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■ JIS B 7451-1997: Roundness measuring instruments

■ JIS B 0621-1984: Definition and notation of geometric deviations

■ JIS B 0021-1998: Geometric property specifications (GPS) of products – Geometric tolerance

Roundness Straightness Flatness Cylindricity

Any circumferential line must be contained within Any line on the surface must lie within the The surface must be contained within the The surface must be contained within the

the tolerance zone formed between two coplanar tolerance zone formed between two parallel straight tolerance zone formed between two parallel tolerance zone formed between two coaxial

circles with a difference in radii of t lines a distance t apart and in the direction speciﬁed planes a distance t apart cylinders with a difference in radii of t

0.1 0.1

0.1

0.1

t

t

t

Notation example

t

Tolerance zone

Tolerance zone

Tolerance zone

Inspection example Tolerance zone

Inspection example Inspection example

Inspection example

The center point must be contained within the The axis must be contained within the tolerance The line or surface must be contained within the tolerance zone formed between two planes a

tolerance zone formed by a circle of diameter t zone formed by a cylinder of diameter t distance t apart and perpendicular to the datum

concentric with the datum concentric with the datum

A ø0.08 A

A 0.08 A

ø0.08 A A

ø0.08 A

example

øt øt

Notation example øt

Datum A

Datum

center

t

Datum axis

Datum axis Tolerance zone

Tolerance zone Inspection example Inspection example Tolerance zone

Inspection example Tolerance zone

Inspection example

The line must be contained within the tolerance zone formed between two coplanar and/or concentric The surface must be contained within the tolerance zone formed between two coaxial cylinders with a

circles a distance t apart concentric with or perpendicular to the datum difference in radii of t, or planes a distance t apart, concentric with or perpendicular to the datum

Radial Runout 0.1 A Axial Runout 0.1 A

A

Total Radial Runout 0.1 A Total Axial Runout 0.1 A

A

A A

Notation

example example

t t

t

t

Inspection example Tolerance zone Inspection example Tolerance zone Inspection example Tolerance zone

Inspection example Tolerance zone

Centering Leveling

A displacement offset (eccentricity) between the Roundtest's rotary table axis and that of the workpiece Any inclination of the axis of a workpiece with respect to the rotational axis of the measuring

results in distortion of the measured form (limaçon error) and consequentially produces an error in the instrument will cause an elliptic error. Leveling must be performed so that these axes are sufﬁciently

calculated roundness value. The larger the eccentricity, the larger is the error in calculated roundness. parallel.

Therefore the workpiece should be centered (axes made coincident) before measurement.

Some roundness testers support accurate measurement with a limaçon error correction function.

The effectiveness of this function can be seen in the graph below. 100

Effect of eccentricity compensation function

ø1mm

1000 ø200mm

ø2mm 10

θ ø100mm

ø5mm

ø50mm

Workpiece

Error due to inclination (µm)

ø10mm

100

ø20mm ø20mm

Workpiece

Dimeter D 1 ø10mm

Dimeter

ø50mm

Roundness error (µm)

ø100mm ø5mm

10

ø200mm ø2mm

0.1 ø1mm

1

0.01

0.1

Eccentricity 0.001

0.01 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

1 10 100 1000 D e

Eccentricity (µm) Inclination (degrees)

Figure: Eccentricity versus roundness error Figure: Inclination versus elliptic error

Roundness Testing

■ Effect of Filter Settings on the Measured Proﬁle ■ Undulations Per Revolution (UPR) data in

Roundness values as measured are greatly affected by variation of ﬁlter cutoff value.

It is necessary to set the ﬁlter appropriately for the evaluation required. the roundness graphs

Measurement result graphs

90

No ﬁlter ΔZq=22.14µm

Amplitude

180 0 0

0 90 180 270 360

270 Angle

axis of the measuring instrument. The amplitude of undulation components

Low-pass ΔZq=12.35µm ΔZq=16.60µm ΔZq=20.72µm ΔZq=22.04µm

depends on the leveling adjustment.

