
English Magazine
28
Prophet to become a battlefield. Imam
A U G U S T, 2 0 0 2
Yazid's court. Thus, Imam Hussain won an everlasting

Azeem Educational Conference


AZEEM
English Magazine
A U G U S T, 2 0 0 2 3

Azeem Educational Conference


Hussain then arrived in Makkah on 3rd Sha'aban 60
A.H. Later a deputation from the people of Kufa
approached Imam Hussain and requested him to come
to the rescue of the faith. Thereafter, the Imam, to
review the situation sent his cousin, Muslim, to
Hazrat Imam Hussain was born to Hazrat Ali proceed to Kufa. The people of Kufa gave Muslim a
and Hazrat Fatima on Thursday, the 3rd Sha'aban in the very warm welcome and thousands of them paid
fourth year of the Hijrat. At the time of his birth, the homage to Imam Hussain through Muslim. Impressed
Holy Prophet was out of Madina on an expedition. with the enthusiasm of the deceitful people of Kufa,
Immediately after his birth, Hazrat Fatima became ill Muslim wrote a letter to Imam Hussain to come over to
and the baby was given to Umm-e-Fazal for nursing. Kufa. As soon as the letter was despatched Muslim
It is said that the outward appearance i.e., the learnt of this treachery. It seemed that almost all the
physical features of Hussain were those of his leaders of the town had been bribed. Added to it, strong
grandfather, the holy Prophet, Ibne Kaseer, the threats from Yazid's deputy, the Governor of Kufa
historian says: made the people desert Muslim. Ultimately, Muslim
“I never saw a more handsome man than was killed.
Hussain.” Meanwhile, Imam Hussain had already left
And according toAnas: Makkah for Kufa. On the way he heard the news of
“There was no one resembling the Holy Muslim,s assasination. With it, the large number of
Prophet more than Hussain.” companions of Imam Hussain began to desert him. But
Once, when the Holy Prophet was with his son Imam hussain proceeded as before.
Ibrahim and his grandson Hussain, Jibriel appeared Fearing that Imam Hussain might escape from
and said: their grip, soldiers were immediately despatched in all
“O Prophet of God! It is the will of Allah that directions in the desert to stop the Imam and bring him
you shall have anyone of them, either Hussain or either to Kufa or to Damascus.
Ibrahim and not both. Whichever you desire will be Enroute, unaware of the plot of his enemies,
taken away from you.” Imam Hussain stopped and encamped at Karbala, near
The Holy Prophet said: the Euphrates river. Soon after, yazid's army too began
“Let Ibrahim be taken away and Hussain be to gather on the plain of Karbala. It surrounded the
spared.” Imam's camp.
Thus Ibrahim was taken away (died). On the 7th of Muharram, 61 A.H., Yazid's forces
After the death of Hazrat Ali, the fourth cut off all sources of supply of water to the Imam's
Khalifa, his eldest son Imam Hassan became the camp and did not allow even a drop of water to reach
Khalifa. But Ameer Muawiya, the son of Abu Sufyan them.
wanted his own son Yazid to be Khalifa. This led to a All efforts of the enemy through temptations
rift in the Muslim Ummah. and tortures to persuade the imam to yield to Yazid
On his death-bed Imam Hassan handed over the were in vain. Imam Hussain then decided to fight the
charge of Imamat to his brother, Hussain who became forces of Yazid. But, on his announcement that the
the third Imam. Following the footsteps of his brother ultimate end was near, people from his camp began
Hassan, he, too retired into seclusion in Madina. deserting him until he was left with only seventy-two
In 60 A.H., after the death of Ameer Muawiya, of his faithful followers.
his son Yazid succeeded him as the Khalifa at Thus the battle of truth against falsehood
Damascus. Tradition demanded that all Muslims began. One after another, the Imam's followers laid
should swear allegiance to the new Khalifa. Imam down their lives. Finally, on the 10th of Muharram when
Hussain decided to leave Madina and go to Makkah. all his devotees were slain, Imam Hussain was left all
Learning about the decision of the Imam, people alone on the battlefield. He then went to his sick son,
approached him asking the reason for the decision. Zain-ul-Abidin and handed over the charge of the
Imam Hussain replied that his refusal to take the oath of office of Imamat to him and went back to the
allegiance to Yazid would certainly annoy him and he battlefield. Swords and axes began falling on him and
would not spare shedding blood for it. He did not like he lay fully wounded from head to feet. Later when he
AZ EEM the city of his grandfather, the Holy died, his head was cut off from his body and taken to
English Magazine
30
Prophet to become a battlefield. Imam
A U G U S T, 2 0 0 2
Yazid's court. Thus, Imam Hussain won an everlasting

Azeem Educational Conference


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Azeem Educational Conference