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PRACTICE
QUESTIONS
PEARSON
BACCALAUREATE
H IG H E R L E V E L
I B R A H I M WA Z I R • T I M G A R R Y
P E T E R A S H B O U R N E • PA U L B A R C L AY • P E T E R F LY N N • K E V I N F R E D E R I C K • M I K E WA K E F O R D
Chapter 2
Practice questions
1 f ( g ( x )) = f ( x 2 + 2x ) = x 2 + 2x − 3
a A radical function is not defined when the expression under the square root has a negative value, so:
x 2 + 2x − 3 < 0 ⇒ x 2 − x + 3x − 3 < 0 ⇒ x ( x − 1) + 3 ( x − 1) < 0 ⇒ ( x − 1) ( x + 3) < 0 ⇒ x ∈ ]−3, 1[
Therefore, a = −3, b = 1.
b
a We have to solve the equation g(x) = 3, which can be solved in many different ways. Here we are going to use Solver.
b We are going to define the third function as a composition, y = g (h ( x )), and calculate its value for x = 6.
1
Chapter 2
4−x 4− y
3 a g (x ) = ⇒x= ⇒ 3x = 4 − y ⇒ y = 4 − 3x ⇒ g−1 ( x ) = 4 − 3x
3 3
10 2 2
b f ( g−1 ( x )) = f ( 4 − 3x ) = 5 ( 4 − 3x ) − 2 = 20 − 15x − 2 = 18 − 15x ⇒ 18 − 15x = 8 ⇒ 10 = 15x ⇒ x = =
15 3 3
3 This question can be solved using a CAS calculator, which, at present, is not permitted on the final exam by the IBO.
a–b
4 a g (h ( x )) = g (2x ) = 2x − 3
g( y ) = x ⇒ y − 3 = x ⇒ g−1 ( x ) = x + 3
⇒ g (14) + h (14) = 17 + 7 = 24
−1 −1
b x
h( y ) = x ⇒ 2 y = x ⇒ h ( x ) =
−1
2
5 a
b Since the function is transformed by applying a horizontal translation of one unit to the left and a vertical translation
1
of half a unit down, the new coordinates of the maximum point are −1, − , whilst the new coordinates of the
2
3
minimum point are 0, − .
2
1
6 There are four transformations defined by the graph y = − ( x + 5) + 3. The first is a reflection in the x-axis (the line
2
2
1. Then we have two translations: a horizontal translation of five units
y = 0). The second is a vertical stretch by scale factor __
2
to the left and a vertical translation of three units up. Therefore, the parameters are as follows:
1
a k= b p = −5 c q=3
2
2
7 Since we cannot use a calculator or apply any calculus knowledge, as this appears later in the textbook, we will simply
calculate the corresponding y-values for the given x-values from the domain. We also notice that this is an even function,
4 4
which means f (− x ) = = = f ( x ) , and geometrically its graph is symmetrical with respect to the
16 − (− x ) 16 − x 2
2
y-axis.
a Using a scientific calculator we obtain the following y-values:
x –3.5 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 3. 5
y 2.07 1.51 1.15 1.03 1 1.03 1.15 1.51 2.07
From the table, we see that f(x) has a minimum value when the denominator is a maximum, i.e. when x = 0.
5 y
4
1
f(x) = √16 – x2
x
−4 −2 2 4
−1
c Looking at the table and the graph, we can see that the lowest possible y-value is 1 and the graph has two vertical
asymptotes. Therefore, when the values of x approach −4 or 4, the y-values tend to positive infinity.
R (f ) = { y ∈ : y 1}
8 a We are going to use a tabular form to show some points on the graph.
1
– __ 1
__
x –4 –3 –2 –1
2 2
1 2 3 4
1
– __ 1
– __ 1
– __ 1
__ 1
__ 1
__
y 4 3 2
–1 –2 2 1
2 3 4
3 y
1
2
g(x) = x
1
−4 −2 2 4
−1
−2
−3
b The horizontal translation of four units to the left means that instead of x we will have the expression (x + 4); whilst the
vertical translation of two units down means that we are going to subtract 2 at the end. So, the function h looks
1
like this: h ( x ) = − 2.
x+4
1 1 − 2x − 8 2x + 7
Note: This function can be written in a different form: h ( x ) = −2= =− .
x+4 x+4 x+4
This second form might be better for the calculations in part c.
2x + 7 7 7
c i y=0⇒− = 0 ⇒ 2x + 7 = 0 ⇒ x = − ⇒ − , 0
x+4 2 2
2×0+7 7 7
x=0⇒y=− = − ⇒ 0, −
0+4 4 4
3
Chapter 2
ii By looking at the first form, we see that the vertical asymptote has the equation x = −4, whilst the horizontal
asymptote has the equation y = −2. That result can also be found by looking at the asymptotes of the
1
original function, y = , which were the coordinate axes. By translating the original function four units to
x
the left, we were also translating the vertical asymptote. And again, by translating the function two units
down, we were translating the horizontal asymptote.
iii
3 y
−10 −8 −6 −4 −2 2
−1
−2
1 –2
h(x) =
−3
x+4 −4
−5
−6
9 a i f (8) = 8 + 3 = 11
ii f ( 46) = 46 + 3 = 49 = 7
iii f ( −3) = −3 + 3 = 0 = 0
b The function f is not defined for negative values under the square root, and therefore x + 3 < 0 ⇒ x < −3.
( ) ( )
2
c g (f ( x )) = g x+3 = x + 3 − 5 = x + 3 − 5 = x − 2 , x −3
Notice here that the composition would not be represented by the whole straight line, but simply by a ray starting at
the point (23, 25).
a−8
10 a g −1 ( −2) = a ⇒ g (a) = −2 ⇒ = −2 ⇒ a − 8 = −4 ⇒ a = 4
2
An alternative method would be to find the inverse function first and then calculate its value at 22.
y−8
g ( y) = x ⇒ = x ⇒ y − 8 = 2x ⇒ g−1 ( x ) = 2x + 8
2
(This calculation is going to be used in the following part.)
g −1 ( −2) = 2 × ( −2) + 8 = 4
b g−1 (h ( x )) = g−1 ( x 2 − 1) = 2 × ( x 2 − 1) + 8 = 2x 2 − 2 + 8 = 2x 2 + 6
c g−1 (h ( x )) = 22 ⇒ 2 x 2 + 6 = 22 ⇒ 2 x 2 = 16 ⇒ x 2 = 8 ⇒ x = ± 8 = ±2 2
x +1
11 a f ( y ) = x ⇒ 3 y − 1 = x ⇒ 3 y = x + 1 ⇒ y =
3
4 4 12
b f ( g ( x )) = f = 3 × − 1 = −1
x x x
12 12 12
c f ( g ( y )) = x ⇒ = x + 1 ⇒ (f g ( x )) =
−1
−1= x ⇒ , x ≠ −1
y y x +1
4 4 x
d g ( g ( x )) = g = = 4 × =x
x 4 4
x
We notice that the function is self-inverse. That can be spotted from the graph, which is symmetrical with respect to
the line y = x .
12 a Even though the question suggests finding the parameters in a different order, we are going to use the form of the
function first and then the point.
ii Since the vertical line MN is a vertical asymptote, we can read its equation as x = 23. The function of the form
a
h (x ) = has a vertical asymptote when the denominator is equal to zero, so we can find the value of b: b = 23.
x−b
4
i To find parameter a, we will use point A(24, 28) which is on the graph.
a
−8 = ⇒ a = −8 × ( −1) = 8
−4 + 3
b y
10
A' (-4,8)
−5
A (-4,-8)
−10
b To obtain the graph y = −f ( x ) − 1 we need to perform two transformations: a reflection in the x-axis and then a
vertical translation of one unit down. Therefore, point A(23, 1) will first be reflected to (23, 21) and then translated
vertically to A(23, 22).
A(23, 1)
A(23, 22)
14 The graph of the function y2 = f ( x − k ) is obtained by a horizontal translation of k units to the right. Since 0 < k < n − m,
the touching point with the x-axis is going to be translated horizontally and placed before the zero n.
5
Chapter 2
15 Firstly, we need to find the composite function and then we will find its inverse.
( f g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x )) = f ( x 3 ) = x 3 + 1 ⇒ x = y 3 + 1 ⇒ x − 1 = y 3 ⇒ (f g) ( x ) =
−1 3
x −1
x x
x x +1 = x +1 x 1
16 a g ( x ) = ( f f ) ( x ) = f (f ( x )) = f = = , x ≠ −1, −
x + 1 x x + x + 1 2x + 1 2
+1
x +1 x +1
2
25 2
b ( g g ) (2) = g ( g (2)) = g = =
52 9
2× +1
5
1 1 1 − 2x 2 2 2
17 a f ( x ) = −2 ⇒ 2 −20 ⇒ 0 ⇒ 1 − 2x 2 0 ⇒ − x ,x ≠0
x 2
x x2 2 2
b Regarding the range, we notice that the sign before the square root is positive, and therefore f ( x ) 0 .
2y + 1 x +1
18 x = ⇒ xy − x = 2 y + 1 ⇒ xy − 2 y = x + 1 ⇒ y ( x − 2) = x + 1 ⇒ f −1 ( x ) =
y −1 x−2
Since the denominator cannot be equal to zero, the domain of the inverse function is D (f −1 ) = {x ∈ x ≠ 2} .
2x − 1
19 a The rational function f ( x ) = , x > 0, has a horizontal asymptote at y = 2 because
x+2
0
1
2−
2x − 1 x = 2 = 2. On the other hand, since the restriction on the domain is to positive
lim f ( x ) = lim = lim
x →∞ x →∞ x + 2 x →∞ 2 1
1+
x
0
values of x, and the vertical asymptote without restriction would occur at x = −2, the minimum on the function takes
1
place at x = 0 ⇒ y = − .
2
{ 1
Therefore, the range is R (f ) = y ∈ − y < 2 .
2 }
2y − 1 2x + 1
b x= ⇒ xy + 2x = 2 y − 1 ⇒ 2x + 1 = 2 y − xy ⇒ f −1 ( x ) = . Now, since there was a restriction on the
y+2 2−x
domain and range of the original function, we have a restriction on the domain of the inverse function:
{ 1
D (f −1 ) = x ∈ − x < 2 .
2 }
20 a If f ( x ) = x 3 , then f ( g ( x )) = x + 1 ⇒ ( g ( x )) = x + 1 ⇒ g ( x ) =
3 3
x + 1.
b g (f ( x )) = x + 1 ⇒ g ( x 3 ) = x + 1 ⇒ g ( x ) = 3
x +1
21 a Since the surd expression is in the denominator, it cannot be equal to zero and hence:
{
3 − x 2 > 0 ⇒ D (f ) = x ∈ − 3 < x < 3 }
6
b The maximum value of the expression in the denominator is 3. Therefore, the range of the function is
3
R (f ) = y ∈ x .
3
x +1
22 Given that ( f g ) ( x ) = and g ( x ) = 2x − 1, we will firstly find f (x):
2
x +1 x +1
f ( g ( x )) = ⇒ f (2x − 1) =
2 2
t +1
To solve this type of functional equation, we will use a substitution, 2x − 1 = t ⇒ x = , and then transform the rule to
the new variable. 2
t +1 t + 1+ 2
+1
2 2 t+3 x −3+3 x
f (t ) = = = ⇒ f ( x − 3) = =
2 2 4 4 4
23 a The first transformation, y = f ( x − 4) , is a horizontal translation of four units to the right. Therefore,
A (−3, 25) → A ' (1, 25) ; B (0, 0) → B ' ( 4 , 0) ; C (3, −35) → C ' (7, −35); and D (6, 0) → D ' (10, 0) .
30 y
A A'
25
20
15
10
5
B B' D D' x
–9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
–5
– 10
– 15
– 20
– 25
– 30
– 35
C C'
– 40
7
Chapter 2
b The second transformation, y = f (−3x ), actually consists of two transformations. One transformation is a reflection in
the y-axis, whilst the other is a horizontal shrinking by scale factor 3. So, the points will be mapped as follows:
A (−3, 25) → A " (1, 25) ; B (0, 0) → B " (0 , 0) ; C (3, −35) → C " (−1, −35) ; and D (6, 0) → D " ( −2, 0) .
30 y
A A"
25
20
15
10
5
D" B" B D x
−9 −8 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
−5
−10
−15
−20
−25
−30
−35
C" C
−40
8
Chapter 3
Practice questions
1 x 2 − ( a + 3b )x + 3ab = 0
( a + 3b ) ± ( a + 3b )2 − 4 ⋅ 3ab ( a + 3b ) ± a2 + 6ab + 9b2 − 12ab
x1, 2 = =
2 2
( a + 3b ) ± a2 − 6ab + 9b2 ( a + 3b ) ± ( a − 3b )2 ( a + 3b ) ± ( a − 3b )
= = =
2 2 2
a + 3b + a − 3b a + 3b − a + 3b
x1 = = a, x2 = = 3b
2 2
2 3x − 2 4x − 1
+3 × 15
5 3
9 x − 6 + 45 20 x − 5
−11x −44
x4
4 1
3 If, for parabola y = f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 8 x + c , the vertex is at , − , then:
3 3
2
4 1 4 4 1 16 32 1 15
f = − ⇒ 3⋅ − 8⋅ + c = − ⇒ − +c =− ⇒c = = 5.
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
1
Since f ( 2) = 4 ⇒ a ( 4 − 16 + 4) = 4 ⇒ −8a = 4 ⇒ a = −
2
1 2
The function is: f ( x ) = −
2
(x − 8 x + 4) = − 21 x 2 + 4 x − 2 ⇒ a = − 21 , b = 4 , c = −2.
5 The equation x 3 + 5x 2 + p x + q = 0 can be written in the factorized form as:
( x − ω ) ( x − 2ω ) ( x − ω − 3) = 0 ⇒ ( x 2 − 3ω x + 2ω 2 ) ( x − ω − 3) = 0 ⇒
x 3 − 3ω x 2 + 2ω 2 x − ω x 2 + 3ω 2 x − 2ω 3 − 3x 2 + 9ω x − 6ω 2 = 0
x 3 + (−4 ω − 3) x 2 + (5ω 2 + 9ω ) x + (−2ω 3 − 6ω 2 ) = 0
By comparing the corresponding coefficients, we obtain the following system of equations:
−4 ω − 3 = 5 ω = −2
2
5ω + 9 ω = p ⇒ p = 2
−2ω − 6ω = q q = −8
3 2
1
Chapter 3
a The equation has two real roots when ∆ > 0 ⇒ 8m + 16 > 0 ⇒ m > −2.
b The equation has one positive and one negative real root when ∆ > 0 and the first and the last coefficients are of
opposite sign. We have two possibilities:
m > 0 and m + 2 < 0 ⇒ m > 0 and m < −2, which is not possible; or
m < 0 and m + 2 > 0 ⇒ m < 0 and m < −2 , which gives us the solution −2 < m < 0.
8 x <5 x−6
Since the expressions on both sides must be positive, we can square both sides and remove the absolute value signs.
x 2 < 25 ( x − 6)
2
15
The solution is: x < 5 or x > .
2
2
9 The equation 2x 2 + ( 3 − k )x + k + 3 = 0 has two imaginary solutions when its discriminant is negative.
∆ = ( 3 − k )2 − 4 ⋅ 2( k + 3) = 9 − 6k + k 2 − 8k − 24 = k 2 − 14 k − 15
k 2 − 14 k − 15 < 0
( k + 1)( k − 15) < 0
k − 15 − − 0 +
(k + 1) (k − 15) + 0 − 0 +
2x 2 + 8 x + 7 2x 2 + 8 x + 10 − 3 2 ( x + 4 x + 5) − 3
2
10 a f (x) = = =
x2 + 4x + 5 x2 + 4x + 5 x2 + 4x + 5
3 3 3
=2− 2 =2− 2 =2−
x + 4x + 5 ( x + 4 x + 4) + 1 ( x + 2)2 + 1
b i lim f ( x ) = 2
x →+∞
ii lim f ( x ) = 2
x →−∞
3
c The minimum value occurs when is largest, that is, when x = −2.
( x + 2)2 + 1
3
f ( −2 ) = 2 − = −1
( −2 + 2)2 + 1
The minimum point is (−2, −1) .
11 The equation ( k − 2)x 2 + 4 x − 2k + 1 = 0 has two distinct real roots when its discriminant is positive.
∆ = 4 2 − 4 (k − 2) (−2k + 1) = 16 − 4 (−2k 2 − 4k − 2) = 8k 2 + 16k + 24
8k 2 + 16k + 24 > 0
k 2 + 2k + 3 > 0
In order to factorize this inequality, we try to solve the equation k 2 + 2k + 3 = 0 .
−2 ± 22 − 4 ⋅ 3 −2 ± −8
k1, 2 = =
2 2
Since this equation has no real solutions, the inequality is valid for all k ∈ ; so, the original equation has two distinct real
roots for all k ∈ .
3
Chapter 3
14 When f ( x ) = x 3 + 3x 2 + a x + b is divided by ( x + 1) the remainder is the same as that when divided by ( x − 2).
f ( −1) = f ( 2)
−1 + 3 − a + b = 8 + 12 + 2a + b
2 − a = 20 + 2a
3a = −18
a = −6
8 + 4 a − 6 + b = 0 4 a + b = −2
⇒ ⇒ 3a = −6 ⇒ a = −2, b = 6
−1 + a + 3 + b = 6 a + b = 4
19 If 1+ ki is one zero of the polynomial z 2 + kz + 5, then 1− ki is the second, and the polynomial can be written as:
( z − (1 + ki )) ( z − (1 − ki )) = (( z − 1) − ki ) (( z − 1) + ki ) = ( z − 1)2 − ( ki )2 = z 2 − 2 z + 1 + k 2
By comparing the coefficients, we see that k = −2 and k 2 + 1 = 5.
20 The equation k x 2 − 3x + ( k + 2) = 0 has two distinct real roots when its discriminant is positive.
∆ = ( −3)2 − 4k ( k + 2) = 9 − 4k 2 − 8k
9 − 4 k 2 − 8k > 0
4 k 2 + 8k − 9 < 0
−8 ± 82 − 4 ⋅ 4 ⋅ ( −9 ) −8 ± 208 −8 ± 4 13 −2 ± 13
k1, 2 = = = =
2⋅4 8 8 4
k1 ≈ −2.80, k2 ≈ 0.803
(k + 2.8) (k − 0.803) < 0
4
We analyze the signs of both factors in a ‘sign chart’:
22.80 0.803
x
k + 2.80 − 0 + +
k − 0.803 − − 0 +
(k + 2.80) (k − 0.803) + 0 − 0 +
21 The equation (1 + 2k )x 2 − 10 x + k − 2 = 0 has real roots when its discriminant is not negative.
∆ = ( −10 )2 − 4(1 + 2k )( k − 2) = 100 − 4( 2k 2 − 3k − 2) = −8k 2 + 12k + 108
−8k 2 + 12k + 108 0
2k 2 − 3k − 27 0
−27 ) 3 ± 15
3 ± ( −3)2 − 4 ⋅ 2 ⋅ (−
k1, 2 = =
2⋅2 4
9
k1 = −3, k2 =
2
9
2 (k + 3) k − 0
2
9
(k + 3) k − 0
2
We analyze the signs of both factors in a ‘sign chart’:
9
23 2
x
k+3 − 0 + +
9
k− − − 0 +
2
9
(k + 3) k − + 0 − 0 +
2
9
The solution is: −3 k .
2
22 To determine the range of values of m such that, for all real x, m(1 + x ) x 2 we transform the inequality into
x 2 − mx − m 0 and observe the function f ( x ) = x 2 − mx − m . The problem is now f ( x ) 0. Since the leading
coefficient is 1, the graph of this quadratic function opens upwards; thus:
∆ 0 ⇒ ( − m )2 − 4 ⋅ 1⋅ ( − m ) 0 ⇒ m2 + 4m 0 ⇒ m( m + 4 ) 0.
We analyze the signs of both factors in a ‘sign chart’:
5
Chapter 3
24 0
x
m+4 − 0 + +
m − − 0 +
m (m + 4) + 0 − 0 +
x−3 − − 0 +
( x − 1) ( x − 3) + 0 − 0 +
For the right branch, we must change the window to see the intersections.
6
25 x − 2 2x + 1
Since the expressions on both sides must be positive, we can square both sides and remove the absolute value signs.
( x − 2)2 (2x + 1)2
x2 − 4x + 4 4x2 + 4x + 1
3x 2 + 8 x − 3 0
−8 ± 82 − 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ ( −3) −8 ± 10
x1, 2 = =
2⋅3 6
2 1
x1 = −3, x 2 = =
6 3
1
3 ( x + 3) x − 0
3
1
( x + 3) x − 0
3
We analyze the signs of both factors in a ‘sign chart’:
1
23 3
x
x+3 − 0 + +
1
x− − − 0 +
3
1
( x + 3) x − + 0 − 0 +
3
1
The solution is: −3 x .
3
x+4 x−2
26 For f ( x ) = , x ≠ −1 and g( x ) = , x ≠ 4 we have:
x +1 x−4
f ( x ) g( x )
x+4 x−2
x +1 x − 4
x+4 x−2
− 0
x +1 x − 4
( x + 4) ( x − 4) − ( x − 2) ( x + 1)
0
( x + 1) ( x − 4)
x 2 − 16 − x 2 + x + 2
0
( x + 1) ( x − 4)
x − 14
0
( x + 1) ( x − 4)
The ‘sign chart’ for the inequality is: −1 4 14
x
x +1 − 0 + + +
x−4 − − 0 + +
x − 14 − − − 0 +
x − 14
− X + X − 0 +
( x + 1) ( x − 4)
The solution is: x < −1 or 4 < x 14.
7
Chapter 3
27 x + 9 2
x−9
x+9
−2 2
x−9
We have two inequalities:
x+9 x+9
−2 and 2
x−9 x−9
x+9 x+9
+20 −20
x−9 x−9
3x − 9 − x + 27
0 0
x−9 x−9
x−3 x − 27
0 0
x−9 x−9
We analyze the signs of the numerator and denominator for the first inequality in a ‘sign chart’:
3 9
x
x−3 − 0 + +
x−9 − − 0 +
x−3
+ 0 − X +
x−9
x − 27 − − 0 +
x − 27
+ X − 0 +
x−9
27
8
28 If x1 = 2 + i is the first root of the equation x 3 − 6 x 2 + 13x − 10 = 0, then x 2 = 2 − i is the second root, and the equation
can be factorized as:
( x − ( 2 + i )) ( x − ( 2 − i )) ( x − a) = 0
(( x − 2) − i ) (( x − 2) + i ) ( x − a) = 0
(( x − 2)2 − i 2 ) (x − a) = 0
(x 2 − 4 x + 5) (x − a) = 0
x 3 − a x 2 − 4 x 2 + 4 a x + 5x − 5a = 0
x 3 + ( − a − 4 )x 2 + ( 4 a + 5)x − 5a = 0
By comparing the coefficients with the coefficients of the original equation, we get:
− a − 4 = −6 ⇒ − a = −2 ⇒ a = 2
4 a + 5 = 13 ⇒ 4 a = 8 ⇒ a = 2
−5a = −10 ⇒ a = 2
We see that we get the solution a = 2 from all the equations, so the third root is x 3 = 2.
2x
29 The inequality < 1 can be multiplied by the denominator since it is positive. Therefore: 2x < x − 1 , x ≠ 1 .
x −1
We have two possibilities:
If x − 1 > 0, i.e. x > 1 ⇒ x − 1 > 2x ⇒ x < −1, which is a contradiction.
1
If x − 1 < 0, i.e. x < 1 ⇒ x − 1 > −2x ⇒ 3x < 1 ⇒ x < , which is a solution.
3
2x 2x
29 For the inequality < 1, we will observe where the graph of the function f ( x ) = is below the line y = 1.
x −1 x −1
1
The solution is: x < .
3
9
Chapter 4
Practice questions
1 a1 = 4
d We need to determine n so that bn an . The easiest
a4 = 19
way of doing this is by entering n (as X), an (as Y1),
an = 99
and bn (as Y2) into Table in a GDC.
4 + 3d = 19
⇒ d = 5 and n = 20
4 + ( n − 1)d = 99
2 A = 3000, r = 0.06, n = 4 , t = 6
nt 4⋅6
0.006
A = P 1 + ⇒ 3000 = P 1 +
r
n
4
3000
P= 4⋅6 = 2098.63
1 + 0.06
4
You should invest €2098.63 now.
1
Chapter 4
2
14 a i The series 2 + 22 + 222 + 2222 + ... is neither 16 The number of seats in each row forms an arithmetic
arithmetic nor geometric. sequence with a1 = 16 and d = 2.
4 8 16
ii The series 2 + + + + ... is geometric with a a24 = a1 + 23d = 16 + 23 ⋅ 2 = 62
3 9 27
2 24
r = < 1; thus converging. b S24 = 16 + 18 + ... + 62 = (16 + 62) = 936
3 2
iii The series 0.8 + 0.78 + 0.76 + 0.74 + ... is 17 The values of the investment after each year form a
arithmetic with d = 20.02. geometric sequence with a1 = 7000, r = 1.0525, and
8 32 128 an+1 represents the value of the investment after n years.
iv The series 2 + + + + ... is geometric
3 9 27
4 a Value of investment = 7000 ⋅ 1.0525t
with r = > 1; thus diverging.
3 10
2 b 7000 ⋅ 1.0525t = 10 000 ⇒ 1.0525t = ⇒
b For series ii we have: S∞ = = 6. 7
2
1− 10
3 log
7
15 The Kell scheme forms an arithmetic sequence with t= = 6.97
log(1.0525)
a1 = 18 000 and d = 400. The IBO scheme forms a
The minimum number of years is 7.
geometric sequence with b1 = 17 000 and r = 1.07.
c If the rate of 5% is compounded quarterly, the value
a All answers are in euros.
of the investment over 7 years would be:
i Kell: a2 = 18 000 + 400 = 18 400, 7⋅ 4
5
a3 = a2 + 400 = 18 800 7000 ⋅ 1 + = 9911.95.
4 ⋅ 100
IBO: b2 = 17 000 ⋅ 1.07 = 18 190 , For 5.25% compounded annually, the value of the
b3 = b2 ⋅ 1.07 = 19 463.30 investment would be 7000 ⋅ 1.05257 = 10 015.04 .
10
ii Kell: S10 = ( 2 ⋅ 18 000 + 9 ⋅ 400 ) Therefore, the investment at 5.25% annually is better.
2
= 198 000 18 a S1 = 9 ⇒ a1 = 9
1.0710 − 1 S2 = 20 ⇒ a1 + a2 = 20 ⇒ 9 + a2 = 20 ⇒ a2 = 11
IBO: S10 = 17 000
1.07 − 1
= 234 879.62 b d = a2 − a1 = 11 − 9 = 2
iii Kell: a10 = 18 000 + 9 ⋅ 400 c a4 = a1 + 3d = 9 + 3 ⋅ 2 = 15
= 21600
19 a2 = a + d = 7
IBO: b10 = 17 000 ⋅ 1.079
4
= 31253.81 S4 = 2 [2a + 3d ] = 12
b i From a ii we can see that b3 > a3 , so Merijayne a + d = 7
will start earning more than Tim in the third year. ⇒ a = 15, d = −8
2a + 3d = 6
ii We can compare their total earnings with 20 (1 + x ) (1 + a x )6 = 1 + b x + 10 x 2 + … + a 6 x 11
5
3
Chapter 4
1
7 7
1
i
21 a5 : a12 =
6
28 x + 2 =
ax
∑ 7i x 7−i
2
ax
13 i =0
a1 ⋅ a3 = 32
7 1
2
1 21x
a + 4d 6 i = 2 ⇒ x 7 − 2 2 = 21x 5 ⋅ 2 4 = 2
= ⇒ a = 2d 2 ax ax a
a + 11d 13 21 7
a( a + 2d ) = 32 ⇒ 2d ⋅ 4 d = 32 ⇒ = ⇒ a2 = 9 ⇒ a = 3, a = −3
a2 3
d = 2 (all terms positive), a = 4
a 27 27(1 − r )
100 29 S∞ = = ⇒a=
S100 = (2 ⋅ 4 + 99 ⋅ 2) = 10 300 1− r 2 2
2
1− r3
22 22n − 3n − n = 18n = 9 ⋅ 2n which is clearly divisible by 9 S3 = a = 13
1− r
for n = 1, 2, ….
27 (1 − r ) 1 − r 3 1 1
23 a1 = 5 ⋅ = 13 ⇒ r 3 = ⇒r = ,a = 9
2 1− r 27 3
a2 = a1 + d = 13 ⇒ d = 8
6
30 Student A can get 1 coin in ways.
a an = a1 + ( n − 1)d = 5 + ( n − 1) ⋅ 8 = 8n − 3 1
6
b an < 400 ⇒ 8n − 3 < 400 ⇒ n < 50.375 Student A can get 2 coins in ways.
2
There are 50 terms which are less then 400.
6
10
10 10−i Student A can get 3 coins in ways.
24 ( 2 + 3x )10 = ∑ 3
2 ( 3x )
i
i =0 i 6
Student A can get 4 coins in ways.
10 10−7 4
i =7⇒ 2 ( 3x )7 = 120 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 2187 x 7
7 6
Student A can get 5 coins in ways.
= 2 099 520 x 7 5
The coefficient of x 7 is 2 099 520. Altogether, there are
6 6 6 6 6
25 Sn = 3n2 − 2n ⇒ 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 6 + 15 + 20 + 15 + 6 = 62
S1 = u1 = 3 ⋅ 12 − 2 ⋅ 1 = 1 ways.
S2 = u1 + u2 = u1 + u1 + d = 3 ⋅ 22 − 2 ⋅ 2 = 8 ⇒
31 This is an infinite geometric series with:
2+d = 8⇒d = 6
2
un = u1 + ( n − 1)d = 1 + ( n − 1) ⋅ 6 = 6n − 5 a1 = −12, r = − . So:
3
26 Six people can be ordered in 6! ways, but, as they are a1 −12 −36
S∞ = = = .
seated around a circular table, all circular permutations 1− r 1+ 2 5
3
that come in groups of six (ABCDEF, BCDEFA, CDEFAB,…)
6! 32 For un = 3 ( 4 )n+1 , n ∈ + :
are equivalent, so there are actually ways. As Mr Black
6
and Mrs White should not sit together, we must subtract a u1 = 48, r = 4
all circular permutations in which this pair is regarded as 4n − 1
b Sn = 48 = 16( 4 n − 1)
one person, but multiplied by 2, because a male can be 4 −1
on the left or right of the female. Altogether, there are 33 For the infinite geometric series
6! 5!
− ⋅ 2 = 120 − 24 ⋅ 2 = 72 ways. 2x 2x
2
2x
3
6 5 1 + + + + ... :
3 3 3
27 Firstly, we must determine which is the last positive term 2x
in the sequence. a a1 = 1, r =
3
a1 = 85, d = −7 The series converges for
an = 85 + ( n − 1)( −7 ) > 0 ⇒ 92 − 7n > 0 ⇒ n < 13.14 2x 3 3
13 r < 1⇒ < 1⇒ − < x < .
