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APP13 arteries.

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ARTERIES OF THE HUMAN BODY


Artery/Arteries Orgin Course Branches/Description

Abdominal aorta Continuation of thoracic aorta Runs on anterior aspect of bodies of Visceral branches: celiac, superior and inferior
lumbar vertebrae mesenteric, renal, middle suprarenal, gonadal
Parietal branches: lumbar, median sacral
Angular Terminal branch of facial artery Passes to medial angle (canthus) of eye Superior part of cheek and lower eyelid
Anterior cerebral Terminal branch (with middle Passes anteriorly, loops around genu A1 segment: thalamus and corpus striatum
cerebral) of internal carotid artery of corpus callosum, then passes A2 segment: cortex of medial aspects of frontal
posteriorly in interhemispheric fissure and parietal lobes
Anterior ciliary Muscular (rectus) branches of Pierces sclera at attachments of rectus Iris and ciliary body
ophthalmic artery muscles and forms network in iris
and ciliary body
Anterior communicating Anterior cerebral artery Connects anterior cerebral arteries in Anteromedial central perforating arteries
prechiasmatic to complete cerbral
arterial circle
Anterior division of Internal iliac Passes anteriorly along lateral wall of Parietal branch: obturator artery
internal iliac lesser pelvis in hypogastric sheath and Visceral branches: umbilical artery, inferior vesical,
divides into visceral and parietal uterine, vaginal, middle rectal, and pudendal
branches
Anterior ethmoidal Ophthalmic artery Passes through anterior ethmoidal Supplies anterior and middle ethmoidal cells,
foramen to anterior cranial fossa and dura of anterior cranial fossa, anterosuperior
into nasal cavity, sending branches to nasal cavity, and skin on dorsum of nose
skin of nose
Anterior inferior cerebellar Lower (initial) part of basilar artery Runs posterolaterally, often looping in Supplies inferior aspect of lateral lobes of
and out of internal acoustic meatus cerebellum, inferolateral pons, and choroid plexus
in cerebellopontine angle; usually gives rise to
labyrinthine artery
Anterior intercostal Internal thoracic (intercostal spaces Pass between intenal and innermost Intercostal muscles, overlying skin, underlying
(branches) 1–6) and musculophrenic arteries intercostal muscles parietal pleura
(intercostal spaces 7–9)
Anterior interventricular Left coronary artery Passes along anterior interventricular Walls of right and left ventricles including most of
(branch) interventricualar groove to apex interventricular septum and contained atrioven
of heart tricular bundle and branches (conducting tissue)
Anterior spinal Superiorly, by a merger of intracranial Forms a continuous anastomotic chain Supplies anterior portion of spinal cord by means
branches, one from each vertebral that descends length of spinal cord in of sulcal branches, which extend into anterior
artery; it is continued inferiorly by entrance to anterior median fissure median fissure, and pial plexus, which ramifies
bifurcations of anterior segmental over surface of cord
medullary arteries at various levels
Anterior superior alveolar Infraorbital artery Arises within infraorbital canal and Supplies mucosa of maxillary sinus,
ascends through anterior alveolar canals maxillary superior incisor, and canine teeth
Anterior tibial Terminal branch (with posterior tibial) Passes between tibia and fibula into Anterior compartment of leg
of popliteal artery anterior compartment through gap in
superior part of interosseous membrane
and descends on this membrane between
tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum
longus
Appendicular Ileocolic artery Passes between layers of mesoappendix Vermiform appendix
Arch of aorta Continuation of ascending aorta Arches posteriorly on left side of Brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left
trachea and esophagus and superiorly subclavian
to root of left lung
Arcuate (of foot) Continuation of dorsalis pedis Passes laterally, dorsal to bases of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th dorsal metatarsal arteries
metatarsals
Artery of bulb of penis or Internal pudendal artery Pierces perineal membrane to reach Supplies bulb of penis or vestibule and
vestibule of vagina bulb of penis or vestibule of vagina bulbourethral gland (male) and greater vestibular
gland (female)
Artery to ductus deferens Inferior (or superior) vesical Runs retroperitoneally to ductus deferens Ductus deferens
Artery of pterygoid canal 3rd part of maxillary artery, or from Passes posteriorly through pterygoid Mucosa of uppermost pharynx (pharyngeal
greater palatine canal recess), pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube, and
tympanic cavity
Ascending aorta Aortic orifice of left ventricle Ascends approximately 5 cm to level Right and left coronary arteries
of sternal angle where it becomes
arch of aorta

APP 55
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APP 56 ARTERIES OF THE HUMAN BODY