ﬁlter

90

Amplitude

180 0 0

0 90 180 270 360

15 upr 50 upr 150 upr 500 upr

Band-pass ΔZq=17.61µm ΔZq=18.76µm ΔZq=14.50µm

270 Angle

ﬁlter

A 2 UPR condition may indicate: (1) insufﬁcient leveling adjustment on the

measuring instrument; (2) circular runout due to incorrect mounting of the

workpiece on the machine tool that created its shape; (3) the form of the workpiece

is elliptical by design as in, for example, an IC-engine piston.

90

Amplitude

180 0 0

0 90 180 270 360

Roundness testers use the measurement data to generate reference circles whose dimensions deﬁne the roundness

value. There are four methods of generating these circles, as shown below, and each method has individual 270

Angle

characteristics so the method that best matches the function of the workpiece should be chosen.

A 3 to 5 UPR condition may indicate: (1) Deformation due to over-tightening of the

Least Square Circle Minimum Zone Circles Minimum Circumscribed Maximum inscribed holding chuck on the measuring instrument; (2) Relaxation deformation due to

(LSC) Method (MZC) Method Circle (MCC) Method Circle (MIC) Method stress release after unloading from the holding chuck on the machine tool that

A circle is ﬁtted to the measured Two concentric circles are The smallest circle that can enclose The largest circle that can be created its shape.

proﬁle such that the sum of the positioned to enclose the the measured proﬁle is created. enclosed by the proﬁle data is

squares of the departure of the measured proﬁle such that their The roundness ﬁgure is then created. The roundness ﬁgure is

proﬁle data from this circle is a radial difference is a minimum. deﬁned as the maximum then deﬁned as the maximum 90

minimum. The roundness ﬁgure is The roundness ﬁgure is then departure of the proﬁle from this departure of the proﬁle from this

then deﬁned as the difference deﬁned as the radial separation of circle. This circle is sometimes circle. This circle is sometimes

between the maximum departures these two circles. referred to as the ‘ring gage’ referred to as the `plug gage'

Amplitude

(highest peak to the lowest 180 0 0

valley). 0 90 180 270 360

270

Angle

ΔZ ΔZ ΔZ ΔZ 90

q z c i

Rmax Rmax Rmax Rmax

Amplitude

180 0

0

0 90 180 270 360

ΔZq = Rmax-Rmin ΔZz = Rmax-Rmin ΔZc = Rmax-Rmin ΔZi = Rmax-Rmin 270 Angle

or processes used to produce the workpiece.

90

(Traceability to PTB*)

Amplitude

180 0 0

0 90 180 270 360

PTB Calibration

Straightness PTB Calibration PTB Calibration PTB Calibration NMI

Master (600mm) Optical Flat Reference Hemisphere Cylindrical Square PTB mutual Accreditation

270 Angle

Mitutoyo Corporation 90

Amplitude

180 0 0

Reference Calibration 0 90 180 270 360

Sphere Gauge Block

Measuring

Instrument

Calibration Tester 270 Angle

A 15 (or more) UPR condition is usually caused by tool chatter, machine vibration,

coolant delivery effects, material non-homogeneity, etc., and is generally more

<Z-axis/R-axis straightness> <Column parallelism> important to the function than to the ﬁt of a workpiece.

90

<Rotational accuracy>

<Detector>

Axial direction Radial direction

Amplitude

Roundness/Cylindrical Geometry Measuring Instrument Reference Hemisphere Magniﬁcation Calibration Kit 180 0 0

0 90 180 270 360

*PTB: Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany)

270 Angle

■ Stylus Tip 90

Ball type Cylinder type Axe type Egg type Tip shape: Ball, axe, cylinder,

Amplitude

R and egg

Tip radius : 0.25mm, 0.8mm, 180 0 0

R

R

r

r

r

r

r (tolerance: 30%

r

Measuring force: 250mN or less 270 Angle

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