For n = 13 ⇒ S13 = [2 ⋅ 85 + 12 ⋅ ( −7 )] = 559. 3 2 2
2
4
2 ⋅ 1.2 4 39 a S2 = a + ar = 15
b x = 1.2 ⇒ r = =
3 5 a
1 S∞ = 1 − r = 27
S∞ = =5
4
1− a(1 + r ) = 15
5 ⇒
a = 27(1 − r )
34 There are 9999 − 999 = 9000 four-digit numbers.
27(1 − r )(1 + r ) = 15 ⇒ 27(1 − r 2 ) = 15 ⇒
Without digit 3 there are 8 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 9 = 5832 numbers. 4 2
r 2 = ⇒ r = (all term ms positive)
9 3
So, with at least one digit 3, there are
2
9000 – 5832 = 3168 numbers. b a = 27 1 − = 9
3
35 For the arithmetic series we have: a1 = 2, d = 3. 40 For the arithmetic sequence 2, a − b , 2a + b + 7, a − 3b ,
n n( 3n + 1) the difference must be constant.
a Sn = [2 ⋅ 2 + ( n − 1) ⋅ 3] =
2 2 So, we have the following system of equations:
n( 3n + 1) ( a − b ) − 2 = ( 2a + b + 7 ) − ( a − b )
b Sn = 1365 ⇒ = 1365 ⇒
2 ( a − 3b ) − ( 2a + b + 7 ) = ( 2a + b + 7 ) − ( a − b )
3n2 + n − 2730 = 0 ⇒
a − b − 2 = a + 2b + 7
−1 ± 12 − 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ ( −2730 ) 91
n= = 30, − − a − 4 b − 7 = a + 2b + 7
2⋅3 3 3b = −9
⇒ a = 2, b = −3
8 1 i
8 a + 3b = −7
36 1 8
(1 −
2
x) = ∑ i − 2 x 41 Let A and B denote the two oldest children that cannot
i =0
both be chosen. Four children can be then be chosen as
8 1 3 1
i = 3 ⇒ − x = 56 − x 3 = −7 x 3 4 out of 6 (without A and B), or as 3 out of 6 and 1 out of
3 2 8
2 (A or B). Altogether, there are
The coefficient of x 3 is −7. 6 6 2
4 + 3 1 = 15 + 20 ⋅ 2 = 55 ways.
50 50 50
37 ∑ ln(2 ) =∑ r ln( 2) = ln 2∑ r
r
42 As a, 1, b form an arithmetic progression, the difference is
r =1 r =1 r =1
50 the same: 1 − a = b − 1 .
= (ln 2) ( 2 + 49 )
2
As 1, a, b form a geometric progression, the ratio is the
= 1275 ln 2 a b
same: = .
38 For u0 = 1, u1 = 2, un+1 = 3un − 2un−1 , n ∈ + : 1 a
We solve the following system of equations:
a u2 = 3u1 − 2u0 = 4 1 − a = b − 1
u3 = 3u2 − 2u1 = 8 a b
u4 = 3u3 − 2u2 = 16 1 = a
b i un = 2n a + b = 2
2 ⇒ a2 + a − 2 = 0 ⇒ ( a − 1)( a + 2) = 0
a = b
ii 3un − 2un−1 = 3 ⋅ 2n − 2 ⋅ 2n−1
⇒ a = 1 or a = −2
= 3 ⋅ 2n − 2n As a = 1 gives b = 1, the solution is a = −2, b = 4.
= 2 ⋅ 2n 43 We can see that:
= 2n+1 = un+1 OB = OA = 1
OB1
cos θ = ⇒ OB1 = OA1 = OA cos θ = cos θ
OA
OB
cos θ = 2 ⇒ OB2 = OA2 = OA1 cos θ = cos2 θ
OA1
OB3
cos θ = ⇒ OB3 = OA3 = OA2 cos θ = cos3 θ
OA2
5
Chapter 4
The radii form the geometric sequence 47 Let S(n) be the statement: 5n + 9 n + 2 is divisible by 4, for
1, cos θ , cos2 θ , cos3 θ , ... n ∈ + .
As the length of the arc is equal to θ ⋅ radius, the sum of
Basis step:
the arc lengths is:
S(1):
AB + AB1 1 + A2B2 + A3B3 + ... =
Sn = 4 n2 − 2n
θ
θ + θ cos θ + θ cos2 θ + θ cos3 θ + ... =
1 − cos θ 51 + 91 + 2 = 16 which is divisible by 4.
+
44 For Sn = 2n − n, n ∈ , we have:
2
Inductive step:
a S1 = u1 = 2 ⋅ 12 − 1 = 1 Assume S(k) is true, i.e. assume that 5k + 9k + 2 is
S2 = u1 + u2 = 2 ⋅ 22 − 2 = 6 ⇒ divisible by 4. So, we assume that
u1 + u2 = 6 ⇒ 1 + u2 = 6 ⇒ u2 = 5 5k + 9k + 2 = 4 A, A ∈ (*) ⇒ 9k = 4 A − 5k − 2 .
S3 = u1 + u2 + u3 = 2 ⋅ 32 − 3 = 15 ⇒ Then S(k + 1):
u1 + u2 + u3 = 15 ⇒ 1 + 5 + u3 = 15 ⇒ u3 = 9 5k +1 + 9k +1 + 2 = 5k +1 + 9 ⋅ ( 4 A − 5k − 2) + 2
= 5 ⋅ 5k + 36 A − 9 ⋅ 5k − 18 + 2
b un = Sn − Sn−1 = 2n − n − 2( n − 1) − ( n − 1)
2 2
= 36 A − 4 ⋅ 5k − 16
= 2n − n − 2n − 4 n + 2 − n + 1
2 2
= 4( 9 A − 5k − 4 ),
= 4n − 3
i.e. 5k + 9k + 2 is divisible by 4.
5
45 a ( 2 + x )5 = ∑ 5i 2 5− i
xi = This shows that S(k + 1) is true whenever S(k) is true.
i =0
log 2
ii (1.063)n > 2 ⇒ n > = 11.35
log 1.063
The value will double after 12 full years.
6
Chapter 5
Practice questions
b We will find the y-coordinate of Q by finding the value of the function for x = 0:
3 a Using the properties of logarithms, we can write the terms of the sequence differently:
ln y + ln y 2 + ln y 3 + ... = ln y + 2 ln y + 3 ln y + .... Now, we can see that the sequence is arithmetic with first term
u1 = ln y , and common difference d = 2 ln y − ln y = ln y . Hence, un = ln y + ( n − 1) ln y. Using the property of
logarithms, we can simplify this expression: un = ln y + ( n − 1) ln y = 1 ⋅ ln y + ( n − 1) ln y = (1 + n − 1) ln y = n ln y .
n n n n n (n + 1)
Sum of Sn = (ln y + ln y n ) = ln ( yy n ) = ln y n+1 = (n + 1) ln y. So, Sn = ln y.
2 2 2 2 2
b Using the properties of logarithms, we can write the terms of the sequence differently:
ln ( xy ) + ln ( xy 2 ) + ln ( xy 3 ) + ... = (ln x + ln y ) + (ln x + 2 ln y ) + (ln x + 3 ln y ) + ....
We can see that each term of this sequence matches the corresponding term of the sequence in part a plus
n n n
n (n + 1)
ln x. Hence, un = ln x + ln y n , and the sum: Sn = ∑ (ln x + ln y i ) = ∑ ln x + ∑ ln y i = n ln x + ln y .
i =1 i =1 i =1 2
4 Using the properties of logarithms, we can transform the equation:
log2 (5x 2 − x − 2) = 2 + 2 log2 x ⇒ log2 (5x 2 − x − 2) = log2 4 + log2 x 2 ⇒ log2 (5x 2 − x − 2) = log2 4 x 2
5x 2 − x − 2 = 4 x 2 ⇒ x 2 − x − 2 = 0 ⇒ x1 = −1, x 2 = 2
Since, log2 x is not defined for −1, the only solution is x = 2.
1
Chapter 5
1 5
2+ 5
5 We can determine the value of x: x = log2 4 2 = log2 2 2
= log2 2 2 = .
2
From logz y = 4 we can conclude that: y = z 4 .
2
5 5
From the third equation, we can conclude: z 4 = 4 ⋅ − 2 − 6 + z = 25 − 5 − 6 + z = 14 + z ⇒ z 4 − z − 14 = 0
2 2
We will solve this equation using the PolySmlt/PolyRootFinder application:
From logz y = 4, we can conclude that the base of the logarithm should be positive; hence, z = 2, and thus y = z 4 = 16.
2 (e t − 1) (e 2t + e t + 1) − 7e t (e t − 1) = 0 ⇒ (e t − 1) (2e 2t + 2e t + 2 − 7e t ) = 0 ⇒ (e t − 1) (2e 2t − 5e t + 2) = 0
Hence, either e t − 1 = 0 ⇒ e t = 1 ⇒ t = 0, or 2e 2t − 5e t + 2 = 0 ⇒ 2 (e t ) − 5e t + 2 = 0 .
2
1
We can solve the second equation by using a substitution: e t = s ⇒ 2s 2 − 5s + 2 = 0 ⇒ s1 = , s2 = 2 ; therefore:
1 1 2
e t = ⇒ t = ln , or e t = 2 ⇒ t = ln 2 .
2 2
1 , ln 2.
Solutions are: t = 0, ln __
2
7 Using the substitution ln x = t:
−2e ± 4 e 2 + 32e 2 −2e ± 6e
8e 2 − 2et = t 2 ⇒ t 2 + 2et − 8e 2 ⇒ t1, 2 = = ⇒ t1 = −4 e , t2 = 2e
2 2
Hence:
ln x = −4 e ⇒ x = e −4 e
ln x = 2e ⇒ x = e 2 e
log3 3 1
8 a Using the change of base formula: log3 x − 4 + 3 = 0 ⇒ log3 x − 4 +3= 0
log3 x log3 x
Multiplying by log3 x : (log3 x )
2
− 4 + 3 log3 x = 0
The solutions of the quadratic equation are 6 and −3. Since x has to be greater than 5 (for log2 ( x − 5) and log2 ( x + 2)
to be defined), the only solution is x = 6.
2
9 a First using the property k logb M = logb (M k ) and then the properties of the sum and difference of logarithms, we have:
a2 b3
2 log a + 3 log b − log c = log a2 + log b3 − log c = log (a2 b3 ) − log c = log .
c
b First using the property k logb M = logb (M k ) and then ln e = 1, and, finally, the properties of the sum and difference
of logarithms, we have:
1 1
ex3
3 ln x − ln y + 1 = ln x 3 − ln y 2 + ln e = (ln x 3 + ln e ) − ln y = ln (e x 3 ) − ln y = ln .
2 y
10 Given that A(t ) = 0.79 A0 , we have to solve the equation: 0.79 A0 = A0 e −0.000124 t . So, we have:
ln 0.79
0.79 = e −0.000124 t ⇒ ln 0.79 = −0.000 124t ⇒ t = ≈ 1900 years.
−0.000 124
12 a b
y y
y = b1–x
y=b –x
y = bx
y = bx
(0, b) (1, b)
(–1, b) (1, b)
x x
t
1 1600
13 a Since its half-life is 1600 years, the exponential decay model is: A(t ) = A0 . So, we have to solve:
t 2
1 1600
A0 = A0 e − kt . Since the equation holds for all t, then:
2
1 1
1 1600 1 1600 1 1
= e − k ⇒ ln = −k ⇒ k = − ln ≈ 0.000 4332 (4 s.f.)
2 2 1600 2
3
Chapter 5
4000
1 1600
Ao
A( 4000 ) 2 1
2.50
14 This equation cannot be solved exactly, so we will use a GDC. We transform the equation: e − x = x − 1. We know the
behaviour of both functions, so we can determine the number of solutions on the graph, and hence find all the solutions.
Note: If we graph the original equation to find the zeros, we can’t be sure that our window is good enough to find all the
values.
We have to change the window to see all the regions where the logarithmic function is above the graph of the absolute
value. We will take into account that the logarithm is defined for positive values, and that the equation 0.1x 2 − 2x + 3 = 0
has two positive solutions ( x1 ≈ 1.64 , x 2 ≈ 18.36 ), so the absolute value function will decrease to zero once again.
4
So, the first interval is 1.52 < x < 1.79 and the second is 17.6 < x < 19.1.
xex
The function f ( x ) = has vertical asymptotes x = −1, x = 1; so, we have to explore three regions. For x > 1, the
x2 − 1
graph of y = f ( x ) is above the line y = 1; hence, x > 1 is in the solution set.
So, for −1 < x < −0.800 , the graph of y = f ( x ) is above the line y = 1; hence, −1 < x < −0.800 is in the solution set.
For x < –1, the graph of y = f ( x ) is below the line y = 1; hence, there are no solutions for x < 21.
4x
1
Using the substitution 4 x = t : 2t 2 − 3t + 1 = 0 ⇒ t1 = , t2 = 1
2
5
Chapter 5
Hence,
1
1 − 1
4x = ⇒ 4x = 4 2 ⇒ x = −
2 2
4x = 1 ⇒ x = 0
1
b i a x = e 2 x +1 ⇒ ln a x = 2x + 1 ⇒ x ln a − 2x = 1 ⇒ x (ln a − 2) = 1 ⇒ x =
ln a − 2
Note: Instead of taking ln from both sides of the equation, we can take loga . Then we will have:
loga e
⇒ x (1 − 2 loga e ) = loga e ⇒ x =
1 − 2 loga e
loga e
ii The equation will not have a solution when is not defined. Hence,
1 − 2 loga e
1
1
1 − 2 loga e = 0 ⇒ loga e = ⇒ e = a 2 ⇒ e2 = a
2
18 Transforming the equation:
22 x + 3 = 2x +1 + 3 ⇒ 23 ⋅ 22 x − 2 ⋅ 2x − 3 = 0 ⇒ 8 ⋅ (2x ) − 2 ⋅ 2x − 3 = 0
2
1 3
Using the substitution 2x = t : 8 ⋅ t 2 − 2 ⋅ t − 3 = 0 ⇒ t1 = − , t3 =
2 4
Hence,
1
2x = − has no solution
2
x 3 3
2 = ⇒ x = log2 = log2 3 − log2 4 = log2 3 − 2 ; so, a = 22 and b = 3.
4 4
1
19 Using the substitution ln x = t : 2t 2 = 3t − 1 ⇒ 2t 2 − 3t + 1 = 0 ⇒ t1 = , t2 = 1. Hence, the solutions are:
1 2
1
ln x = ⇒ x = e 2 = e
2
ln x = 1 ⇒ x = e
20 a We use the exponential function for compound interest: V (t ) = 100 (1 + 0.05) . The value after 20 years is:
t
6
21 We will use the change of base formula:
log5 5 1 25
⇒ 9 (log5 x ) = 25 ⇒ (log5 x ) =
2 2
9 log5 x = 25 ⇒ 9 log5 x = 25
log5 x log5 x 9
Hence, the solutions are:
5
5 −
log5 x = − ⇒ x = 5 3
3
5
5
log5 x = ⇒ x = 53
3
22 From ln ( x + 3) = 1 we can conclude that either ln ( x + 3) = −1, or ln ( x + 3) = 1. Hence,
1
ln ( x + 3) = −1 ⇒ x + 3 = e −1 ⇒ x = e −1 − 3 = − 3
e
ln ( x + 3) = 1 ⇒ x + 3 = e1 ⇒ x = e − 3
7
Chapter 5
26 a i
ii From part i, we can conclude that f ( x ) 0 for all x; hence, e x − 1 − x 0 ⇒ e x 1 + x for all x.
1 1 1
b Let P(n) be the proposition: (1 + 1) 1 + 1 + 1 + = n + 1.
2 3 n
Basis step:
P(1) is true since (1 + 1) = 2 and, for n = 1, n + 1 = 2.
Inductive step:
1 1 1
Assume P(k) is true for some integer k 1, that is: (1 + 1) 1 + 1 + 1 + = k + 1.
2 3 k
1 1 1 1 1 k + 1+ 1
Then: (1 + 1) 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 +
= (k + 1) 1 + = (k + 1) = (k + 1) + 1
2 3 k k + 1 k + 1 k +1
Thus, using the fact that P(k) is true, we establish that P(k + 1) is true, and so P(n) is true for all integers n 1.
1 1 1 1 1 1
1+ + + ... +
c First transform: e 2 3 n
= e1e 2 e 3 e n
8
Chapter 6
Practice questions
2x 3
1 det( A) = = 2x ⋅ x − 3( −4 x ) = 2x 2 + 12x
−4 x x
det( A) = 14 ⇒ 2x 2 + 12x = 14 ⇒ x 2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 ⇒ x1 = −7, x 2 = 1
So, x = −7 or x = 1.
2
a 2 a 2 a 2 a 2 + 4 2a − 2
2 a M2 = = =
2 −1 2 −1 2 −1 2a − 2 5
5 −4 a 2 + 4 2 a − 2 5 −4 a 2 + 4 = 5
b M2 = ⇒ 2a − 2 = ⇒
−4 5 5 −4 5 2a − 2 = −4
The solution a = −1 satisfies both equations.
−1 2
For a = 21, we have:
2 −1
1 −1 −2 1 −1 −2
M −1 = =−
det( m ) −2 −1 3 −2 −1
The system of equations can be written as:
x −3 x −3 x 1 −1 −2 −3 1 −3 1
M = ⇒ = M −1 ⇒ =− =− = .
y
3 y 3 y
3 −2 −1 3 3 3 −1
Therefore, the solution is x = 1, y = −1.
11 2 5 2
3 BA = and A =
44 8 2 0
1 0 −2
A−1 = −
4 −2 5
11 2 −1 1 11 2 0 −2 1 −4 −12 1 3
B= A =− =− =
44 8
4 44 8 −2 5 4 −16 −48 4 12
3 1 a b a b 4 8
4 AX + X = B ⇒ + =
−5 6 c d c d 0 −3
3a + c 3b + d a b 4 8 4a + c 4b + d 4 8
⇒ + = ⇒ =
−5a + 6c −5b + 6d c d 0 −3 −5a + 7c −5b + 7d 0 −3
By comparing the corresponding elements, we obtain two systems of linear equations:
4a + c = 4 4b + d = 8
−5a + 7c = 0 − 5b + 7d = −3
28 20 59 28 28, b = ___
59, c = ___
20, and d = ___
28.
a= ,c = b= ,d = So, a = ___
33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
5 −2
5 A=
7 1 1 2
1 1 2 1 1 2 19 19
a A−1 = = =
5 + 14 −7 5 19 −7 5 −7 5
19 19
1
Chapter 6
b i X A + B = C ⇒ X A = C − B ⇒ X = ( C − B ) A−1
1 2
−5 0 6 7 19 19 1 −11 −7 1 2 1 38 −57 2 −3
ii X = − = = =
− 8 7 5 − 2 − 7 5 19 −13 9 −7 5 19 −76 19 −4 1
19 19
a b 1 2 a +1 b + 2 a b 1 2 a + bd 2a + bc
6 a A+B = + = b AB = =
c 1 d c c + d c + 1 c 1 d c c + d 3c
7 a Using a GDC:
6 3 8
The solution is: x = , y = ,z = .
5 5 5
−2 4 5 2
8 Given C = ,D = , and 3Q = 2C − D , we have:
1 7 −1 a
−3 2
1 1
(2C − D ) = 2 −2 4 − 5 2 = −9 6 =
1
a Q= 14 − a
3 3 1 7 −1 a 3 3 14 − a 1
3
−2 4 5 2 −10 − 4 −4 + 4 a −14 4 a − 4
b CD = = =
1 7 −1 a 5 − 7 2 + 7a −2 7a + 2
5 2 1 a −2
c D −1 = =
−1 a 5a + 2 1 5
9 a If A is the inverse of matrix B, then AB = BA = I must be satisfied. So, we have:
a −4 −6 1 2 −2 a − 6 2a − 4b − 6 −2a + 14 1 0 0
AB = −8 5 7 3 b 1 = 0 5b − 9 0 = 0 1 0
−5 3 4 −1 1 −3 0 3b − 6 1 0 0 1
1 2 −2 a −4 −6 a−6 0 0 1 0 0
BA = 3 b 1 −8 5 7 = 3a − 8b − 5 5b − 9 7b − 14 = 0 1 0
−1 1 −3 −5 3 4 − a + 7 0 1 0 0 1
By comparing the corresponding elements, we can see that the solution a = 7, b = 2 satisfies all the equations.
2
b The system can be written as:
−1
x 5 1 2 −2 x 5 x 1 2 −2 5
B y = 0 ⇒ 3 2 1 y = 0 ⇒ y = 3 2 1 0
z 6 −1 1 −3 z 6 z −1 1 −3 6
Since AB = BA = I ⇒ B −1 = A , then:
−1
x 1 2 −2 5 7 −4 −6 5 −1
y = = = 2
3 2 1 0 −8 5 7 0
z −1 1 −3 6 −5 3 4 6 −1
ii Matrix B = A−1C .
c The coordinates of the point of intersection of the planes are given as the solution of the system of equations that can
be written as:
x x
A y = C ⇒ y = A−1C = B
z z
The point has coordinates (1, 21, 2).
1 1 2
11 a det( A) = 1 2 1 = 110
( − 1) − 1( 5 − 2) + 2(1 − 4 ) = 0
2 1 5
b We transform the augmented matrix of the system:
1 1 2 3
1 2 1 4 R2 − R1
R − 2R1
2 1 5 λ 3
1 1 2 3
0 1 −1 1 {R3 + R2
0 −1 1 λ − 6
1 1 2 3
0 1 −1 1
0 0 0 λ−5
3
Chapter 6
For λ = 5 we have:
1 1 2 3
0 1 −1 1 {R1 − R2
0 0 0 0
1 0 3 2
0 1 −1 1
0 0 0 0
For z = t ⇒ x = 2 − 3t , y = 1 + t .
12 If X 3 = 0 we have:
( I − X )( I + X + X 2 ) = II + I X + I X 2 − X I − XX − XX 2 = I + X + X 2 − X − X 2 − X 3 = I − X 3 = I − 0 = I
( I + X + X 2 )( I − X ) = II − I X + X I − XX + X 2I − X 2 X = I − X + X − X 2 + X 2 − X 3 = I − X 3 = I − 0 = I
We can conclude: ( I − X )−1 = ( I + X + X 2 ) and ( I + X + X 2 )−1 = ( I − X ).
4
Chapter 7
Practice questions
1 a The length is a function of time, so we are looking for the value of the function when t = 2:
b We are looking for the minimum value of a function of the form y = a cos [b( x + c )] + d . Since the smallest value of
cosine is −1, the minimum value of L will be:
Note: We have found the minimum value of the function using the fact that the minimum value of cosine is 21. We
could have found the result differently: The minimum value of a function of the form y = a cos [b( x + c )] + d is equal
to the vertical shift d minus the amplitude | a |; so we have: min = d − | a | = 110 − 25 = 85.
c We have to find the least value of t such that L = 85. From part b we can see that the lowest value will be obtained
when the cosine equals 21; hence, 2πt = π ⇒ t = __ 1.
2
Note: We could find t by solving the equation: 110 + 25 cos (2πt ) = 85 ⇒ 25 cos (2πt ) = 85 − 110 ⇒ cos (2πt ) = −1.
1
2πt = π ⇒ t = sec
2
d We have to determine the period of a function of the form y = a cos [b( x + c )] + d . So, the period is
2π 2π
= = 1 sec.
b 2π
b–c For the remaining parts of the question, we will use the graph of the function. So, we have to set a suitable window.
The minimum value is the vertical shift minus the amplitude, and the maximum value is the vertical shift plus the
amplitude. Therefore, we can use y-values from (less than) 110 2 25 = 85 to (greater than) 110 + 25 = 135.
1
Chapter 7
Another way would be to use the ZoomFit feature. The window will not be suitable for all the calculations, but we can
read out the range and then just extend it a bit in both directions.
We can solve both parts b and c by finding the minimum value with the smallest x.
2 2 sin2 x − cos x + 1 = 0
2 (1 − cos2 x ) − cos x + 1 = 0 Use the Pythagorean identity sin 2 x = 1 − cos 2 x .
−2 cos2 x − cos x + 3 = 0
−2t 2 − t + 3 = 0 ⇒ t1 = −1.5, t2 = 1 Substitute cos x = t .
cos x = 1.5 ⇒ has no solution
cos x = 1 ⇒ x = 0, 2π
Solutions are: 0, 2π.
3 The perimeter of the shaded sector contains two radii and an arc. So, the length of the arc can
be calculated: 25 = 2 ⋅ 6 + s ⇒ s = 13. We can use the arc length formula to find the angle θ1 in
radians:
1 13
s = r θ1 ⇒ 13 = 6 ⋅ θ1 ⇒ θ1 =
6
For angles θ and θ1 :
13
θ + θ1 = 2π ⇒ θ = 2π − ≈ 4.12
6
2
4 a i The amplitude of function f is 1, so the minimum value of the function is 21.
2π
ii Period of g = = 4 π.
1
2
We can see that there are four points of intersection; hence, there are four solutions to the equation.
2π
5 For d = p + q cos t :
m
a To find p we have to determine the mid-line; therefore, we have to find the average of the function’s maximum and
minimum value:
64 + 6
p= = 35
2
b To determine q, we have to determine the amplitude. The amplitude is the difference between the function’s
maximum value and the mid-line: | q | = 64 − 35 = 29. So, q is 29 or −29 . From the given data, we can establish that
the graph starts from the maximum value, so q is positive; hence, q = 29.
c From the data, we can see that the distance between two successive maximum points (or minimum points) is
0.5 seconds. So, the period is 0.5.
2π
Using the formula for period, we have: period = = m. Hence, m = 0.5.
2π
m
Note: It is useful to highlight the basic data using a rough sketch.
60 60
40 40
20 20
1 1
-20 -20
Note: The question does not tell us to use a specific method to solve the equation, so we can choose any method. The
most suitable method is graphical, because we can see the number of solutions and find them all.
3
Chapter 7
Factorize: π 3π 5π ππ
cos x = 0 ⇒ x = ,
2 2 6
cos x (2 sin x − 1) = 0 ⇒ 6
1
2 sin x − 1 = 0 ⇒ sin x = ⇒ x = , π 5 π x
2 6 6
π π 5π 3π
Solutions are: , , , .
6 2 6 2
π
8 Given < x < π , it follows that sin x > 0 and cos x < 0 .
2
8 1
a Using the Pythagorean identity for sine, we have: sin2 x = 1 − cos2 x = 1 − = .
9 9
1 1
Using the fact that sin x > 0, we have: sin x = = .
9 3
8 16 7
b Using the double angle identity for cosine, we have: cos 2x = 2 cos2 x − 1 = 2 ⋅ − 1 = −1= .
9 9 9
8 8 2 2
c Using cos x < 0, we have: cos x = − =− =− . Hence,
9 3 3
1 2 2 4 2
sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x = 2 ⋅ ⋅ − =− .
3 3 9
9 We have to interpret the data as points on a graph: (5, 5.8)
6
4
We can also see from the data that the distance between successive maximum and minimum points is 5.5 hours. So,
half of the period = 5.5.
2π 2π 2π
Using the formula for period, we have: period = ⇒ 11 = ⇒B= .
B B 11
To determine the horizontal translation (phase shift), we
6
(5, 5.8)
have to find the points of the graph on the mid-line.
1 (7.75, 4.2)
Abscissae of those points are on a distance of a of the 4
4 (2.25, 4.2)
period from the abscissa of the maximum point. Hence,
2 (10.5, 2.6)
1 9 31
5 ± ⋅ 11 , so and .
4 4 4
9 5 10
Thus, C = − and the function is:
4
2π 9
d = 1.6 sin x − + 4.2.
11 4
b We have to find the value of the function at 12 noon, that is, 12 hours after midnight; therefore,
2π 9
d(12) = 1.6 sin 12 − + 4.2 ≈ 3.15 metres.
11 4
c We have to find the time interval in which the value of d is greater than 3.5.
Therefore, from about 12:27 pm to 7:33 pm the boat can dock safely.
We can also see that around midnight the boat can dock safely again.
5
Chapter 7
t 2 + 2t − 3 = 0 ⇒ t1 = 1, t2 = −3
π
tan x = 1 ⇒ x =
4
π
tan x = −3 cannot be solved exactly Solutions are: , 1.89.
4
3
11 a We will use the arc length formula: s = r θ = 10 ⋅ = 15 cm
2
3
b The angle in the shaded region is 2π − ; therefore, using the area of a sector
2
formula:
1 1 3
A = r 2 θ = ⋅ 102 2π − ≈ 239 cm2
2 2 2
5 π 5 5
12 The function f ( x ) = cos 2x − reaches a maximum value of and a minimum value of − . That means that
2 2 2 2
5 5 5 5 5 5
− f ( x ) . The function will not reach values greater than or less than − . Hence, for k > and k < − ,
2 2 2 2 2 2
the equation will have no solutions.
13 From the graph, we can see that the point (0, 1) is on the mid-line, so k = 1.
To determine a, we need to find the amplitude. The amplitude is the difference between the function’s maximum value
and the mid-line: | a | = 3 − 1 = 2; so, a is 2 or −2. We can see that the graph, starting from initial position at x = 0, first
reaches the minimum value, and then the maximum value, so a is negative; hence, a = –2.
sin2 α 1 − cos2 α 1
14 We can write tan2 a using secant only: tan2 α = = = − 1 = sec 2 α − 1
cos2 α cos2 α cos2 α
So, the equation is: 2 sec 2 α − 2 − 5 sec α − 10 = 0 ⇒ 2 sec 2 α − 5 sec α − 12 = 0
3
Using the substitution sec α = t , we have: 2t 2 − 5t − 12 = 0 ⇒ t1 = − , t2 = 4 . Since α is in the second quadrant,
2
3
secant should be negative and the solution is sec α = − .
2
15 a Using the compound angle formula for sine, we have: sin( α + β ) = sin α cos β + cos α sin β
15 8
From the upper triangle, we can see that: sin α = , cos α =
17 17
6 8
From the lower triangle, we can see that: sin β = , cos β =
10 10
15 8 8 6 168 84
So, sin( α + β ) = ⋅ + ⋅ = = .
17 10 17 10 170 85
8 8 15 6 −26 13
b cos( α + β ) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β = − = =−
17 10 17 10 1700 85
84
sin (α + β ) 84
c tan( α + β ) = = 85 = −
cos (α + β) − 13 13
85
Note: We can find tan α and tan β from the drawing, and then use the compound formula for tangent.
1 1 2 2
16 From the diagram, we can see that: sin p = = and cos p = = .
1 +2
2 2
5 1 +2
2 2
5
1 2 4
Hence: sin 2 p = 2 sin p sin p = 2 ⋅⋅ = .
5 5 5
For sin 3p, we can use the compound angle formula: sin 3p = sin (2 p + p ) = sin 2 p cos p + cos 2 p sin p
6
4 1 3
So, we have to find cos 2 p = cos2 p − sin2 p = − = . Finally, we have:
5 5 5
4 2 3 1 11 11 5
sin 3p = + = = .
5 5 5 5 5 5 25
17 If B is obtuse, then the sine is positive and cosine negative.
5 5
a sin B = =
52 + 122 13
12 12
b cos B = − =−
5 + 12
2 2 13
5 12 120
c sin 2B = 2 sin B cos B = 2 − = −
13 13 169
2 2
12 5 119
d cos 2B = cos2 B − sin2 B = − − =
13 13 169
Note: In the solution, we have used the property of angles and sides in a right triangle.
