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Foam Core Construction

Tools Tips and Tricks

X-Acto knife and blades Cutting techniques and safety

Your most important tool for working with foam core useful way to ensure the straightedge doesn’t slip Cut with your straightedge protecting the “good”
will be an X-Acto knife with plenty of sharp blades. on critical cuts, especially if you don’t have a heavy surface of foam core; mistakes will then occur on
When choosing a knife, get one with replaceable straightedge. Circle templates and compasses are unwanted side of cut. Use the whole blade of your
blades and a large diameter grip. #11 blades are also useful for cutting circles but aren’t absolutely knife, not just tip. The blade will last longer if you use
good for general cutting with paper, foam core, necessary for most design projects. all of it, which can be accomplished by lowering the
cardboard and similar materials. Ideally you should angle of the knife as you cut. Most importantly, don’t
change blades often when cutting foam core as Cutting surface try to cut all the way through the material at once.
they dull quickly. Having a sharp blade is vital to Choose a workspace that enables your material to be Rather, make three shallow cuts: a light score on the
good craftsmanship, and generally makes the de- maneuvered and lay flat on a non-precious surface. surface to guide the blade, a second score penetrat-
signer’s life a lot easier. One expert designer once The most important considerations when choosing ing into the foam, and a final cut clean through the
recommended, only partially joking, that you should a cutting surface are (1) is it cut proof, and (2) will it opposite side. Make sure fingers are out of the cut-
change blades after every cut! A sharp blade is also dull your blades quickly? Invest in a self-healing cut- ting path. If using force, be aware of the potential
safer than a dull one, since it’s less likely to slip ting mat if possible; they provide a useful surface to blade trajectory if your hand should slip. Never kneel
and result in an injury. Sharp blades will also result cut into and also greatly increase the lifetime of your on the end of the ruler to hold it while cutting, as
in a faster healing injury if you do get cut. For all blades. They also have rulers and grids printed on your knee will inevitably get cut. Also be aware of the
of these reasons, X-Actos are recommended over them that can greatly simplify your work. Cardboard, “knife rolls off the table” trick—wear shoes! Finally,
other knives. They generally provide more control old magazines, or the back of a large pad of paper many X-Actos come with plastic caps to protect
than matte knives when making a cut, and it is sig- are all excellent alternatives to a cutting mat, but if the blade when not in use. These caps should be
nificantly easier to change their blades. you plan do to serious work with foam core purchas- used whenever possible. If a cap is not available, the
ing a nice large mat is highly recommended. blade can also be removed from the handle of the
Metal straightedge knife and re-inserted with the blade pointing inward.
Long, heavy straightedges are useful because they Adhesives
don’t slip, but most any straightedge will do if used There are numerous methods for affixing foam core Joining techniques
with attention. Hold the straightedge in such a way joints, including hot glue, traditional glues, and a Numerous joining techniques can be used with foam
that it will be held firmly for the entire length of the cut wide variety of tape. A glue gun is required for work- core, including butt joints, 45 degree folded joints
as they often tend to rotate at the end of the cut. Cork ing with hot glue. Any cheap one will work, although (both sharp and beveled), lap joints (in which the pa-
backs are good for preventing slippage. Be wary of they do make fancy industrial guns with adjustable per from one piece of foam core overlaps the edge
cutting using plastic or wooden rulers, as the knife temperature settings. Multipurpose adhesive and El- of the other), and beveled edges with larger, more
blade can easily catch on them and ruin your cut. mer’s glue are both good alternatives to hot glue. curving radii. Each of these techniques is illustrated
T-squares and other draftsmens’ tools such as They are easier to work with and have some nice
plastic triangles can also be useful for squaring properties, such as easy cleanup, and they provide
up your straightedge, as well as for other layout more time to realign your work if you set it wrong. Rolf A. Faste Foundation for Design Creativity
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
work. Placing weights on straightedges is also a To view a copy of this license, visit
Foam Core Construction