Artery/Arteries Orgin Course Branches/Description

Ascending cervical Terminal branch (with inferior thyroid Ascends on prevertebral fascia Supplies anterior prevertebral muscles;
artery) of thyrocervical trunk anastomoses widely with other arteries of neck
Ascending palatine Facial artery Ascends next to and crosses over Supplies lateral wall of pharynx, tonsils,
superior border of superior constrictor pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube, and soft palate
of pharynx to reach soft palate and
tonsillar fossa
Ascending pharyngeal Medial aspect of external carotid artery Ascends between internal carotid artery Supplies pharyngeal wall, palatine tonsil, soft
and pharynx to cranial base, sending palate, and dura of posterior cranial fossa
branches through jugular foramen
and hypoglossal canal
Atrioventricular nodal Right coronary artery near origin of Runs anteriorly in uppermost part of Atrioventricular node
(branch) posterior interventricular artery interventrical septum to atrioventricular
node
Axillary Continuation of subclavian artery after Runs inferolaterally through axillary 1st part: superior thoracic
crossing 1st rib fossa, changing to brachial artery 2nd part: thoracoacromial and lateral thoracic
when it crosses inferior border of arteries
teres major; parts are medial (1st), 3rd part: subclavian and anterior and posterior
posterior (2nd), and lateral (3rd) circumflex humeral arteries
to pectoralis minor
Basilar Formed by intracranial union of Ascends clivus in pontine cistern; Branches: anterior inferior cerebellar, labyrinthine,
vertebral arteries terminates by bifurcating into pontine, mesencephalic, and superior
posterior cerebral arteries cerebellar arteries
Brachial Continuation of axillary artery past Courses in medial intermuscular septum Main artery of arm branches: deep artery of arm,
inferior border of teres major with median nerve; ends by bifurcating muscular and nutrient branches, superior and
into radial and ulnar arteries in inferior ulnar collateral
cubital fossa
Brachiocephalic (trunk) 1st and largest branch of arch of aorta Ascends posterolaterally to right, Right common carotid and right subclavian arteries
running anterior and then to right
of trachea; deep to sternoclavicular joint,
it bifurcates into terminal branches
Bronchial (1–2 branches) Anterior aspect of 1st part of thoracic Run on posterior aspects of primary Bronchial and peribronchial tissue, visceral pleura
aorta or 3rd right posterior intercostal bronchi and follow tracheobronchial tree
Buccal Maxillary artery Runs anterolaterally with buccal nerve, Supplies buccinator muscle, overlying skin, and
emerging from beneath anterior underlying oral mucosa; anastomoses with
border of ramus of mandible branches of facial and infraorbital arteries
Carpal branches, dorsal Radial and ulnar arteries at Anastomose with corresponding Provide collateral circulation at wrist
and palmar level of wrist branches of counterpart artery (ulnar or to
form dorsal and palmar carpal arches)
Celiac trunk Abdominal aorta just distal to aortic Runs a short course (1.25 cm), giving Supplies inferiormost esophagus, stomach,
hiatus of diaphragm rise to left gastric, and bifurcating into duodenum (proximal to bile duct), liver and biliary
splenic and common hepatic arteries apparatus, and pancreas
Central artery of retina Ophthalmic artery Runs in dural sheath of optic nerve and Supplies optic retina (except cones and rods);
pierces nerve near eyeball; ramifying branches: macular, nasal and temporal retinal
from center of optic disc into retinal arterioles
arterioles
Circumflex (branch) Left coronary artery Passes to left in atrioventricular groove Primarily left atrium and left ventricle branches:
and runs to posterior surface of heart left ventricular, atrial, and marginal
Circumflex humeral, 3rd part of axillary artery, typically Arteries anastomose to form a circle Supply shoulder joint and muscles of proximal
anterior and posterior opposite origin of subscapular artery around surgical neck of humerus; arm: deltoid, teres major and minor, and long
larger posterior circumflex humeral and lateral heads of triceps
artery passes through quadrangular
space with axillary nerve
Circumflex scapular artery Terminal branch (with thoracodorsal Curves around axillary border of Supplies subscapular and infraspinatus muscles;
artery) of subscapular artery scapula and enters infraspinous fossa joins collateral anastomosis of shoulder around
scapula
Common carotid, left Left: 2nd branch of arch of aorta Ascend from/pass deep to sternoclavicular Terminal branches: internal and external
and right Right: terminal branch (with right joint in carotid sheath under cover of carotid arteries
subclavian) of brachiocephalic artery sternocleidomastoid to level of C4
vertebra (or hyoid bone)
Common hepatic Terminal branch (with splenic artery) Passes to right along superior border of Terminal branches: hepatic artery proper and
of celiac artery (trunk) pancreas, running anterior to portal vein gastroduodenal artery
Common iliac, left Terminal branches of abdominal aorta Begin anterior to L4 vertebral body, Terminal branches: external and internal iliac
and right diverging as they descend to terminate arteries
at L5-S1 level, anterior to sacroiliac joints
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ARTERIES OF THE HUMAN BODY APP 57

Artery/Arteries Orgin Course Branches/Description

Common interosseous Ulnar artery, just distal to bifurcation Passes deep to bifurcate into after a Terminal branches: anterior and posterior
of brachial artery in cubital fossa short course interosseous arteries
Common palmar digital Superficial palmar arch Pass distally anterior to lumbricals Receive palmar metacarpal arteries from deep
to bifurcate proxmal to webbings palmar arch
between digits Terminal branches: proper palmar digital arteries
Common plantar digital Terminal portions of plantar metatarsal Short segments distal to transverse Terminal branches: plantar digital arteries proper
head of adductor hallucis proximal
to webs between toes
Costocervical (trunk) 2nd part of subclavian artery Short artery passes posteriorly Terminal branches: supreme intercostal and
superior to cervical pleura to neck of deep cervical arteries
1st rib and bifurcates into terminal
branches
Cremasteric Inferior epigastric Accompanies spermatic cord through Supplies cremaster muscle and other coverings
inguinal canal and into scrotal sac of cord in males; round ligament in females
Cystic Right hepatic artery Arises within hepatoduodenal ligament Gallbladder and cystic duct
Deep artery of penis or Terminal branch of internal pudendal Pierces perineal membrane to reach Terminations (helicine arteries) uncoil to engorge
clitoris artery erectile bodies of clitoris or penis erectile sinuses with arterial blood
(corpora cavernosa)
Deep artery of thigh Femoral artery in femoral triangle Passes inferiorly on medial intermuscular Perforating branches pass through adductor
(about 4 cm distal to inguinal septum, deep to adductor longus magnus muscle to posterior and lateral part
ligament) of anterior compartments of thigh
Deep auricular 1st part of maxillary artery Ascends in parotid gland posterior to Supplies temporomandibular joint and skin
temporomandibular joint, piercing wall of external acoustic meatus and tympanic
of external acoustic meatus membrane
Deep cervical Costocervical trunk Passes posteriorly between transverse Supplies deep posterior muscles of neck and
process of C7 and neck of 1st rib and anastomoses with descending branch of
ascends between semispinalis cervicis occipital artery and branches of vertebral artery
and capitis to C2 level
Deep circumflex iliac External iliac artery Runs on deep aspect of anterior Supplies iliacus muscle and inferior part of
abdominal wall, parallel to inguinal anterolateral abdominal wall
ligament
Deep lingual Continuation (3rd part of) lingual Turns superiorly near anterior border Supplies genioglossus, inferior longitudinal
artery of hyoglossus and flanking, then passes muscle, and mucosa of underside of tongue,
anteriorly frenulum just deep to mucosa and of the tongue tip
Deep palmar arch Direct continuation of radial artery, Curves medially, deep to long flexor Branches: palmar metacarpal arteries
completed on medial side by deep tendons in contact with bases of
branch of ulnar artery metacarpals
Deep plantar arch Continuation of lateral plantar artery Courses anteromedially, between 3rd Branches: plantar metatarsal arteries
and 4th layers of muscles of sole of
foot; anastomoses with dorsalis pedis
through deep plantar artery between
1st and 2nd metatarsal bases
Deep temporal, anterior 2nd part of maxillary artery Ascend between temporalis and bone Supplies temporalis muscle, periosteum, and
and posterior of temporal fossa bone
Descending genicular Femoral artery, in adductor canal Descends in vastus medialis, just Branches: saphenous branch, accompanying
anterior to tendon of adductor magnus saphenous nerve to medial skin of leg; muscular
to anastomose with superior medial branches to vastus medialis and adductor magnus
genicular artery
Descending palatine 3rd part of maxillary artery Arises in pterygopalatine fossa; Branches: greater and lesser palatine arteries
descends in palatine canal
Dorsal artery of penis or Terminal branch of internal pudendal Pierces perineal membrane and passes Skin of penis and erectile issue of penis or clitoris
clitoris artery through suspensory ligament of penis
or clitoris to run on dorsum of penis
or clitoris
Dorsal carpal arch Radial and ulnar arteries Arches within fascia on dorsum Branches: dorsal metacarpal arteries
of hand
Dorsal digital arteries Dorsal metacarpal arteries Run distally on the posterolateral Supply dorsal aspects of proximal 1-1/2 phalanges
(of fingers) aspects of the proximal 1-1/2 phalanges of fingers
Dorsal digital arteries Dorsal metatarsal arteries Run distally on posterolateral aspects Supply dorsal aspects of proximal 1-1/2 phalanges
(of toes) of proximal 1-1/2 phalanges of toes
Dorsal metacarpal Dorsal carpal arch Run on 2nd–4th dorsal interossei Bifurcate into dorsal digital arteries; supply skin,
muscle, and bone of dorsum of hand and fingers
to center of middle phalanx
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APP 58 ARTERIES OF THE HUMAN BODY