We can find the solution by using the Pythagorean identity for sine and cosine:
sin x 5 5
=− ⇒ sin x = − cos x
cos x 12 12
2
5 169 144 12
sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 ⇒ − cos x + cos2 x = 1 ⇒ cos2 x = 1 ⇒ cos x = − =−
12 144 169 13
5 12 5
Finally, sin x = − − = . Now we can continue using the double angle formulae.
12 13 13
3 2 tan θ 3
18 Using the double angle formula for tangent, we have: tan 2θ = ⇒ = ⇒ 8 tan θ = 3 − 3 tan2 θ
4 1 − tan2 θ 4
Using the substitution tan θ = t, we will have a quadratic equation:
1 1
3t 2 + 8t − 3 = 0 ⇒ t1 = −3, t2 = . Hence, the possible values of tan θ are: −3, .
3 3
19 We will use the compound angle formula for sine:
sin x cos α − cos x sin α = k (sin x cos α + cos x sin α )
Then we will divide both sides by cos x cos α :
sin x cos α cos x sin α sin x cos α cos x sin α
− =k + ⇒
cos x cos α cos x cos α cos x cos α cos x cos α
tan x − tan α = k ( tan x + tan α ) ⇒ tan x − k tan x = k tan α + tan α ⇒ tan x (1 − k ) = tan α (k + 1) ⇒
tan α( k + 1)
tan x =
1− k
−( k + 1)
Note: If we rearrange the equation differently, we obtain the result tan x = tan α , which is equivalent to the
k −1
above result.
7
Chapter 7
The domain of the functions is −1 x 1 , so we just have to draw this part of the graph.
b No solutions
c Cosine function has a range from −1. But, here, its domain is restricted. Since cosine is an even function, it is enough to
observe its behaviour on the interval from 0 to 1. Hence, the function is decreasing on this interval; its largest value is
cos 0 = 1 , and the smallest value cos 2. Hence, the range is the set [cos 2, 1] .
ˆ = θ and AC = x.
22 Let CAD
2 2 5 5
From the drawing, we can see that: tan θ = ⇒ x = and tan 2θ = ⇒ x = .
x tan θ x tan 2θ
2 5
Hence: =
tan θ tan 2θ
2 5 5(1 − tan2 θ ) 1
Using the double angle formula for tangent, we have: = ⇒2= ⇒ 4 = 5 − 5 tan2 θ ⇒ tan2 θ =
tan θ 2 tan θ 2 5
1 − tan2 θ
Since θ is an angle in a right triangle, its tangent has to be positive.
1
So, tan θ = ⇒ θ ≈ 24.1.
5
2 5
Note: We can solve the equation = graphically.
tan θ tan 2θ
We are looking for the angle when those two sides are the same.
πx
23 We have to solve the equation 16 sec − 32 = −16 + 10 . Hence,
36
π x 26 13 1 13 πx 8
sec = = ⇒ = ⇒ cos =
36 16 π x
cos
8 8 36 13
36
We need the first positive solution, so:
πx 8 36 8
⇒ = arccos ⇒ x = arccos
36 13 π 13
36 8
Hence, the solution of the equation is: arccos , and the width of the water surface in the channel is:
π 13
36 8 72 8
2⋅ arccos = arccos cm.
π 13 π 13
8
Chapter 8
Practice questions
1 The shortest distance from AB to O is the perpendicular from O to AB, so OC = 3 units, and B
A C
CB = 52 − 32 = 4 units. Therefore, AB = 2 ⋅ 4 = 8 units.
3
5 5
We are asked to find the exact value of the sine of the angle, which means that we have to
O 5
avoid all calculator use!
Method I:
In triangle AOB all sides are given, so we can find angle AOB using the law of cosines:
52 + 52 − 82 7
cos AOB = =−
2⋅5⋅5 25
Using the Pythagorean identity for sine and cosine, and taking into account the fact that the sine of an angle in a triangle
is always positive, we have:
7
2
252 − 72 18 ⋅ 32 9 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 16 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 4 24
sin AOB = 1 − − = = = = =
25 252 25 25 25 25
Method II:
3
From the right triangle OBC, we can find acute angle OBC : sin OBC =
5 3
sin AOB sin OBC 8 ⋅ sin OBC 8 5 24
Using the law of sines in triangle AOB, we have: = ⇒ sin AOB = = =
8 5 5 5 25
Method III:
From the right triangle OCB, we can find the sine and cosine of the acute angle OBC :
4 3
sin OBC = and cos OBC =
5 5
The angle AOB = 2 ⋅ OBC , so, using the double angle identity for sine, we have:
3 4 24
sin AOB = 2 sin OBC ⋅ cos OBC = 2 ⋅ ⋅ =
5 5 25
3
2 In the given right triangle, tan θ = . Therefore, the triangle has legs of 3 and 7 and hypotenuse of 32 + 72 = 58 .
7
3 7
Hence, sin θ = and cos θ = .
58 58
Using double angle identities, we have: 58
3 7 42 21 3
sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ = 2 ⋅ ⋅ = =
58 58 58 29
49 9 20
cos 2θ = cos2 θ − sin2 θ = − = 7
58 58 29
3 In the triangle SSS is given, so we can find any angle using the law of cosines. The largest angle is opposite the longest
side; therefore, we are looking for the angle opposite the side of size 7.
4 2 + 52 − 72 1 1
cos θ = = − ⇒ θ = cos−1 − ≈ 101.5
2⋅4 ⋅5 5 5
4 If A is obtuse, then cos A is negative. Therefore, using the Pythagorean identity for sine and cosine, we have:
25 12
cos A = − 1 − sin2 A = − 1 − = − . Hence, using the double angle identity for sine, we have:
169 13
5 12 120
sin 2 A = 2 sin A cos A = 2 − = − .
13 13 169
1
Chapter 8
PQ
5 a From the right triangle BQP, we have: tan 36 = ⇒ PQ = 40 tan 36 ≈ 29.1 m
40
b In triangle ABQ, the angle AQB = 180 − 70 − 30 = 80. Using the law of sines, we can find side AB :
AB 40 40 sin 80
=
⇒ AB = ≈ 41.9 m
sin 80 sin 70 sin 70
6 In triangle ABC, SSS is given; hence, we can find angle CAB using the law of cosines:
482 + 322 − 562
cos CAB = ⇒ CAB ≈ 86.4
2 ⋅ 48 ⋅ 32
7 a In the triangle SSS is given, so we can find any angle using the law of cosines. The smallest angle is opposite the
shortest side; therefore, we are looking for the angle opposite the side of size 5.
72 + 82 − 52 11
cos θ = ⇒ θ = cos−1 ≈ 38.2
2⋅7 ⋅8 14
1
b Using the area formula with sides 7 and 8 and the included angle from a: A = ⋅ 7 ⋅ 8 sin θ ≈ 17.3 cm2
2
b In Triangle 1, angle ACB is acute, so ACB = sin−1 0.901 2288 ≈ 64.3 ; therefore, angle BAC = 180 − 50 − BCA ≈ 65.68 .
Hence, the area is:
1
A = 20 ⋅ 17 ⋅ sin BAC ≈ 155 cm2.
2
2
9 In 2.5 hours, boat A covers a distance of 20 ⋅ 2.5 = 50 km, and boat B covers a distance of 32 ⋅ 2.5 = 80 km.
A
In triangle PAB, SAS is given, so we can find side AB using the law of cosines:
50 km
AB = 502 + 802 − 2 ⋅ 50 ⋅ 80 cos 70 ≈ 78.5 km
70°
Therefore, after 2.5 hours, the boats are approximately 78.5 km apart. B
P 80 km
10 In triangle JKL, SSA is given. The angle K JL is the angle opposite the longer side, so there will be a unique triangle with the
given dimensions. We can determine angle JKL using the law of sines:
sin JKL sin 51 25 sin 51
= ⇒ sin JKL = ≈ 0.51128 ⇒ JKL ≈ 31
25 38 38
11 a In triangle ABC, ASA is given, so we can find AB using the law of sines. Angle A = 180 − 60 − 40 = 80.
AB 5 5 sin 40
=
⇒ AB = ≈ 3.26 cm
sin 40 sin 80 sin 80
1
b Area = 5 ⋅ AB sin 60 ≈ 7.07 cm2
2
12 B
B
a 2
A
a A
3
O 2
a
3
2
O
In triangle OAB, sides OA and OB are each half the length of the space diagonals, and side AB is the side diagonal of the
cube.
AB = a 2
1
( ) a
2
OA = OB = a 2 + a2 = 3
2 2
In triangle OAB, SSS is given. We can use the law of cosines to find angle θ :
2 2
2
2
(
a 3 + a 3 − a 2 2 3a2 3a2
4
)
+
4
− 2a 2 1
cos θ = = = − ⇒ θ ≈ 109.47
2 a a
3 3
3a2 3
2 2 2
4
The acute angle between the diagonals is 180 − θ ≈ 70.5 .
3
Chapter 8
ii Method I:
BD 65 65 sin 30
We will use the sine rule in triangle ADB:
= ⇒ BD =
sin 30 sin ADB sin ADB
DC 104 104 sin 30 104 sin 30
Next, we will use the sine rule in triangle ADC:
= ⇒ DC = =
sin 30 sin ADC sin ADC sin ADB
Therefore:
65 sin 30
BD 65 5
= sin ADB = =
DC 104 sin 30 104 8
sin ADB
Method II:
65x
We can find areas A1 = and A2 = 26 x using the sides BD and DC and angles ADC and ADB :
4
65x 1
A x BD sin ADB BD
4 = 1 = 2 =
26 x A2 1
x DC sin ADC DC
2
65x
5 BD 5
Since 4 = , we have established that = .
26 x 8 DC 8
14 a Using the law of sines, we have:
x
=
x−2
( )
⇒ 2x = 2x − 4 ⇒ x 2 − 2 = 4 ⇒ x =
4
=
(
4 2+ 2 ) = 4+2 2
sin 45
sin 30
2− 2 4−2
1
b A = x ( x − 2) sin 105. So, we have to determine the exact value of sin105 . Using the compound formula for sine,
2
3 2 1 2 6+ 2
we have: sin 105 = sin (60 + 45 ) = sin 60 cos 45 + cos 60 sin 45 = + =
2 2 2 2 4
(
1
)
Now we have: A = 4 + 2 2 ( 2 + 2 2 )
6+ 2
=
( )(
2 + 2 1+ 2 )( 6+ 2 )
2 4 2
(
A=
)(
4+3 2 6+ 2 ) =
4 6+4 2+6 3+6
=2 6 +2 2+3 3+3
2 2
1
15 T1 = CD ⋅ BD sin CDB
2
1
T2 = CD ⋅ AD sin CDA
2
Since CDA = 180 − CDB , their sines are the same: sin CDA = sin CDB .
1
CD ⋅ BD sin CDB
T1 2 BD
Hence: = = .
T2 1 AD
CD ⋅ AD sin CDA
2
4
16 a 60 + θ < 180 ⇒ θ < 120 ; hence, 0 < θ < 120.
1
b A = 30 ⋅ KJ sin θ ; we have to determine KJ. Using the law of sines:
2
KJ 30 30
=
⇒ KJ = sin L
sin L sin 60 3
2
Since L = 180 − ( 60 + θ ) ⇒ sin L = sin( 60 + θ ), we have:
30 ⋅ 2
KJ = sin (60 + θ) = 20 3 sin (60 + θ). Finally, the area is:
3
1 1
A= 30 ⋅ KJ sin θ = 30 ⋅ 20 3 sin (60 + θ) sin θ = 300 3 sin θ sin (60 + θ).
2 2
c
1
17 a A= 30 ⋅ 172 − 152 = 120 cm2
2
2 ⋅ 172 − 302
b cos ABC = = −0.557 09... ⇒ ABC ≈ 2.16
2 ⋅ 172
c (
R = AA1 − AA2 − AT )
1
AA1 = 152 π ≈ 353.43 cm2
2
1 1
AA2 = r 2 ⋅ ABC ≈ 172 ⋅ 2.16 = 312.12 cm2
2 2
R = AA1 − AA2 + AT ≈ 161 cm2
5
Chapter 9
Practice questions
Point R lies on the circle because the distance from O to R is 15 (the radius of the circle).
10 15 −5
b AR = OR − OA = − =
5 5 0 5 5
AO ⋅ AR −15 × ( −5) + 0 × 5 5 75 1
c cos ∠OAR = = = =
AO ⋅ AR 155 ( −5) + ( 5 5 )
2 2 15 150 6
2
1 5
sin ∠OAR = 1 − (cos ∠OAR ) = 1 −
2
d =
6 6
1 1 5
Area MAR = AM ⋅ AR sin ∠OAR = ⋅ 30 ⋅ 150 ⋅ = 75 5
2 2 6
4
y
C(3,8)
8
T
6
v
S
4
R(11,4)
3
2 u
A(6,2)
1
P
O
-2 2 4 6 8 10 12
M(0 ,0) x
-1
-2
1
Chapter 9
11 0 11 3 6 −3
a MR = − = , AC = − =
4 0 4 8 2 6
MR ⋅ AC 11 × ( −3) + 4 × 6 9
b cos (MR , AC ) = = = ⇒ (MR , AC ) = 83.4
MR ⋅ AC 11 + 4 ⋅ ( −3) + 6
2 2 2 2
137 ⋅ 45
17 3
c The midpoints are P ( 3, 1), Q , 3 , S , 4 , and T (7, 6 ), so the vectors joining the midpoints are:
2 2
17 11 3 11
3 7
u = PQ = 2 − = 2 , v = ST = − 2 = 2
1 6
3 2 4 2
1
We can see that u = v = MR ⇒ u = v and u v , so the points PQST form the parallelogram.
2
5 m(u + v ) − 5i + 7j = n(u − v )
m [( 5i + 3 j) + (i − 4 j)] − 5i + 7j = n [( 5i + 3 j) − (i − 4 j)]
m [6i − j] − 5i + 7j = n [4i + 7 j]
( 6m − 5)i + ( −m + 7 ) j = 4 ni + 7nj
6m − 5 = 4 n 63 37
⇒m= ,n=
−m + 7 = 7n 46 46
6
12 B(9,12)
y Marc o at 08:00
10
M(9,10.2)
Marc o at 12:30
8
A(4.5,6)
Marc o at 07:30
6
O
5 10 15 x 20
Base
Start
-2 at 07:00 T(9,-2)
Tony at 12:30
-4
D(9,-4)
Tony at 07:30
-6
-8
-10
b At 07:30 each crew will have been travelling for 0.5 hour, so their position vectors will be equal to one-half of their
velocity vectors.
1 9 4.5
Position of ‘Marco’ is: OA = = .
2 12 6
1 18 9
Position of ‘Tony’ is: OD = = .
2 −8 −4
2
c The distance between the vehicles at 07:30 is:
4.5
AD = = 4.52 + ( −10 )2 ≈ 10.97 km.
−10
d ‘Marco’ is directly north of ‘Tony’ when the x-coordinate of its position point is 9, which is one hour after they left the
base port; i.e. ‘Marco’ starts work at 08:00 (and is at B(9,12)).
e The ‘Marco’ crew work for 4.5 hours and lay 4.5 × 0.4 = 1.8 km of pipe in a southerly direction.
The ‘Tony’ crew work for 5 hours and lay 5 × 0.4 = 2 km of pipe towards the north.
At 12:30 ‘Marco’ is at point M(9,12 2 1.8) = M(9, 10.2) and ‘Tony’ is at point T(9, 24 + 2) = T(9, 22).
The distance between them at this time is: 10.2 + 2 = 12.2 km.
f The distance from M to base port for ‘Marco’ is: OM = 92 + 10.22 ≈ 13.6 km.
As they travel at 15 km/h, it would take them 13.6 / 15 = 0.9069 hours = 54 minutes to return to base.
3 5 8
7 a OR = OT + TR = + =
−1 6 5
3
As TI = kj, points T and I have the same x-coordinate, i.e. OI = .
a
5 8−3 55
TR ⋅ IR = 0 ⇒ ⋅ = 0 ⇒ 5 × 5 + 6( 5 − a ) = 0 ⇒ a =
6 5 − a 6
I(3, 55/6)
y
R(8,5)
5 x 10
O
T(3,-1)
-2
-4
3 5
8
b IR = OR − OI = − 55 = 25
5 −
6 6
3
Chapter 9
x 25 360 745
8 a For t = 2, the position of the AUA plane is: y = + 2 480 = 1000 .
40
360
b The speed of the plane is: = 3602 + 4802 = 600 km/h.
480
x −155 480
c The position of the LH plane is given by: y = +t .
1300 −360
The planes will collide if the following system of equations has a unique solution:
x 25 360
= + t 480
y
40
⇒
x −155 480
y = 1300 + t −360
25 + 360t = −155 + 480t ⇒ t = 1.5
40 + 480t = 1300 − 360t ⇒ t = 1.5
Therefore, the planes will collide after 1.5 hours, i.e. at 01:30.
x −155 480 325
d The position vector of the LH plane at t = 1 is: y = + 1 = .
1300 −360 940
325 450 775
e After 2 hours the LH plane is at: + 1 = .
940 −390 550
775 745 30
The distance between the planes after 2 hours is: − = = 302 + ( −450 )2 = 451 km.
550 1000 −450
9 3n 2n − 1 3n 2n − 1
2n + 3 ⊥ 4 − 2n ⇒ 2n + 3 ⋅
4 − 2n
= 0 ⇒ 3n( 2n − 1) + ( 2n + 3)( 4 − 2n) = 0 ⇒ 2n2 − n + 12 = 0
For this quadratic equation, the discriminant ∆ = ( −1)2 − 4 × 2 × 12 = −95 < 0, so there is no solution for n.
xa xb x a + xb x a − xb
11 For vectors a = , b = ⇒ a + b = ,a−b = .
ya yb
y a + yb y a − yb
Then:
a+b = a−b ⇒
( x a + x b )2 + ( y a + yb )2 = ( x a − x b )2 + ( y a − yb )2
x a2 + 2x a x b + x b2 + y a2 + 2 y a yb + yb2 = x a2 − 2x a x b + x b2 + y a2 − 2 y a yb + yb2 ⇒
2 x a x b + 2 y a y b = −2 x a x b − 2 y a y b ⇒ x a x b = − y a y b
x a x b + y a yb x a xb − x a xb
a⋅b = = =0
x +y
2
a
2
a x +y
2
b
2
b x + y a2 x b2 + yb2
2
a
4
Chapter 10
Practice questions
1 Method I:
1 − 3i (1 − 3i ) (1 + i ) 1 + 3 + i (1 − 3)
From (1 − i ) z = 1 − 3i , we have: z = = = = 2 − i. Hence, x = 2, y = −1 .
1− i 1+ 1 2
Method II:
We can solve the task using the notation z = x + y i . In this case, we have to solve a system of equations:
(1 − i ) ( x + y i ) = 1 − 3i ⇒
x + y + i ( y − x ) = 1 − 3i
x + y = 1 x=2
Hence: ⇒
− x + y = −3 y = −1
= x 2 + y 2 + (w + w 2 ) xy
= x 2 + y 2 + (−1) xy 2
Since w + w = −1 (using the result from a).
= x 2 + y 2 − xy
3 a (1 + i )2 = 1 + 2i + i 2 = 1 + 2i − 1 = 2i
b Let P(n) be the statement: (1 + i ) = ( −4 ) .
4n n
Basic step:
The basis step must be P(1).
P (k ) ... (1 + i ) = ( −4 )
4k k
1
Chapter 10
π π
2 cos −
+ i sin −
z1 6 6 π π π π π π
b = = 1 cos − + + i sin − + = cos + i sin
z2 π π 6 4 6 4 12 12
2 cos −
+ i sin −
4 4
6 −i 2 6 − 2i 2 + 6i − i 2
c
z1
= 2 ⋅
1+ i
= 2 =
6 + 2+i ( 6− 2 )
z2 1− i 1+ i 1+ 1 4
π 6+ 2 π 6− 2
Hence, a = cos = , b = sin = .
12 4 12 4
3 3 3
z1 a π π π π a π π
5 z = b cos 4 − 3 + i sin 4 − 3 = b cos − 12 + i sin − 12
3
a3 π π 3
a π π a3 2 2
= 3
cos − ⋅ 3 + i sin − ⋅ 3 = 3 cos − + i sin − = 3 −
b 12 12 b 4 4 b 2 2
3
z a3 2 a3 2
Hence, 1 = −i .
z3 2b 3
2b 3
Note: We can obtain the same result by firstly raising to the cube power and then dividing. However, be sure that you
a3
express the number in the form x + y i, which means that you multiply by 3 . You can write the result in the form:
b
a3 2 a3 2
x= ,y=− (or any equivalent form).
2b 3 2b 3
6 Let z = x + y i. Then:
15x 2 + 15 y 2 = 240 ⇒ x 2 + y 2 = 16
Hence, z = x 2 + y 2 = 16 = 4.
7 Method I:
5 − i 5 − i 2 + i 10 + 1 + i (5 − 2) 11 + 3i
a + bi = = ⋅ = =
2−i 2−i 2+i 4 +1 5
11 3
Therefore, a = ,b = .
5 5
Note: If this is a Paper 2 task, you can perform the division using a GDC.
2
Method II:
We can find the solution using multiplication: (2 − i ) (a + bi ) = 5 − i ⇒ 2a + b + i (2b − a) = 5 − i
Therefore:
2a + b = 5 11 3
⇒ a = ,b =
− a + 2b = − 1 5 5
8 Method I:
1 1 1
If arg (b + i ) = 60 ⇒ arg (b + i ) = 30 ⇒ tan 30 = ⇒
2
= ⇒b= 3
b 3 b
Method II:
2b 2b
arg (b + i ) = 60 ⇒ arg (b2 − 1 + 2bi ) = 30 ⇒ tan 30 = 2
2
⇒ 3= 2
b −1 b −1
1
3b2 − 2b − 3 = 0 ⇒ b1 = 3 , b2 = −
3
Since b is positive, the solution is b = 3.
9 i (z + 2) = 1 − 2z ⇒ z i + 2i = 1 − 2z ⇒ z i + 2z = 1 − 2i ⇒ z (2 + i ) = 1 − 2i
1 − 2i 1 − 2i 2 − i 2 − 2 + i (−1 − 4) −5i
z= = ⋅ = = = −i
2+i 2+i 2−i 4 +1 5
10 a z 5 − 1 = (z − 1) (z 4 + z 3 + z 2 + z + 1)
b z 5 = 1 = cis 0
Hence, the zeros are the fifth roots of unity:
2k π k 0 1 2 3 4
cis ; = , , , ,
5
2π 4π 6π 8π
1, cis , cis , cis , cis .
5 5 5 5
4π 2π
cis − cis −
5 5
2π 4π
The solutions are: 1, cis ± , cis ± .
5 5
2π 2π 2π 2π 2π 2π
c z − cis z − cis − = z − cos − i sin z − cos − − i sin −
5 5 5 5 5 5
2π 2π 2π 2π
= z − cos − i sin z − cos + i sin
5 5 5 5
2
2π 2π
= z − cos + sin2
5 5
2π 2π 2π 2π
= z 2 − 2 cos z + cos2 + sin2 = z 2 − 2 cos z + 1
5 5 5 5
In the same way:
2π 2π 4π 4π 4π 4π
z − cis z − cis − = z − cos − i sin z − cos − − i sin −
5 5 5 5 5 5
2
2π 2π 4π 4π 4π 4π
= z − cos − i sin z − cos + i sin = z − cos + sin2
5 5 5 5 5 5
2
2π 2π 4π 4π 4π 4π 4π
− cos − i sin z − cos + i sin = z − cos + sin2 = z 2 − 2 cos z + 1
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
2π 4π
Hence: z 4 + z 3 + z 2 + z + 1 = z 2 − 2 cos z + 1 z 2 − 2 cos z + 1
5 5
3
Chapter 10
π π π
11 a 8i = 8, tan θ is not defined, positive y-axis, θ = , 8i = 8 cos + i sin
2 2 2
π π
2k π 2k π 3 π 2k π i sin π 2k π ; k = 0, 1, 2
b i 3
8i = 3 8 cos 2 + + i sin 2 + = 8 cos + + +
3 3 3 3 6 3 6 3
π π π
For k = 0, the number is in the first quadrant: 3 8i = 2 cos + i sin = 2 cis
6 6 6
π π 3 1
ii 3
8i = 2 cos + i sin = 2 + i = 3 + i
6 6 2 2
12 a i All the numbers are of modulus 1; hence, their product and quotient is of modulus 1 and z = 1.
2 3
π π π π
cos − + i sin − cos + i sin
4 4 3 3
ii z= 4
π π
cos + i sin
24 24
π π π π
cos −2 ⋅ + i sin −2 ⋅ cos 3 ⋅ + i sin 3 ⋅
4 4 3 3
=
π π
cos 4 ⋅ + i sin 4 ⋅
24 24
π π
cos − + i sin − (cos (π ) + i sin (π ))
2 2
=
π π
cos + i sin
6 6
π π 2π
Hence, arg z = − +π+ = .
2 6 3
2π 2π
b Since z = cos + i sin , then
3 3
3
2π 2π 2π 2π
z 3 = cos + i sin = cos 3 ⋅ + i sin 3 ⋅ = cos (2π ) + i sin (2π ) = 1
3 3 3 3
=1 =0
2π 2π 1 3 3 3 3
4 + 4 z + z 2 = 3 + 3z = 3 + 3 cos + i sin = 3 + 3 − + i = + i
3 3 2 2 2 2
2 2 1+ i 2 + 2i
13 z = + 1 − 4i = ⋅ + 1 − 4i = + 1 − 4i = 1 + i + 1 − 4i = 2 − 3i
1− i 1− i 1+ i 1+ 1
z = (2 − 3i ) = 4 − 12i − 9 = −5 − 12i
2
4
14 a Let P(n) be the statement: (cos θ + i sin θ) = cos nθ + i sin nθ .
n
Basis step:
The basis step is P(1) and it is true, because both sides are cos θ + i sin θ .
Inductive step:
Assume that for some k ∈ + P (k ) is true.
Now, (cos θ + i sin θ) = (cos θ + i sin θ) (cos θ + i sin θ) = (cos k θ + i sin k θ) (cos θ + i sin θ)
k +1 k
b i Method I:
1 1 cos θ − i sin θ cos θ − i sin θ
= ⋅ = = cos (− θ) + i sin (− θ)
z cos θ + i sin θ cos θ − i sin θ cos2 θ + sin2 θ
Method II:
1
Using de Moivre’s theorem: = z −1 = (cos (θ) + i sin (θ)) = cos (− θ) + i sin (− θ)
−1
z
Note: In this part we can’t use the result from a, since here n = −1 and in a n ∈ + .
z n + z − n = cos (nθ) + i sin (nθ) + cos (− nθ) + i sin (− nθ) = cos (nθ) + i sin (nθ) + cos (nθ) − i sin (nθ) = 2 cos (nθ)
c i (z + z )
−1 5
= z 5 + 5z 4 z −1 + 10z 3z −2 + 10z 2z −3 + 5zz −4 + z −5 = z 5 + 5z 3 + 10z + 10z −1 + 5z −3 + z −5
5
Chapter 10
iii
iv The transformation is a combination (in any order) of an enlargement of scale factor 2, with the origin as the
2π
centre, and an anti-clockwise rotation of , again with the origin as the centre.
5
3
17 a Let z = a + bi . Then: a2 + b2 = a2 + (b − 3) ⇒ a2 + b2 = a 2 + b 2 − 6b + 9 ⇒ 6b − 9 = 0 ⇒ b =
2
2
b i
1.5 1 π
ii Since arg z1 = θ and cos θ = = ⇒θ= .
3 2 6
π 5π
iii arg z 2 = π − arg z1 = π − =
6 6
zkz k π 5π π k π π
c arg 1 2 = arg (z1k ) + arg (z 2 ) − arg (i ) = + − = +
2i 6 6 2 6 3
kπ π
Hence: + =π⇒k =4
6 3
2a + b = 7
18 2a + b + i (2 − ab) = 7 − i ⇒
2 − ab = −1
Substituting b = 7 − 2a (from the first equation) into the second equation:
1
2 − a (7 − 2a) = −1 ⇒ 2a 2 − 7a + 3 = 0 ⇒ a1 = , a2 = 3
2
Since a , b ∈ , the solution is a = 3, b = 1.
6
z n = (cos (θ) + i sin (θ)) = cos (nθ) + i sin (nθ)
n
19 a
1
= z − n = cos (− nθ) + i sin (− nθ) = cos (nθ) − i sin (nθ)
zn
1
Hence, z n + = cos (nθ) + i sin (nθ) + cos (nθ) − i sin (nθ) = 2 cos (nθ) .
zn
4
z + 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ 6z 2 2 + 4 z 3 + 4 = z 4 + 4 z 2 + 6 + 4 2 + 4 = z 4 + 4 + 4 z 2 + 2 + 6
b = z + 4 z
4
z z z z z z z z z
4
1 1 1
Since z + = (2 cos (θ)) , z 4 + 4 = 2 cos ( 4 θ) , z 2 + 2 = 2 cos (2θ) , we have:
4
z z z
24 cos 4 (θ) = 2 cos ( 4 θ) + 4 ⋅ 2 cos (2θ) + 6 ⇒ 8 cos 4 (θ) = cos ( 4 θ) + 4 cos (2θ) + 3
1
Hence, cos 4 (θ) = (cos ( 4 θ) + 4 cos (2θ) + 3) .
8
1 2i θ
e 1 1
20 a z = 2 iθ = eiθ b z = , so it is less than 1.
e 2 2
u1 eiθ
c Using the formula: S∞ = =
1− r 1
1 − e i θ
2
cos θ + i sin θ
d i S∞ =
1
1 − (cos θ + i sin θ)
2
1 2 i θ 1 3i θ 1 1 1 1
ii S∞ = e i θ + e + e + ... = cos θ + cos 2θ + cos 3θ + .... + i sin θ + sin 2θ + sin 3θ + ...