in the following pages. To create a folded edge with loading or testing projects until the glue has dried for It is also worth experimenting with combining other
a soft bevel, for example, various amounts of foam at least 24 hours. When using white glue, map pins non-foam core elements such as found or purchased
can be removed from the inside of an edge, leaving or long push pins are often required to hold the joint. objects. Often it’s easier and more effective to just
paper on the outside to form a curve. A sharpie can The first set of pins should go in at right angles to go to a store and buy a component for a prototype
be a powerful and convenient tool for scoring foam locate the joint. A second set of pins should go in at rather than building it completely from scratch. For
core in order to bend sharp corners of this nature. angles to help prevent separation as the glue dries. example, if you are prototyping a table with wheels
To do so, make a straight partial cut without cutting Remove the pins when the glue has dried, and the out of foam core, consider purchasing some coaster
completely through, then score the partial cut with a holes will be negligible. wheels from Home Depot and gluing them onto your
sharpie, and then bend over the scored cut. Large foam core table. Playing around with found objects
radius curves can be formed by creating multiple Hot glue is preferred by many designers for foam is a great way to “physically sketch” and enhance
parallel cuts, and then wrapping the form around a core. It’s very versatile and holds well, and is ac- your prototype iterations. Cardboard can also be
shaped brace on the inside of the curve. You can ceptable and good technique for people with ex- used as a much cheaper substitute for foam core,
also make smooth curved pieces with regular paper perience. The downsides of hot glue include: it sets and it has many of the same properties that make
and then apply packing tape to hold them in place. quickly, can leave a mess, and will burn your fingers foam core appealing.
if you aren’t careful! Because hot glue is messy in
Gussets, hinges, and holes the hands of beginners, it is recommended to have a Finally, whatever material you use, be prepared to
Gussets can be used to reinforce stress points. A surface to place the hot glue gun (and collect drips) protect your prototypes from damage, especially
variety of hinges can also be created, the most ba- that is separate from your work. This should be eas- rain. Have garbage bags ready in case it does rain.
sic of which is a “living hinge,” in which the foam ily discarded when your gluing is done. Avoid using
core is scored through one side leaving the paper to your fingers to wipe off excess glue (it’s hot!). RE-
hinge away from the cut. A more complicated hinge PEAT, do be aware of the hot glue: it burns. Finally, Acknowledgements
involves inserting a wooden dowel through holes in before the glue dries completely it is possible to cut
Originally compiled by Rolf Faste and Nancy, a Stanford
the foam core to articulate a rotating joint. Holes are it off with a sharp X-Acto blade. Have a cutting sur-
TA, in the late 1980s. Drawings by Peter MacDonald, 1992.
cut neatly with sharpened hollow tubing. If you need face handy as you are gluing your joints. Additional content by James Pierce and Haakon Faste,
to make lots of holes, bevel the edges of brass tub- updated and edited 2011.
ing the same size as the desired hole and use it as Surface treatment, found objects, and beyond
a drill bit in a power drill. It is also possible to cut Foam core is useful for basic shapes but sometimes
freehand circles... give it a try! it nice to add details to your work such as textures
and other surface treatments. Elmer’s glue can be
Gluing techniques and management layered on foam core or other materials and then
Traditional glues come in white, clear, and yellowish sanded it to achieve different types of surface fin-
colors. Elmer’s glue is very good and dries clear, and ishes and contours. Adding detail graphics to foam
although it takes longer to dry than other alterna- core can also be easily accomplished with pens,
tives it generally yields better craftsmanship over all. markers, and paper “skins.” Chartpak graphic tape
When using white glue, projects can be manipulated is useful for adding details such grills, or accentuat-
for more construction within two hours but avoid ing edges to make them “pop.”
X FoamRapid
Core Construction

Rolf A. Faste Foundation for Design Creativity

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
To view a copy of this license, visit
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