Artery/Arteries Orgin Course Branches/Description

Dorsal metatarsal 1st: termination of dorsalis pedis; Run distally on the superficial aspect Branches: dorsal digital arteries (of toes)
2nd, 3rd and 4th: arcuate artery of the corresponding dorsa
interosseous muscles
Dorsal nasal Ophthalmic artery Courses along dorsal aspect of nose Courses along dorsal aspect of nose and supplies
and supplies its surface its surface
Dorsal pancreatic Splenic artery Descends posterior to pancreas, Supplies middle portion of pancreas
dividing into right and left branches
Dorsal scapular 3rd (or 2nd) part of subclavian artery Passes laterally through brachial plexus Supplies branches to trapezius, rhomboids,
(variation: in 1 of 3 then deep to levator scapulae; joins latissimus dorsi; participates in anastomoses
cases, it is replaced by a dorsal scapular nerve running along around scapula (shoulder)
deep branch of the vertebral border of scapula, deep to
transverse cervical artery) rhomboid muscles
Dorsalis pedis Continuation of anterior tibial artery Descends anteromedially to 1st Muscles on dorsum of foot; pierces 1st dorsal
distal to inferior extensor retinaculum interosseous space and divides into interosseous muscle as deep plantar artery to
plantar and arcuate arteries contribute to formation of plantar arch
Esophageal (4–5 branches) Anterior aspect of thoracic aorta Run anteriorly to esophagus Esophagus
External carotid Common carotid artery at superior Ascends slightly anteriorly and then Anterior branches: superior thyroid, facial and
border of thyroid cartilage inclines posteriorly and laterally, l ingual arteries
passing between mastoid process and Posterior branches: occipital and posterior
mandible; enters substance of parotid auricular arteries
gland, bifurcating into terminal Medial branch: ascending pharyngeal
branches deep to neck of mandible Terminal branches: maxillary and superficial
temporal arteries
External pudendal, Femoral artery Pass medially across thigh to reach Skin of mons pubis and anterior labia (female)
superficial, and deep scrotum or labia majora or root of penis and anterior scrotum (male)
branches
Facial External carotid artery Ascends deep to submandibular gland, Branches: ascending palatine, tonsillar, glandular,
winds around inferior border of submental, inferior and superior labial, and lateral
mandible and enters face, ascending nasal.
obliquely across cheek and side of Terminal branch (continuation): angular artery
nose to medial angle of eye
Femoral Continuation of external iliac artery Descends through femoral triangle, Supplies anterior and anteromedial surfaces
distal to inguinal ligament traverses adductor canal, and changes of thigh
name to “popliteal” at adductor hiatus
Gastroduodenal Hepatic artery Descends retroperitoneally, posterior Stomach, pancreas, 1st part of duodenum, and
to gastroduodenal junction distal part of bile duct
Gastroepiploic Gastroduodenal artery Passes between layers of greater Right portion of greater curvature of stomach
omentum to greater curvature of
stomach
Genicular (superior lateral Popliteal Arise and run to “four corners” of knee Form, with participation also of descending
and medial, inferior lateral, joint (viewed anteriorly) around the genicular, descending branch of lateral circumflex
medial, and middle) patella and femoral and tibial condyles; femoral, circumflex fibular and recurrent tibial
middle genicular pierces oblique arteries, and the genicular articular anastomosis
popliteal ligament in posterior center
of joint capsule
Greater pancreatic Splenic artery Penetrates left portion of pancreas, Anastomoses with other pancreatic branches;
splitting into right and left branches, supplies primarily tail of pancreas and
which parallel pancreatic duct contained duct
Hepatic artery proper Celiac trunk Passes retroperitoneally to reach Branches: right gastric, supraduodenal, right
hepatoduodenal ligament and passes and left hepatic arteries; supplies liver and
between its layers to porta hepatis; gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, duodenum
bifurcates into right and left hepatic
arteries
Ileocolic Terminal branch of superior Runs along root of mesentery and Ileum, cecum, and ascending colon
mesenteric artery divides into ileal and colic branches
Iliolumbar Posterior division of internal iliac Ascends anterior to sacroiliac joint and Psoas major, iliacus, and quadratus lumborum
posterior to common iliac vessels muscles and cauda equina in vertebral canal
and psoas major
Inferior alveolar 1st part of maxillary artery Descends posterior to inferior alveolar Branches: mylohyoid branch, dental branches,
nerve between ramus of mandible to mental medial pterygoid and branch. Supplies
enter mandibular canal through muscles of floor of mouth, mandible and lower
mandibular foramen teeth and soft tissue of chin
Inferior epigastric External iliac artery Runs superiorly and enters Rectus abdominis and medial part of
rectus sheath; runs deep to anterolateral abdominal wall
rectus abdominis
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ARTERIES OF THE HUMAN BODY APP 59