2 4 2 4 2 4
1 1 1 1 cos θ + i sin θ
cos θ + cos 2θ + cos 3θ + ... + i sin θ + sin 2θ + sin 3θ + ... = 1
2 4 2 4 1 − (cos θ + i sin θ)
2
Taking the real parts, we have:
1 1 cos θ + i sin θ
cos θ + cos 2θ + cos 3θ + ... = Re
2 4 1
1 − (cos θ + i sin θ)
2
1 1
1 − cos θ + i sin θ
cos θ + i sin θ cos θ + i sin θ 2 2
Re
1 = Re 1
⋅
1 1
1 − (cos θ + i sin θ) 1 − (cos θ + i sin θ) 1 − cos θ + i sin θ
2 2 2 2
1 1
cos θ 1 − cos θ + i 2 sin2 θ
1 1
2 cos θ − cos2 θ − sin2 θ
2 2 2
= =
2
1 − 1 cos θ + 1 sin2 θ 1 1
1 − cos θ + cos2 θ + sin2 θ
2 4 4 4
1
cos θ −
2 4 cos θ − 2
=
1 − cos θ +
1 5 − 4 cos θ
4
21 Method I:
If −3 + 2i is a root, then −3 − 2i is another root; therefore:
( )
P ( z ) = (z + 2) (z + 3 − 2i ) (z + 3 + 2i ) = (z + 2) (z + 3) − (2i ) = (z + 2) (z 2 + 6z + 13) = z 3 + 8z 2 + 25z + 26
2 2
7
Chapter 10
Method II:
P ( −2) = 0 ⇒ −8 + 4 a − 2b + c = 0
22 Let z = a + bi :
a2 + b2 = 2 5 ⇒ a2 + b2 = 20
25 15 25 (a − bi ) − 15 (a + bi )
− = 1 − 8i ⇒ = 1 − 8i
a + bi a − bi (a + bi ) (a − bi )
10a − 40bi 10a − 40bi
= 1 − 8i ⇒ = 1 − 8i
a2 + b2 20
10a − 40bi = 20 − 160i ⇒ a = 2, b = 4
Hence, z = 2 + 4i .
i z 1 + 2z 2 = 3
23
z1 + (1 − i ) z 2 = 4 / ⋅( −i )
i z1 + 2z 2 = 3
−i z1 − (1 + i ) z 2 = −4i
3 − 4i 7 1
( 2 − 1 − i )z 2 = 3 − 4 i ⇒ z 2 = = − i
1− i 2 2
Substituting in the second equation: z1 + 3 − 4i = 4 ⇒ z1 = 1 + 4i
4 ± 16 − 32 4 ± 4i
24 a z1, 2 = = = 2 ± 2i ⇒ z1 = 2 + 2i , z 2 = 2 − 2i
2 2 π
π i
z1 = 4 + 4 = 2 2 , tan θ = 1, in the first quadrant, θ = ; hence, z1 = 2 2e 4
4
π
π −i
z2 = 4 + 4 = 2 2 , tan θ = −1, in the fourth quadrant, θ = − ; hence, z1 = 2 2e 4
4π
4
( )
4 i
3π
z14 2 2 e 4
3π 3π
n = −8i
i
b = −2 π = 8 e
2
= 8 cos + i sin
z 22 2
( ) 2
2 i
2 2 e 4
4π
= (2 2) e
4 i
c z14 4
= 64 e i π = −64
−4 π
= (2 2) e
4 i
z 24 4
= 64 e − i π = −64
( )
n i i
e z1n = 2 2 e = 22 e 4 4
nπ
The number is real if = k π ⇒ n = 4k , k ∈ .
4
8
2π 2π 7 ⋅ 2π 7 ⋅ 2π
7
25 a z 7 = cos + i sin = cos + i sin = cos
2 π + i sin
2π = 1 ; hence z 7 − 1 = 0.
7 7 7 7 =1 =0
b (z − 1) (z 6 + z 5 + z 4 + z 3 + z 2 + z + 1) = z 7 + z 6 + z 5 + z 4 + z 3 + z 2 + z − z 6 − z 5 − z 4 − z 3 − z 2 − z − 1 = z 7 − 1
Using the result from a, we have: 0 = z 7 − 1 = (z − 1) (z 6 + z 5 + z 4 + z 3 + z 2 + z + 1) . Since z ≠ 1, then z − 1 ≠ 0 and
hence z 6 + z 5 + z 4 + z 3 + z 2 + z + 1 = 0 .
9
Chapter 11
Practice questions
30
360
1 a ∑y i = 360 ⇒ µ =
30
= 12
i=1
30
925
∑ (y − µ) = 925 ⇒ sn =
2
b i ≈ 5.55
i =1 30
2 µ=
∑xf i i
⇒ 34 =
10 × 1 + 20 × 2 + 30 × 5 + 40 × n + 50 × 3
⇒ 34 =
3550 + 40n
⇒
∑f i 11 + n 11 + n
374 + 34 n = 350 + 40n ⇒ 24 = 6n ⇒ n = 4
3 a
Time (minutes) 1.6 2.1 2.6 3.1 3.6 4.1 4.6 5.1 5.6 6.1 6.6
Frequency 2 5 5 5 14 6 6 2 3 2 0
16 Frequency
14
12
10
2
Time
0
1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7
b There are 7 out of 50 measurements that are greater than or equal to 5.1; therefore, the fraction of the measurements
43
less than 5.1 is: = 0.86 = 86%.
50
c There are 50 pieces of data, so, to determine the median, we need to find the 25th and 26th observations. We notice
that these two observations are within the interval 3.6–4.1; therefore, the median is approximately 3.9.
d We can input the time as a sequence by using the sequence list feature on a GDC.
The mean value is 3.68, whilst the standard deviation is 1.11, correct to three significant figures.
1
Chapter 11
e Cumulative frequency
50
40
30
20
10
Time
0
2 3 4 5 6
f Estimates for the minimum and maximum values are 1.6 and 6.6 respectively. The first and third quartiles correspond
to the cumulative frequencies of 12.5 and 37.5 respectively; therefore, an estimate for the first quartile is 3.15 and the
third quartile is 4.65. An estimate for the median (which corresponds to a cumulative frequency of 25) is 3.9.
4 a The median and the IQR would best represent the data, since the data is skewed to the right and there are a few
outliers on the right.
b Firstly, we are going to read the frequencies from the histogram and input them into the frequency distribution table
on our GDC.
c Since we have grouped data, the endpoints of our intervals will be 150, 250, 350, ..., and so on. On a calculator, we can
use the adding a number to the list feature. Alternatively, we can calculate the cumulative frequencies from the List
menu.
2
d There are 460 cities, so, to estimate the median, we need to draw a horizontal line from 230. To find the lower and
upper quartiles, we need to draw horizontal lines from 115 and 345 respectively.
For a better estimation, we will use the zoom box feature and turn the grids on.
So, the median is about 500. The first quartile is about 330 and the third quartile is about 830. Therefore, the IQR is
about 830 – 330 = 500.
e There are a few outliers to the right. The outliers are those points which are over Q3 + 1.5IQR, i.e.
830 + 1.5 × 500 = 1580, which gives us 50 cities from the histogram.
f The data is skewed to the right with quite a few outliers to the right (1600 and above). The data is also bimodal, with
the modal values being 300 and 400.
5 a It appears that Spain produces both the most expensive (estimated €152 per case) and the cheapest (estimated €55
per case) red wine.
b Red wines are generally more expensive in France as we can see that the median price is the highest; the minimum
value in France is also the highest, but the upper 50% of wines are also within a very small range of approximately €10
per case.
c It appears that the wines are, on average, more expensive in France, where the prices are skewed towards the higher
end. In Spain, you can find a higher percentage of cheaper wine than in the other two countries, but you also find
the most expensive wines on the market; so Spain has the widest range of prices. Italy seems to have the most
symmetrical distribution of wine prices.
6 a The mean value of the data is 52.6 and the standard deviation is 7.60, both given correctly to three significant figures.
b The median value is 51.3. The upper and lower quartiles are 49.9 and 52.6 respectively; therefore, the IQR is 2.65, all
correct to three significant figures.
c Since there is one outlier (112.72), the mean value is more influenced by it than the median value and IQR.
7 a The distribution is not symmetric since the median is not the midpoint between the minimum and maximum value,
nor is it the midpoint between the first and the third quartile.
b The outliers lie 1.5IQR further to the left of the lower quartile and 1.5IQR further to the right of the upper quartile. If
there are any outliers, they will lie below 37 and above 99, which is outside of the given range; therefore, there are no
outliers.
3
Chapter 11
y
c 4
0 x
40 50 60 70 80 90
d Additionally to the description provided in part a, we can say that the data is skewed to the left.
8 a From the graph, we can estimate that the median cholesterol level (50% of the cumulative percentage) is 225.
b The first and third quartiles are estimated from 25% and 75% of the cumulative percentage; our estimations are 210
and 260 respectively. The 90th and 10th percentiles are estimated from 90% and 10% of the cumulative percentage;
our estimations are 300 and 190 respectively.
c Using our answers from part b, the estimated IQR will be 50. Since 2000 patients have been studied, the number of
patients in the middle 50%, ranging from 210 to 260, is 1000.
y
d 4
0 x
100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400
e We notice that the data is skewed to the right a bit, with more outliers on the right side, since the outliers lie outside
of the interval 135 to 335. From the cumulative frequency graph, we read that there are almost 100 patients who have
a cholesterol level greater than 335 mg/dl and only a few patients with a level less than 135 mg/dl.
9a Speed Frequency b 10 Frequency density
26–30 10
8
31–34 16
6
35–38 30
39–42 23 4
43–46 12
2
47–50 8
Speed
51–54 1 0
25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58
4
c d
xi fi xi × fi xi2 × fi xi fi ci
28 10 280 7840 30 10 10
32.5 16 520 16 900 34 16 26
36.5 30 1095 39 967.5 38 30 56
40.5 23 931.5 37 725.75 42 23 79
44.5 12 534 23 763 46 12 91
48.5 8 388 18 818 50 8 99
52.5 1 52.5 2756.25 54 1 100
Σ 100 3801 147 770.5
µ = 38.01 s2 = 32.9449
s = 5.739 765
e In order to estimate the median, we need to draw the cumulative frequency diagram. We will do this using a calculator.
f Since Q3 is 42 and 1.5IQR is 12, there is a possible outlier, which is the largest observation of 54.
10 a
Classes Frequency
1101–1200 1
1201–1300 1 Using Autograph software with the grouped data, we obtain the
following results:
1301–1400 0
The mean value is 1850.5 and the standard deviation is 232.379.
1401–1500 1
The median value is 1900.5. The first and third quartiles are
1501–1600 3 1714.14 and 2019.25 respectively; therefore, the IQR is 305.11.
1601–1700 5
1701–1800 11
1801–1900 3
1901–2000 11
2001–2100 8
2101–2200 4
2201–2300 2
b By looking at the frequency distribution table, we can surmise that there may be some outliers to the left, so we need
to calculate Q1 – 1.5IQR = 1256. From the table, we can see that we have one outlier.
5
Chapter 11
c 5 f
Gasoline (l)
0
1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400
12 a
Marks < 10 < 20 < 30 < 40 < 50 < 60 < 70 < 80 < 90 < 100
Number of candidates 30 130 330 670 1190 1630 1810 1900 1960 2000
b 2200 Cumulative frequency
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
Marks
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
c i By looking at the graph, we estimate that the median score (which corresponds to the cumulative frequency of
1000) is 46.
ii We draw a vertical line from 35 on the Marks axis and reach the cumulative frequency curve at the point at which
the cumulative frequency is about 500. Therefore, 500 candidates had to retake the exam.
iii The highest scoring 15% corresponds to the highest 300 results; therefore, we draw a horizontal line from 1700 on
the Cumulative frequency axis and reach the curve at the point at which the number of marks is about 62. Hence,
a distinction will be awarded if 62 or more marks are scored on the test.
6
15 Score 10 20 30 40 50
Number of competitors 1 2 5 k 3
10 × 1 + 20 × 2 + 30 × 5 + 40 × k + 50 × 3
x = 34 ⇒ = 34 ⇒ 350 + 40k = 374 + 34k ⇒ 6k = 24 ⇒ k = 4
11 + k
16 a To calculate an estimate for the mean, we will take the midpoints of the intervals (15, 45, 75, and so on) and the
corresponding frequencies.
So, an estimate for the mean of the waiting times is 97.2 seconds.
(Note: Even though we could have used only the mean feature from the List menu, we used the whole statistics
calculation since there is a chance that we will need further statistics in the following parts of the problem.)
b Waiting time (seconds) < 30 < 60 < 90 < 120 < 150 < 180 < 210 < 240
Cumulative frequency 5 20 53 74 85 92 97 100
c
110 Cumulative frequency
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Waiting time (s)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240
d To find the three estimations asked for, we need to draw a horizontal line at 50 for the median and at 25 and 75 for
the quartiles. An estimation of the mean value is 87, whilst the lower and upper quartiles are 65 and 121 respectively.
ii To find the number of trees that have a length between 70 and 90 cm, we need to add two frequencies:
14 + 10 = 24.
b As in question 15, we again take the midpoints of the intervals (15, 25, 35, ..., 95) and the corresponding frequencies.
xi 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95
fi 1 5 7 9 10 16 14 10 8
We input the two lists into a GDC and get the following results.
7
Chapter 11
So, an estimate for the mean is 63, and the standard deviation is 20.5.
c The data is skewed to the left; therefore, the median and the mean are different values.
d Since there are 80 plants, the median corresponds to the cumulative frequency of 40. Since the values of the
cumulative frequencies are symmetrical around 40, 32 for 60 and 48 for 70, we can estimate the cumulative frequency
of 40 as 65, i.e. the median is less than or equal to 65 cm.
18 a Again, we will use the midpoints of the intervals (82.5, 87.5, 92.5, ..., and so on) and the corresponding frequencies. We
put the two lists into our GDC and obtain an estimation of the standard deviation.
b
Weight (W) W < 85 W < 90 W < 95 W < 100 W < 105 W < 110 W < 115
Number of packets 5 15 30 56 69 76 80
c
Cumulative frequency
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Weight (g)
0
80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115
i An estimate for the median (which corresponds to the cumulative frequency of 40) is 97.
ii An estimate for the upper quartile (which corresponds to the cumulative frequency of 60) is 101.
d (W − W ) + (W
1 2 − W ) + (W3 − W ) + ... + (W80 − W ) = (W1 + W2 + W3 + ... + W80 ) − 80 × W
W1 + W2 + W3 + ... + W80
= (W1 + W2 + W3 + ... + W80 ) − 80 × =0
80
e There are 71 packets that satisfy the condition 85 < W 110 . There are 20 packets that satisfy the condition
20
100 < W 110. Therefore, the probability is: P (E ) = ≈ 0.282 , correct to three significant figures.
71
8
19 a We will use the midpoints of the intervals (65, 75, 85, ..., and so on) and the corresponding frequencies. We put the
two lists into our GDC and calculate the mean.
So, the mean speed is 98.2 km h−1, correct to three significant figures.
b i To find the value of a we can either add 70 (the frequency of the speed interval 90–100) to the previous
cumulative frequency, 95; or subtract 71 (the frequency of the speed interval 100–110) from the next cumulative
frequency, 236. In both cases we get the same value: a = 165.
c i We draw a vertical line from v = 105 until we reach the cumulative frequency curve. This gives us an estimate for
the cumulative frequency of 200. So, there are 100 cars that will exceed the speed of 105 km h−1 and
100
P= = 0.333... ≈ 33.3%.
300
ii If 15% of the cars exceed this speed, then 85% do not exceed that speed. 85% of 300 is 255, so we draw a
horizontal line from y = 255 until we reach the cumulative frequency curve. This gives us an estimate of a speed
of 115 km h−1.
20 a i We take a horizontal line across from 100 on the vertical axis until it touches the graph. From that point, we take a
vertical line down to the horizontal axis and read off the value. An estimate for the median fare is $24.
ii We take a vertical line up from 35 on the horizontal axis until we reach the graph. From that point, we take a
horizontal line across to the vertical axis and read off the value. An estimate for the number of cabs in which the
fare taken is $35 or less is 158.
b 40% of the cabs is 0.4 × 200 = 80. So, we take a horizontal line from 80 on the vertical axis until we reach the graph
and then we estimate the x-coordinate, which is 22. Therefore, the fare is $22. To find the number of kilometres, we
need to divide the fare by 0.55 (which is the fare per kilometre for distance travelled). Therefore, the distance travelled
is 40 km.
c If the distance travelled is 90 km, the driver will earn 90 × 0.55 = 49.5 dollars. We will use the graph to estimate the
number of cabs that will earn less than 49.5 dollars: there are 184, and therefore there are 16 cabs that will earn more
16
than that. So, the percentage of the cabs that travel more than 90 km is: = 0.08 = 8%.
200
9
Chapter 11
21 Since the three numbers are given in order of magnitude, a < b < c , we know that the middle one (the median) is 11, so
b = 11. Given that the range is 10, we know that the difference between the minimum and maximum value is: c 2 a = 10.
a + 11 + c
Since the mean value is 9, we can establish another equation in terms of a and c: = 9 ⇒ a + c = 16. Solving
3
these two equations (using the elimination method), we get: 2a = 6 ⇒ a = 3 . So, finally, c = 13.
22 a
110 Cumulative frequency
105
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5 Price (thousands of $)
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
b By using horizontal lines at 25 and 75, we estimate the values of Q1 and Q3 as $130 000 and $250 000 respectively.
Hence, the IQR is $120 000.
c To find the frequencies a and b we need to subtract two successive cumulative frequencies.
fi = ci − ci −1 : a = 94 − 87 = 7, b = 100 − 94 = 6
d We input the midpoints of the intervals in the first list and the corresponding frequencies in the second list:
e i An estimate of the cumulative frequency for $350 000 is 92; therefore, there are about eight houses that can be
described as De Luxe.
ii Out of eight De Luxe houses, six were sold for $400 000; therefore, the probability that both selected houses have a
selling price more than $400 000 is:
6 5 15
P (E ) = × = .
8 7 28
23 a i To mark the median, we draw the horizontal line y = 40 until it hits the graph, at which point we draw a vertical
line down to the Diameter axis. An estimate for the median is 20 mm.
ii To mark the upper quartile, we draw the horizontal line y = 60 until it hits the graph, at which point we draw a
vertical line down to the Diameter axis. An estimate for the upper quartile is 24 mm.
10
24 a In this question we can accept an error of ±2 students.
We need to read the cumulative frequencies at the endpoints of the intervals and then subtract the successive ones
to obtain the frequencies.
For 40 the cumulative frequency is 74, and therefore the corresponding frequency is 74 − 22 = 52.
For 60 the cumulative frequency is 142, and therefore the corresponding frequency is 142 − 74 = 68.
For 80 the cumulative frequency is 180, and therefore the corresponding frequency is 180 − 142 = 38.
Mark (x) 0 < x < 20 20 < x < 40 40 < x < 60 60 < x < 80 80 < x < 100
Number of students 22 52 68 38 20
b 40% of 200 students is 80. The cumulative frequency of 80 corresponds to about 42 marks. So, the pass mark is about
42%.
25 a To find the median height we draw the horizontal line y = 60 until it hits the graph. We then estimate the
x-coordinate of the point of intersection. We estimate 183 cm.
b For the lower and upper quartiles, we draw two horizontal lines: y = 30 and y = 90. Then we estimate the
x-coordinates of the points of intersection. Therefore: Q1 = 175, Q3 = 189 ⇒ IQR = 189 − 175 = 14 .
26 Since the modal value is 11, we know that c = d = 11. Given that the range is 8, we can find the value of a:
11 − a = 8 ⇒ a = 3 . Finally, given that the mean value is 8, we can find the remaining number b:
3 + b + 11 + 11
= 8 ⇒ 25 + b = 32 ⇒ b = 7 .
4
27 a We draw the vertical line x = 40 until it hits the graph. We then estimate the y-coordinate of the point of intersection
as 100. So, the number of students who scored 40 marks or less is 100.
b There are 800 students, so the middle 50% is between 200 and 600 students. For a cumulative frequency of 200, the
estimated mark is 55; whilst for 600, the estimated mark is 75. Hence, we say that the middle 50% of test results lie
between 55 and 75 marks: a = 55, b = 75.
28 We are going to add all the known observations and use the mean formula to find the first equation relating the
x + y + 90
unknowns: 13 = ⇒ 104 = x + y + 90 ⇒ x + y = 14
8
We are going to use the sum of the squares of the known observations and the variance formula to find the second
equation relating the squares of the unknowns:
x 2 + y 2 + 1404 x 2 + y 2 + 1404
21 = − 132 ⇒ 190 = ⇒ 1520 = x 2 + y 2 + 1404 ⇒ x 2 + y 2 = 116
8 8
Now, we need to solve the simultaneous equations by using the substitution method.
x + y = 14 y = 14 − x y = 14 − x y = 14 − x
2 ⇒ 2 ⇒ 2 ⇒ 2 ⇒
x + y = 116 x + (14 − x ) = 116
2 2
2x − 28 x − 80 = 0 x − 14 x − 40 = 0
y = 14 − x y = 14 − x y = 10 or y = 4
⇒ ⇒
( x − 4 ) ( x − 10 ) = 0 x = 4 or x = 10 x = 4 or x = 10
Since x < y , we can discard the second solution.
11
Chapter 11
28 Since the calculator cannot solve simultaneous equations by using the list features, we need to reduce the equation to
only one unknown. Therefore, the mean value is going to give us the substitution.
x + y + 90
13 = ⇒ 104 = x + y + 90 ⇒ x + y = 14 ⇒ y = 14 − x
8
The problem with the calculator is that the feature that calculates the variance actually calculates the unbiased estimate
n−1 7
of the variance; therefore, we need to multiply by , which in our case is .
n 8
12
Chapter 12
Practice questions
c Since the events are independent, the complementary events are independent too.
P ( A ' B ') = P ( A ') ⇒ P ( A ' B ') = 1 − 0.3 = 0.7
2 a Since the tests are taken independently, we multiply the probabilities: P ( A) = 0.02 × 0.02 = 0.0004
Note: The probabilities in parts a and b are equal because the events are the same.
3 Since they work independently of each other, we need to multiply the probabilities and then use the complementary event.
1
Chapter 12
b If the quality is independent of the machine, then we can use the multiplication law:
126 63 20 1 63 6
P (M1) × P (D ) = × = ≠ = P (M1 ∩ D ) . So, the events are dependent.
370 185 200 10 1850 370
126 63
6 a There are 126 envelopes which satisfy our wish, so: P ( A) = = .
200 100
68 34
b There are 68 red envelopes without a prize, so: P (B ) = = .
70 35
P ( A ∩ B) 0.18 0.18
7 a P ( A B) = ⇒ 0.3 = ⇒ P (B ) = = 0.6
P (B ) P (B ) 0.3
b The events are independent since P (B ) = 0.6 = P (B A) .
c Given that A and B are independent, then A and B are independent too, so:
P (B ∩ A ') = P (B ) × P ( A ') = 0.6 × (1 − 0.3) = 0.42.
8 a Since we know that there are 74 students who took the test, the number of boys who failed is
74 − (32 + 16 + 12) = 14. There are 6 girls who are too young to take the test and, since there are 10 students
altogether that are too young to take the test, the number of boys who are too young is 10 − 6 = 4 . Since the total
numbers of boys and girls are 70 and 50 respectively, we calculate all of those who were training but did not take the
test as: 70 − (32 + 14 + 4) = 20, and 50 − (16 + 12 + 6) = 16.
Boys Girls
Passed the ski test 32 16
Failed the ski test 14 12
Training, but did not take the test yet 20 16
Too young to take the test 4 6
74 37
b i P (Bi ) = =
120 60
16 + 12 28 14
ii P (Bii ) = = =
50 50 25
iii These two events are independent so we multiply the probabilities:
32 16 16 8 128
P (Biii ) = × =
70 35 50 25 875
1 3 3
9 a P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A B ) × P (B ) = × =
4 8 32
9 3 3 12 3
b P ( A ∪ B ) − P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) + P (B ) − 2 × P ( A ∩ B ) = + − 2× = =
16 8 32 16 16 4
27 5
c P (( A ∪ B ) ') = 1 − P ( A ∪ B ) = 1 − =
32 32
10 a Probability that she will miss both serves is: P ( A) = 0.4 × 0.05 = 0.02 = 2%.
b To win a point she will make the first serve and win the point or she will miss the first serve, make the second serve
and win the point, so: P (B ) = 0.6 × 0.75 + 0.4 × 0.95 × 0.5 = 0.64 = 64%.
2
12
Boys Girls Total
Television 13 25 38
Sport 33 29 62
Total 46 54 100
38 19
a P ( A) = =
100 50
13
b P (B ) =
46
13 a Outcomes
1
1 6
36
6
1 6
5
6 5 not 6
36
6
1 5
6
5 6 36
6 not 6
5 25
not 6
6 36
25 11
b Using the complementary event of not getting a 6: P (B ) = 1 − P (B ') = 1 − =
36 36
14 a
U A B
15 a There are 90 females, so there are 110 males. If 60 were unemployed, then 140 were employed. If 20 males were
unemployed, then 40 females were unemployed, and so on.
3
Chapter 12
16 There are three possible combinations of different colours and each can occur twice. In total, there are 26 balls in the bag.
red green
red
white white
green
10 10 2 10 2 6 6 10 2 20 + 12 + 12 44
P ( A) = 2 × × + 2× × + 2× × = =
26 13 25 5 26 13 25 5 26 13 25 5 65 65
18 a b The student can take chemistry and biology or not take chemistry
B but take biology. So, P (B ) = 0.4 × 0.6 + 0.6 × 0.5 = 0.54.
0.6
c This is a conditional probability where the favourable event is when
0.4
C a student takes both subjects; therefore,
0.4
B' 0.4 × 0.6 4
P (C B ) = = .
0.54 9
0.5 B
0.6 C'
0.5 B'
19 a We will reuse the probability distribution table for the sum from Exercise 10.4 question 6:
S 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1
P(S) ___
36
2
___
36
3
___
36
4
___
36
5
___
36
6
___
36
5
___
36
4
___
36
3
___
36
2
___
36
1
___
36
21 7
P ( S < 8) = P ( S 7) = =
36 12
b There are 11 possible pairs when at least one die shows a 3: six pairs with 3 showing on the first die and six pairs with
11
3 showing on the second die, but the pair (3, 3) should only be counted once. So, P (B ) = .
36
c Now, the event from a becomes a sample space and we need to find the favourable pairs (out of 21 pairs) found in b.
The pairs that satisfy the condition are (1, 3), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3), (3, 4) and (4, 3).
7 1
P (B S 7) = =
21 3
3 4 6 1
20 a P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) + P (B ) − P ( A ∪ B ) = + − =
11 11 11 11
3 4 12
b P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) × P (B ) = × =
11 11 121
21 a Since the probability of A didn’t change when B occurred, P ( A B ) = P ( A) ; therefore, the events are independent (I).
4
22 a n (E ∪ H ) = 88 − n ((E ∪ H ) ') = 88 − 39 = 49
Since we know how many study each subject, we can find the intersection:
b = n (E ∩ H ) = n (E ) + n (H ) − n (E ∪ H ) = 32 + 28 − 49 = 11
a = n (E ) − n (E ∩ H ) = 32 − 11 = 21
c = n (H ) − n (E ∩ H ) = 28 − 11 = 17
b Simply by looking at the Venn diagram, since we now have the values of a, b and c:
11 1
i P (E ∩ H ) = =
88 8
32 − 11 21
ii P (E \ (E ∩ H )) = =
88 88
Note: This can be directly read off the diagram.
c i There are 56 students who don’t study economics and, since a group of three students is selected, we obtain:
56 55 54 315
P (E ') = × × = .
88 87 86 1247
ii To find the probability that at least one student studies economics, we are going to use the complementary
315 932
event (no student studies economics): 1 − P (E ') = 1 − = .
1247 1247
red
red
yellow yellow
7 6 5 4 42 + 20 62 31 31
23 P (SC ) = × + × = = =
12 11 12 11 12 × 11 12 6 × 11 66
Note: The tins are chosen without replacement so once a tin is chosen there are 11 tins remaining.
24 a 7 1 1 3 7 3 35 + 12 47
1 L b P (L) = × + × = + = =
4
8 4 8 5 32 40 160 160
7
W
7
P (W ∩ L) 32 35
8 3 L' c P (W L) = = =
4 P (L) 47 47
3 160 5
L
1 5
8 W'
2
5 L'
120 1
25 a P (B ) = =
360 3
90 + 120 210 7
b P (S ) =
=
=
360 360 12
90 3
c P ( A S) =
=
210 7
26 a b i P (R ∩ G ) = 0.4 × 0.9 = 0.36
Grows
red yellow
grows
grows
0.9 ii P (G ) = 0.4 × 0.9 + 0.6 × 0.8 = 0.36 + 0.48 = 0.84
P (R ∩ G ) 0.36 3
0.4 Red iii P (R G ) = = = ≈ 0.429
0.1 Does P (G ) 0.84 7
not grow
0.8 Grows
0.6
Yellow
0.2 Does
not grow
5
Chapter 12
27 a There are six favourable outcomes, that is, the same number appears on both dice. There are 36 possible outcomes in
6 1
total, so: P (E ) = = .
36 6
3 1
b There are three possible pairs for a sum of 10: (4, 6), (5, 5) and (6, 4). Therefore, P (F ) = = .
36 12
c To find the probability of the union, we need to apply the addition formula. Note that the events E and F have one
common pair, that is, (5, 5).
1 1 1 6 + 3−1 8 2
P (E ∪ F ) = P (E ) + P (F ) − P (E ∩ F ) = + − = = =
6 12 36 36 36 9
80 8
28 a i P ( A) = =
210 21
35 1
ii P ( A ∩ B ) = =
210 6
100 10
iii To confirm whether the events are independent we firstly find: P (B ) = = . Now we look at the product of
210 21
8 10 80 1
the probabilities: P ( A) × P (B ) = × = ≠ = P ( A ∩ B ) . Hence, they are dependent.
21 21 441 6
50 10
b P (Y1 H ) = =
85 17
c We can select a student from year 1 and a student from year 2, or vice versa; therefore,
110 100 200
P (C ) = 2 × × = .
210 209 19 399
29 Let G be the event that a green ball is chosen and B a blue ball is chosen. If a blue and a green ball have to be selected in
any order, we can say that the chosen balls can be blue and green or green and blue.
3 4 4 3 1 1
P (BG ) + P (GB ) = P (B ) × P (G ) + P (G ) × P (B ) = × + × = 2× =
93 82 93 82 6 3
30 Let S be the event that the student speaks Spanish as his/her first language, and A that the student is Argentinean.
15 12 4
P (S ) × P ( A S ) × 4
P (S A) = = 21 15 7
= =
P ( A) 15 12 6 3 5 5
× + ×
21 15 21 6 7
31 Let D be the event that a patient has the disease, and T that the patient tests positive.
P (D ) × P (T D ) 0.0001 × 0.99
P (D T ) = = ≈ 0.00198
P (T ) 0.0001 × 0.99 + 0.9999 × 0.05
32 Let H be the event that team A will play against the higher-ranked team, and W that team A win the game.
3 6 19
P (W ) = P (H ) × P (W H ) + P (H ') × P (W H ') = × 0.4 + × 0.75 = ≈ 0.633
9 9 300
33 P ( A ∩ B ) + P ( A ∩ B ') = P ( A) ⇒ P ( A) = 0.3 + 0.3 = 0.6. Since the events are independent, we can use the multiplication
law.
P ( A ∩ B ) 0.3
P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) × P (B ) ⇒ P (B ) = = = 0.5
P ( A) 0.6
P ( A ∪ B ) = P ( A) + P (B ) − P ( A ∩ B ) = 0.6 + 0.5 − 0.3 = 0.8
34 Let R be the event that it is raining, and L that the girl is late.
1 2 1
P ( R ) × P (L R ) × 10
4 3 6
P (R L) = = = =
P (L) 1 2
× + ×
3 1 19 19
4 3 4 5 60 10
6
2 1 1
35 a P (Y ∩ X ) = P ( X ) × P (Y X ) = × =
3 4 6
1 1 1
P (Y ∩ X ') = P ( X ') × P (Y X ') = × =
3 4 12
1 1 1 1 3
P (Y ) = P (Y ∩ X ) + P (Y ∩ X ') = + = ⇒ P (Y' ) = 1 − P (Y ) = 1 − =
6 12 4 4 4
1 5
b P ( X '∪ Y ') = P (( X ∩ Y ) ') = 1 − P ( X ∩ Y ) = 1 − =
6 6
36 Let F be the event that the umbrella is left in the first shop, and S that the umbrella is left in the second shop.
2 1 2
× 2
9
P (S F ∪ S ) = 3 3 = =
1 2 1 5 5
+ ×
3 3 3 9
5 1 5
37 a i P ( A1) = × =
6 6 36
5 5 1 25
ii P ( A2 ) = × × =
6 6 6 216
n−1 n−1 2 n− 2
5 5 1 1 25 1 5
iii P ( An ) = × × = =
6 6 6 6 36 6 6
b We have an infinite geometric series: p
1 25 1 25 1 25 1 25 1
2 3 2 3
1 25 1 25 1 25 1 1 25
p= + × + + + ... = + + × + + + .... ⇒ p = + ×p
6 36 6 36 6 36 6 6 36 6 36 6 36 6 36 6 6 36
c Firstly, we will calculate the probability that Ann wins the game:
1 25 25 1 11 1 1 36 6 6
p= + ×p⇒p− p= ⇒ p= ⇒p= × ⇒p=
6 36 36 6 36 6 6 11 11
6 5
The probability that Bridget wins the game is complementary to the above event, so: P (Bridget wins) = 1 − =
11 11
d If Ann wins more games than Bridget, that means that she has to win 4, 5 or 6 times. We also need to find the number
of sequences with that number of wins. For example, if Ann wins four out of six games played, she can do that in
‘6 choose 4’ different ways (we are using the binomial coefficients).
Ann wins Bridget wins Ann wins Bridget wins Ann wins
4 times twice 5 times once 6 times
6 6 4 5 2 6 6 5 5 6
6 ≈ 0.432
P (D ) = +
11 11 +
4 11 11 5 11
38 a If the first two selected apples are green, then 22 red apples and 1 green apple remain in the box. Therefore, the
22
probability that the next apple will be red is ≈ 0.957.
23
b There are three different selections that will give the result of exactly two red apples: RRG, RGR or GRR. So, the
22 11 21 3 693
probability is calculated as follows: P (B ) = 3 × × × = ≈ 0.301
25 24 4 23 2300
39 Let R be the event that it rains during the day, and T that the daily maximum temperature exceeds 25 °C.
7
Chapter 12
n
40 a The number of integers up to the number n that are divisible by p is given by , which denotes the greatest
p
n
integer of the number . The number of multiples of 4 from the first 1000 numbers is 250; therefore, the probability
p
250 1
that we select one such number is: P ( A) = = .
1000 4
b The number of integers that are divisible by both 4 and 6 is actually the number of integers that are divisible by
1000
their least common multiple, that is, 12: = 83.3333... = 83. The probability that we select one such number
12
83
is: P (B ) = = 0.083 .
1000
41 a Given that the events A and B are independent, we can use the multiplication law; therefore, P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) × P (B ) .
In combination with the addition law, we can calculate:
P ( A ∪ B ) = P ( A) + P (B ) − P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) + P (B ) − P ( A) × P (B )
0.48
0.88 = 0.4 + P (B ) − 0.4 × P (B ) ⇒ 0.48 = 0.6P (B ) ⇒ P (B ) = = 0.8
0.6
b This part can be calculated in two different ways:
Method II: P ( A ∩ B ') + P ( A '∩ B ) = P ( A) × P (B ') + P ( A ') × P (B ) = 0.4 × 0.2 − 0..6 × 0.8 = 0.56
42 Let M be the event that the chosen day is Monday, and T that Robert catches the 08:00 train.
8
45 The first fact stated in the problem gives us the following: ( A ∪ B ) ' = ∅ ⇒ P ( A ∪ B ) = 1 .
6 1
P ( A ∪ B ) = P ( A) + P (B ) − P ( A ∩ B ) ⇒ 1 = + P (B ) − P ( A ∩ B ) ⇒ P ( A ∩ B ) = P (B ) −
7 7
P ( A '∩ B ) 1
P ( A ' B) = ⇒ P ( A '∩ B ) = P (B )
P (B ) 3
1 1 1 1 3
P (B ) = P ( A ∩ B ) + P ( A '∩ B ) = P (B ) − + P (B ) ⇒ P (B ) = ⇒ P (B ) =
7 3 3 7 7
9
Chapter 13
Practice questions
1 For f ( x ) = x 2 we have:
y
4
2 P(1.5,2.25)
-4 -2 O 2 4
x
-1
-2
-3
f f ′( a ) = 2a ⇒ y − a 2 = 2a( x − a ) ⇒ y = 2a x − a 2
g y = 0 ⇒ 0 = 2a x − a2 ⇒ x = ⇒ T , 0
a a
2 2
x = 0 ⇒ y = − a 2 ⇒ U( 0 , − a 2 )
h For S( a , a2 ) and U( 0, − a 2 ), the coordinates of the midpoint are:
a+0 a a2 − a2
x MSU = = = xT , y MSU = = 0 = yT
2 2 2
Hence, T is the midpoint of SU.
1
Chapter 13
C
2 For y = Ax + B + , x ∈ , x ≠ 0 :
x
f (1) = A + B + C = 4
f ( −1) = − A + B − C = 0
C
f ′( x ) = A − 2
x
f ′(1) = A − C = 0, f ′( −1) = A − C = 0, since (1, 4 ) and ( −1, 0 ) are points of extrema.
(2,8)
5
s(x)=2x
O 5 10 x 15
1 dy 1 1
d y y = 4 x 2 +1 we have:3
5 For = 8 x −1 = 0 ⇒ 8 x 3 = 1⇒ x =
= 8 x − 2 x= 0 ⇒ 8 x =d1x⇒ x = x 2 2
dx x 2 2
1 1 1
1For x = : y = 4 ⋅ +
2
1 1 = 3.
For x = : y = 4 ⋅ + = 3. 2 2 1
2 2 1
2
2
1
So, the stationary point is , 3 .
2
2
d y y = a x23 − 2x 2 − x + 7 we have: d y = 3a x 2 − 4 x − 1
6 For = 3a x − 4 x − 1 dx
dx
At x = 2 ⇒ 3a ⋅ 4 − 4 ⋅ 2 − 1 = 3 ⇒ a = x1 = 2 ⇒ 3a ⋅ 4 − 4 ⋅ 2 − 1 = 3 ⇒ a = 1
At
7 Given f ( 2) = 3 and f ′( 2) = 5 :
b The value of g(x) is decreasing when g′( x ) < 0 , i.e. x ∈ ( −3, −2) ∪ (1, 3).
1 1
c g( x ) has a point of inflexion at x = − because g′′ − = 0.
2 2
d 3
y
2
maximum at x=1
1
inflexion
at x =-0.5
-3 -2 O 2
x
-1
minimum at x =-2
-2
-3
-4
9 For f ( x ) = x 2 − 3b x + ( c + 2) we have:
f (1) = 1 − 3b + c + 2 = 0 ⇒ 3b − c = 3
f ′( x ) = 2x − 3b
f ′( 3) = 6 − 3b = 0
The system of equations is:
3b − c = 3
⇒ b = 2, c = 3
6 − 3b = 0
f4 a f (x) ⇒ f ′ < 0
3
Chapter 13
11 For f ( x ) = 1 + sin x :
π 1 + sin π − (1 + sin 0)
f − f (0)
2 2 1 2
a The average rate of change is: = = =
π π π π
−0
2 2 2
π π 2
b The instantaneous rate of change: f ′( x ) = cos x ⇒ f ′ = cos =
4 4 2
2 π 2 2
c f ′( x ) = , 0 < x < ⇒ cos x = ⇒ x = arccos ≈ 0.881
π 2 π π
3x − 2 2
12 For y = = 3 − we have:
x x
a i The vertical asymptote is x = 0 because the function is not defined there.
13 For h( x ) = 2x 2 − x 4 we have:
h′( x ) = 4 x − 4 x 3 = 4 x (1 − x 2 ) = 4 x (1 + x )(1 − x )
h′( x ) = 0 ⇒ x = −1, x = 0, x = 1
h( −1) = 1, h( 0 ) = 0, h(1) = 1
Since the function is continuous, three stationary points, ( −1, 1), ( 0, 0 ), (1, 1), mean that there are four intervals that need to
be tested:
h′ (−2) = 4 ⋅ (−2) − 4 ⋅ (−2) = 24 > 0 ⇒ h( x ) on ( −∞ , −1)
3
3
1 1 1 3
h′ − = 4 ⋅ − − 4 ⋅ − = − < 0 ⇒ h( x ) on ( −1, 0 )
2 2 2 2
3
1 1 1 3
h′ = 4 ⋅ − 4 ⋅ = > 0 ⇒ h( x ) on ( 0, 1)
2 2 2 2
h′ (2) = 4 ⋅ 2 − 4 ⋅ 23 = −24 < 0 ⇒ h( x ) on (1, ∞ )
Therefore, the function has maximum points at ( −1, 1) and (1, 1), and a minimum point at (0, 0).
1 1
14 For the curve y = x 2 + x 3 we have:
d y 1 − 21 1 − 23
= x + x
dx 2 3
1 1 5
At x = 1: + =
2 3 6
1 6
The slope of the normal is: − =− .
5 5
6
6 6 16
The equation of the normal at (1, 2) is: y − 2 = − ( x − 1) ⇒ y = − x + .
5 5 5
4
The normal intersects the axis at:
6 16 8
y =0⇒0=− x+ ⇒x=
5 5 3
16
x=0⇒ y=
5
8 16
So, a = , b = .
3 5
1 2
15 For the displacement function s(t ) = 10t − t ,t 0 :
2
a The velocity function is v (t ) = s ′(t ) = 10 − t .
When t = 0, v( 0 ) = 10 m/s.
b v (t ) = 0 ⇒ t = 10 seconds
1
c s(10 ) = 10 ⋅ 10 − ⋅ 102 = 50 metres
2
16 For the height function h = h(t ) = 14t − 4.9t 2 , t 0 :
c v (1.43) = 0 m/s
a(1.43) = −9.8 m/s2
27 − r 2
19 a Surface area: S = 2r π( r + h) = 54 π ⇒ r 2 + rh = 27 ⇒ h =
r
27 − r 2
Volume: V = V ( h) = r 2 π h = r 2 π ⋅ = r π( 27 − r 2 ) = π( 27r − r 3 )
r
5
Chapter 13
b V ′( h) = π( 27 − 3r 2 ) = 0 ⇒ ( 3 − r )( 3 + r ) = 0 ⇒ r = 3, r = −3
The volume is a maximum for r = 3 cm.
20 For y = a x 2 + b x + c :
Passes through ( 2, 18 ) ⇒ 4 a + 2b + c = 18
Passes through ( 0, 10 ) ⇒ c = 10
dy dy
Maximum at x = 2 : = 0 and = 2a x + b ⇒ 4 a + b = 0
dx dx
The system of equations:
4 a + 2b + c = 18
4 a + 2b = 8
4 a + b = 0 ⇒ ⇒ b = 8, a = −2
c = 10 4 a + b = 0
The function is y = −2x 2 + 8 x + 10.
1
21 For the function f ( x ) = x 2 − 5x + 3 :
2
1
a f ( −2) = ( −2)2 − 5 ⋅ ( −2) + 3 = 15, f ′( x ) = x − 5, f ′( −2) = −2 − 5 = −7
2
Tangent at ( −2, 15) : y − 15 = −7( x + 2) ⇒ y = −7 x + 1
1 1 107
b Normal at ( −2, 15) : y − 15 = ( x + 2) ⇒ y = x +
7 7 7
22 For f ( x ) = x 4 − x 3 we have:
3
a f ′( x ) = 4 x 3 − 3x 2 = 0 ⇒ x 2 ( 4 x − 3) = 0 ⇒ x = 0, x =
4
f ′( −1) = 4( −1)3 − 3( −1)2 = −7 < 0 ⇒ f ( x ) on (−∞ , 0)
3 2
1 1 1 1 3
f ′ = 4 − 3 = − < 0 ⇒ f ( x ) on 0,
2 2 2 4 4
3
f ′(1) = 4 − 3 = 1 > 0 ⇒ f ( x ) on , ∞
4
4 3
3 3 3 27
f = − = −
4 4 4 256
3 27
Absolute minimum at , − .
4 256
27
b Domain is and the range is − ,∞ .
256
1
c f ′′( x ) = 12x 2 − 6 x = 0 ⇒ 6 x ( 2x − 1) = 0 ⇒ x = 0, x =
2
4 3
1 1 1 1
f ( 0 ) = 0, f = − = −
2 2 2 16
1 1
The inflexion points are (0, 0) and , − .
2 16
6
d
2
f(x) = x4- x3
y
1.5
inflexion
0.5
-1 O 1 x 2
(0.5,-0.625)
-0.5
minimum
(0.75,-0.1055)
-1
2 − 3x + 5x 2 2 3
2 − 3x + 5x 2 − +5 0−0+5 5
23 a lim = lim x 2
= lim x 2
x = =−
x →∞ 8 − 3x 2 x →∞ 8 − 3x 2 x →∞ 8 0 − 3 3
−3
x2 x2
x3 − 1 ( x − 1) ( x 2 + x + 1)
c lim = lim = lim( x 2 + x + 1) = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
x →1 x − 1 x →1 x −1 x →1
( x + h) + 2 − x + 2 ( x + h) + 2 − x + 2 ( x + h) + 2 + x + 2
d lim = lim ⋅
h→0 h h → 0 h ( x + h) + 2 + x + 2
= lim
[( x + h) + 2] − [x + 2] = lim h
=
1
=
1
h→0 h ( ( x + h) + 2 + x + 2 )
h→0 h ( ( x + h) + 2 + x + 2 ) ( x + 0) + 2 + x + 2 2 x + 2
x2 − 4x 3 1
24 a f ( x ) = = x 2 − 4x 2
x
3 21 1 −1 3 x 2 3x − 4
f ′( x ) = x − 4 ⋅ x 2 = − =
2 2 2 x 2 x
b f ( x ) = x − 3 sin x
3
f ′( x ) = 3x 2 − 3 cos x
1 x x
c f (x) = + = x −1 +
x 2 2
−2 1 1 1
f ′( x ) = ( −1)x + = − 2 +
2 x 2
7 7
d f (x) = = x −13
3x 13 3
7 91
f ′( x ) = ⋅ ( −13)x −14 = − 14
3 3x
7
Chapter 13
dy
25 For the curve y = x 3 + x 2 − 9 x − 9, we have = 3x 2 + 2 x − 9 .
dx
The slope of the tangent at ( p , q ) is 3p2 + 2 p − 9 .
8
29 For f ( x ) = x + 2 we have:
f ( x + h) − f ( x ) ( x + h) + 2 − x + 2
f ′( x ) = lim = lim
h→0 h h→0 h
= lim
( x + h) + 2 − x + 2 ( x + h) + 2 + x + 2
⋅ = lim
[( x + h) + 2] − [x + 2]
h→0 h (
( x + h) + 2 + x + 2 h→0 h ( x + h) + 2 + x + 2 )
h 1 1
= lim = =
h→0 h ( )
( x + h) + 2 + x + 2 ( x + 0) + 2 + x + 2 2 x + 2
Since −1 cos t 1 ⇒ v (t ) 0 , which means that the particle does not change direction.
So, s(t ) 0 for 0 t 2π , which means that the particle is always on the same side of the origin.
d 7
maximum
s(t)
(2 π,2π)
6
O 1 2 3 4 5 6 t
2 4 6 8
9
Chapter 13
dy d2 y
32 For the curve y = a x 3 + b x 2 + c x + d : = 3a x 2 + 2b x + c , 2 = 6a x + 2b
dx dx
d2 y
Inflexion when x = −1 : = 0 ⇒ 6a( −1) + 2b = 0 ⇒ −6a + 2b = 0
dx2
dy
Turning point when x = 2 : = 0 ⇒ 3a ⋅ 22 + 2b ⋅ 2 + c = 0 ⇒ 12a + 4b + c = 0
dx
Passes through ( 3, −7 ) : a ⋅ 33 + b ⋅ 32 + c ⋅ 3 + d = −7 ⇒ 27 a + 9b + 3c + d = −7
27a + 9b + 3c + d = −7
− a + b − c + d = 4
12a + 4b + c = 0
−3a + b = 0
1 3 3 2 5 1 3 5 19
So, y = x + x − 6 x − , and, at x = 2, y = ⋅ 23 + ⋅ 22 − 6 ⋅ 2 − = − .
4 4 2 4 4 2 2
9 18
33 For the function f ( x ) = 1 − + = 1 − 9 x −2 + 18 x −4 :
x2 x4
18( x 2 − 4 ) 18( x + 2)( x − 2)
f ′( x ) = 18 x −3 − 72x −5 = = = 0 ⇒ x = −2, x = 2
x5 x5
Since the curve is not defined for x = 0 (vertical asymptote), we have four intervals to check:
18 (( −3)2 − 4) 10
f ′( −3) = =− < 0 ⇒ f ( x ) on ( −∞ , −2)
( −3)5 27
18 (( −1)2 − 4)
f ′( −1) = = 54 > 0 ⇒ f ( x ) on ( −2, 0 )
( −1)5
18 (12 − 4)
f ′(1) = = −54 < 0 ⇒ f ( x ) on ( 0, 2)
15
18 (32 − 4) 10
f ′( 3) = = > 0 ⇒ f ( x ) on ( 2, ∞ )
35 27
And because
9 18
lim f ( x ) = lim 1 − + = 1− 0 + 0 = 1
x →±∞ x →±∞ x2 x4
9 18 1
f ( −2 ) = 1 − + =−
( −2 ) ( −2 )
2 4
8
9 18 1
f ( 2) = 1 − 2 + 4 = −
2 2 8
1 1
We conclude that both stationary points, −2, − and 2, − , are absolute minima.
8 8
10
1 dy 1
34 a For the curve y = = x −1, = − x −2 = − 2 , so the slope of the tangent at (1, 1) is −1, and the equation of the
x dx x
tangent is: y − 1 = −1⋅ ( x − 1) ⇒ y = − x + 2 .
dy π π
b For the curve y = cos x , = − sin x , so the slope of the tangent at , 0 is − sin = −1, and the equation of
dx 2 2
π π
the tangent is: y − 0 = −1⋅ x − ⇒ y = − x + .
2 2
π π 1
c Since 2 > ⇒ − x + 2 > − x + , all the tangents on y = are above the tangents on y = cos x , which means
2 2 x
1 π
that > cos x , 0 x .
x 2
dy
35 For the curve y = x 3 − x + 2, the slope function is = 3x 2 − 1 .
dx
If the point ( a , a3 − a + 2) is a point of tangency, then the equation of the tangent is: y − a3 + a − 2 = ( 3a2 − 1)( x − a ).
The tangent should pass through the origin, so: 0 − a3 + a − 2 = ( 3a 2 − 1)( 0 − a ) ⇒ − a 3 + a − 2 = −3a 3 + a ⇒ a 3 = 1 .
37 25
y
20
maximum
15
f ′(x)
10
f(x)
5
-4 -2 O b
a minimum x
-5
inflexion
-10
points
11
Chapter 14
Practice questions
2
OC = 52 + 11 = 6, so C lies on the circle.
5 6 −1
b AC = AO + OC = OC − OA = − =
11 0 11
c Method I: Using a scalar product
−6 −1
AO ⋅ AC 0 11 6 1 1 3
cos OAC = = = = = =
AO AC 6 (−1)2 + 112 6 12 12 2 3 6
Using the Pythagorean identity for sine, sin2 θ = 1 − cos2 θ , and the fact that sine is positive for angles from
2
3 1 11
0 − 180 we have: sin OAC = 1 − = 1 −
= . Hence,
6 12 12
1 1 11
A = AB AC sin A = 12 ⋅ 12 = 6 11.
2 2 12
Method II: Finding the area using side and height dimensions
In triangle ABC , side AB = 12; the height on this side is the second coordinate of point C, so:
1
A = 12 ⋅ 11 = 6 11 .
2
Method III: Using the triangle in half circle property
1 1
The triangle ABC is a right triangle, with right angle in C. So: A = AC AB = 11 ⋅ 12 = 6 11 .
2 2
1
Chapter 14
10 2 − 5 −3
4 a OB = , AC = =
5 7 − 1 6
b The diagonals of quadrilateral OABC are OB and AC . So, the angle between the diagonals is the same as the angle
between vectors OB and AC .
OB ⋅ AB = 10 ⋅ (−3) + 5 ⋅ (6) = 0; hence, the diagonals are perpendicular, 90°.
5 u + v = 4i + 3 j
4a = 8 a=2
Then, a ( 4i + 3 j) = 8i + (b − 2) j ⇒ ⇒
3a = b − 2 6+2=b⇒b=8
3 − (−1) 4 −1 4
6 The direction vector is = −5 ; hence, the equation of the line is: r = 4 + t −5 .
−1 − 4
−4 3
Note: For the direction vector we can use , and for the initial point . So, the equation of the line can be any
5 −1
of these combinations.
18
7 a The speed of the Toyundai: = 182 + 24 2 = 30 km/h
24
36
= 362 + (−16) = 1552 ≈ 39.4 km/h
2
The speed of the Chryssault:
−16
1 18 9 1 36 18
b i After half an hour, the vehicles have covered half the distance: = ; =
2 24 12 2 −16 −8
9 − 18 −9
ii The vector joining their positions at 06:30 is = ; hence, the distance between the
12 − (−8) 20
−9
vehicles is: = 92 + 202 = 481 ≈ 21.9 km.
20
18
c The Toyundai must continue until its position vector is , so until k = 24. At that point, its position is
k
18
24 . To reach this position, it must travel for a total of one hour. Hence, the crew start work at 07:00.
Their starting points were 24 − (−8) = 32 km apart; hence, they are now 32 − 3.6 − 4 = 24.4 km apart.
18 18
e The position vector of the Toyundai at 11:30 is = .
24 − 3.6 20.4
18
The distance to base camp is: = 182 + 20.4 2 = 740.16 ≈ 27.2 km.
20.4
27.2
The time needed to cover this distance is: ⋅ 60 = 54.4 ≈ 54 minutes.
30
0 2
8 The line passes through point 0 and has a direction vector 2 . Hence, its equation is: r = + t , or
2 0 3 0 3
r=t .
3
2
9 a
y
C
0 x
b Point C has the same x-coordinate as A; hence, C (2, y ) . We find the y-coordinate by using the fact that
2 − 5 −3
AB and BC are perpendicular. From the graph, point B is (5, 1). So: BC = = and:
y −1 y −1
2
3 −3 13 13
.
0 = AB ⋅ BC = y − 1 = −9 + 4 y − 4 = −13 + 4 y ⇒ y = 4 . Hence, C 2, 4 . So, OC = 13
4
4
16 16
10 a i Initially, Air One is at position r = ; hence, its distance from the origin is: = 162 + 122 = 20 km.
12 12
12 12
= 122 + (−5) = 13 km/min.
2
ii The velocity vector is v = ; hence, its speed is:
−5 −5
16 12 x 16 + 12t x = 16 + 12t
b r= +t ⇒ = ⇒
12 −5 y
12 − 5t y = 12 − 5t
x − 16
From the first equation, we have t = . Substituting into the second equation:
12
x − 16 144 − 5x + 80
y = 12 − 5 = ⇒ 12 y = 224 − 5x ⇒ 5x + 12 y = 224.
12 12
Note: If we multiply the vector equation of the line by the vector perpendicular to the direction vector, we can find
the result quite quickly.
x 16 12 5 x 5 16 5 12
y = 12 + t −5 ⇒ 12 y = 12 12 + t 12 −5 . Now we have:
5x + 12 y = 5 ⋅ 16 + 12 ⋅ 12 + t ⋅ 0 ⇒ 5x + 12 y = 224.
c We have to determine the angle between the direction vectors:
12 2.5
−5 6 = 12 ⋅ 2.5 − 5 ⋅ 6 = 0; hence, the angle between the paths of the two aircraft is 90 .
x − 23
23 2.5 x 23 + 2.5t x = 23 + 2.5t ⇒ t =
2.5
d i r= +t ⇒ = ⇒
−5 6 y −5 + 6t y = −5 + 6t ⇒ t = y + 5
x − 23 y + 5 6
Hence, = .
2.5 6
x − 23 y+5
Multiplying by 30: 30 = 30 ⇒ 12 ( x − 23) = 5 ( y + 5) ⇒ 12x − 5 y = 301
2.5 6
Note: We could also have used the method from b.
3
Chapter 14
2 2 x−4
3 . Hence, their dot product is zero: 3 y + 1 = 0
2 x−4
So, 0 = = 2( x − 4 ) + 3( y + 1) = 2x − 8 + 3 y + 3 = 2x + 3 y − 5 and the equation of the line is:
3 y +1
2x + 3 y = 5 .
Method II:
2 3 −3
If vector is perpendicular to the line, then the vector , or , is a direction vector of the line.
3 −2 2
4 3
So, a vector equation of the line is r = +t . Now, we have to transform the equation into Cartesian
−1 −2
x 4 + 3t x = 4 + 3t ⋅2 2x = 8 + 6t
form: ⇒ = ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ 2x + 3 y = 5
y
−1 − 2t y = −1 − 2t ⋅3 3 y = −3 − 6t
x 0 6 6
13 a At 13:00, t = 1 : = + 1⋅ −8 = 20
y 28
x x 6 0 6
b i The velocity vector is: − = − =
y y
t =1 t =0 20 28 −8
6
= 62 + (−8) = 10 km/h
2
ii The speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector; therefore:
−8
x 0 6 6t x = 6t ⋅4 4 x = 24t
c = + t ⋅ −8 = 28 − 8t ⇒ y = 28 − 8t ⋅3 ⇒ 3 y = 84 − 24t ⇒ 4 x + 3 y = 84
y
28
d The two ships will collide if the point (18, 4) is on the line. So:
18 0 6 18 = 6t
4 = 28 + t ⋅ −8 ⇒ 4 = 28 − 8t ⇒ t = 3
Therefore, the ships will collide at t = 12 + 3 = 15: 00 hours.
x 18 5 18 + 5t − 5 13 + 5t 13 5
e = + (t − 1) ⋅ = = = +t
y
4 12 4 + 12t − 12 − 8 + 12t −8 12
4
18 x 13 5 28
f At t = 3, Aristides is at and Boadicea is at = + 3 ⋅ 12 = 28 .
4 y
−8
28 18 10
Therefore, their distance vector is: − = ; hence, the ships are 102 + 24 2 = 676 = 26 km apart.
28 4 24
ab (−4i − 2 j) (i − 7 j) −4 + 14 10 10 1
14 cos θ = = = = = =
a b −4i − 2 j i − 7 j 16 + 4 1 + 499 20 50 10 2 5 10
1
θ = cos−1 = 71.565 05... = 72
10
x 2 0.7 3.4
15 a At t = 2 : = + 2 ⋅ =
y
0 1 2
The distance from the point (0, 0) is: 3.4 2 + 22 = 15.56 ≈ 3.94 m
0.7
b The speed of the car is: = 0.72 + 1 = 1.49 ≈ 1.22 m/s
1
x 2 0.7 2 + 0.7t
c y = 0 + t ⋅ 1 = ⇒ t = y ; hence:
⇒ x = 2 + 0.7 y ⇒ x − 0.7 y = 2
t
d Solve the system of equations:
x − 0.7 y = 2 170
⇒ x − 0.42x − 1.4 = 2 ⇒ x = ≈ 5.86
y = 0. 6 x + 2 29
160
y= = 5.52
29
170 160
So, the collision point is , .
29 29
e Since y = t, the time of collision is 5.52 seconds.
0 5.86
The distance covered by the motorcycle is: − = 5.862 + 3.522 ≈ 6.84 m. Therefore, the speed is the
2 5.52
6.84
quotient of distance and time, and we have: ≈ 1.24 m/s.
5.52
6 −1 5 x
16 The direction vector is = ; hence, the equation of the line is = 1 + t 5 .
5−3 2 y 3 2
x 6 −5
Note: We can use the other point as the initial point and then we will have the equation = + t .
y 5 −2
2x x − 1
17 a = 0 ⇒ 2x 2 + 2x + 5x − 25 = 0 ⇒ 2x 2 + 7 x − 25 = 0
x − 5 5
−7 − 249 −7 − 249
b 2x 2 + 7 x − 25 = 0 ⇒ x1 = ≈ −5.69, x 2 = ≈ 2.19
4 4
IB exam question:
2x x + 1
a = 0 ⇒ 2x 2 + 2x + 5x − 15 = 0 ⇒ 2x 2 + 7 x − 15 = 0
x − 3 5
3
b 2x 2 + 7 x − 15 = 0 ⇒ x1 = −5, x 2 =
2 24
240 1 240 25 0.96
18 a i OA = ⇒ OA = 2402 + 702 = 250 . So, the unit vector is: = = .
70 250 70 7 0.28
0.96 288 25
ii v = 300 =
0.28 84
5
Chapter 14
250 5
iii t=
= hour, or 50 minutes
300 6
480 − 240 240
b AB = =
250 − 70 180
240 240
70 180 57 600 + 12 600 70 200
cos θ = = = = 0.936
240 240 240 + 70
2 2
240 + 180
2 2
250 ⋅ 300
70 180
So, θ = cos −1 0.936 = 20.609... ≈ 20.6.
339 − 240 99
c i AX = =
238 − 70 168
−3 240
ii 4 180 = −3 ⋅ 240 + 4 ⋅ 180 = 0; hence, n ⊥ AB.
1 99 −3 −297 + 672
iii The scalar projection of AX in the direction of n is = = 75; hence, the distance
5 168 4 5
XY is 75 km.
d Using Pythagoras’ theorem, we can find the distance from A to Y using the distances AX and XY So,
AX = 992 + 1682 = 38 025 = 195; hence, AY = 1952 − 752 = 32 400 = 180 km.
x −1
x 1 −2 x = 1 − 2t ⇒ −2 = t x −1 y − 2
19 = + t ⇒ ⇒ =
y
2 3 y = 2 + 3t ⇒ y − 2 −2 3
=t
3
3 ( x − 1) = −2 ( y − 2) ⇒ 3x + 2 y = 4 + 3 ⇒ 3x + 2 y = 7
20 y
U
15
10
V T
5
-10 10
x
S
-5
6
1 5 1 1 = 5 + λ ⇒ λ = −4
c 11 = 15 + λ 1 ⇒ 11 = 15 + λ ⇒ λ = −4
So, the point is on the line when λ = −4.
a − 1 a − 1
d i EW = =
17 − 11 6
EW = (a − 1) + 36 = a2 − 2a + 37 = 2 13 ⇒ a2 − 3a + 37 = 52
2
So: a2 − 2a − 15 = 0 ⇒ a1 = −3, a2 = 5
−4 7 − 1 6
ii For a = −3 : EW = , ET = =
6 1 − 11 −4
−4 6
6 −4 −24 − 244 −48 12 12
So, cos θ = = = = − , and θ = cos−1 − = 157.38... ≈ 157.
−4 6 16 + 36 16 + 36 52 13 13
6 −4
4
21 The angle between the lines is the angle between their direction vectors. The direction vector of the first line is ,
3
1
and the second is .
−1
4 1
3 −1 4−3 1
The angle is: cos θ = = = . So,
4 1 16 + 9 1 + 1 5 2
3 −1
1
θ = cos−1 = 81.869... ≈ 81.9 .