Artery/Arteries Orgin Course Branches/Description

Inferior gluteal Anterior division of internal iliac Exits pelvis to enter gluteal region Pelvic diaphragm (coccygeus and levator ani),
through greater sciatic foramen inferior piriformis, quadratus femoris, uppermost
to piriformis and descends on medial hamstrings, gluteus maximus, and sciatic nerve
side of sciatic nerve; anastomoses with
superior gluteal artery and participates
in cruciate anastomosis of thigh,
involving 1st perforating artery of
deep femoral and medial and lateral
circumflex femoral arteries
Inferior labial Facial artery near angle of mouth Runs medially in lower lip Lower lip and chin
Inferior mesenteric Abdominal aorta Descends retroperitoneally to left of Supplies part of gastrointestinal tract derived
abdominal aorta from hindgut
Inferior pancreaticoduo- Superior mesenteric artery Ascends retroperitoneally on head of Distal portion of duodenum and inferior head
denal, anterior and pancreas and uncinate process of pancreas
posterior
Inferior phrenic As 1st branches of abdominal aorta Ascend crus to underside of domes; Branches: superior suprarenal arteries
(sometimes through a common stem medial branches anastmoses with Supplies: diaphragm, inferior vena cava (right
or from celiac trunk) each other and pericardiacophrenic (right branch), esophagus (left branch),
arteries; lateral branches approach suprarenal glands
thoracic wall, anastomose with
posterior intercostal and musculophrenic
arteries
Inferior rectal Internal pudendal artery Leaves pudendal canal and crosses Distal portion of anal canal (mainly inferior
ischioanal fossa to anal canal to pectinate line)
Inferior suprarenal Renal Ascends vertically to gland Posterior and inferior of aspects suprarenal
gland
Inferior thyroid Terminal branch (with ascending Ascends anteriorly to anterior scalene, Branches: inferior laryngeal artery, pharyngeal,
cervical artery) of thyrocervical trunk turns medially passing between tracheal, esophageal, and inferior and
vertebral vessels and carotid sheath, ascending glandular (latter to parathyroid
then descends on longus colli to glands); main visceral artery of neck
lower border of thyroid gland
Inferior vesicle (male) Anterior division of internal iliac Passes retroperitoneally to inferior Inferior aspect of urinary bladder, ductus
aspect of male urinary bladder deferens, seminal vesicle, and prostate
Infraorbital 3rd part of maxillary artery Passes along infraorbital groove and Supplies inferior rectus and oblique muscles,
foramen to face inferior eyelid, lacrimal sac, maxillary sinus,
maxillary incisor and canine teeth, and
anterior cheek
Internal carotid Common carotid artery at superior Ascends vertically in neck to enter Gives branches to walls of cavernous sinus,
border of thyroid cartilage carotid canal, becomes horizontal and pituitary gland, and trigeminal ganglion;
runs anteromedially through cavernous provides primary blood supply to the orbit/
sinus, makes a 180-degree turn under eyeball, upper nasal cavity/nose, and brain
anterior clinoid process, bifurcates into
anterior and middle cerebral arteries
Internal iliac Common iliac Passes over pelvic brim to reach Main blood supply to pelvic organs, gluteal
pelvic cavity muscles, and perineum
Internal pudendal Anterior division of internal iliac Leaves pelvis through greater sciatic Main artery to perineum, including muscles and
foramen; hooks around ischial spine skin of anal and urogenital triangles; erectile
and enters perineum by way of lesser bodies (does not supply branches to gluteal
sciatic foramen and runs in pudendal region)
canal to urogenital triangle
Internal thoracic Inferior surface of subclavian artery Descends, inclining anteromedially, Sternum and skin anterior to it by way of
posterior to sternal end of clavicle anterior intercostal arteries to 1st to 6th intercostal
and costal cartilages, lateral to sternum, spaces by way of perforating arteries,
and anterior to slips of transversus to medial aspect of breast
thoracis; divides at level of 6th costal
cartilage into superior epigastric and
musculophrenic arteries
Interosseous, anterior Common interosseous artery Pass to anterior and posterior sides Anterior and posterior compartments of forearm;
and posterior of interosseous membrane anterior interosseous artery supplies both
anterior and posterior compartments in distal
forearm; posterior interosseous artery gives off
recurrent interosseous artery, which participates in
arterial anastomoses around the elbow
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APP 60 ARTERIES OF THE HUMAN BODY

Artery/Arteries Orgin Course Branches/Description

Ileal and jejunal Superior mesenteric artery Passes between two layers of Jejunum and ileum
(n = 15–18) mesentery
Labyrinthine Basilar or through a common trunk Exits cranial cavity through internal Membranous labyrinth
with anterior inferior cerebellar acoustic meatus; enters bony labyrinth
Lacrimal Ophthalmic artery Passes along superior border of lateral Passes along superior border of lateral rectus
rectus muscle to supply lacrimal muscle to supply lacrimal gland, conjunctiva,
gland, conjunctiva, and eyelids and eyelids
Lateral circumflex femoral Deep artery of thigh; may arise from Passes laterally deep to sartorius and Ascending branch supplies anterior part of gluteal
femoral artery rectus femoris and divides into three region; transverse branch winds around femur;
branches descending branch descends to knee and joins
genicular anastomoses
Lateral nasal branch (facial) Facial artery as it ascends alongside nose Passes to ala of nose Skin on ala and dorsum of nose
Lateral plantar Terminal branch (with medial plantar Forms medially to calcaneus, courses Branches: muscular, to muscles of 1st and 2nd
artery) of posterior tibial artery anterolaterally between 1st and 2nd layers; superficial, to skin and subcutaneous
muscle layers of sole of foot to base of tissue of lateral sole; anastomotic, with lateral
5th metatarsal, then passes and 4th tarsal and arcuate arteries; calcaneal, to calcaneus
layers as deep plantar arch
Lateral sacral, superior Posterior division of internal iliac Runs on anteromedial aspect of Piriformis, structures in sacral canal, erector
and inferior piriformis to send branches into pelvic spinae and overlying skin
sacral foramina
Lateral thoracic 2nd part of axillary artery Descends along axillary border of Lateral chest wall (pectoral muscles, serratus
pectoralis minor and follows it onto anterior, intercostals) and breast
thoracic wall
Left colic Inferior mesenteric artery Passes leftward retroperitoneally Descending colon
to descending colon
Left coronary Left aortic sinus Runs in atrioventricular groove and Most of left atrium and ventricle, interventricular
gives off anterior interventricular and septum, and atrioventricular bundles; may supply
circumflex branches atrioventricular node
Left gastric Celiac trunk Ascends retroperitoneally to esophageal Distal portion of esophagus and lesser curvature
hiatus, where it passes between layers of stomach
of hepatogastric ligament
Left gastroomental Splenic artery in hilum of spleen Passes between layers of gastrosplenic Left portion of greater curvature of stomach
(gastroepiploic) ligament to greater curvature of stomach
Left marginal (branch) Circumflex branch Follows left border of heart Left ventricle
Left pulmonary Pulmonary trunk Joins left bronchus and pulmonary Supplies left lung. Branches: (ductus arteriosus
veins to form root of left lung; in fetus), superior and inferior lobar arteries
descends in lung (in turn give rise to segmental arteries)
Lesser palatine Descending palatine Descend inferoposteriorly through Supply soft palate
lesser palatine foramen
Lingual External carotid artery Loops over greater horn of hyoid, passes Branches: suprahyoid branch, dorsal lingual
hyoglossus medially, and ascends to arteries and sublingual artery; continues as deep
run along side of tongue lingual artery
Lingular, inferior and Superior lobar artery (of left lung), Descends anteriorly to lingula Lingular division (superior [S4] and inferior [S5]
superior in oblique fissure bronchopulmonary segments) of left lung
Long posterior ciliaries Ophthalmic artery Pierce sclera to supply ciliary body and iris Pierce sclera to supply ciliary body and iris
Lumbar Abdominal aorta Run in horizontal courses posteriorly Branches: dorsal, to deep muscles of back and
around sides of lumbar vertebrae and overlying skin; spinal, to vertebrae, contents of
then laterally on posterior abdominal vertebral canal, roots, and some (as segmented
wall medullary arteries) to spinal cord
Marginal artery (of colon) Formed by anastomoses (arcades) Rarely interrupted anastomotic channel Branches passing to anterior and posterior
between right, middle, and left colic parallels colon at its mesenteric border aspect of colon
and sigmoid arteries
Masseteric 2nd part of maxillary artery Passes posterior to temporalis tendon Supplies masseter and temporomandibular joint;
accompanying masseteric nerve anastomoses with facial and transverse facial
through mandibular notch arteries
Maxillary Terminal branch (with superficial Passes posterior and medial to neck of 1st part: deep auricular, anterior tympanic, middle
temporal artery) of external carotid mandible (1st part), superficial or meningeal, accessory meningeal, inferior alveolar;
deep to inferior head of lateral 2nd part: deep temporal, pterygoid (branches),
pterygoid (2nd part), and into pterygo- masseteric, buccal; 3rd part: posterior superior
palatine fossa (3rd part) alveolar, descending palatine, artery of pterygoid
canal, pharyngeal, sphenopalatine, infraorbital
Medial circumflex femoral Deep artery of thigh; may arise from Passes medially and posteriorly Supplies most blood to head and neck of femur;
femoral artery between pectineus and iliopsoas, transverse branch takes part in cruciate
enters gluteal region, and bifurcates anastomosis of thigh; ascending branch joins
inferior gluteal artery
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ARTERIES OF THE HUMAN BODY APP 61

Artery/Arteries Orgin Course Branches/Description

Medial plantar Terminal branch (with lateral plantar Arises medial to calcaneus, passes Branches: muscular, to flexor hallucis brevis and
artery) of posterior tibial artery distally along medial side of foot abductor hallucis; superficial, to skin and
between 1st and 2nd layers of subcutaneous tissue of medial sole; superficial
plantar muscles digital, that join 1st–3rd plantar metatarsals
Median sacral Posterior aspect of abdominal aorta Descends in median line over L4 and L5 Lower lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx
vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx
Mental (branch) of Terminal branch of inferior alveolar Emerges from mental foramen and Facial muscles and skin of chin
inferior alveolar artery artery passes to chin
Middle cerebral Larger terminal branch (with anterior Runs in lateral cerebral sulcus, then Insula and most of lateral surface of
cerebral artery) of internal carotid artery posterosuperiorly on insula cerebral hemispheres
Middle colic Superior mesenteric artery Ascends retroperitoneally and passes Transverse colon
between layers of transverse mesocolon
Middle collateral Deep artery of arm Descends to anastomose with Part of collateral pathway around elbow;
recurrent interosseous artery supplies lateral and medial heads of triceps
Middle meningeal 1st part of maxillary artery Ascends vertically through foramen Branches: ganglionic branches, petrosal branches,
spinosum into middle cranial fossa; superior tympanic artery, temporal branches,
runs laterally, dividing into frontal anastomotic branch to lacrimal artery; most
and parietal branches, which in turn blood is distributed to perisoteum, bone, and red
ramify, ascending lateral walls in bone marrow
cranial dura mater
Middle rectal Anterior division of internal iliac Descends in pelvis to lower part of Seminal vesicles and lower part of rectum
rectum
Middle suprarenal Abdominal aorta Arise at level of superior mesenteric Supply suprarenal glands; anastomose with
artery; run very short course over suprarenal branches of inferior phrenic and
crura of diaphgram renal arteries
Musculophrenic Terminal branch (with superior Arising in 6th intercostal space descends Branches: anterior intercostal arteries of 7th–9th
epigastric) of internal thoracic artery inferolaterally, paralleling costal margin intercostal spaces; also supplies upper abdominal
muscles and pericardium
Mylohyoid (branch) Inferior alveolar (before it enters Pierces sphenomandibular ligament Muscles of floor of mouth; anastomoses with
mandibular foramen) to run anteroinferiorly with nerve in submental artery
groove on medial aspect of ramus of
mandible
Obturator Anterior division of internal iliac Runs anteroinferiorly on lateral pelvic Pelvic muscles, nutrient artery to ilium, head of
wall to exit pelvis through obturator femur, muscles of medial compartment of thigh
canal
Occipital External carotid artery Passes medially to posterior belly of Scalp of back of head, as far as vertex
digastric and mastoid process;
accompanies occipital nerve in
occipital region
Ophthalmic Internal carotid artery Traverses optic foramen to reach Traverses optic foramen to reach orbital cavity
orbital cavity
Ovarian Abdominal aorta, inferior to renal Run inferolaterally on psoas major, then Branches: ureteric, tubal (to uterine tubes) and
arteries pass medially to cross pelvic brim and ovarian; latter 2 anastomose branches of uterine
descend in suspensory ligament of ovary artery of same name
Palmar metacarpal Deep palmar arch (from radial artery) Run distally on plane between adductor Anastomose distally with common palmar
pollicis and interosseus muscle digital arteries
Pericardiacophrenic Internal thoracic artery Descends parallel to phrenic nerve Supplies mediastinal parietal pleura and
between mediastinal parietal pleura pericardium; anastomoses with phrenic and
and pericardium musculophrenic arteries
Perineal Internal pudendal artery Leaves pudendal canal andenters Supplies superficial perineal muscles and
superficial perineal space scrotum or labia
Peroneal Posterior tibial Descends in posterior compartment Posterior compartment of leg: perforating branches
adjacent to posterior intermuscular supply lateral compartment of leg
septum
Plantar metatarsal 1st: junction between lateral plantar Extend distally between metatarsal Branches: perforating branches, common plantar
and dorsalis pedis arteries; 2nd–4th: bones on plantar aspect of digital arteries
deep plantar arch interosseous muscles
Popliteal Continuation of femoral artery at Passes through popliteal fossa to leg; Superior, middle, and inferior genicular arteries
adductor hiatus in adductor magnus ends at lower border of popliteus to both lateral and medial aspects of knee
muscle by dividing into anterior and
posterior tibial arteries
Posterior auricular External carotid artery Passes posteriorly, deep to parotid, Branches: auricular, occipital, stylomastoid;
along styloid process between mastoid to middle ear, mastoid cells, auricle, parotid
process and ear gland
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APP 62 ARTERIES OF THE HUMAN BODY