5 2
Note: If the cosine of the angle was negative, then the angle would be obtuse; so, to find the acute angle, we would
have to subtract the angle from 180 . Here, it was not the case.
22 a a = 122 + 52 = 13
b b = 62 + 82 = 10
1
The unit vector in the direction of b is:(6i + 8 j) = 0.6i + 0.8 j.
10
ab 12 ⋅ 6 + 5 ⋅ 8 112 56
c cos θ = = = =
a b 13 ⋅ 10 13 ⋅ 10 65
23 The coordinates of the point of intersection should satisfy both equations. So:
5 + 3 λ −2 + 4 t 3 λ − 4t = −7
1 − 2 λ = 2 + t ⇒ −2 λ − t = 1 ⇒ t = −2 λ − 1 ⇒ 3 λ + 8 λ + 4 = −7 ⇒ λ = −1, t = 1
Therefore, the position vector of the point is: OP = 5 − 3 = 2 .
1+ 2 3
Note: We can transform the vector equations to Cartesian form (2x + 3 y = 13, and x − 4 y = −10) and then solve the
system.
10 7 3
24 a OR = PQ = OQ − OP = − =
1 3 −2
−7 3
−3 −2
PO PQ −21 + 6 −15
b cos OPQ = = = =
PO PQ 49 + 9 9 + 4 58 13 754
7
Chapter 14
c i Since PQR + OPQ = 180 , cos PQR (
= cos 180 − OPQ )
= − cos OPQ.
ii Using the Pythagorean identity for sine and the fact that the sine of angles in a triangle is always positive, we
have:
152 529 23
sin PQR = 1 − cos2 PQR = 1 − cos2 OPQ = 1 − = =
754 754 754
3 7 23
iii Area of the parallelogram: A = OR OP sin θ = = 13 53 = 23 units2
−2 3 13 ⋅ 53
−1 8
25 a OB = , OC =
7 9
b To find D, we have to find the vector of the side of the parallelogram:
8 −1 9
AD = BC = OC − OB = − = . Now we can find the position vector of D:
9 7 2
2 9 11
OD = OA + AD = + = . Hence, d = 11.
2 2 4
11 −1 12
c BD = − =
4 7 −3
x −1 −1 12
d i y = 7 + t BD = 7 + t −3
4 x −1 4
Note: For the direction vector, we can use . Then the equation would be = +t .
−1 y 7 −1
−1 −1 12
ii At point B, t = 0. We can see that = + 0⋅ .
7 7 −3
8
7 −1 12 7 = −1 + 12t ⇒ t =
12 2
e = +t ⇒ ⇒t =
5 7 −3 5 = 7 − 3t ⇒ t = − 2 3
−3
7 8 −1
f CP = OP − OC = − =
5 9 −4
−1 12
CP ⋅ BD = = −12 + 12 = 0; hence, CP ⊥ BD.
−4 −3
−3 2 −5
26 a i AB = OB − OA = − =
−1 −2 1
ii AB = 25 + 1 = 26
8
7 − 2 5 5
d BC = AD = =
25 25 25
−3 5 2
OC = OB + BC = + =
−1 25 24
e The area is the product of the sides: A = AB ⋅ AD = 25 + 1 25 + 625 = 26 650 = 130 units2.
27 a i BC = OC − OB = (−5i − 5 j) − (i − 3 j) = −6i − 2 j
ii OD = OA + AD = OA + BC = ( 4i + 2 j) + (−6i − 2 j) = −2i
b BD = OD − OB = −2i − (i − 3 j) = −3i + 3 j
AC = OC − OA = (−5i − 5 j) − ( 4i + 2 j) = −9i − 7 j
BD ⋅ AC 27 − 21 6 6
cos θ = = = = ⇒ θ = 82.8749... ≈ 82.9
BD AC 9 + 9 81 + 49 18 1330 2340
c r = i − 3 j + t (2i + 7 j)
9
Chapter 14
Fuel remaining until the light goes on = 16 000 2 7200 = 8800 litres.
8800 8 1
Number of hours before the warning light goes on: = 4 hours; therefore, the time remaining is hour,
1800 9 9
1
and the distance to town C is: 250 ≈ 27.8 km.
9
31 a The vectors are perpendicular if their scalar product is zero. So, firstly, we have to find the vectors:
1 − 3 −2 1 − 4 −3
QR = 0 − 3 = −3 , PR = 0 − 1 = −1
2c − 5 2c − 5 2c + 1 2c + 1
−2 −3
QR ⋅ PR = −3 −1 = 6 + 3 + ( 2c − 5)( 2c + 1) = 4 c 2 − 8c + 4
2c − 5 2c + 1
The vectors are perpendicular if: 4 c 2 − 8c + 4 = 0 ⇒ 4 (c − 1) = 0 ⇒ c = 1
2
−3 −3
1 − 4 −3
b PR = −1 = −1 , PS = 1 − 1 = 0
2 (1) + 1 3
2+1 3
− 3 −3 3
PS × PR = 0 × −1 = 0
3 3 3
c A vector equation of the line is:
3 −3 3 − 3t
r = 3 + t −1 = 3 − t , t ∈
5 3 5 + 3t
10
d We need one more direction vector (which is not parallel to the direction vector of the line) to determine a
3 − 1 2
normal to the plane. We will take a point on the line and point S: SQ = 3 − 1 = 2 . Hence, the normal will be:
2 −3 i j k 9 5−2 3
2 × −1 = 2 2 3 = −15 .
3 3 −3 −1 3 4
Therefore, the equation will be: 9 ( x − 1) − 15 ( y − 1) + 4 (z − 2) = 0 ⇒ 9 x − 15 y + 4 z = 2 .
Note: We have a point and two vectors in the plane, so we can write parametric equations of the plane:
1 −3 2
r = 1 + λ −1 + µ 2 , λ, µ ∈
2 3 3
e Method I:
PQ ⋅ n
Shortest distance is:
n −1 9
2 −15
3 − 4 −1
PQ ⋅ n 6 4
15
Since PQ = 3 − 1 = 2 , we have: = =
n 81 + 225 + 16 3222
5+1 6
Method II:
We can use the distance formula for a point ( x 0 , y0 , z 0 ) and a plane a x + b y + c z + d = 0:
a x 0 + b y0 + c z 0 + d
d=
a2 + b2 + c 2
Hence, for the point P ( 4 , 1, −1) and the plane 9 x − 15 y + 4 z − 2 = 0 , the distance is:
9 ( 4) − 15 (1) + 4 (−1) − 2 15
d= = .
9 + 15 + 4
2 2 2
322
0 − 1 −1 1 − 0 1
32 a AB = −1 − 2 = −3 , BC = 0 + 1 = 1
2−1 1 2−2 0
−1 1 i j k −1
b AB × BC = −3 × 1 = −1 −3 1 = 1
1 0 1 1 0 2
−1
1 1 1 6
c We can use the formula for the area of a triangle: A = a × b . Hence: A = 1 = 1+ 1+ 4 = .
2 2 2 2
2
−1
d A normal to the plane is n = AB × BC = 1 . Since point A is on the plane, the equation is:
2
−1( x − 1) + 1( y − 2) + 2 (z − 1) = 0 ⇒ − x + y + 2z = 3
11
Chapter 14
a x 0 + b y0 + c z 0 + d
f The distance formula for a point ( x 0 , y0 , z 0 ) and a plane a x + b y + c z + d = 0 is: d = .
a2 + b2 + c 2
Hence, for the point (2, −1 − 6) and the plane − x + y + 2z − 3 = 0, the distance is:
(−1) 2 + 1(−1) + 2 (−6) − 3 18
d= = =3 6
1+ 1+ 4 6
−1
1
g Since n = 1 + 1 + 4 = 6 , a unit vector in the direction of n is: 1 .
6 2
h Firstly, we will find the point of intersection of the plane and the line through D perpendicular to the plane. Hence, we
have to find the intersection of the plane P and the line from part e:
Since x = 2 − t , y = −1 + t , z = −6 + 2t , we have:
− (2 − t ) + (−1 + t ) + 2 (−6 + 2t ) = 3 ⇒ 6t = 18 ⇒ t = 3. So, the point of intersection is (−1, 2, 0) . This point is the
x + 2 yE − 1 z E − 6
midpoint between points D and E. Hence: (−1, 2, 0) = E , , ⇒ E (−4 , 5, 6).
2 2 2
1 2 i j k 7
33 a u × v = 2 × −1 = 1 2 3 = i 2 3 − j 1 3 + k 1 2 = 4
−1 2 2 2 2 −1
3 2 2 −1 2 −5
b Method I:
λ + 2µ
w = 2λ − µ
3 λ + 2 µ
The line of intersection of the planes is parallel to u × v . So,
λ + 2µ 7
w (u × v ) = 2 λ − µ 4 = 7 λ + 144 µ + 8 λ − 4 µ − 15 λ − 10 µ = 0 (for all λ, µ ).
3 λ + 2 µ −5
Method II:
The line of intersection is perpendicular to the normals of both planes; hence, on vectors u and v. Therefore, it will be
perpendicular to the plane containing those two vectors, that is, to all vectors of the form λu + µ v = w .
Method III:
The line of intersection is perpendicular to the normals of both planes; hence, on vectors u and v. Therefore, for a
direction vector d of the line, it holds:
d ⋅ u = 0
⇒ d ( λu + µ v ) = λd ⋅ u + µd ⋅ v = 0 ; and d is perpendicular to w.
d ⋅ v = 0
12
2 + 2 + 1 5
OS = OA + OB + OC = 1 − 1 + 2 = 2 ⇒ S (5, 2, −1)
−2 − 1 + 2 −1
2 2 −3 3
b OA × OB = 1 × −1 = −2 = − 2 ; hence, the equation of the plane is:
−2 −1 −4 4
3( x − 2) + 2( y − 1) + 4( z + 2) = 0 ⇒ 3x + 2 y + 4 z = 0
−1 + 1 0 0 + 1 1
35 a AB = 3 − 2 = 1 , AC = −1 − 2 = −3
5−3 2 1 − 3 −2
0 1
1 −3
2 −2 −7
cos θ = = ⇒ θ = 1446.789... ≈ 147
1+ 4 1+ 9 + 4 5 14
b Method I:
1 1
A = AB AC sin θ = 5 14 sin 146.789... = 2.29 units2
2 2
Method II:
1
A = AB AC sin θ
2
2
−7 7 3
Using the Pythagorean identity for sine and cosine, we have: sin θ = + 1 − = 1− =
5 14 10 10
1 1 3 21
A = AB AC sin θ = 5 14 =
2 2 10 2
Method III:
0 1 4
1 1 1 1 21
A = AB × AC = 1 × −3 = 2 = 16 + 4 + 1 =
2 2 2 2 2
2 −2 −1
2 0 x=2
c i For l1 : r = −1 + t 1 ⇒ y = −1 + t , t ∈
0 2 z = 2t
13
Chapter 14
−1 1 x = −1 + s
For l2 : r = 1 + s −3 ⇒ y = 1 − 3s , s ∈
1 −2 z = 1 − 2s
ii The lines are not parallel, because the direction vectors are not parallel. Hence, we have to solve the system:
2 = −1 + s ⇒ s = 3
−1 + t = 1 − 3s
2t = 1 − 2s
From the first equation, s = 3, and substituting into the second equation: t = 2 − 3 (3) = −7, and third equation:
2 (−7) = 1 − 2 (3) ⇒ −14 ≠ −5. Therefore, the system has no solution and the lines do not intersect.
( e − d)(l1 × l2 )
d The shortest distance is given by , where d and e are position vectors of the points on the lines,
(l1 × l2 )
and l1 and l2 are direction vectors of the lines.
4
l1 × l2 = AB × AC = 2
−1
−1 2 4 −3 4
1 − −1 2 2 2
( e − d)(l1 × l2 ) 1 0 −1 1 −1 9
Hence, = = = .
(l1 × l2 ) 16 + 4 + 1 21 21
36 a Method I:
We will use matrices and their properties:
−1
1 3 −2 x −6 x 1 3 −2 −6 1
2 1 3 y = 7 ⇒ y = 2 1 3 7 = −1
z 3 −1 1 6
3 −1 1 z 6 2
Method II:
We will use PolySmlt:
1 2 i j k 11
3 −2 1 −2 1 3 −7
b v = 3 × 1 = 1 3 −2 = i − j + k =
1 3 2 3 2 1
−2 3 2 1 3 −5
c Method I:
1 2 m + 2n
u = m 3 + n 1 = 3m + n
−2 3 −2m + 3n
14
11 m + 2n
vu = −7 3m + n = 11m + 22n − 21m − 7n + 10m − 15n = 0
−5 −2m + 3n
Method II:
From part b, v is perpendicular to both a and b, so va = 0 and vb = 0. Hence, v (ma + nb) = mva + nvb = 0, for all
values of m and n.
3
d The line is perpendicular to vector v and to the vector −1 . So, a direction vector of the line is:
1
11 3 i j k −12 6
−7 × −1 = 11 −7 −5 = i −7 −5 − j 11 −5 + k 11 −7 = −26 = −2 13 ,
−1 1 3 1 3 −1
−5 1 3 −1 1 10 −5
1 6
and a vector equation of the line is: r = −1 + λ 13
2 −5
1 − 1 0 2 − 1 1
37 a i AB = 2 − 3 = −1 , AC = 3 − 3 = 0
4 −1 3 6 −1 5
0 1 i j k −5
−1 3 0 3 0 −1
AB × AC = −1 × 0 = 0 −1 3 = i −j +k = 3
0 5 1 5 1 0
3 5 1 0 5 1
−5
1 1 1 35
ii A= AB × AC = 3 = 25 + 9 + 1 =
2 2 2 2
1
−5
b i The plane contains the point A and its normal is AB × AC = 3 ; hence, for the Cartesian equation, it holds:
1
−5( x − 1) + 3 ( y − 3) + 1(z − 1) = 0 ⇒ −5x + 3 y + z = −5 + 9 + 1
d = (5 − 0) + (−2 − 1) + (1 − 2) = 25 + 9 + 1 = 35
2 2 2
15
Chapter 14
1
38 a The line contains the point A and its direction vector is 1 ; hence, the Cartesian equation of the line is:
x − 2 y − 5 z +1 1
= =
1 1 1
b We will firstly write the equation of the line in parametric form, and then solve the system:
x = 2+t
y = 5+t
z = −1 + t
5
1(2 + t ) + 1(5 + t ) + 1(−1 + t ) − 1 = 0 ⇒ 2 + t + 5 + t − 1 + t − 1 = 0 ⇒ 3t = −5 ⇒ t = −
3
5
x = 2 + −
3
5 1 10 8
The point is: y = 5 + − ⇒ , , −
3 3 3 3
5
z = −1 + −
3
c Method I:
1 10 8
Denote the image point A′ . Then, the point of intersection, , , − , of the line and the plane is the
3 3 3
1 10 8 2 + x ′ 5 + y ′ −1 + z ′
midpoint of AA′. Hence, , , − = , , ⇒
3 3 3 2 2 2
1 2 + x′ 2 4
= ⇒ x′ = − 2 = −
3 2 3 3
10 5 + y ′ 20 5
= ⇒ y′ = −5=
3 2 3 3
8 −1 + z ′ 16 13
− = ⇒ z′ = − + 1= −
3 2 3 3
4 5 13
Thus, A′ − , , − .
3 3 3
Method II:
Parameters of the points of the line are:
t = 0 for A
5 10
t = − for the intersection; hence, t = − for the reflected point.
3 3
10
x = 2 + −
3
10 4 5 13
Thus: y = 5 + − ⇒ − , , −
3 3 3 3
10
z = −1 + −
3
1
2 − 2 0
d We have: AB = 0 − 5 = −5 , and a direction vector of the line d = 1.
6 +1 7 1
16
Hence:
0 1 −12
−5 × 1 7
AB × d 7 1 5 218 654
d= = = = =
d 1+ 1+ 1 3 3 3
3
39 a The plane contains the point P and its normal is −4 ; hence, the Cartesian equation of the plane is:
1
3 ( x − 1) − 4 ( y − 2) + 1(z − 11) = 0 ⇒ 3x − 4 y + z = 6
3µ − 6 3
3
µ
c i PM ⋅ 1 = 0 ⇒
1 = 0 ⇒ 9 µ − 18 + µ + 4 µ − 24 = 0 ⇒ 14 µ = 42 ⇒ µ = 3
−2 −2 µ + 12 −2
ii The distance between the lines of magnitude of the vector PM , where µ = 3:
3µ − 6 3
PM = µ = 3
; hence, the distance is: d = 9 + 9 + 36 = 54 = 3 6
( )
−2 µ + 12 6
3 3 −12 2
d A normal to the plane equals: 3 × 1 = 24 = −6 −4
; hence, the Cartesian equation of the plane is:
6 −2 −6 1
2 ( x − 4) − 4 ( y − 0) + 1(z + 3) = 0 ⇒ 2x − 4 y + z = 5
17
Chapter 14
0 1 9
41 a L1 : x = 2 + t , y = 2 + 3t , z = 3 + t
L2 : x = 2 + s , y = 3 + 4 s , z = 4 + 2s
x = 2 + t = 2 + s
Hence, at the point of intersection: y = 2 + 3t = 3 + 4 s
z = 3 + t = 4 + 2s
Method I:
From the first equation, we have t = s; from the second, 2 + 3t = 3 + 4t ⇒ t = −1 . Substituting into the third equation:
3 + (−1) = 2
; hence, the lines intersect at the point (1, −1, 2) .
4 + 2 (−1) = 2
Method II:
x = 2 + t = 2 + s t − s = 2 − 2
y = 2 + 3t = 3 + 4 s ⇒ 3t − 4 s = 3 − 2
z = 3 + t = 4 + 2s t − 2s = 4 − 3
18
1 + 3 −1 + 4 2 + 3 3 5
c The midpoint M of [PQ ] is: M = , , = 2, , .
2 2 2 2 2
2 2t
The vector MS is parallel to the normal to the plane π , so MS = t −1 = − t ; hence,
3 5
1 t
S 2t + 2, −t + , t + . From PS = 3 ⇒
2 2
2 2 2 2
3 5 5 1
(2t + 2 − 1)2 + −t + + 1 + t + − 2 = (2t + 1)2 + −t + + t +
2 2 2 2
15 1 1
6t 2 + = 3 ⇒ t2 = ⇒ t = ±
2 4 2
So, the possible solutions for S are:
1 3 1 5 1 3 1 5
S1 1 + 2, − + , + = (3, 1, 3) and S2 −1 + 2, + , − + = (1, 2, 2).
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Note: We used the fact that PS = 3. The line L is the symmetry line of the segment [PQ ] ; hence, QS should be 3.
That means that we will have the same equations if we use QS = 3.
x = 2 − 2λ + µ x = 2+s+t
42 a i L1 : y = 1 + λ − 3 µ L2 : y = 0 + 2s + t
z = 1+ 8λ − 9µ z = 1+ s + t
2 − 2 λ + µ = 2 + s + t
Hence, at the points of intersection: 1 + λ − 3 µ = 2s + t
1 + 8 λ − 9 µ = 1 + s + t
Subtracting the third equation from the first, we have: 1 − 10 λ + 10 µ = 1 ⇒ λ = µ.
x = 2 − 2λ + λ = 2 − λ
ii If λ = µ for points on the plane L1, then those points are on the line: y = 1 + λ − 3 λ = 1 − 2 λ , whose vector
z = 1+ 8λ − 9λ = 1− λ
2 −1
equation is: r = 1 + λ −2 , λ ∈ .
1 −1
19
Chapter 14
2 − 2 λ + µ = 2 + s + t −2 λ + µ − s − t = 0
ii We have to solve the system: 1 + λ − 3 µ = 2 s + t ⇒ λ − 3 µ − 2 s − t = −1
1 + 8 λ − 9 µ = 1 + s + t 8 λ − 9 µ − s − t = 0
x = 2 + k − 1 = 1+ k
If we substitute into L2 : s = k , t = −1, we have: y = 0 + 2k − 1 = −1 + 2k
z = 1+ k − 1 = k
1 1
Hence, the intersection line is: r = −1 + k 2 , k ∈ .
0 1
x = 2 − 2 (1 − l ) + (1 − l ) = 1 + l
Note: If we substitute into L1 : λ = 1 − l , µ = 1 − l , we have: y = 1 + (1 − l ) − 3 (1 − l ) = −1 + 2l ; hence,
z = 1 + 8 (1 − l ) − 9 (1 − l ) = l
1 1
r = −1 + l 2 , l ∈ .
0 1
Note: The lines found above are the same, since the direction vectors are parallel and, if we substitute I = 1 into the
2
second equation, we will have the point 1 from the first line. Hence, we can use any solutions in the remainder of the
task. 1
b The point (2, 0, −1) from the line is on the plane. Hence, the Cartesian equation is:
3 ( x − 2) − 2 ( y ) + (z + 1) = 0 ⇒ 3x − 2 y + z = 5
2 −1
c The planes intersect at the line r = 1 + λ −2 , λ ∈ , so we have to find the intersection of this line and the
plane π3 . 1 −1
We will firstly write the equation of the line in parametric form, and then solve the system:
x = 2− λ
y = 1− 2λ
z = 1− λ
3 (2 − λ) − 2 (1 − 2 λ) + (1 − λ) = 5 ⇒ 5 = 5
The equation is satisfied by any real value of λ ; hence, the plane π3 contains the line, and the intersection of the three
2 −1
planes is the line r = 1 + λ −2 , λ ∈ .
1 −1
20
Chapter 15
Practice questions
1 The important points of the first derivative are zeros, where the original function reaches a minimum or maximum,
x = −4 and x = 1, and the maximum point, at the midpoint. The intervals of the positive and negative values
of the first derivative are to be established by the increasing/decreasing intervals of the original function. So:
f ' ( x ) > 0, −4 < x < 1, and f ' ( x ) < 0, x < −4 or x > 1 .
y
2 a Given the product form of the function, the values a and b are zeros that can be easily read from the graph.
Therefore, i a = −4 and ii b = 2.
b i We can use the product rule but we have to be careful since there are three factors.
f ' ( x ) = − ( x + 4) ( x − 2) − x ( x − 2) − x ( x + 4) = − ( x 2 + 2x − 8 + x 2 − 2x + x 2 + 4 x )
= − (3x 2 + 4 x − 8) = 8 − 4 x − 3x 2
ii f ' ( x ) = 0 ⇒ 8 − 4 x − 3x 2 = 0 ⇒ 3x 2 + 4 x − 8 = 0 ⇒
−4 ± 16 + 96 −4 ± 4 7 −2 ± 2 7
x= = = ⇒
6 6 3
−2 − 2 7 −2 + 2 7
x= or x =
3 3
iii f (1) = −1(1 + 4) (1 − 2) = 5
c i m = f ' (0) = 8 ⇒ Equation of tangent: y = 8 x
ii − x ( x + 4) ( x − 2) = 8 x ⇒ x ( 8 + x 2 + 2x −8 ) = 0 ⇒ x 2 ( x + 2) = 0 . Since the point differs from the origin,
we can conclude that the x-coordinate of the second point is x = −2.
3 a i When t = 0 : v (0) = 66 − 66e −0.15×0 = 66 − 66 × 1 = 0
ii When t = 10 : v (10) = 66 − 66e −0.15×10 = 66 (1 − e −1.5 ) ≈ 51.3 m/s
b i a (t ) = v ' (t ) = −66e −0.15t × (−0.15) = 9.9e −0.15t
ii a (0) = 9.9e −0.15×0 = 9.9 m/s2
→0
c i lim 66 − 66 e −0.15t = 66
t →∞
→0
ii lim 9.9 e −0.15t = 0
t →∞
iii Since the velocity is constant (66 m/s), the acceleration must be zero.
1
Chapter 15
2
4 a y ' = 3x 2 + 14 x + 8 ⇒ y ' = 0 ⇒ 3x 2 + 14 x + 8 = 0 ⇒ (3x + 2) ( x + 4) = 0 ⇒ x = − or x = −4
3
2 2 2
x x < –4 –4 −4 < x < − − x>−
3 3 3
To find the exact coordinates, we can use synthetic division, also known as Horner’s algorithm.
f (x) 1 7 8
x 23
−4 1 3 24 13
2 19 34 149
− 1 −
3 3 9 27
2 149
So, the maximum point is (−4 , 13) and the minimum point is − , − .
3 27
14 7
b y " = 6 x + 14 ⇒ 6 x + 14 = 0 ⇒ x = − =−
6 3
3 2
7 7 7 7 343 343 56 −343 + 1029 − 504 − 81 101
f − = − + 7 × − + 8 × − − 3 = − + − −3= =
3 3 3 3 27 9 3 27 27
7 101
So, the point of inflexion is − , .
3 27
Note: Horner’s algorithm could also be used here.
f (x) 1 7 8
x 23
7 14 26 101
− 1 −
3 3 9 27
5 a i g ( x ) = 2 + e −3 x ⇒ g ' ( x ) = e −3 x × −3 = −3e −3 x
ii Since −3e −3 x < 0 for all real values of x, we can conclude that the function always decreases.
1
1 −3× −
b i g ( x ) = 2 + e −3 x ⇒ g − = 2 + e 3 = 2 + e
3
1
1 −3× −
ii g ' ( x ) = −3e −3 x ⇒ g ' − = −3e 3 = −3e
3
1
c y = −3e x + + 2 + e ⇒ y = −3e x − e + 2 + e = −3e x + 2
3
6 a Firstly, we are going to write the function in product form:
f ( x ) = (2x 2 − 13x + 20) ( x − 1) ⇒ f ' ( x ) = ( 4 x − 13) ( x − 1) + (2x 2 − 13x + 20) × (−2) ( x − 1)
−2 −2 −3
4 x 2 − 17 x + 13 −4 x 2 + 26 x − 40
= ( x − 1)
−3
((4 x − 13) (x − 1) + (2x 2
− 13x + 20) × (−2)) =
( x − 1)3
9 x − 27
= ,x ≠1
( x − 1)3
2
b We know that a minimum point has the first derivative equal to zero, and therefore:
9 x − 27 27
f ' (x ) = 0 ⇒ = 0 ⇒ 9 x − 27 = 0 ⇒ x = = 3. Also, the second derivative must be positive, so:
( x − 1)3 9
72 − 18 x 72 − 18 × 3 72 − 54 18 9
f " (x ) = ⇒ f " (3) = = = = > 0.
( x − 1)4 (3 − 1)4 16 16 8
Therefore, f(3) is a minimum.
c For the point of inflexion, the second derivative must be equal to zero.
72 − 18 x 72
f " (x ) = 0 ⇒ 4 = 0 ⇒ 72 − 18 x = 0 ⇒ x = =4
( x − 1) 18
2 × 4 2 − 13 × 4 + 20
y = f ( 4) = = 0 ⇒ I ( 4 , 0)
( 4 − 1)2
7 a Rewriting as an expression having an integer exponent:
−4 3
y = (2x + 3) ⇒ y ' = −2 × (2x + 3) × 2 =
−2 −3
3 , x ≠ −
(2x + 3) 2
b y = e sin(5 x ) ⇒ y ' = e sin(5 x ) × cos (5x ) × 5 = 5 cos (5x ) e sin(5 x )
4 x sin ( x 2 )
c y = tan2 ( x 2 ) ⇒ y ' = 2 tan ( x 2 ) sec 2 ( x 2 ) × 2x = 4 x tan ( x 2 ) sec 2 ( x 2 ) or y ' =
cos3 ( x 2 )
C C C C C
8 y = Ax + B + ⇒ y ' = A − 2 ⇒ y ' = 0 ⇒ A = 2 ⇒ x2 = ⇒ x = ±
x x x A A
C
By observing the given stationary points, we can establish a relationship between A and C : x = ±1 ⇒ = 1 ⇒ C = A .
A
Now, we need to use the fact that points P and Q lie on the curve itself, and therefore their coordinates satisfy the equation
of the curve.
A
P (1, 4) ⇒ 4 = A × 1 + B + ⇒ 2 A + B = 4
1
⇒ 2B = 4 ⇒ B = 2 ⇒ A = C = 1
A
Q (−1, 0) ⇒ 0 = A × (−1) + B + ⇒ −2 A + B = 0
−1
d 3x2 x2 12
9 x3 + y3 = 2 ⇒ 3x 2 + 3 y 2 y ' = 0 ⇒ y ' = − = − 2 ⇒ y ' (1, 1) = − 2 = −1
dx 3y 2
y 1
2
d
⇒ 6 x = − 3 (2 yy '× y '+ y 2 y ") ⇒ 2x + 2 y ( y ') = − y 2 y "
2
3 x 2 = −3 y 2 y '
dx
2x + 2 y ( y ') 2 × 1 + 2 × 1 × (−1)
2 2
3
Chapter 15
c 6 y
M
x
P
−2 2 4 6
−2
−4
−6
d 2x + y
13 x 2 + xy + y 2 − 3 y = 10 ⇒ 2x + y + xy '+ 2 yy '− 3 y ' = 0 ⇒ 2 x + y = y ' (3 − x − 2 y ) ⇒ y ' =
dx 3 − x − 2y
1 3−2−2×3 5 5 5 11
mN = − =− = ⇒ Equation of normall: y = ( x − 2) + 3 ⇒ y = x +
y ' (2, 3) 2×2+3 7 7 7 7
128
14 V = r 2 π h ⇒ 128 π = r 2 π h ⇒ h =
r2
128 256π
S = 2r 2 π + 2r π h ⇒ S ( r ) = 2r 2 π + 2 r π 2
= 2r 2 π +
r r
256π 64 64 64 128
S ' (r ) = 4 r π − = 4 π r − 2 ⇒ S ' (r ) = 0 ⇒ r − 2 = 0 ⇒ r = 2 ⇒ r 3 = 64 ⇒ r = 3 64 = 4 ⇒ h = 2 = 8
r 2 r r r 4
So, the radius is 4 cm and the height is 8 cm.
14 On a GDC, we simply input the surface area function and calculate a minimum.
So, the minimum surface area occurs when the radius is 4 cm and the height is 8 cm.
15 Let’s focus on the vertex of the rectangle in the first quadrant. The coordinates are ( x , y ) = ( x , 12 − x 2 ). Now, the
dimensions of the rectangle and its area are: l = 2x , w = y ⇒ A = lw = 2xy ⇒ A ( x ) = 2x (12 − x 2 ) = 24 x − 2x 3.
To find the maximum possible area, we need to find the zero of the first derivative.
A ' ( x ) = 24 − 6 x 2 ⇒ A ' ( x ) = 0 ⇒ 24 − 6 x 2 = 0 ⇒ 24 = 6 x 2 ⇒ x 2 = 4 ⇒ x = 2, since the vertex is in the first
quadrant. Again, we can verify that we have a maximum point since the second derivative test gives us a negative value:
A " ( x ) = −12x ⇒ A " (2) = −12 × 2 = −24 < 0 .
So, the dimensions are l = 2 × 2 = 4 and w = 12 − 22 = 8, and that gives us the maximum possible area of 32.
4
16 a The first derivative is negative when the function is decreasing, whilst the second derivative is negative when the
function is concave down. By looking for these features, we identify point E.
b The first derivative is negative when the function is decreasing, whilst the second derivative is positive when the
function is concave up. By looking for these features, we identify point A.
c The first derivative is positive when the function is increasing, whilst the second derivative is negative when the
function is concave down. By looking for these features, we identify point C.