Artery/Arteries Orgin Course Branches/Description

Posterior cerebral Terminal branch of basilar artery Passes laterally, winding around Inferior aspect of temporal lobe and occipital
cerebral peduncle to reach tentorial lobe of cerebrum
cerebral surface
Posterior communicating Anastomosis between internal carotid Passes superior to oculomotor nerve Optic tract, cerebral peduncle, internal capsule,
and posterior cerebral arteries (CN III) and thalamus
Posterior division of Internal iliac Passes posteriorly and gives rise to Pelvic wall and gluteal region
iliac parietal branches
Posterior ethmoidal Ophthalmic artery Passes through posterior ethmoidal Passes through posterior ethmoidal foramen
foramen to posterior ethmoidal cells to posterior ethmoidal cells
Posterior gastric Splenic artery Ascends retroperitoneally (in posterior Posterior wall of stomach
wall of omental bursa) to pass to gastric
fundus through gastrophrenic fold
(ligament)
Posterior inferior cerebellar Intracranial portion of vertebral artery Passes posteriorly around side of Supplies medial portion of inferior aspect of
medulla to reach inferior aspect of cerebellum (cerebellar tonsil and dentate
cerebellum nucleus), posterolateral medulla oblongata and
choroid plexus of 4th ventricle
Posterior intercostal Posterior aspect of thoracic aorta Pass laterally, then anteriorly parallel Lateral and anterior cutaneous branches
to ribs
Posterior intercostals Superior intercostal artery (intercostal Pass between internal and innermost Intercostal muscles and overlying skin,
spaces 1 and 2) and thoracic aorta intercostal muscles parietal pleura
(remaining intercostal spaces)
Posterior interventricular Right coronary artery Runs from posterior IV groove to Right and left ventricles and IV septum
apex of heart
Posterior lateral nasal Sphenopalatine artery Ramify over conchae and meatuses; Supplies lateral walls of posteroinferior nasal
anastomoses with nasal branches of cavity, contributing also to supply of ethmoidal cells
ethmoidal and greater palatine arteries and maxillary and sphenoidal paranasal sinuses
Posterior scrotal or labial Terminal branches of perineal Runs in superficial fascia of posterior Skin of scrotum or labium majus
artery scrotum or labium majus
Posterior septal Sphenopalatine artery Crosses inferior surface of body of Supplies nasal septum; anastomoses with
sphenoid to reach nasal septum, greater palatine artery and septal branch of
courses anteroinferiorly on vomer to superior labial artery
incisive canals
Posterior spinal Superiorly from an intracranial branch Forms continuous anastomotic chain Supplies posterolateral apect of spinal cord,
of vertebral artery; continued inferiorly that descends length of spinal cord through pial plexus and its peripheral branches
by bifurcations of posterior segmental in posterolateral sulcus, adjacent to
meduallary arteries at various levels emerging dorsal roots (rootlets) of
spinal nerves
Posterior superior alveolar 3rd part of maxillary artery Exits from pterygopalatine fossa Supplies mucosa of maxillary sinus, maxillary
through pterygomaxillary fissure; molar and premolar teeth, adjacent gingiva
ramifies and penetrates infratemporal
surface of maxilla, with some branches
entering alveolar canals and others
continuing over alveolar process
Posterior tibial Popliteal Passes through posterior compartment Posterior and lateral compartments of leg;
of leg, terminates distal to flexor circumflex fibular branch joins anastomoses
retinaculum by dividing into medial around knee; nutrient artery passes to tibia
and lateral plantar arteries
Princeps pollicis Radial artery as it turns into palm Descends on palmar aspect of 1st Thumb
metacarpal, divides at the base of
proximal phalanx into 2 branches
that run along sides of thumb
Profunda brachii Brachial artery near its origin Accompanies radial nerve through Branches: deltoid, muscular (to head of triceps)
radial groove in humerus; terminal and nutrient (to humerus)
branches take part in anastomosis Terminal branches: middle around elbow joint
and radial collateral arteries
Proper palmar digitals Common palmar digital arteries Run along sides of digits 2–5; at base All of palmar and distal part (including nail beds)
of middle phalanx, gives rise to dorsal of dorsal aspect of fingers
branch, which replaces dorsal digital
arteries
Prostatic (branches) Inferior vesical artery Descends on posterolateral Prostate
aspect of prostate
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ARTERIES OF THE HUMAN BODY APP 63

Artery/Arteries Orgin Course Branches/Description

Radial Smaller terminal division (with ulnar Runs inferolaterally under cover of Supplies muscles of lateral portions of both
artery) of brachial artery in cubital fossa brachioradialis and distally lies lateral anterior and posterior compartments of
to flexor carpi radialis tendon; winds forearm, lateral aspect of wrist, skin of dorsum
around lateral aspect of radius and of hand and proximal portions of digits,
crosses floor of anatomic snuffbox to deep muscles of palm
pierce fascia; ends by forming deep
palmar arch
Radial collateral Terminal branch (with middle Perforates lateral intermuscular septum Forms part of cubital anastomosis; supplies upper
collateral artery) of deep artery of arm with radial nerve, runs between brachialis and brachioradialis, and anterolateral
brachialis and brachioradialis to aspect of elbow joint
anastomose with radial recurrent,
anterior to lateral epicondyle of humerus
Radial recurrent Lateral side of radial artery, just distal Ascends on supinator and then passes Forms part of cubital anastomosis; supplies
to its origin between brachioradialis and brachialis supinator, lower brachialis and brachioradialis,
to anastomose with radial collateral, and anterolateral aspect of elbow joint
anterior to lateral epicondyle of humerus
Radialis indicis Radial artery, but may arise from Passes along lateral side of index Entire lateral palmar and distal part (including
princeps pollicis artery finger to its distal end nail bed) of dorsal aspect of index finger
Radicular, anterior Spinal branches of segmental arteries Course along anterior and posterior Supply anterior and posterior roots of spinal
and posterior (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar roots of spinal nerves, exhausting nerves and coverings (dural sheaths and
and sacral arteries) before reaching the longitudinal arachnoid)
anterior and posterior spinal arteries
Renal, left and right Posterolateral aspect of abdominal Run horizotally and laterally across Source of blood to kidneys
aorta, usually at L2 vertebral level crura of diaphragm and psoas major, Branches: inferior suprarenal, capsular branches,
lying posterior to renal vein, bifurcating an anterior division giving rise to superior,
into anterior and posterior divisions anterior superior, anterior inferior, and
or ramifying into segmental arteries inferior segmental arteries; posterior division
near renal hilus becomes posterior segmental artery
Retroduodenal Gastroduodenal artery Arise and run posteriorly to 1st part of Supply 1st part of duodenum, (common)
duodenum bile duct, and head of pancreas
Right colic Superior mesenteric artery Passes retroperitoneally to reach Ascending colon
ascending colon
Right coronary Right aortic sinus Follows coronary (AV) groove between Right atrium, sinuatrial and atrioventricular nodes,
atria and ventricles and posterior part of interventricular septum
Right gastric Hepatic artery Runs between layers of hepatogastric Right portion of lesser curvature of stomach
ligament
Right marginal Right coronary artery Passes to inferior margin of heart and Right ventricle and apex of heart
apex
Right pulmonary Pulmonary trunk Passes beneath arch of aorta to join Supplies right lung
right bronchus and pulmonary veins Branches: superior, middle, and inferior lobar
to form root of right lung; descends arteries (in turn give rise to segmental arteries)
in lung
Segmental arteries of kidney Anterior and posterior divisions Arise at hilum, course through perirenal Renal segment (segmental arteries are end
(superior, anterior superior, (or directly from) renal arteries fat of renal sinus around renal pelvis arteries; no significant anastomoses occu
anterior inferior, inferior, to reach renal segment between segments)
and posterior)
Segmental arteries of liver Left and right branches of hepatic Arise within liver; right and left branches Each segmental artery serves a division of
(right anterior, right artery proper course horizontally, right branch giving liver that, except for medial division, is
posterior, left medial, and rise to anterior and posterior segmental further subdivided into 2 hepatic segments;
left lateral) arteries, left to medial and lateral both right and left branches of hepatic artery
segmental arteries send an artery to caudate lobe
Segmental arteries of lung Lobar arteries Arise within lung as tertiary branches of Each segmental artery serves a bronchopulmonary
right and left pulmonary arteries segment of lung
Segmental medullary, Spinal branches of segmental arteries Course along anterior and posterior Dorsal and ventral roots of certain spinal
anterior and posterior (vertebral, posterior intercostal, oots of spinal nerves, continue medially nerves and spinal cord; major anterior
lumbar, and sacral arteries) to anastomose with longitudinal segmental medullary artery is largest, occurring
anterior and posterior spinal arteries at lower thoracic, upper lumbar level, on left
side about 65% of time
Short gastric (n = 4–5) Splenic artery in hilum of spleen Passes between layers of gastrosplenic Fundus of stomach
ligament to fundus of stomach
Short posterior ciliaries Ophthalmic artery Pierce sclera at periphery of optic nerve Pierce sclera at periphery of optic nerve
to supply choroid, which in turn to supply choroid, which in turn supplies cones
supplies cones and rods of optic retina and rods of optic retina
APP13 arteries.qxd 8/13/05 1:21 PM Page APP 64