2x − 1 2 ( x + 2) − (2x − 1) × 1 2x + 4 −2x + 1 5
17 y = ⇒ y'= = =
x+2 ( x + 2)2 ( x + 2)2 ( x + 2)2
5 1
y ' (−3) = = 5 ⇒ mn = −
(−3 + 2)2 5
1 1 3 1 32
Equation of normal: y = − ( x + 3) + 7 ⇒ y = − x − + 7 ⇒ y = − x +
5 5 5 5 5
4 4
18 y = ln ( 4 x − 3) ⇒ y ' = ⇒ y ' (1) = =4
4x − 3 4 × 1− 3
a mT = y ' (1) = 4 ⇒ Equation of tangent: y = 4 ( x − 1) + 0 ⇒ y = 4 x − 4
1 1 1 1 1
b mN = − = − ⇒ Equation of normal: y = − ( x − 1) + 0 ⇒ y = − x +
y ' (1) 4 4 4 4
1 2
19 y = x 2 ln x ⇒ y ' = 2x ln x + x 2 × = x (2 ln x + 1) ⇒ y " = 2 ln x + 1 + x × = 2 ln x + 3
x 1
x
1 − 1 1
a y ' = 0 ⇒ x (2 ln x + 1) = 0 ⇒ 2 ln x + 1 = 0 ⇒ ln x = − ⇒ x = e 2 = 1 orr ⇒
2 e
1 2
− 1
1 1 1 e 2
; so, P , −
−
y = e 2 ln e 2 = −
2e e 2e
Notice that the domain of the function is x > 0; therefore, we discard the solution x = 0.
− 1 −
1
y " e 2 = 2 ln e 2 + 3 = −1 + 3 = 2 > 0 ; therefore, the point P is a minimum.
lim y = lim− x 2 ln x = 0 and lim y = lim x 2 ln x = ∞ ; therefore, the point P is the absolute minimum.
x →0 − x →0 x →∞ x →∞
2
−
3
1 1 −3 −
3
3 1 − 3
b y " = 0 ⇒ 2 ln x + 3 = 0 ⇒ x = e 2
= = , y = e 2 ln e 2 = − 3 ; so, I ,
3
e e 2e e e 2e 3
e2
a a 2a
20 a f ( x ) = x 2 + ⇒ f ' ( x ) = 2x − 2 ⇒ f " ( x ) = 2 + 3
x x x
a
i f ' (2) = 0 ⇒ 2 × 2 − 2 = 0 ⇒ a = 16
2
a
ii f ' (−3) = 0 ⇒ 2 × (−3) − = 0 ⇒ a = −54
(−3)2
a a a 2a 2a
b f ' ( x ) = 2x − 2 = 0 ⇒ 2x 3 = a ⇒ x = 3 , f " 3 = 2 + 3 = 2+ =6>0
x 2 2 3 a a
2 2
Since the second derivative is always positive, the stationary point cannot be a maximum.
21 A line y = mx + l that passes through (3, 2) satisfies the following equation:
2 = m × 3 + l ⇒ l = 2 − 3m; y = mx + 2 − 3m
3m − 2
x = 0 ⇒ y = 2 − 3m; y = 0 ⇒ 0 = mx + 2 − 3m ⇒ x =
m
Therefore, the area of the triangle is given by the expression:
1 3m − 2 (3m − 2)2 2 (3m − 2) × 3 × 2m − (3m − 2) × 2
2
5
Chapter 15
2
We can discard the first solution since, for m = , the line passes through the origin and so the triangle doesn’t exist.
3
2 2 2
m = − ⇒ l = 2 − 3 × − ; y = − x + 4
3 3 3
π π π π π π
22 y = x tan x : x = ⇒ y = tan = , P ,
4 4 4 4 4 4
π π π π π π
y ' ( x ) = tan x + x sec 2 x ⇒ y ' = tan + sec 2 = 1 + × 2 = 1+
4 4 4 4 42 2
π π π π π π π2
mT = y ' = 1 + ⇒ Equation of tangent: y = 1 + x − + ⇒ y = 1 + x −
4 2 2 4 4 2 8
1 1 2 2 π π
mN = − =− =− ⇒ Equation of normal:: y = − x − + ⇒
π π 2 + π 2 + π 4 4
y' 1+
4 2
2 2π π 2 4π + π 2
y = − x+ + ⇒ y = − x+
2 + π 4 (2 + π ) 4 2 + π 4 (2 + π )
x2
x2 − − 2x x2
− e 2
× −
e 2
2 xe 2
23 a f (x ) = ⇒ f ' (x ) = =− ⇒
2π 2π 2π
x2
x2 − − 2x x2
e ×
e 2 ( x 2 − 1)
− 2 −
e 2
2
f " (x ) = − −x =
2π 2π 2π
e0 1 1
f ' ( x ) = 0 ⇒ x = 0 , y = f (0 ) = = ⇒ M 0,
2π 2π 2π
( ±1)2
−
1 1 e 1 2
f " ( x ) = 0 ⇒ x 2 − 1 = 0 ⇒ x = ±1, y = − = ⇒ I1 −1, , I2 1,
2π 2e π 2e π 2e π
b We notice that the function f is even, and therefore symmetrical with respect to the y-axis.
0
x2
−
e 2
lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = lim = 0; therefore, the x-axis is the horizontal asymptote.
x →−∞ x →∞ x →∞ 2π
c
y
(0, 0.3989)
(-1, 0.242) (1, 0.242)
x
–2 –1 1 2
–1
2x 4x −x2 + 4x − 3
24 a f ( x ) = 2 ln ( x 2 + 3) − x ⇒ f ' ( x ) = 2 − 1= 2 − 1 = ⇒
x +3
2
x +3 x 2 + 3
4x 4x
f ' (x ) = 0 ⇒ − 1= 0 ⇒ 2 = 1 ⇒ 4 x = x 2 + 3 ⇒ 0 = x 2 − 4 x + 3 ⇒ ( x − 3) ( x − 1) = 0
x2 + 3 x +3
x = 3, y = 2 ln 12 − 3; or x = 1, y = 2 ln 4 − 1 = 4 ln 2 − 1
6
We notice that the denominator is always positive; therefore, the sign of the first derivative depends on the numerator,
which is a quadratic expression that has a negative leading coefficient.
x ]− ∞ , 1[ 1 ]1, 3[ 3 ]3, ∞ [
f ’(x) negative 0 positive 0 negative
f (x) decreasing minimum increasing maximum decreasing
Again, since the denominator is always positive, we can conclude that the sign depends on the numerator only, and
the numerator is a quadratic expression which changes its sign at the zeros. Therefore, we can conclude that the
x-coordinates we found are those of inflexion points.
2x 2 (18 + 0.015x 2 ) − 2x × 0.3x 2 (18 − 0.015x 2 )
25 f ( x ) = ⇒ f ' (x ) = =
18 + 0.015x 2
(18 + 0.015x 2 )2 (18 + 0.015x 2 )2
18
f ' ( x ) = 0 ⇒ 18 − 0.015x 2 = 0 ⇒ x 2 = = 1200 ⇒ x = 1200 = 20 3 ≈ 34.6 km h r
0.015
d 4 2 x 2x
26 2x 2 − 3 y 2 = 2 ⇒ 4 x − 6 yy ' = 0 ⇒ y ' = =
dx 6 3y 3y
x = 5 ⇒ 2 × 52 − 3 y 2 = 2 ⇒ 48 = 3 y 2 ⇒ y 2 = 16 ⇒ y = ± 16 = ±4
When x = 5 we have two values of y; therefore, there are two points and hence two gradients.
2 ×5 5 2 ×5 5
y ' (5, −4) = =− , y ' (5, 4) = =
3 × (− 4 2) 6 3× 42 6
−1 4x
27 y = arccos (1 − 2x 2 ) ⇒ y ' = × (−4 x ) =
1 − (1 − 2x )
2 2
1 − ( 1 − 4x2 + 4x 4 )
−2
, − 1< x < 0
4 2x 1− x2 gn ( x )
2 × sig
= = =
2 x 1− x2 2 1 − x2
, 0 x < 1
1− x2
Note: We had to restrict the domain of the derivative because of the expression in the denominator.
1
28 f ( x ) = x 2 ln x ⇒ f ' ( x ) = 2x ln x + x 2 × = x (2 ln x + 1) , x > 0
x
1 1
29 f ( x ) = sin 2x + cos x ⇒ f ' ( x ) = cos 2x × 2 − sin x = 1 − 2 sin2 x − sin x = (1 − 2 sin x ) (1 + sin x )
2 2
1
f ' ( x ) = 0 ⇒ (1 − 2 sin x ) (1 + sin x ) = 0 ⇒ sin x = or sin x = −1
2
d 6 3x 3x
30 3x 2 + 4 y 2 = 7 ⇒ 6 x + 8 yy ' = 0 ⇒ y ' = − =−
dx 8 4y 4y
x = 1 ⇒ 3 × 12 + 4 y 2 = 7 ⇒ 4 y 2 = 4 ⇒ y 2 = 1 ⇒ y = 1 because y > 0 .
3×1 3
y ' (1, 1) = − =−
4 ×1 4
2
31 a f ( x ) = ln (2x − 1) ⇒ f ' ( x ) =
2x − 1
7
Chapter 15
2 1 ± 1 + 16 1 ± 17
b f ' (x ) = x ⇒ = x ⇒ 2 = 2x 2 − x ⇒ 0 = 2x 2 − x − 2 ⇒ x1, 2 = =
2x − 1 4 4
We need to check whether both solutions are in the domain of the function f. We notice that the domain is:
figures).
{
D (f ) = x x ∈ x >
1
2 }
; therefore, there is only one solution: x =
1 + 17
4
≈ 1.28 (correct to three significant
b We can draw the derivative function on a calculator without finding the formula for it. To obtain a clearer diagram, we
deselect the original function so that we can find the point of intersection easier with the identity function.
32 f ( x ) = x 2 e x ⇒ f ' ( x ) = 2x e x + x 2e x ⇒ f " ( x ) = 2e x + 2x e x + 2x e x + x 2e x = e x (2 + 4 x + x 2 )
Since e x > 0 : f " ( x ) = 0 ⇒ x 2 + 4 x + 2 = 0 ⇒ x1, 2 = −2 ± 4 − 2 = −2 ± 2 . The condition of the question is that the
x-coordinate of the point of inflexion is between 22 and 0; therefore, there is only one solution: x = −2 + 2 ≈ −0.586.
32 As in the previous question, we can draw the graph of the second derivative and then simply find the zero that is
between –2 and 0.
1
33 Since the normal has a slope of 22, we need to find a point with a gradient of .
2
1 1
y = arctan ( x − 1) ⇒ y ' = 2 =
1 + ( x − 1) 2 − 2x + x 2
1
y ' (x ) =
⇒ 2 − 2x + x 2 = 2 ⇒ x 2 − 2 x = 0 ⇒ x ( x − 2) = 0 ⇒ x = 2 given the condition x > 0 .
2
π π π
x = 2 ⇒ y = arctan (1) = ⇒ = −2 × 2 + c ⇒ c = + 4 ≈ 4.79 (correct to three significant figures)
4 4 4
34 a f ( x ) = e1+ sin π x ⇒ f ' ( x ) = e1+ sin π x × cos (π x ) × π = π cos (π x ) e1+sin π x
8
b Since x 0 , we need to find the x-coordinates of the points where f ' ( x ) = 0:
π 1
cos (π x ) = 0 ⇒ π x = + nπ ⇒ x = + n, n ∈
2 2
1 3 5 2n + 1
x 0 = , x1 = , x 2 = , ..., x n = , n ∈
2 2 2 2
f ( x ) = x 3 ( x 2 − 1) , −1.4 x 1.4
2
35 a
In this instance, we need to set up the window on the calculator properly and simply copy it onto graphic paper.
Maximum 2 y
Zeros
x
–1.5 –1 –0.5 0.5 1 1.5
Minimum –1
–2
2 2 1
3x 2 − 3 + 4 x 2 7x 2 − 3
b i f (x ) = x 3
(x 2
− 1) ⇒ f ' ( x ) =
2
3
(x 2
− 1) + x ×
2
3
( x − 1) 3 × 2x =
−
=
33 x2 − 1 33 x2 − 1
D (f −1) = {x ∈ −1.4 x 1.4}
7x 2 − 3 3 ± 21
ii f ' (x ) = 0 ⇒ = 0 ⇒ 7 x 2 − 3 = 0 ⇒ x1, 2 = ± =
3 x −1
3 2 7 7
3 3
Therefore, the minimum occurs for x = − , whilst the maximum occurs for x = .
7 7
c For ease of calculation of the second derivative, we will rewrite the first derivative as a product.
1 1
1 1
1 4
(7 x 2 − 3) ( x 2 − 1) 3 ⇒ f " ( x ) = 14 x ( x 2 − 1) 3 + (7 x 2 − 3) × − ( x 2 − 1) 3 × 2x
− − −
f ' (x ) =
3 3 2
2 2 4
2 4 (7 x 3 − 9 x )
= ( x − 1) 3 21x ( x 2 − 1) − (7 x 2 − 3) × x =
−
4 21x 3 − 21x − 7 x 3 + 3x = 4
9 ( x 2 − 1) 3 9 ( x 2 − 1) 3
9
3 7
f " (x ) = 0 ⇒ 7x 3 − 9x = 0 ⇒ x = ≈ 1.1339, since x > 0.
7
36 Given that the line y = 16 x − 9 is tangent at (1, 7), we can conclude that y ' (1) = 16. The given point on the curve gives us
the second equation.
y = 2 x 3 + a x 2 + b x − 9 ⇒ y ' = 6 x 2 + 2a x + b y ' (1) = 6 + 2a + b = 16 ⇒ 2a + b = 10
x 2 + 2a x + b y ' (1) = 6 + 2a + b = 16 ⇒ 2a + b = 10
y (1) = 2 + a + b − 9 = 7 ⇒ a + b = 14 , so we have a pair of simultaneous equations to solve.
2a + b = 10 b = 10 − 2a b = 10 − 2a b = 18
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
a + b = 14 a + 10 − 2 a = 14 − 4 = a a = −4
dy
37 a y = tan x − 8 sin x ⇒ = sec 2 x − 8 cos x
dx
1 − 8 cos3 x 1 1
b sec 2 x − 8 cos x = 0 ⇒ = 0 ⇒ 1 − 8 cos3 x = 0 ⇒ cos3 x = ⇒ cos x =
cos2 x 8 2
9
Chapter 15
( x 3 + 4 x 2 + 4 x ) + ( x + 2) = 0 x ( x + 2)2 + ( x + 2) = 0 ( x + 2) ( x 2 + 2x + 1) = 0
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
y = −4 x − 8 y = −4 x − 8 y = −4 x − 8
( x + 2) ( x + 1)2 = 0 x = −2 or x = −1
⇒
y = − 4 x − 8 y = −4 × (−2) − 8 = 0 or y = −4
So, the second point is (–2, 0).
x2 − x + 1 (2x − 1) ( x 2 + x + 1) − ( x 2 − x + 1) (2x + 1)
41 a i f (x ) = ⇒ f ' (x ) =
x + x +1
2
(x 2 + x + 1)2
2 x 3 + x 2 + x − 1 −2 x 3 + x 2 − x − 1 2x 2 − 2 2 ( x 2 − 1)
= = =
(x+ x + 1)
2 2
(x 2 + x + 1) (x 2 + x + 1)
2 2
ii If the tangents are parallel to the x-axis, then the gradient is zero.
1+ 1+ 1 1− 1+ 1 1
f ' ( x ) = 0 ⇒ x 2 − 1 = 0 ⇒ x1, 2 = ±1, x = −1 ⇒ y = = 3, x = 1 ⇒ y = =
1− 1+ 1 1+ 1+ 1 3
1
So, the points are: A (−1, 3) and B 1, .
3
b 2 y
x
–4 –2 2 4
–1
–2
–3
–4
On the graph of the first derivative, the stationary points are points where the second derivative is zero, that is, the
points of inflexion. A calculator gives us the following:
x = −1.53 or x = −0.347 or x = 1.88
c i We notice that the denominator is never equal to zero, and therefore the domain of the function is the whole set
of real numbers. Also, the function has a horizontal asymptote.
1 1
x2 − x + 1 ÷ x2 1− + 2
lim f ( x ) = lim 2 = lim x x =1
x →±∞ x →±∞ x + x + 1 ÷ x 2 x →±∞ 1 1
1+ + 2
x x
10
Since the minimum point is below the asymptote and the maximum point is above the asymptote of this continuous
1
function, we can say that the range is , 3 .
3
2
x 2 − x + 1 x2 − x + 1
− 2 +1
x − x + 1 x + x + 1
2 2
x + x +1
ii (f f )( x ) = f 2 =
x + x + 1 x 2 − x + 1 2 x 2 − x + 1
x 2 + x + 1 + x 2 + x + 1 + 1
(x 2
− x + 1) − ( x 2 − x + 1) ( x 2 + x + 1) + ( x 2 + x + 1)
2 2
(x 2
+ x + 1)
2
=
(x 2
− x + 1) + ( x 2 − x + 1) ( x 2 + x + 1) + ( x 2 + x + 1)
2 2
(x 2
+ x + 1)
2
= ( x 2 + 1) −2x ( x 2 + 1) + x 2 − ( x 2 + 1) + x 2 + ( x 2 + 1) +2x ( x 2 + 1) + x 2 (x + 1) + 3x
2 2 2 2
2 2
=
(x 2
+ 1) −2x ( x 2 + 1) + x 2 + ( x 2 + 1) − x 2 + ( x 2 + 1) +2x ( x 2 + 1) + x 2
2 2 2
3 ( x + 1) + x
2 2 2
We again notice that the domain is the whole set of real numbers and, since the polynomials in the numerator
and denominator are both quartic and the leading coefficients are 1 and 3 respectively, the horizontal asymptote
1
has the equation y = .
3
We can input the composite function into a GDC and find the minimum and maximum point. Notice that,
using the GDC, we did not have to find the formula for the composite function; we merely had to define the
composition in the graphical mode.
1 7
So, the range of the composite function is , .
3 13
dV 4 dV dr dr dV 1 dV dr 1 1
42 = 8 cm3 s , V = π r 3 ⇒ = 4 r 2π , = × = × ⇒ (r = 2) = ×8= cm s
dt 3 dr dt dV dt dV dt dt 4 × 22 π 2π
dr
d 3x 2 y 2 3x 2 y
43 x 3 y 2 = 8 ⇒ 3x 2 y 2 + x 3 × 2 yy ' = 0 ⇒ y ' = − 3 = − ⇒
dx 2x y 2x 3
3 × 22 × 1 3 1 4 4 4 5
y ' (2, 1) = − = − , mN = − n of normal: y = ( x − 2) + 1 ⇒ y = x −
= ⇒ Equation
2×2 3
4 y ' (2, 1) 3 3 3 3
44 a We need to rewrite the expression in product form for ease of calculation of the first and second derivative.
x2 2x − x 2 ln 2
i f ( x ) = x = x 2 × 2− x ⇒ f ' ( x ) = 2x × 2− x + x 2 × 2− x ln 2 × (−1) =
2 2x
11
Chapter 15
2 − 4 x ln 2 + x 2 ln2 2
ii f ' ( x ) = (2x − x 2 ln 2) × 2− x ⇒ f " ( x ) = (2 − 2x ln 2) × 2− x + (2x − x 2 ln 2) × 2− x ln 2 × (−1) =
2x
2x − x 2 ln 2 2
b i f ' (x ) = 0 ⇒ = 0 ⇒ x (2 − x ln 2) = 0 ⇒ x =
2x ln 2
We discard the second solution because of the domain of the function, x > 0.
2
2 2 2
2 − 4 ln 2 + ln 2
2 ln 2 ln 2 2−8+4 −2
ii f " = = = < 0 ; therefore, we have a maximum value of the
ln 2 2
ln 2
2
ln 2
2
2 2 2 ln 2
function f. We could have tested the nature of the stationary point by using the sign of the first derivative. We
notice that the denominator is always positive and that the numerator is a quadratic function with a negative
2
quadratic coefficient; therefore, at x = , it changes its sign from positive to negative, which yields the
ln 2
maximum value.
2 − 4 x ln 2 + x 2 ln2 2
c f " (x ) = 0 ⇒ = 0 ⇒ 2 − 4 x ln 2 + x 2 ln2 2 = 0 ⇒
2x
x1, 2 =
4 ln 2 ± 16 ln2 2 − 4 × ln2 2 × 2 4 ln 2 ± 8 ln2 2 4 ln 2 ± 2 ln 2 2 2 ln 2 2 ± 2
= = =
( )
2 ln2 2 2 ln2 2 2 ln2 2 2 ln2 2
2± 2 2− 2 2+ 2
= ⇒x= ≈ 0.845 or x = ≈ 4.93
ln 2 ln 2 ln 2
45 a f (t ) = 3 sec 2 t + 5t ⇒ f ' (t ) = 3 × 2 sec t × sec t × tan t + 5 = 6 sec 2 t tan t + 5
12
f ( x ) = a (b + e − c x ) ⇒ f ' ( x ) = a × (−1) (b + e − c x ) × e − c x × (− c ) = ace − c x (b + e − c x ) ⇒
−1 −2 −2
49 a
− ac 2 e − c x − ac 2 e − c x (b − e − c x ) ac 2 e − c x (e − c x − b)
= (b + e − cx
− 2e − c x ) = =
(b + e ) − cx 3
(b + e ) − cx 3
(b + e ) − cx 3
≠0
ac 2 e − c x (e − c x − b) ln b
b f " (x ) = 0 ⇒ = 0 ⇒ e − c x − b = 0 ⇒ e − cx = b ⇒ − c x = ln b ⇒ x = −
(b + e ) − cx 3
c
ln b a a ln b a .
For x = − ⇒y= = ; so, the point is − ,
c − c × −
ln b
c 2b c 2b
b+e
c This is a point of inflexion because the second derivative changes its sign at that point. We notice that to the left of
zero the expression is positive, whilst to the right the expression is negative.
50 a 2x 2 y + 3 y 2 = 16 : x = 1 ⇒ 2 y + 3 y 2 = 16 ⇒ 3 y 2 + 2 y − 16 = 0 ⇒ (3 y + 8) ( y − 2) = 0
8
⇒ y = − or y = 2 ⇒ p = 2, since the condition is p > 0.
3
d
b 2x 2 y + 3 y 2 = 16 ⇒ 4 xy + 2x 2 y '+ 6 yy ' = 0 ⇒ y ' (2x 2 + 6 y ) = −4 xy ⇒
dx
4 2 xy 2xy 2 × 1× 2 4
y'= − =− 2 ⇒ y ' (1, 2) = − 2 =−
2 (x + 3 y )
2
x + 3y 1 +3×2 7
51 f ( x ) = 3x ⇒ f ' ( x ) = 3x ln 3 ⇒ f " ( x ) = 3x ln 3 × ln 3 = 3x ln2 3
2 2
f " ( x ) = 2 ⇒ 3x ln2 3 = 2 ⇒ 3x = 2 ln ⇒ x ln 3 = ln 2 ⇒
ln 3 ln 3
ln 2 − 2 ln (ln 3) ln 2 − 2 ln (ln 3)
x= = ≈ 0.460
ln 3 ln 3
dα 5
⇒ α = arctan ⇒
h h
52 Let CAB = α ⇒ tan α = =
5 5 dh 25 + h2
dα
dh
dt
= 2 cm s, and when the triangle is equilateral: h = 5 3 ⇒
dh
5 3 =
5
=
1
25 + 75 20
( )
d α d α dh dα d α dh
dt
= ×
dh dt
⇒
dt
h=5 3 = ( ×
dh dt 20
) =
1
×2=
1
10
rad
ds
dy 2 d2 y −4
53 y = ln (2x − 1) ⇒ = ⇒ 2 =
d x 2x − 1 dx (2x − 1)2
d 3y − x2
54 x 3 + y 3 − 9 xy = 0 ⇒ 3x 2 + 3 y 2 y '− 9 y − 9 xy ' = 0 ⇒ 3 y ' ( y 2 − 3x ) = 3 (3 y − x 2 ) ⇒ y ' = 2
dx y − 3x
1 42 − 3 × 2 10 5 5 5 13
mN = − =− =− = − ⇒ Equation of normal: y = − ( x − 2) + 4 ⇒ y = − x +
y ' (2, 4) 3 × 4 − 22 8 4 4 4 2
π π π
55 a f ' ( x ) = 2 sin 5x − ⇒ f " ( x ) = 2 cos 5x − × 5 = 10 cos 5x −
2 2 2
b This part cannot be solved using the topics that we have covered so far. We need to use a method of integration:
π 1 π 2 π
f ( x ) = ∫ 2 sin 5x − d x = 2 × − cos 5x − + c = − cos 5x − + c
2 5 2 5 2
π 2 5π − π 2 7
f = 1 ⇒ − cos + c = 1⇒ − + c = 1⇒ c =
2 5 2 2 5 5
2 π 7
f ( x ) = − cos 5x − +
5 2 5
13
Chapter 15
d 2 y 2 + 6 xy
56 3x 2 y + 2xy 2 = 2 ⇒ 6 xy + 3x 2 y '+ 2 y 2 + 2x × 2 yy ' = 0 ⇒ y ' (3x 2 + 4 xy ) = − (6 xy + 2 y 2 ) ⇒ y ' = − 2
dx 3x + 4 xy
1 3 × 12 + 4 × 1 × (−2) −5 5
mN = − = = =
y ' (1, −2) 2 × (−2)2 + 6 × 1 × (−2) −4 4
x5 + 2 5x 4 × x − ( x 5 + 2) × 1 4 x 5 − 2
57 f ( x ) = , x ≠ 0 ⇒ f ' (x ) = = = ( 4 x 5 − 2) x −2
x x2 x2
20 x 5 − 8 x 5 + 4 4 (3x + 1)
5
f " ( x ) = 20 x 4 × x −2 + ( 4 x 5 − 2) × (−2) x −3 = =
x 3
x3 1
4 (3x 5 + 1) 1 − +2 55 3
Point of inflexion: f " ( x ) = 0 ⇒ = 0 ⇒ 3x + 1 = 0 ⇒ x = − 5 , y = 3
5
=−
x 3
3 1 3
−5
1 5 35 3
Thus, the coordinates are: − 5 , − ≈ (−0.803, −2.08) .
3 3
58 a n (t ) = 650e kt
Since the number of bacteria double every 20 minutes, there are 1300 bacteria after 20 minutes.
ln 2
n (20) = 650e k ×20 = 1300 ⇒ e 20 k = 2 ⇒ 20k = ln 2 ⇒ k =
20
ln 2 ln 2 ln 2
t dn − t ln 2 65 ln 2 t
b n (t ) = 650e 20 ⇒ = 650e 20 × = e 20
dt 20 2
dn 65 ln 2
× 90 65 ln 2 × 16 2
(t = 90) = × (ln 2) e 20 = = 520 2 ln 2 ≈ 510 bacteria min
dt 2 2
59 f ( x ) = a x 3 + b x 2 + c x + d ⇒ f ' ( x ) = 3a x 2 + 2b x + c ⇒ f " ( x ) = 6a x + 2b
Now, we are going to use the conditions:
f (0) = 2 ⇒ d = 2, f ' (0) = −3 ⇒ c = −3, f (1) = f ' (1) ⇒ a + b − 3 + 2 = 3a + 2b − 3, f " (−1) = 6 ⇒ −6a + 2b = 6
So, we have to solve the simultaneous equations in a and b.
2a + b = 2
−
−3a + b = 3 ⇒ a = − 1 , b = 2 + 2 = 12 ; so, the polynomial is: f ( x ) = − 1 x 3 + 12 x 2 − 3x + 2 .
5a = −1 5 5 5 5 5
60 f ( x ) = cos3 ( 4 x + 1) , 0 x 1
14
dy x 1
63 y = x arcsin x , x ∈ ] −1, 1[ ⇒
dx
= arcsin x + = arcsin x + x (1 − x )
2 − 2
1− x2
d y2
1 1 1 3 2 (1 − x 2 ) + x 2 2 − x2
dx 2
= + + x −
2 (1 − x )
2 − 2
× ( − 2 x ) = 3 = 3
1− x2 1− x2 (1 − x 2 ) 2 2 (1 − x 2 ) 2
d 1 y
64 e xy − y 2 ln x = e ⇒ e xy ( y + xy ') − 2 yy ' ln x − y 2 × = 0 ⇒ y e xy − = y ' (2 y ln x − x e xy ) ⇒
dx x x
xy e xy − y 2 e − 1 1− e
y'= ⇒ y ' (1, 1) = =
x (2 y ln x − x e xy ) −e e
2x
65 f ( x ) = , x b, b ∈
x +6
2
2 ( x 2 + 6) − 2x × 2x 2 x 2 + 12 − 4 x 2 12 − 2x 2
a f ' (x ) = = = 2
(x 2 + 6)2 (x 2 + 6)2 (x + 6)2
b This function needs to be restricted to the interval where every value occurs only once, that is, from the maximum
point until the horizontal asymptote, which is the x-axis.
12 − 2x 2
f ' (x ) = 0 ⇒ 2 = 0 ⇒ 12 − 2 x 2 = 0 ⇒ x = 6
(x + 6)2
We can justify that for x = 6 the function has a maximum since the sign of the first derivative changes from positive
to negative.
d 2x + y
66 x 2 + xy + y 2 = 3 ⇒ 2x + y + xy '+ 2 yy ' = 0 ⇒ y ' ( x + 2 y ) = − (2x + y ) ⇒ y ' = −
dx x + 2y
2 × (−1) + k 2 − k
a y ' (−1, k ) = − =
−1 + 2k 2k − 1
b If the tangent is parallel to the x-axis, then the slope is equal to zero; therefore:
2−k
y ' (−1, k ) = 0 ⇒ = 0⇒2−k = 0⇒k = 2
2k − 1
d
67 x 3 y 2 = cos (π y ) ⇒ 3x 2 y 2 + x 3 2 yy ' = − sin (π y ) × π × y ' ⇒ y ' (2x 3 y + π sin (π y )) = −3x 2 y 2 ⇒
dx
3x 2 y 2 −3 3
y'= − 3 ⇒ y ' (−1, 1) = − =
2x y + π sin (π y ) 2 + π sin (π ) 2
0
68
a AQ 2 = 4 + x 2 ⇒ T = TS + TR = 5 5 × 4 + x 2 + 5 × (2 − x ) = 5 5 4 + x 2 + 10 − 5x minutes
dT 2x 5 5x
b =5 5 −5= −5
dx 2 4+x 2
4 + x2
15
Chapter 15
c i
dT
dx
=0⇒
5 5x
4 + x2
( )
− 5 = 0 ⇒ 5 5 x = 5 4 + x 2 / ÷ 5 ⇒ 5x 2 = 4 + x 2 ⇒ 4 x 2 = 4 ⇒ x = 1
ii x = 1 ⇒ T = 5 5 4 + 1 + 10 − 5 = 30 minutes
iii In the case of a complicated rational expression, it is simpler to use the product rule.
dT 1
d 2T 1
1 3
= 5 5 x (4 + x 2 ) 2 − 5 ⇒ 2 = 5 5 (4 + x 2 ) 2 + 5 5 x × − (4 + x 2 ) 2 × 2 x
− − −
dx dx 2
=
5 5
3 (4 + x 2
−x2 = ) 20 5
3
(4 + x ) 2 2
(4 + x )
2 2
d 2T 20 5 20 5
(1) = 3 = = 4 > 0 ; therefore, the time found is a minimum.
dx2 ( 4 + 1)2 5 5
69 f ( x ) = x e 2 x ⇒ f (n) ( x ) = (2n x + n × 2n−1) e 2 x , n ∈ +
1
a f ' ( x ) = (2x + 1) e
2x
= 0 ⇒ 2x + 1 = 0 ⇒ x = −
>0 2
1
1 1 2× −
f " ( x ) = ( 4 x + 4 ) e 2 x ⇒ f " − = 4 × − + 4 e 2 = 2e −1 > 0 ; therefore, it is a minimum.
2 2
b f " ( x ) = ( 4 x + 4) e
2x
= 0 ⇒ 4 x + 4 = 0 ⇒ x = −1
>0
i We can see that the function is concave up when: f " ( x ) > 0 ⇒ x > −1.
Horizontal 2
asymptote:
y=f (x)
y=0 1.5
1
y-intercept:
(0, 0)
0.5
x
–2 2
Q –0.5 P
–1
f ( x ) = x e 2 x ⇒ f ' ( x ) = e 2 x + x e 2 x × 2 = e 2 x (1 + 2x )
16
This is the formula for n = k + 1.
The formula works for n = 1 and, from the assumption that it works for n = k , we determined that it works for
n = k + 1. Therefore, by the principle of mathematical induction, we conclude that it works for all n ∈ + .
70
In order to find the width, we need to find the intersection between the curve and the horizontal line y = −6 , since the
water depth is 10 m.
πx πx 13 πx 8 36 8
16 sec − 32 = −6 ⇒ sec = ⇒ cos = ⇒x= arccos
36 36 8 36 13 π 13
72 8
The width is twice as long, so: w = arccos cm.
π 13
In cases such as this, if we have enough time, it is advisable to check the answer by using a GDC.
71 By looking at the graph of the function, we can conclude that the function is a cubic polynomial; therefore, its first
derivative will be a quadratic polynomial with zeros at the x-coordinates of the stationary points and the minimum at the
x-coordinate of the point of inflexion. The reason for stating the minimum point of the first derivative is the positive cubic
coefficient of the original function. The second derivative will be a straight line with a positive slope and the zero at the
x-coordinate of the point of inflexion.
a) b)
y y
y=f '(x)
y=f (x)
x x
y=f(x)
y=f "(x)
17
Chapter 16
Practice questions
1 a We know that the parameter p is directly related to the amplitude; therefore, we can find that p = 3.
π π
π
b ∫ 2 3 cos x d x = [3 sin x ]02 = 3 sin − 3 sin 0 = 3
0 2
Note: Even though you might not know how to find the parameter in part a, it is always advisable to proceed with part b
and attempt to write the definite integral.
x 0
2 a y = e 2 ⇒ y (0) = e 2 = 1; therefore, point P has the coordinates (0, 1).
2
ln 2 x2 ln 2
b V = π∫ e d x = π ∫0 e d x
x
0
a 1
∫ d x = 2 ⇒ [ln x ]1 = 2 ⇒ ln a − ln 1 = 2 ⇒ ln a = 2 ⇒ a = e 2
a
3
1 x
Notice that we changed variable a into variable x, and that Solver accepts all of the features from the calculator’s menu
with only one variable parameter to be represented as a function in that variable. We could have used the graphical
mode, but, since there is no more than one solution, we were satisfied using Solver. At the end, we can check whether
the numerical result is a special value which we could have recognized.
1 1
4 a y = ln x ⇒ y ' = . At the point (e, 1) the slope of the tangent is: m = y '( e ) = . The tangent can be found by using
x e
the formula for the tangent: y = f ' ( x1) ( x − x1) + y1 , where ( x1, y1) is a particular point on the graph of the function.
1 1 1
y = ( x − e ) + 1 ⇒ y = x −1 +1 ⇒ y = x
e e e
Since the linear function has no y-intercept, it means that it passes through the origin. If we input the coordinates
1
of the origin into the equation, we get a true statement: 0 = × 0 ⇒ 0 = 0.
e
b For the first term, we need to apply the product rule.
1
( x ln x − x ) ' = ln x + x × − 1 = ln x + 1 − 1 = ln x
x
c The shaded region can be split into two. The first region is a triangle bounded by the tangent line,
1
1× 1
x-axis and the vertical line x = 1. Since that is a right-angled triangle, the area is calculated as: ATriangle = e = .
2 2e
In order to find the area of the second region, we need to evaluate the following integral:
1
Chapter 16
1e dx 1 x
2
e
1 e2 1
1 12 0
1 1
∫1 e
x − ln x = ×
e 2 − ( x ln x − x ) = e × − e ln e + e − × − 1 ln 1 + 1 = e − −1
1 2 e 2 2 2 e
1 1 1 1
Now, the total area is the sum of those two areas; therefore, A = + e− − 1 = e − 1.
2e 2 2e 2
Solution Paper 1 type
5 a i and ii
iii and iv b
x
−3 −2 −1 1 2 3
−1
−2
−3
2
b
3 y −1 3 y −1 3 3
8 a i and ii To draw the function, we input 1.5 y
(1.1, 0.55)
alternatively, use the trace feature).
0.5
(0, 0) (1.57, 0)
x
−0.5
−1
−1.5
(2, -1.67)
−2
3
Chapter 16
π
b x 2 cos x = 0, x > 0 ⇒ cos x = 0 ⇒ x =
2 π
c i
π
See the diagram in part a.
π
ii ∫
0
2
x 2 cos x d x
d ∫ 0
2
x 2 cos x d x = x 2 sin x + 2x cos x − 2 sin x 2
0
0
π π π π π π2
2
= sin + 2 cos − 2 sin − (02 sin (0) + 2 × 0 × cos (0) − 2 sin (0)) = − 2 ≈ 0.467
2 2 2 2 2 4
Or:
By looking at the graph, we estimate that the range would be [20.4, 0.4].
c i f ' ( x ) = (2 sin x cos x ) cos x + sin2 x (− sin x ) = 2 sin x cos2 x − sin3 x . We can also continue to express the whole
derivative in terms of sine only:
2 sin x cos2 x − sin3 x = 2 sin x (1 − sin2 x ) − sin3 x = 2 sin x − 3 sin3 x
ii In this problem, we use the first form of the derivative:
f ' ( x ) = 0 ⇒ 2 sin x cos2 x − sin3 x = 0 ⇒ sin x (2 cos2 x − sin2 x ) = 0
Since the value of sine cannot be equal to 0 at A, we can conclude that:
1
2 cos2 x − sin2 x = 0 ⇒ 2 cos2 x − (1 − cos2 x ) = 0 ⇒ 3 cos2 x − 1 = 0 ⇒ cos x =
3
1 1 2 2 3
iii f ( xmax ) = sin2 ( xmax ) cos ( xmax ) = 1 − × = orr
3 3 3 3 9
π π
d f ( x ) = 0 ⇒ sin x = 0 or cos x = 0 ⇒ x = 0, x = π or x = , so the x-coordinate of point B is .
2 2
sin3 x
e i ∫ sin ( x ) cos ( x ) d x = ∫ (sin x ) d (sin x ) =
2
2
+ c, c ∈
3
π
π
π
sin3
sin3
x 2 2 − sin 0 = 1
3
ii ∫ 2 f ( x ) d x = =
0
3 0 3 3 3
π
f f " ( x ) = 0 ⇒ 9 cos3 x − 7 cos x = 0 ⇒ cos x (9 cos2 x − 7) = 0 . Since the x-coordinate of C is less than , the
second factor must be equal to 0. 2
7 7 7
9 cos2 x − 7 = 0 ⇒ cos2 x = ⇒ cos x = ⇒ x = arccos ≈ 0.491
9 3 3
4
10 a
5 y
x
1 2 3 4 5 6
−1
−1
b x = π ⇒ π + π cos π = π − π = 0
c
In this problem, if we use Solver, we need to use an estimated value that is further to the right of p, which we found
as the first zero. Our estimate was 4. So, the answer is 3.696 72.
d See the diagram above.
π
Area =∫ π(π + x cos x ) d x
0
(1 + e ) d x
ln 2
c V = π∫ 2x 2
0
5
Chapter 16
( )
V = π ∫ (a x + 2) − ( x 2 + 2) d x = π ∫ (a2 x 2 + 4 a x + 4 − x 4 − 4 x 2 − 4) dx
a 2 2 a
0 0
(a 2 − 4 ) x 3
a
x5 a5 − 4 a3 a5 2a 5 2a 3
((a
− 4) x 2 + 4 a x − x 4 ) d x = π
a
= π∫ 2
+ 2a x 2 − = π + 2a 3 − = π +
0 3 5 0 3 5 15 3
1
u = x + 1 ⇒ x = 2u − 2
= (2u − 2) u × 2 du = 4 u 2 − u 2 du
3 1
1 2
13 ∫ x x + 1 dx =
2 1 ∫ ∫
du = 2 d x ⇒ d x = 2 du
5 3
2 5 2 3 8 1 8 1
= 4 u 2 − u 2 + c = x + 1 − x + 1 + c , c ∈
2 2
5 3
5 2
3 2
dv ds dv 3 (2s − 1) − 2 (3s + 2) 3s + 2 −7 (3s + 2)
14 a = × = ×v ⇒a = × =
ds dt ds (2s − 1)2 2s − 1 (2s − 1)3
−7 (6 + 2) 56
s=2⇒a= =−
( 4 − 1)3 27
1
k
π (e 2k − 1)
15 V = π ∫0 (e ) d x = π ∫0 e d x = π × e 2 x =
k k
x 2 2x
2 0 2
k
k 1 1 1 k2 − 1 3
16 ∫1 1 + x 2 d x = x − x 1 = k − k −1 +1 = k = 2 ⇒ 2k − 3k − 2 = 0 ⇒ (2k + 1) (k − 2) = 0
2
1
k = − or k = 2 , since k > 1 .
2
16 We will use Solver on a GDC. We could have easily used the graphing menu too, in a very similar manner.
Note: The value of x, shown in the final screen, is not relevant and it can be any value.
1
17 We can deduce that a (t ) = − t + 2, v (0) = 0. So, we can now proceed with finding the distance travelled by the train.
20
1 1
v (t ) = ∫ − 20 t + 2 dt = − 40 t
2
+ 2t + c , c ∈
1 2
v (0) = 0 ⇒ c = 0 ⇒ v (t ) = − t + 2t
40
60
− 1 t 2 + 2t t
3
60
d= ∫0
40
= −
120
+ t 2 = −1800 + 3600 = 1800 m
0
6
18 Firstly, we need to find the zeros of the parabola.
y = a 2 − x 2 ⇒ y = ( a − x ) ( a + x ) ⇒ x1 = − a , x 2 = a
The area of the rectangle is AR = 2ah, where h is the height of the rectangle.
The question asks us to find the interval over which f(x) is increasing; therefore, the value of k is 0 and the interval is:
1 1
x > e −1 = , x ∈ , +∞ .
e e
c i fk ' ( x ) = ln x + 1 − k = 0 ⇒ ln x = k − 1 ⇒ x = e k −1
ii fk ( x ) = x ln x − k x = 0 ⇒ x (ln x − k ) = 0 ⇒ x = 0 or ln x − k = 0
d Since the curve is below the x-axis, we need to take the absolute value of the integral.
ek
∫ 0
( x ln x − k x ) d x
To solve the first part of the integral, we need to use integration by parts.
1
u = ln x du = d x
x = x ln x − x × 1 d x = x ln x − 1 x d x = x ln x − x + c
2 2 2 2 2
∫ x ln x d x = x2 2 ∫ 2 x 2 2∫ 2 4
dv = x d x v =
2
ek
x2 x2 x2 e 2k e 2k
( )
ek
∫0 ( x ln x − k x ) d x = 2 ln x − − k = 2 ln e k
− 1 − 2k = −
4 2 0 4 4
e 2k
So, the area enclosed by the curve and the x-axis is: .
4
e A (e k , 0) , m = fk ' (e k ) = ln
e k + 1 − k = 1 ⇒ Equation of tangeent: y = 1 × ( x − e k ) + 0 ⇒ y = x − e k
k
f The y-intercept is −e k , so the area of the triangle enclosed by the tangent and the coordinate axes is:
1 e 2k e 2k
A = e k × (− e k ) = = 2× , which is twice the area enclosed by the curve.
2 2 4
g k = 1 ⇒ x1 = e , k = 2 ⇒ x1 = e 2 , k = 3 ⇒ x1 = e 3 , k = 4 ⇒ x1 = e 4 , ...
To verify the statement, we are going to take two consecutive x-intercepts, for k and k + 1:
x k +1 e k +1
= k = e . The ratio is constant and therefore the zeros form a geometric sequence.
xk e
7
Chapter 16
dy dy dy
= dx ⇒ ∫
1+ y2 ∫
20 = 1+ y2 ⇒ = d x ⇒ arctan y = x + c
dx 1+ y2
y = 0, x = 2 ⇒ arctan 0 = 2 + c ⇒ c = −2 ⇒ arctan y = x − 2 ⇒ y = tan ( x − 2)
dv x2 v2
21 k x = mv ⇒ k x d x = mv dv ⇒ ∫ k x d x = ∫ mv dv ⇒ k = m + c, c ∈
dx 2 2
x 2 m (v − v 0 )
2 2
v 02 mv 02 x2 v 2 mv 02
x = 0, v = v 0 ⇒ k × 0 = m + c ⇒ c = − ⇒k =m − ⇒k =
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
22 m (v − v 0 )
2 2
4k 4k
x =2⇒k = ⇒ = v 2 − v 02 ⇒ v = + v 02
2 2 m m
22 a 3 y
y=e^(x2)−1
2
y=e^(−x2)
x
–2 –1 1 2
–1
b Given that the point of intersection has an x-coordinate equal to p, we notice that the rectangle has dimensions 1 × p
and the triangle has a vertical base of length 1 and height p.
1 p
ATRIANGLE < AREGION < ARECTANGLE ⇒ p × 1 < AREGION < p × 1 ⇒ < AREGION < p
2 2
c
(e ( ))
p
∫
− x2 x2
d AREGION = − e − 1 dx
0
In a case like this, it is advisable to store the coordinates of the point of intersection in the GDC’s memory and then
work with this more accurate value.
So, the area of the region is 0.467 (correct to three significant figures).
Notice that the last two parts of the question cannot be done without using a calculator.
u=x du = d x
= 1 x sin 3x − 1 sin 3x d x
23 a ∫ x cos 3 x d x =
dv = cos 3x d x v = 1 sin 3x 3 ∫3
3
1 1 1 1 1
= x sin 3x − × − cos 3x + c = x sin 3x + cos 3x + c , c ∈
3 3 3 3 9
8
3π
3π
1 1
x cos 3x d x = x sin 3x + cos 3x
6
b i ∫ π
6
6
3 9 π
6
π 3π 1 3π π π 1 π 2π 2π
= sin + cos − sin + cos = − ⇒A=
6 2 9 2 18 2 9 2 9 9
−1 0 1 0
The value of the integral is negative, but, as we need to calculate the area, we simply take the absolute value of
the integral, since the function is always negative for the given integral.
5π
5π
1 1 6
5π 5π 1 5π π 3π 1 3π 4 π
ii ∫3π x cos 3x d x = x sin 3x + cos 3x =
6
sin + cos − sin + cos =
3 9 3π 9 2 9 2
6
6 18 2 6 2 9
1 0 −1 0
7π
7π
1 1
x cos 3x d x = x sin 3x + cos 3x
6
iii ∫ 5π
6
6
3 9 5π
6
7π 7π 1 7π 5π 5π 1 5π 6π 6π
= sin + cos − sin + cos = − ⇒A=
18 2 9 2 18
2 9 2
9 9
−1 0 1 0
Again, the integral was negative, so, for the area, we take the absolute value.
2π
c The areas enclosed by the given boundaries form an arithmetic sequence with first term u1 = and common
9
2π
difference d = . Therefore, the sum of the first n terms is given by:
9
2π n (n − 1) 2π 2nπ n − 1 2nπ 1 + n n (n + 1) π
Sn = n × + × = 1 + = × = , n ∈ +
9 2 9 9 2 9 2 9
π π
24 a v (t ) = 0 ⇒ t sin t = 0 ⇒ t = 0 or t = k π ⇒ t = 3k , k ∈
3 3
Using the restricted domain, we can calculate the values of t : t = 0 or t = 3 or t = 6.
b i In order to avoid a discussion of the positive or negative values of the parts of the integral, we will simply use the
absolute values.
π
Total distance travelled = ∫ t sin t dt
6
0 3
ii
Note: If not using a calculator, we should split the integral into two parts, from 0 to 3 and from 3 to 6, where the
last one has a negative value and we take its opposite value. The anti-derivative can be found by using integration
by parts.
1
1 1 1 1 t
25 a Distance travelled = ∫ v (t ) dt = ∫ dt = n
arctan
0 0 2 + t2 2 2 0
1 1 1 1 1
= arctan − arctan0 = 2 arctan 2 ≈ 0.435 m
2 2 2
0
9
Chapter 16
dv −2t
b a= ⇒ a (t ) =
dt (2 + t 2 )2
dy 2x 2x 2
26 a y = 2x 1 + x 2 ⇒ = 2 1 + x 2 + 2x × = 2 1 + x 2
+
dx 2 1+ x2 1+ x2
u = 1+ x2 2 23 2 3
b ∫ 2 x 1 + x 2
d x = = ∫ u du = u + c = (1 + x 2 ) 2 + c , c ∈
du = 2x d x 3 3
k
2 3
2 3
2 2 3
2 3
5
2x 1 + x 2 d x = (1 + x 2 ) 2 = (1 + k 2 ) 2 − ⇒ (1 + k 2 ) 2 − = 1 ⇒ (1 + k 2 ) 2 = ⇒
k
c ∫ 0 3 0 3 3 3 3 2
2 2 2
5 3 5 3 5 3
1 + k = ⇒ k 2 = − 1 ⇒ k = − 1 ≈ 0.918
2
2 2 2
This part can be solved directly by using a GDC.
Again, the value of x is irrelevant for this calculation. To be correct, we need to say that the value of x must be within
the domain of the function. In our case, the domain is the set of all real numbers.
∫ 6t − 6t dt = ∫ (6t − 6t ) dt + ∫ (6t − 6t ) dt
2 1 2
27 v (t ) = 6t 2 − 6t , t 0 ⇒ distance = 2 2 2
0 0 1
The curve is a parabola which opens upwards, with the zeros at 0 and 1; therefore, the function is negative from 0 to 1
and positive from 1 to 2.
28
⇒ ln T − 22 = kt + c ⇒ T − 22 = e kt + c , c ∈ ⇒ T = 22 + Ae kt , A ∈ +
b To find the constants A and k, we need to solve the simultaneous equations formed from the given information.
A = 78 A = 78
T (0) = 100 22 + Ae 0 = 100 A = 78
i ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ 8 ⇒ 8 ⇒
T (15) = 70 e = 13 15k = ln 13
15 k
78e = 48
15 k
22 + Ae = 70
15k
A = 78
k = 1 ln 8 ≈ −0.324
15 13
10
8
ln t
8 8 8
ln t ln t ln t
13 13 13
18 3 13
ii T = 22 + 78e 15
⇒ 40 = 22 + 78e 15
⇒ =e 15
⇒ ln = ⇒
78 13 15
8 3
ln t 15 ln
3 13 13
⇒ ln = ⇒t = ≈ 45.3
13 8
15 ln
13
dy dy dy dx
30 x − y2 = 1 ⇒ x = y2 + 1 ⇒ 2 = ⇒ arctan ( y ) = ln x + c , c ∈
dx dx y +1 x
y = 0, x = 2 ⇒ arctan (0) = ln 2 + c ⇒ c = − ln 2
0
x
arctan ( y ) = ln x − ln 2 ⇒ arctan ( y ) = ln
2
x
y = tan ln
2
x3 u= x+2 (u − 2)3 u3 − 6u2 + 12u − 8
31 ∫ (x + 2)2 d x =
du = d x
∫
=
u 2
du = ∫
u2
du
12 8 u2 8 ( x + 2)2 8
= ∫ u − 6 + − 2 du = − 6u + 12 ln u + + c = − 6 ( x + 2) + 12 ln x + 2 + + c, c ∈
u u 2 u 2 x+2
32 a 5 y
4 y=f(x)
x=−3
3
1
x
–4 –2 2 4 6
–1 y=g(x)
–2
–3
–4
–5
x-intercept: y = 0 ⇒ 0 = ln ( x + 3) − 2 ⇒ ln ( x + 3) = 2 ⇒ x + 3 = e 2 ⇒ x = e 2 − 3 ≈ 4.39
c
11
Chapter 16
iii
So, the shaded region has an area of 10.6 (correct to three significant figures).
Note: We were able to store the x-coordinate of the intersection in the GDC’s memory since that was the last
calculation done before we found the integral.
So, the maximum distance between f(x) and g(x) is 4.63 (correct to three significant figures).
dx d y y x dy y dy dx dy dx
33 a x = e θ ⇒ d x = e θd θ ⇒ d θ = , =
x d θ e2θ + 1
⇒
dx
= 2
x +1
⇒
y
=
x ( x 2 + 1)
⇒ ∫ y
= ∫ x (x2
+ 1)
dx 1 x 1
∫ = − d x = ln y − ln ( x + 1) + c , c ∈
x ( x 2 + 1) ∫ x x 2 + 1
b 2
2
dy dx 1 1
c ∫ = ∫ x (x ⇒ ln y = ln x − ln ( x 2 + 1) + c ⇒ ln y = ln e θ − ln (e 2 θ + 1) + c , c ∈
y 2
+ 1) 2 2
1 1
θ = 0, y = 2 ⇒ ln 2 = ln
1 − ln 2 + c ⇒ c = ln 2
2 0 2
1 2e θ
ln y = ln e θ − ln (e 2 θ + 1) + ln 2 ⇒ y =
2 e2θ + 1
12
Chapter 17
Practice questions
b Now, we change the number of trials to 400. Hence, the expected number of black discs that would be drawn is
1
µ = 400 × = 50 .
8
3 a The area of the shaded region is 0.1.
b Since the areas are the same, P ( X 12) = 0.1 and P ( X 8) = 0.1. We can find the mean value as the average of the
12 + 8
two numbers: µ = = 10 .
2
c To find the standard deviation we need to use the tables.
2 2 2
P ( X 8) = 0.1 ⇒ P Z − = 0.1 ⇒ P Z = 0.9 ⇒ = 1.2816 ⇒ σ = 1.56
σ σ σ
11 − 10
d P ( X 11) = P Z = P ( Z 0.641) = 0.739 (correct to 3 s.f.)
1.56
1
4 Let X be the number of heads obtained, where X B n = 8, p = .
2
8 1
4
1
4
8 ×7× 6 ×5 1 35
a P ( X = 4) = × × = × =
4 2 2 1× 2 × 3 × 4 2 8 128 7
8 1
3
1
5
8 ×7× 6 1 7
b P ( X = 3) = × × = × =
3 2 2 1× 2 × 3 2 8 32 5
c Since this binomial expression is symmetrical with respect to the middle observation of obtaining 4 heads, the
probability of obtaining 3 heads and the probability of obtaining 5 heads are equal.
7 35 56 + 35 91
P (3 X 5) = 2 × + = =
32 128 128 128
1
Chapter 17
c i If 90% of the insects die after t hours, that means that 10% of the insects have a lifespan of up to t hours.
1 y 90%
x=−1.281558
x
−3 −2 −1 1 2 3
ii
50 − µ 50 − µ
6 a P ( X > 50) = 0.3 ⇒ P Z >
= 0.3 ⇒ P Z < = 0.7
10 10
2
Since p = 0.0377 < 0.05, we reject H0.
7 Let X be a person’s IQ, where X N ( µ = 100, σ 2 = 152 ) .
a–b
c H0: The average IQ of the group suffering from the disorder is 100.
H1: The average IQ of the group suffering from the disorder is less than 100.
Since p = 0.0548 > 0.05, we do not have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis H0.
8 Let X be the weight of a bag, where X N ( µ = 25.7, σ 2 = 0.52 ) .
a
c Since the probability of a bag weighing less than 25 kg is the same as the probability of a bag weighing more than
26 kg, the mean value must be µ = 25.5 kg.
3
Chapter 17
d With a mean of 26 kg, we lose 0.5 kg per bag; therefore, we lose 0.5 × 0.8 = 0.4 dollars per bag. For an initial cost of
5000
$5000, we need to sell = 12 500 bags to cover the investment.
0.4
9 Let X be the mass of the packets, where X N ( µ = 750, σ 2 = 252 ) .
a–b c
b − 310 b − 310
⇒ P Z < = 0.975 ⇒ = 1.96 ⇒ b = 368.8 ⇒ a = 251.2
30 30
12 Let X be the reaction time measured in seconds, where X N ( µ = 0.76, σ 2 = 0.062 ) .
0.7 − 0.76 0.79 − 0.76
a a= = −1 and b = = 0.5
0.06 0.06
b i P ( X > 0.7) = P ( Z > −1) = P ( Z < 1) = 0.8413
ii P (0.7 < X < 0.79) = P (−1 < Z < 0.5) = P ( Z < 0.5) − (1 − P ( Z < −1)) = 0.6915 − 0.1587 = 0.5328
c i
4
100
b P ( X = 3) = 0.023 × 0.9897 = 0.182 276
3
c Using the complementary event: P ( X 2) = 1 − P ( X 1)
14 We need to set up a system of two equations with two unknowns, but this time we will use a slightly different approach.
90 − µ 90 − µ
P Z > = 0.15 P Z < = 0.885
P ( X > 90) = 0.15 σ σ
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
P ( X < 40) = 0.12 40 − µ 40 − µ
P Z < 0.12
= P Z < = 0.12
σ σ
90 − µ
= invNorm (0.85)
σ 90 − σ invNorm (0.85) = µ
⇒
40 − µ 40 − σ invNorm (0.012) = µ
= invNorm (0.12)
σ
3 6 1 8 4
15 a E (X ) = ∑xp i i ⇒ µ=0×
10
+ 1×
10
+ 2× = =
10 5 10 5
i
b i ii
y 0 1 2
1 8 2
3
red 2
_
3\5 P(Y = y) ___ ___ __
5 5 15 15 5
2
4 22
5
66 33 red green 4\15
4
__
15
4
5 4\15
22 1 green red 4
__
15
66 33
1
5 green 1\15
1
__
15
2 1 4 2 9 3
c P (2R) = × + × = =
6 10
6 5
30 10
1 or 6 Bag A 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 Bag B
21 1
×
6 3 10 1
d P (A 2R) = =
3 9
10
5
Chapter 17
18 a ∑ P (x ) = 1 ⇒ 2k + 2k 2
+ k 2 + k + 2k 2 + k = 1 ⇒ 5k 2 + 4k = 1 ⇒ 5k 2 + 4k − 1 = 0 ⇒
Imposssible
1
⇒ (5k − 1) (k + 1) = 0 ⇒ 5k − 1 = 0 or k + 1 = 0 ⇒ k = or k = −1
5
Note: As a probability, k must be a positive number between 0 and 1.
2 2 6 7 35 7
b E (X ) = ∑xp i i ⇒ µ=0×
5
+ 1×
25
+2×
25
+3× = = = 1.44
25 25 5
i
6
e − ke k x 0 x 1
21 f ( x ) =
0 otherwise
∫ (e − ke ) d x = 1 ⇒ (e x − e )
1 1
kx kx
a 0
= 1 ⇒ e − ek + 1 = 1 ⇒ e = ek ⇒ k = 1
0
1 1 1 1
1 1 1
b ∫ (e − e ) d x = (e x − e )
x x
2
1
2
1 = e − e2 − e + e4 = e − e + 4 e
4 4 2 4 4
c To find the two values, we need to refresh our memory regarding integration by parts.
u=x du = d x
∫ xe xex − ∫ ex d x = xex − ex + c, c ∈
x
dx = x x =
dv = e d x v = e
u = x2 du = 2x d x
∫ = x 2 e x − 2 ∫ x e x d x = x 2 e x − 2 x e x + 2e x + c , c ∈
2 x
x e d x =
dv = e d x
x
v = ex
1
x 2
1
∫ (x e − x e ) d x = e 2
1
µ= x
− e x ( x − 1) = e − 1
0 0 2
1 2
x3 1
∫0 (x e − x e ) d x − µ = e 3 − e (x − 2x + 2) 0 − 2 e − 1
1
σ2 = 2 2 x 2 x 2
2
1 2e e 2 e e2
= − e + 2 − e − 1 = 2 −
e
− + e − 1 = 1+ −
3 2 3 4 3 4
1 1
1 1
e
P ( X 0.5) = 1 − P ( X < 0.5) = 1 − ∫ (e − e ) d x = 1 − (e x − e ) = 1 − e − e 2 + 1 = e−
x x
d 2 2
0 0
2 2
e
We can define a new variable: Y B n = 3, p = e −
3
2
e
i P (Y = 3) = e −
2
ii If two batteries have failed, exactly one has not failed.
2
P (Y = 2) = 3 e − 1 − e +
e e
2 2
0 y<0
22 f ( y ) = −
y
0.5e 2 y 0
a Since the time is measured in years, we need to calculate the following probability:
y y 0.5
0.5 − −
P (Y < 0.5) = ∫ 0.5e 2 d y = 0.5 −2e 2 = − e −0.25 + 1 ≈ 0.2212
0 0
b We can use a binomial variable: X B (n = 3, p = 0.2212) . ‘At least two’ means either two or all three components fail.
P ( X 2) = 1 − P ( X 1) ≈ 0.125
23 a I N ( µ = 60.33, σ 2 = 1.952 )
P (I > x ) = 0.8
7
Chapter 17
b K N ( µ = 59.39, σ 2 )
i We are going to use the complementary event, which is that neither of them has a throw longer than 65 m in
those three throws.
ii
24 a 2 y
1
y=1/6x(1+x2)
x
–1 1 2 3
b From the graph, we can see that the modal value is 2 since the probability density function has a maximum value of
5
at 2.
3 2
2 1 1 x3 x5 1 8 32 68
c ∫ x 2 (1 + x 2 ) d x = + = + =
0 6 6 3 5 0 6 3 5 45
m
1 1 1 x2 x4 1 2m2 + m 4
x (1 + x 2 ) d x = ⇒ + = ⇒
m
d ∫ 0 6 2 6 2 4 0 2 4
= 3 ⇒ m 4 + 2m2 − 12 = 0
8
25 A N ( µ = 1.56, σ 2 = 0.162 ) , B N ( µ = 1.52, σ 2 = 0.162 )
b P (S ) = 0
.44 × P ( A < 1.52) + 0
.56 × P (B < 1.52) = 0.312
A B
d If manufacturer B makes 8000 bolts, the following are the expected numbers of bolts produced.
So, we can say that we would expect 1936 smaller bolts, 5201 bolts of diameter 1.52–1.83 mm and 863 larger bolts.
Therefore, the expected profit is calculated as follows:
5201 × 1.5 + 863 × 0.5 − 1936 × 0.85 = 6587 (correct to the nearest dollar).