APP 64 ARTERIES OF THE HUMAN BODY

Artery/Arteries Orgin Course Branches/Description

Sigmoid (n = 3–4) Inferior mesenteric artery Passes retroperitoneally toward left Descending and sigmoid colon
to descending colon
Sinuatrial nodal Right coronary artery near its origin Winds around right (60%) or left (40%) Left atrium and sinuatrial node
(in 60%); circumflex branch of left side of ascending aorta and ascends
coronary (in 40%) to sinuatrial node
Sphenopalatine 3rd part of maxillary artery Passes medially through sphenopalatine Mucosa of posteroinferior half of nasal cavity,
foramen, dividing immediately into ethmoidal cells, and maxillary and sphenoidal
septal and posterior lateral nasal arteries paranasal sinuses
Splenic Celiac trunk Runs retroperitoneally along superior Body of pancreas, spleen, greater curvature
border of pancreas; then passes of stomach
between layers of splenorenal ligament
to hilum of spleen
Stylomastoid Posterior auricular Enters stylomastoid foramen and ascends Branches: posterior tympanic artery (to tympanic
facial canal, running with (and membrane); mastoid (to mastoid cells) and
supplying) facial nerve stapedial (to stapedius, stapes, and secondary
tympanic membrane) branches
Subclavian Left: aortic arch Arises or passes posterior to Branches: 1st part: vertebral, internal thoracic,
Right: brachiocephalic trunk sternoclavicular joint, arches over thyrocervical (and costocervical on right side);
cervical pleura anterior to apex of lung, 2nd part: dorsal scapular (and costocervical on
crosses 1st rib posterior to anterior left side) [parts: medial (1st), posterior (2nd), and
scalene, becoming axillary artery at lateral (3rd) to scalenus anterior muscle]
rib’s outer edge
Subcostal Thoracic aorta Courses along inferior border of 12th rib Muscles of anterolateral abdominal wall
Sublingual Terminal branch (with deep Runs on genioglossus Supplies muscles and mucous membrane of
lingual artery) of lingual artery muscle superiorly to mylohoid floor of mouth, and anterior lingual gingiva
Submental Facial artery, distal to submandibular Courses along inferior aspect of Supplies mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric,
gland in submental triangle mylohyoid, adjacent to attachment to submental lymph nodes and, through its
mandible, to mandibular symphysis anastomoses with inferior labial and mental
arteries, lower lip
Subscapular 3rd part of axillary artery Largest (but short—4 cm) branch of Through its terminal branches, circumflex scapular
axillary artery, it descends along and thoracodorsal arteries, it supplies muscles on
lateral border of subscapularis and both sides of scapula, latissimus dorsi, and
axillary border of scapula to bifurcate posterior chest wall
at level of inferior angle
Superficial cervical (variant, Thyrocervical trunk Passes laterally between sterno- Anterior scapene, sternocleidomastoid, brachial
replacing superficial branch cleidomastoid and anterior scalene, plexus, muscles of posterior triangle of neck, and
of transverse cervical artery) across brachial plexus and posterior (primarily) the trapezius
triangle of neck, to bifurcate and run
with accessory nerve on deep aspect
of trapezius
Superficial circumflex iliac Femoral artery Runs in superficial fascia along Subcutaneous tissue and skin over inferior part of
inguinal ligament anterolateral abdominal wall
Superficial epigastric Femoral artery Runs in superficial fascia toward Subcutaneous tissue and skin over suprapubic
umbilicus r egion
Superficial palmar arch Direct continuation of ulnar artery; Curves laterally deep to palmar Branches: 3 common palmar digital arteries
completed on lateral side by superficial aponeurosis and superficially to long
branch of radial artery or another flexor tendons; curve of arch lies
of its branches across palm at level of distal border
of extended thumb
Superficial temporal Smaller terminal branch of Ascends anterior to ear to temporal Facial muscles and skin of frontal and temporal
external carotid artery region and ends in scalp regions
Superior cerebellar Upper (terminal) part of basilar artery Curves around cerebral peduncle Supplies superior aspect of cerebellum, colliculi
and most cerebellar nuclei; pons;pineal body;
superior medullary velum; and choroid plexus of
3rd ventricle
Superior epigastric Internal thoracic artery Descends in rectus sheath deep to Rectus abdominis and superior part of
rectus abdominis anterolateral abdominal wall
Superior gluteal Posterior division of internal iliac Enters gluteal region through greater Piriformis muscle. Superficial branch: supplies
sciatic foramen superior to piriformis guteus maximus
and divides into superficial and deep Deep branch: runs between gluteus medius and
branches; anastomoses with inferior minimus muscles, supplying both, as well as
gluteal and medial circumflex femoral tensor of fascia lata
arteries
Superior labial Facial artery near angle of mouth Runs medially in upper lip Upper lip and ala (side) and septum of nose
APP13 arteries.qxd 8/13/05 1:21 PM Page APP 65

ARTERIES OF THE HUMAN BODY APP 65

Artery/Arteries Orgin Course Branches/Description

Superior laryngeal Superior thyroid Runs deep to thyrohyoid to Supplies larynx


pierce thyrohyoid membrane
with internal laryngeal nerve
Superior mesenteric Abdominal aorta Runs in root of mesentery to Part of gastrointestinal tract derived from
ileocecal junction midgut
Superior pancreaticoduo- Gastroduodenal artery Descends on head of pancreas Proximal portion of duodenum and head of
denal, anterior and pancreas
posterior
Superior phrenic (vary in Anterior aspects of thoracic aorta Arise at aortic hiatus and pass to Supply diaphragm and diaphragmatic parts of
number) superior aspect of diaphragm pericardium and parietal pleura
Superior rectal Terminal branch (continuation of) Crosses left common iliac vessels and Upper part of rectum; anastomoses with
inferior mesenteric artery descends into pelvis between middle and inferior rectal arteries
layers of sigmoid mesocolon
Superior suprarenal Inferior phrenic Short, multiple branches arising from Superior part of suprarenal glands
trunks of inferior phrenic arteries as they
ascend diaphragmatic crura, running
along superomedial aspect of gland
Superior thoracic Only branch of 1st part of axillary Runs anteromedially along superior Helps to supply 1st and 2nd intercostal spaces
artery border of pectoralis minor, then and superior part of serratus anterior
passes between it and pectoralis
major to thoracic wall
Superior thyroid 1st branch from anterior aspect of Passes inferomedially deep to infrahyoid Branches: superior laryngeal artery, infrahyoid,
external carotid artery muscles to superior pole of thyroid sternocleidomastoid, cricothyroid, and anterior,
gland; anastomosis with inferior posterior, and lateral glandular branches
thyroid artery provides an important
collateral pathway between external
carotid and subclavian arteries
Superior vesical Patent (proximal) part of umbilical Usually multiple, pass to superior Superior aspect of urinary bladder, pelvic
aspect of urinary bladder portion of ureter
Supraduodenal Gastroduodenal, hepatic, right Often double, pass(es) superiorly to Supplies upper proximal portion of superior
gastric, or retroduodenal arteries 1st part of duodenum part of duodenum
Supraorbital Terminal branch of ophthalmic artery Passes superiorly and posteriorly from Supplies muscles and skin of most of forehead
supraorbital foramen to forehead and anterior scalp (to vertex)
and scalp
Suprascapular Thyrocervical trunk Passes inferolaterally over anterior Supplies supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles
scalene muscle and phrenic nerve, and participates in anastomosis around scapula
crosses subclavian artery and brachial
plexus, runs laterally posterior and
parallel to clavicle, then passes superiorly
to transverse scapular ligament into
supraspinous fossa, then under
acromion to infraspinsous fossa
Supratrochlear Terminal branch (with supraorbital Passes from supratrochlear notch to Skin and muscles of medial part of forehead
artery) of ophthalmic artery medial forehead and anterior scalp and adjacent scalp
Supreme intercostal Costocervical trunk Descends between pleura and necks of Branches: 1st and 2nd posterior intercostal
first 2 ribs; anastomoses with 3rd arteries, to muscles of and ribs bounding 1st
posterior intercostal artery and 2nd intercostal spaces
Sural, right and left Popliteal Large branches arise at level of Supply medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius,
femoral condyles and pass directly plantaris, and soleus muscles
to heads of gastrocnemius, sending
branches on to soleus
Testicular Abdominal aorta, inferior to renal Descend inferolaterally across psoas Abdominal part provides branches and arterial
arteries muscles, pass through inguinal canal blood to ureters, iliac lymph nodes; inguinal and
as part of spermatic cord, reach scrotal part supplies cremaster and other
testes in scrotum coverings of cord and testes
Thoracic aorta Continuation of arch of aorta Descends in posterior mediastinum to Posterior intercostal arteries, subcostal, some
left of vertebral column; gradually phrenic arteries and visceral branches (tracheal
shifts to right to lie in median plane and esophageal)
at aortic hiatus
Thoracoacromial 2nd part of axillary artery deep to Curls around superomedial border of Branches: acromial, clavicular, pectoral, and deltoid
pectoralis minor pectoralis minor, pierces clavipectoral
fascia and divides into 4 branches
Thoracodorsal Subscapular artery Continues course of subscapular Latissimus dorsi
artery; accompanies thoracodorsal
nerve to latissimus dorsi
APP13 arteries.qxd 8/13/05 1:21 PM Page APP 66

APP 66 ARTERIES OF THE HUMAN BODY

Artery/Arteries Orgin Course Branches/Description

Thyrocervical trunk Anterior aspect of 1st part of Ascends as a short, wide trunk near Branches from trunk: transverse cervical
subclavian artery medial border of anterior scalene (or superficial cervical) and suprascapular
and posterior to carotid sheath Terminal branches: ascending cervical and
inferior thyroid arteries
Thyroid ima Brachiocephalic trunk or arch of aorta Ascends on anterior aspect of trachea Supplies medial aspect of both lobes of thyroid
to thyroid gland
Transverse cervical (variant: Thyrocervical trunk Runs across anterior scalene, brachial Superficial branch bifurcates into ascending and
may be replaced by super- plexus, and posterior triangle of neck descending branches that run with accessory
ficial cervical and dorsal and passes deep to trapezius, dividing nerve on underside of trapezius; deep branch
scapular arteries) into deep and superficial branches runs with dorsal scapular nerve, deep to rhomboids
Transverse facial Superficial temporal artery within Crosses face superficial to and Parotid gland and duct, muscles, and skin of face
parotid gland inferior to zygomatic arch
Ulnar Larger terminal branch of brachial Passes inferomedially and then directly Supplies medial (ulnar) part of anterior
artery in cubital fossa inferiorly, deep to pronator teres, compartment of forearm, wrist, and hand; supplies
palmaris longus, and flexor digitorum superficial structures of central palm, and most of
superficialis to reach medial side of palmar and distal dorsal aspects of fingers
forearm; passes superficial to flexor
retinaculum at wrist and gives a deep
palmar branch to deep arch and
continues as superficial palmar arch
Ulnar collateral (superior Superior ulnar collateral arises from Superior ulnar collateral accompanies Anastomose distally with anterior and
and inferior) brachial near middle of arm; inferior ulnar nerve to posterior aspect of posterior ulnar recurrent arteries
ulnar collateral arises from brachial elbow; inferior ulnar collateral divides .
just superior to elbow into anterior and posterior branches;
both ulnar collateral arteries take part
in anastomosis around elbow joint
Ulnar recurrent, anterior Ulnar artery, just distal to elbow joint Anterior ulnar recurrent passes Anastomose with anterior and posterior ulnar
and posterior superiorly and posterior ulnar collateral
collateral passes posteriorly
Umbilical Anterior division of internal iliac Obliterates becoming medial umbilical Superior aspect of urinary bladder (through
ligament after running a short pelvic superior vesical arteries); occasionally artery to
course during which it gives rise to ductus deferens (males)
superior vesical
Uterine Anterior division of internal iliac Runs medially in base of broad Uterus, ligaments of uterus, uterine tube,
ligament superior to cardinal ligament, and vagina
crossing superior to ureter, to sides
of uterus
Vaginal Uterine artery Arises lateral to ureter and descends Vagina; branches to inferior part of urinary bladder
inferior to it to lateral aspect of vagina and termination of ureter
Vertebral 1st part of subclavian artery Ascends vertically through the Cervical branches: spinal (giving rise to radicular
transverse foramina of vertebrae and segmental medullary arteries) and muscular
C6–C2, passes laterally to traverse (to suboccipital muscles)
that of C1, then runs horizontal and Intracranial branches: meningeal, anterior, and
medial to enter foramen magnum; posterior spinal, posterior inferior cerebellar,
intracranially, merges with medial and lateral medullary
contralateral artery to form
basilar artery